A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.
A species in the family ENTEROVIRUS infecting cattle.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
A tentative species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose type species Aichi virus, causes gastroenteritis in humans.
A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting humans and rodents. The type species is Human parechovirus.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A process of GENETIC TRANSLATION whereby the formation of a peptide chain is started. It includes assembly of the RIBOSOME components, the MESSENGER RNA coding for the polypeptide to be made, INITIATOR TRNA, and PEPTIDE INITIATION FACTORS; and placement of the first amino acid in the peptide chain. The details and components of this process are unique for prokaryotic protein biosynthesis and eukaryotic protein biosynthesis.
A species of CARDIOVIRUS which contains three strains: Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus, Vilyuisk human encephalomyelitis virus, and Rat encephalomyelitis virus.
A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, usually causing an inapparent intestinal infection in mice. A small number of mice may show signs of flaccid paralysis.
5'-Uridylic acid. A uracil nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.
Intracellular step that follows VIRUS INTERNALIZATION during which the viral nucleic acid and CAPSID are separated.
Species of ENTEROVIRUS causing mild to severe neurological diseases among pigs especially in Eastern Europe. Mild strains are also present in Canada, U.S., and Australia. Specific species include Porcine enterovirus A and Porcine enterovirus B.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Infections caused by viruses of the genus CARDIOVIRUS, family PICORNAVIRIDAE.
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Protein factors uniquely required during the initiation phase of protein synthesis in GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE, also known as mucosal disease virus group, which is not arthropod-borne. Transmission is by direct and indirect contact, and by transplacental and congenital transmission. Species include BORDER DISEASE VIRUS, bovine viral diarrhea virus (DIARRHEA VIRUS, BOVINE VIRAL), and CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER VIRUS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
A group of cytosine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each cytosine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A trimeric peptide initiation factor complex that associates with the 5' MRNA cap structure of RNA (RNA CAPS) and plays an essential role in MRNA TRANSLATION. It is composed of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4A; EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4E; and EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-4G.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Large woodland game BIRDS in the subfamily Meleagridinae, family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. Formerly they were considered a distinct family, Melegrididae.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A heterogeneous group of infections produced by coxsackieviruses, including HERPANGINA, aseptic meningitis (MENINGITIS, ASEPTIC), a common-cold-like syndrome, a non-paralytic poliomyelitis-like syndrome, epidemic pleurodynia (PLEURODYNIA, EPIDEMIC) and a serious MYOCARDITIS.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Immature ERYTHROCYTES. In humans, these are ERYTHROID CELLS that have just undergone extrusion of their CELL NUCLEUS. They still contain some organelles that gradually decrease in number as the cells mature. RIBOSOMES are last to disappear. Certain staining techniques cause components of the ribosomes to precipitate into characteristic "reticulum" (not the same as the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM), hence the name reticulocytes.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Nucleotides 1-40 of the HCV mRNA are thought not to contribute to translation, and are rather required for genomic RNA ... The HCV IRES adopts a complex structure, and may differ significantly from IRES elements identified in picornaviruses. A small ...
Rather, genomic regions of the ORF are exchanged among different genotypes of the same species, with certain genotypes like ... Enteroviruses are members of the picornavirus family, a large and diverse group of small RNA viruses characterized by a single ... Interestingly, the enterovirus species EV-A, EV-B, EV-C, EV-D have not been observed so far to exchange genomic regions among ... "Non-Polio Enterovirus , Home , Picornavirus , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-22. "Non-Polio Enterovirus , For Health Care ...
Unlike other picornaviruses, the capsid shell of Parechovirus B has some proteins that protrude and are markedly displaced form ... When the virus is replicating in cells, it typically uses the mechanisms already in the cell to replicate ins own genomic ... 1999). "A new picornavirus isolated from bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus)". Virology. 255 (1): 86-93. doi:10.1006/viro. ... Diarrhea is one of the most common symptoms associated with being infected with picornaviruses, Pacherovirus B included. As for ...
Thus, despite some of the physical and genomic translation similarities that CrPV shared with mammalian picornaviruses, ... Picornavirus genomes contain only a single open reading frame (ORF) which is translated into a single polyprotein, but CrPV, as ... The particles resemble those of the mammalian picornaviruses but CrPV virions sediment at a faster rate (167 S) than poliovirus ... 69: 1617-1625 Chao, YuChan, Young, S. Y. III and Kim, K. S. (1986) "Characterization of a picornavirus isolated from ...
Other cleavage products include 3B (VPg), 2C (an ATPase) and 3D (the RNA polymerase). Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess ... Picornaviruses cause a range of diseases. Enteroviruses of the picornavirus family infect the enteric tract, which is reflected ... RNA dependent RNA polymerase was discovered in Mengovirus, a genus of picornaviruses. Picornaviruses are non-enveloped, with an ... Picornaviruses-description, replication, disease Picornaviruses in NCBI Taxonomy browser Picornaviridae classification by the ...
The genomic features may include the DNA sequence, genes, gene order, regulatory sequences, and other genomic structural ... For example, small RNA viruses infecting animals (picornaviruses) and those infecting plants (cowpea mosaic virus) were ... With the increasing reservoir of available genomic data, the potency of comparative genomic inference has grown as well. A ... Therefore, comparative genomic approaches start with making some form of alignment of genome sequences and looking for ...
The aphthoviruses are differentiated from other picornaviruses as they have a larger genome (7.5-8.5 kilobases). The genome is ... Recombination occurs at a large number of genomic sites indicating that RNA recombination in aphthovirus is a general, rather ... Given its similarity to the common cold in humans (caused by another picornavirus, rhinovirus), ERAV was initially named " ... Aphthoviruses replicate in a similar fashion to all picornaviruses. Replication is cytoplasmic and initially involves ...
February 2020). "Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and ... The third phylum that contains +ssRNA viruses is Pisuviricota, which has been informally called the "picornavirus supergroup". ... picornaviruses, and sobeliviruses, and Stelpaviricetes, which contains potyviruses and astroviruses. The third class is ...
However, the recent application of modern genomic technologies has led to an increased understanding of the virus family. A ... Caliciviridae bear resemblance to enlarged picornavirus and was formerly a separate genus within the picornaviridae.They are ...
VPg, a small protein (23 amino acids) common to many RNA viruses, is responsible for stabilizing the 5' end of the genomic RNA ... The C-terminal part of the polyprotein contains sequence motifs typical of well-characterized picornavirus nonstructural ...
This negative strand is then used as a template to synthesize more genomic RNA. The main host of black queen cell virus is the ... Due to these protrusions, BQCV is larger than most other picornaviruses. The capsid is also characterized by plateaus (around ...
Bloch, B., Gravningen, K. & Larsen, J. L. (1991). Encephalomyelitis among turbot associated with picornavirus-like agent. ... Genomic arrangement. Genomic segmentation. Betanodavirus. Icosahedral. T=3. Non-enveloped. Linear. Segmented. ... years 1989-1991 when it was associated with high mortalities in young marine fish and was described initially as a picornavirus ...
When two or more viruses, each containing lethal genomic damage, infect the same host cell, the virus genomes can often pair ... picornaviruses, and coronaviruses. There is controversy over whether homologous recombination occurs in negative-sense ssRNA ... Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (2007). "Human RecQ Helicases, Homologous Recombination And Genomic Instability". ScienceDaily. ...
"Chimeric retroviral helper virus and picornavirus IRES sequence to eliminate DNA methylation for improved retroviral packaging ... a nuclear localization signal with the tri-domain zinc-finger protein in order to facilitate binding of the protein to genomic ...
Rotaviruses and picornaviruses, however, rely on their viroporins to facilitate the formation of viroplasm, or specialized ... Viroporins can be found in a large number of viruses with distinct genomic organizations and replication mechanisms. This table ...
The genome of BBV and other viruses in its family are incredibly small, nearly half the size of picornaviruses, making it the ... Once in the cell, the virus uncoats itself and releases the genomic RNA into the cytoplasm of the cell. Typically, Nodaviridae ...
Many well known viruses are found in this group, including the picornaviruses (which is a family of viruses that includes well- ... while they are sometimes considered to be genomic elements of their helper viruses, they are not always found within their ... Picornaviruses, Togaviruses) V: (−)ssRNA viruses (− strand or antisense) RNA (e.g. Orthomyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses) VI: ssRNA- ...
Genomic RNA associated with Mengla dianlovirus, though not the virus itself, has been identified from Rousettus bats in China. ... Picornaviruses have been identified from a diverse array of bat species around the world. Arenaviruses are mainly associated ... Several genera of picornaviruses have been found in bats, including Kobuvirus, Sapelovirus, Cardiovirus, and Senecavirus. ... Lecis, Roberta; Mucedda, Mauro; Pidinchedda, Ermanno; Zobba, Rosanna; Pittau, Marco; Alberti, Alberto (2020). "Genomic ...
An enormous variety of genomic structures can be seen among viral species; as a group, they contain more structural genomic ... Picornaviruses, Togaviruses) V: (−)ssRNA viruses (− strand or antisense) RNA (e.g. Orthomyxoviruses, Rhabdoviruses) VI: ssRNA- ... Their genomic dsRNA remains protected inside the core of the virion. When the adaptive immune system of a vertebrate encounters ... DNA nomenclature for viruses with genomic ssDNA is similar to RNA nomenclature, in that positive-strand viral ssDNA is ...
The aim of his laboratory is to understand replication and pathogenesis of small RNA animal viruses Picornaviruses. The life ... Patents Racaniello, Vincent; Cathy Mendelsohn; Frank Costantini (1998-05-19), Molecular cloning of genomic and CDNA sequences ... To this means, he intends to isolate and identify picornaviruses found in the wild throughout the Northeastern United States. ... Racaniello is also interested in picornavirus evolution and movement. ...
January 2015). "Unprecedented genomic diversity of RNA viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense RNA viruses ... The evolution of the picornaviruses based on an analysis of their RNA polymerases and helicases appears to date to the ... Three groups have been recognised: Bymoviruses, comoviruses, nepoviruses, nodaviruses, picornaviruses, potyviruses, ... a picornavirus supergroup; an alphavirus supergroup plus a flavivirus supergroup; the dsRNA viruses; and the -ve strand viruses ...
Puente XS, López-Otín C (April 2004). "A genomic analysis of rat proteases and protease inhibitors". Genome Research. 14 (4): ... the hepatitis C virus virus and the picornaviruses). These proteases (e.g. TEV protease) have high specificity and only cleave ... doi:10.1007/s11947-010-0431-4. Southan C (July 2001). "A genomic perspective on human proteases as drug targets". Drug ...
An enormous variety of genomic structures can be seen among viral species; as a group, they contain more structural genomic ... IV: (+)ssRNA viruses (+ strand or sense) RNA (e.g. Picornaviruses, Togaviruses). *V: (−)ssRNA viruses (− strand or antisense) ... Viral evolution in the genomic age. PLOS Biology. 2007;5(10):e278. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050278. PMID 17914905. ... Suzan-Monti M, La Scola B, Raoult D. Genomic and evolutionary aspects of Mimivirus. Virus Research. 2006;117(1):145-155. doi: ...
Southan C (July 2001). "A genomic perspective on human proteases as drug targets". Drug Discovery Today. 6 (13): 681-688. doi: ... the hepatitis C virus virus and the picornaviruses).[15] These proteases (e.g. TEV protease) have high specificity and only ... "A genomic analysis of rat proteases and protease inhibitors". Genome Research. 14 (4): 609-22. doi:10.1101/gr.1946304. PMC ...
Home of Picornaviruses (latest updates of species, serotypes, & proposed changes). *. Goodsell, David. "Poliovirus and ... The genomic structure of poliovirus type 1[7]. *3Dpol, an RNA dependent RNA polymerase whose function is to make multiple ...
Zantke J, Bannister S, Rajan VB, Raible F, Tessmar-Raible K (May 2014). "Genetic and genomic tools for the marine annelid ... and picornaviruses. Most vaccines consist of viruses that have been attenuated, disabled, weakened or killed in some way so ... "Animals with Intentional Genomic Alterations - AquAdvantage Salmon Fact Sheet". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 6 February 2019. " ...
Other cleavage products include 3B (VPg), 2C (an ATPase) and 3D (the RNA polymerase). Genomic RNAs of picornaviruses possess ... Picornaviruses cause a range of diseases. Enteroviruses of the picornavirus family infect the enteric tract, which is reflected ... RNA dependent RNA polymerase was discovered in Mengovirus, a genus of picornaviruses. Picornaviruses are non-enveloped, with an ... Picornaviruses-description, replication, disease Picornaviruses in NCBI Taxonomy browser Picornaviridae classification by the ...
Rather, genomic regions of the ORF are exchanged among different genotypes of the same species, with certain genotypes like ... Enteroviruses are members of the picornavirus family, a large and diverse group of small RNA viruses characterized by a single ... Interestingly, the enterovirus species EV-A, EV-B, EV-C, EV-D have not been observed so far to exchange genomic regions among ... "Non-Polio Enterovirus , Home , Picornavirus , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2017-03-22. "Non-Polio Enterovirus , For Health Care ...
Genomic Characterization of Picornaviruses Isolated From Ribbon ( Histriophoca fasciata) and Harbor ( Phoca vitulina) Seals. ... we decided the whole genomes of two novel pinniped picornaviruses, the harbor seal picornavirus (HsPV) and the ribbon […] ... The seal picornavirus 1, species Aquamavirus A, is presently the one acknowledged member of the genus Aquamavirus inside the ... The bear picornavirus 1 was lately proposed because the second species within the genus underneath the title aquamavirus B. ...
Genomic Characterization of Picornaviruses Isolated From Ribbon ( Histriophoca fasciata) and Harbor ( Phoca vitulina) Seals. ... we decided the whole genomes of two novel pinniped picornaviruses, the harbor seal picornavirus (HsPV) and the ribbon […] ... The seal picornavirus 1, species Aquamavirus A, is presently the one acknowledged member of the genus Aquamavirus inside the ... The bear picornavirus 1 was lately proposed because the second species within the genus underneath the title aquamavirus B. ...
Published in 1996 examine the alignment of long genomic regions manually be attributed to a tremendous effort. Cdna clones and ... ", "Similarity in gene organization and homology between proteins of animal picornaviruses and a plant comovirus suggest common ... A physical map assembles genomic fragments into contigs measured in base pairs (bp). Method for rapid searching of nucleotide ... 13] Starting from this paper, reports on new genomes inevitably became comparative-genomic studies.[8]. S.Y. When we extract ...
Our targets range from picornaviruses, small ssRNA viruses, which include a number of important animal and human pathogens, to ...
2021 Oxford Particle Imaging Centre Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Old Road Campus, Roosevelt Drive, Headington ... Hepatitis A virus and the origins of picornaviruses Wang X., Ren J., Gao Q., Hu Z., Sun Y., Li X., Rowlands DJ., Yin W., Wang J ...
2021 Oxford Particle Imaging Centre Henry Wellcome Building for Genomic Medicine, Old Road Campus, Roosevelt Drive, Headington ... Structure of Ljungan virus provides insight into genome packaging of this picornavirus ... Structure of Ljungan virus provides insight into genome packaging of this picornavirus ...
Mutation frequencies in the mutant spectral range of three genomic parts of a preextinction populace obtained from the mixed ... G at millimolar concentrations blocks the replication of picornaviruses (5, 7, 15, 49, 52, 55), arboviruses (27), and many ...
In the paper entitled "The role of picornavirus infection in epileptogenesis", Runxuan Zhang et al. summarized the clinical ... Recently, viral genomic DNA of HHV-6B has been detected in surgically removed brain tissues of intractable epilepsy patients, ... Picornaviruses are a family of small positive-strand RNA viruses and transmitted via the respiratory or fecal-oral route. The ... TMEV, as a member of the Picornavirus family, can cause encephalitis, leading to chronic spontaneous seizures. The TMEV- ...
5. Picornavirus Salivirus/Klassevirus Detection in Stool Associated with Diarrhea in China, Emerg Infect Dis 2010,IF=6.859. 6. ... Genomic characterization and high prevalence of bocaviruses in swine, PLoS ONE 2011, IF=4.411. 19. Effctive inhibition of ... Genomic organization and recombination analysis of human norovirus from China Molecular Biology Reports. 2012. IF=3.0. 39. ... "Genomic characterization and high prevalence of bocaviruses in swine "论文,2年内引用次数30次。. 2009年主持"附红细胞体病原学和综合防治技
Among the picornaviruses are other viral groups containing members seemingly capable of causing problems for our nervous system ... Genomic Characterization of Novel Human Parechovirus Type https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2657611/pdf/08-0341_ ...
SARS-CoV-2 genomic and subgenomic RNAs in diagnostic samples are not an indicator of active replication ... Metagenomic characterisation of avian parvoviruses and picornaviruses from Australia wild ducks * An Emerging Human ...
Genomic analysis of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) provides insights into mechanisms of adaptation to high elevation. Qiao ... A comparative analysis of parechovirus protein structures with other picornaviruses. Butcher, S. (UH Viikki Campus). 8 days. ...
genetic and genomic medicine more details view paper *Downloaded 12,327 times *Download rankings, all-time: *Site-wide: 694 ... Globally defining the effects of mutations in a picornavirus capsid. microbiology more details view paper *Downloaded 248 times ... genetic and genomic medicine: 12,327 (rank: 17 (tie) ) *genetics: 1,136 (rank: 15,015 (tie) ) *immunology: 486 (rank: 20,345 ( ...
  • To understand the mechanisms of translation initiation mediated by the 5' noncoding region of picornavirus genomic RNAs, we are studying how this process is altered to allow ribosome clearance prior to the onset of viral RNA replication. (uci.edu)
  • Triggered by double-stranded RNAs that form during viral RNA synthesis, the innate immune system is the best-described process that restricts virus replication, and as a result, picornaviruses have evolved numerous strategies to counteract this response ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Generation of Recombinant Polioviruses Harboring RNA Affinity Tags in the 5' and 3' Noncoding Regions of Genomic RNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, norovirus translation is driven by the multifunctional viral protein-primer VPg covalently linked to the 5' end of both genomic and subgenomic RNAs 12-14 . (jove.com)
  • The translation of picornavirus genomic RNAs occurs by a cap-independent mechanism that requires the formation of specific ribonucleoprotein complexes involving host cell factors and highly structured regions of picornavirus 5' noncoding regions known as internal ribosome entry sites (IRES). (semanticscholar.org)
  • For the last 20 - 25 years of his scientific career, Holland focused his studies on vesicular stomatitis virus (an RNA-containing rhabdovirus) as a model system for viral persistence and for the study of evolution of viral genomic RNAs. (virology.ws)
  • Perhaps his most influential findings resulted from experiments devoted to quantitation of the rates of mutation during the replication of viral genomic RNAs. (virology.ws)
  • The cap-independent initiation of translation on the plus-sense genomic RNAs of picornaviruses and some flaviviruses requires binding of the small ribosome subunit to the RNA at a site located hundreds of nucleotides downstream of its 5′ terminus ( 34 , 54 , 75 ). (asm.org)
  • The picornavirus RNAs lack the cap structure (m7GpppN, where m is a methyl group and N is any nucleotide). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein 3B is covalently linked to the 5'-end of both the positive-strand and negative-strand genomic RNAs. (bioon.com.cn)
  • A picornavirus is a virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae, a family of viruses in the order Picornavirales. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picornaviruses are nonenveloped viruses that represent a large family of small, cytoplasmic, plus-strand RNA(~7.5kb) viruses with a 30 nm icosahedral capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picornaviruses are classed under Baltimore's viral classification system as group IV viruses as they contain a single stranded, positive sense RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picornaviruses are small naked RNA-positive single-stranded viruses that include some of the most important pillars in the development of virology, comprising poliovirus, rhinovirus, and hepatitis A virus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Picornaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses, relatively stable, and highly resistant to environmental influences and many disinfectants. (iastate.edu)
  • Picornaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses that modify the host cell apoptotic response, probably in order to promote viral replication, largely as a function of the viral proteases 2A, 3C, and 3CD. (asm.org)
  • Picornaviruses are small, nonenveloped viruses that contain a single strand of positive-sense RNA (ssRNA) ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Cell death is an important cellular mechanism to limit viral spread, and viruses, including picornaviruses, have evolved to inhibit cell death. (asm.org)
  • We report novel complete picornavirus and retrovirus sequences that were genetically similar to viruses infecting frogs, reptiles, and fish. (asm.org)
  • Picornaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses that include important agents of human disease such as human rhinovirus, coxsackievirus, poliovirus, and hepatitis A virus. (uci.edu)
  • Picornaviruses are a group of related nonenveloped RNA viruses which infect vertebrates including mammals and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invention provides antisense antiviral compounds and methods of their use in inhibition of growth of viruses of the picornavirus, calicivirus, togavirus and flavivirus families, as in treatment of a viral infection. (google.com)
  • Our approach has involved the design and validation of molecular diagnostic assays for novel enteric viruses, and the use of these assays to survey archived and field samples for enteric viruses such as picobirnavirus, picornavirus, parvovirus, and coronavirus. (usda.gov)
  • 5′-triphosphate RNA directly binds to RIG-I. Thus, uncapped 5′-triphosphate RNA (now termed 3pRNA) present in viruses known to be recognized by RIG-I, but absent in viruses known to be detected by MDA-5 such as the picornaviruses, serves as the molecular signature for the detection of viral infection by RIG-I. (sciencemag.org)
  • Though picornaviruses are named for their small ( pico + RNA = picorna) size, they include a large and diverse array of viruses over 200 serotypes. (stanford.edu)
  • Conversely, genomic deletion of the L region in EMCV generates viruses that are less potent at stimulating MDA5-dependent IFN production. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, although the ERV record has limitations, the reconstruction of retrovirus evolution differs fundamentally from that of other viruses, due to the ERVs in the ever richer archive of genomic assemblies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) is a 27nm nonenveloped, spherical, positive stranded RNA virus, classified within the genus hepatovirus of the picornavirus family and is among the smallest and structurally simplest of the RNA animal viruses. (abcam.com)
  • Vertebrate RNA viruses that encode a VPg protein include picornaviruses, astroviruses and caliciviruses ( Goodfellow, 2011 ). (peerj.com)
  • Enteroviruses are members of the picornavirus family, a large and diverse group of small RNA viruses. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Using a methodology categorizing nucleotide triplets by their gross-composition we have found two human rhinoviruses sharing compositional structures interspersed along their genomic RNA with three foot-and-mouth disease viruses. (csic.es)
  • The Baltimore system of virus classification devised by virologist & Nobel laureate David Baltimore is based on the genomic nature of the viruses. (erfejmnihe.mobi)
  • Picornaviruses are a large family of animal viruses, which are pervasive in nature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From the evidence we have from the current range of picornaviruses infecting humans and other mammals, recombination has been a pervasive influence on both the early and contemporary evolution of these viruses. (asmscience.org)
  • The wide range of molecular tools developed in picornavirus research, reverse genetics, and methods for in vitro and in vivo culture provides unprecedented future opportunities to explore the causes and consequences of recombination in RNA viruses. (asmscience.org)
  • We are not certain about the origin of viruses, although we know from ancient texts as well as more modern data-driven genomic analyses that viruses have been around for a very long time. (oncohemakey.com)
  • This virus showed the highest overall sequence identity to the members of the genus Kobuvirus, although the phylogenetic position of GPV-1 is different in the analyzed P1, 2C and 3CD phylogenetic trees, which further increases the diversity of known avian picornaviruses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RNA dependent RNA polymerase was discovered in Mengovirus, a genus of picornaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coxsackievirus Type B (CVB) is a member of the Picornavirus family, Enteroviridae genus (1-6). (kenyon.edu)
  • In the current report, we evaluate the antiviral potential of ARB against another picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the genus Aphthovirus and an important veterinary pathogen. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Molecular epidemiology of canine picornavirus in Hong Kong and Dubai and proposal of a novel genus in Picornaviridae. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Formerly unclassified, acid-stable equine picornaviruses are a third equine rhinitis B virus serotype in the genus Erbovirus . (ictvonline.org)
  • Genome characterization of a novel chicken picornavirus distantly related to the members of genus Avihepatovirus with a single 2A protein and a megrivirus-like 3' UTR. (ictvonline.org)
  • Rhinoviruses and enteroviruses are the major members of the picornavirus genus that cause human disease. (monash.edu)
  • Members of the same picornavirus genus show conserved gene order and content, and over the much shorter evolutionary time scale in which species and serotypes developed, gene exchange is best documented as homologous recombination events. (asmscience.org)
  • Hand, foot, and mouth disease is caused by human enterovirus, a genus of the Picornavirus family, and is characterized by a single 7.4kb of positive-strand genomic RNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human rhinoviruses (HRVs), together with enteroviruses and hepatitis A virus, belong to the picornaviruses infecting humans. (asm.org)
  • Most RT-PCR tests described for rhino- and enteroviruses take advantage of the conserved primer sequences in the 5′ noncoding region (5′NCR) of the genome (see, e.g., references 4 , 5 , 7 , and 10 ), and specific probes are used to discriminate between the two picornavirus groups. (asm.org)
  • Molecular evolution of human enteroviruses: Correlation of serotypes with VP1 sequence and application to picornavirus classification. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • One of the problems with conceptualizing the process of recombination of enteroviruses and other picornaviruses revolves around the fundamentally different sequence relationships between serotypes in structural gene and nonstructural (NS) region sequences. (asmscience.org)
  • Human rhinoviruses (HRV), the most frequent cause of respiratory infections, include 99 different serotypes segregating into two species, A and B. Rhinoviruses share extensive genomic sequence similarity with enteroviruses and both are part of the picornavirus family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Picornaviruses constitute the family Picornaviridae, order Picornavirales, and realm Riboviria. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, an overview of the steps in picornavirus replication are in order: attachment, entry, translation, transcription/genome replication (one and the same process), assembly and exit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data are consistent with inhibition of picornavirus genome replication, possibly via the disruption of intracellular membranes on which replication complexes are located. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Productive picornavirus infection requires the hijack of host cell pathways to aid with the different stages of virus entry, synthesis of the viral polyprotein and viral genome replication. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • Picornavirus proteases cleave proapoptotic adaptor proteins, resulting in downregulation of apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Overall, picornaviruses, via the action of virally encoded proteins, exercise intricate control over and subvert cell death pathways, specifically apoptosis, thereby allowing viral replication to continue. (asm.org)
  • The direct cleavage of caspases ( 2 ), disruption of nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking ( 3 , 4 ), relocalization of proapoptotic proteins ( 5 , 6 ), and cleavage of essential apoptotic adaptor proteins ( 7 , 8 ) have all been shown to occur as a result of action of Picornavirus protease activity and together suggest mechanisms by which picornaviruses can alter host cell apoptotic death pathways. (asm.org)
  • The results revealed that intertypic recombination events have occurred in limited genomic regions and been avoided in the genomic regions encoding proteins that physically interact for a given function. (asm.org)
  • This approach detects purifying selection against recombination events causing the replacement of partial components of multiprotein systems and therefore predicts physical and functional interactions between different proteins and/or genomic elements. (asm.org)
  • Other than proteins involved in the innate immune response, few host factors have been identified that restrict picornavirus replication. (asm.org)
  • The cytoplasmic life cycle of picornaviruses is dependent upon modification of many cellular processes and the repurposing of host proteins for the generation of progeny virions. (asm.org)
  • As part of the alteration of the host cell landscape to promote virus replication, picornaviruses modify lipid metabolism and reorganize membrane architecture to form replication complexes, downregulate host cell transcription and translation to redirect cellular resources to favor viral replication, and disrupt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to relocate nuclear proteins required for replication into the cytoplasm ( 1 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Although a number of cellular proteins have been shown to be involved in picornavirus RNA translation, the precise role of these factors in picornavirus internal ribosome entry is not understood. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, RhPV expresses three capsid proteins like the picornaviruses rather than the single capsid protein expressed by caliciviruses. (usda.gov)
  • Despite the low sequence similarity of the polyprotein coding open reading frames of these highly divergent picornaviruses, they have in common structural and functional similarities including a similar genomic organization, a capsid structure composed of 60 copies of four different proteins, or 3D-structures showing similar general topology, among others. (csic.es)
  • The LV genomes and the polyproteins encoded by them exhibit several exceptional features, such as the absence of a predicted maturation cleavage of VP0, a conserved sequence determinant in VP0 that is typically found in VP1 of other picornaviruses, and a cluster of two unrelated 2A proteins. (meta.org)
  • The unprecedented association of two structurally different 2A proteins is a feature never previously observed among picornaviruses and implies that their functions are not mutually exclusive. (meta.org)
  • Genomic RNA can do two things: make non-structural proteins (such as replicase) by synthesizing the minus strand, or make structural proteins through synthesis of subgenomic RNA and synthesize positive strand RNA. (studentreader.com)
  • The capsid proteins of picornaviruses are encoded by the P1 region of the genome, and the capsid particles comprise 60 copies of four P1-encoded polypeptides, VP1 to VP4. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The system where picornavirus mRNA is certainly translated continues to be examined from the first MF498 days of analysis on eukaryotic proteins synthesis. (labourlists.org)
  • Picornaviruses translate their RNA genomes by a cap-independent mechanism that uses an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to hijack the host translation machinery. (pnas.org)
  • Picornaviruses use internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) to translate their genomes into protein. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike the type-IV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) of megriviruses, HaPV-1 is predicted to contain a type-II-like IRES, suggesting modular exchange of IRES elements between picornavirus genomes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Picornavirus genomes are mentioned by short names and GenBank IDs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the present study, it is revealed through comparative sequence analysis that three newly determined Swedish LV genomes are closely related and possess a deviant picornavirus-like organization: 5' untranslated region-VP0-VP3-VP1-2A1-2A2-2B-2C-3A-3B-3C-3D-3' untranslated region. (meta.org)
  • Sun G et al (2011) Analysis of the genomic homologous recombination in Theilovirus based on complete genomes. (springer.com)
  • Unlike mammalian mRNA picornaviruses do not have a 5' cap but a virally encoded protein known as VPg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Picornavirus replication cycle control and coordination - control of protein proportions. (brainscape.com)
  • The genomic RNA of picornaviruses is attached to a small protein (VPg) via a covalent bond between a tyrosine and a 5'-terminal uridine phosphate. (nih.gov)
  • The cellular mRNA decay protein AUF1 acts as a restriction factor during infection by picornaviruses, including poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and human rhinovirus. (asm.org)
  • Our current studies address higher order RNA structures that facilitate host protein interaction with viral genomic RNA. (unomaha.edu)
  • Microbial infection) Also acts as a 5'-tyrosyl-RNA phosphodiesterase following picornavirus infection: its activity is hijacked by picornavirus and acts by specifically cleaving the protein-RNA covalent linkage generated during the viral genomic RNA replication steps of a picornavirus infection, without impairing the integrity of viral RNA. (nih.gov)
  • The drug specifically inhibits the integrity of the picornavirus capsid, the protein coat of the virus that is essential for infectivity and transmission of the virus, according to ViroPharma. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Differential utilization of poly(rC) binding protein 2 in translation directed by picornavirus IRES elements. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Walter1999DifferentialUO, title={Differential utilization of poly(rC) binding protein 2 in translation directed by picornavirus IRES elements. (semanticscholar.org)
  • His work on picornavirus protein processing and replication was innovative and characterized by a "simple but elegant" experimental approach. (virology.ws)
  • Comparison of predicted amino acid sequences in the nonstructural coding regions of the comoviruses and picornaviruses suggested a potentially immunogenic linear epitope in protein 2C. (eurekamag.com)
  • Picornaviruses produce one polypeptide, which means that equal amounts of each protein are produced even though unequal amounts are needed. (studentreader.com)
  • The capsid protein assembles with the genomic RNA into a nucleocapsid. (studentreader.com)
  • Interestingly, Sam68 is a multi-functional protein implicated in the life cycle of retroviruses and picornaviruses and is also considered a marker of virus-induced stress granules (SGs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many picornaviruses, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), assemble capsids via the multimerisation of several copies of a single capsid precursor protein into a pentameric subunit which further encapsidates the RNA. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • The model compound [N(Ac),CO(NHMe)]Tyr-(5'P→O)Up-O-(CH(2))(6)NH(2) (mCLU), mimicking this 'covalent linkage unit' (CLU) and containing Tyr-pUp was synthesized in solution following the phosphoramidite scheme and used to raise antibodies for studying picornavirus infection. (nih.gov)
  • This shows ancestral circoviral infection with subsequent genomic integration. (asm.org)
  • Here, we dissected the IFN-α/β-stimulatory activity of different viral RNA species produced during picornavirus infection, both by RNA transfection and in infected cells in which specific steps of viral RNA replication were inhibited. (nih.gov)
  • There are no specific treatments for infection, and vaccines exist for only two picornaviruses: poliovirus and hepatitis A virus. (asm.org)
  • Given the worldwide distribution and prevalence of picornaviruses, it is important to gain insight into the host mechanisms used to restrict infection. (asm.org)
  • Picornaviruses and RNA Metabolism: Local and Global Effects of Infection. (nih.gov)
  • Disrupted spatial memory is a consequence of picornavirus infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This polymerase chain reaction assay represents a clear advance in the identification of picornavirus infection, with a detection rate threefold greater than the virus culture method. (monash.edu)
  • Holgate, S. T. / Use of polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of picornavirus infection in subjects with and without respiratory symptoms . (monash.edu)
  • Treatment of FMDV permissive cells with the hsp90 inhibitor prior to infection reduced the endpoint titre by more than ten-fold while not affecting the activity of a sub-genomic replicon indicating that translation and replication of viral RNA were unaffected by the drug. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • A diarrheic chicken simultaneously co-infected with multiple picornaviruses: Complete genome analysis of avian picornaviruses representing up to six genera. (ictvonline.org)
  • The structure of the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of picornaviruses provides a further example of modular exchange through recombination during the evolution of separate genera within the picornavirus family. (asmscience.org)
  • We subsequently discovered that picornavirus-encoded 3CD proteinases cleave PCBP2 during poliovirus, coxsackievirus, or human rhinovirus infections to mediate, in part, the switch from viral translation to RNA replication. (uci.edu)
  • Moreover, 4EGI-1 inhibits translation driven by poliovirus IRES, both in vitro and in cultured cells, despite cleavage of eIF4G by picornavirus proteases. (jove.com)
  • Like all picornaviruses, poliovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV) contain functional IRES elements within their 5′NTRs ( 11 , 54 ). (asm.org)
  • Genomic sequencing of poliovirus isolates did not reveal any genetic evidence of long-term shedding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover various other picornaviruses such as for example foot-and-mouth disease trojan mengovirus and poliovirus usually do not need MF498 energetic eIF2α when maximal viral translation is certainly taking place. (labourlists.org)
  • The complete genome of goose picornavirus 1 (GPV-1) strain goose/NLSZK2/HUN/2013 (MF358731) was determined by RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing from a cloacal sample of a migratory waterfowl, greater white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) in Hungary. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, picornaviruses use a cap-independent mechanism that uses an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) to bind directly to initiation factors ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Consistent with this, picornavirus IRES-mediated translation is particularly sensitive to inhibition of eIF4A helicase activity ( 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Picornavirus Type I IRES. (brainscape.com)
  • Picornavirus Type I IRES - structure, recruitment of 40S. (brainscape.com)
  • The HCV IRES adopts a complex structure, and may differ significantly from IRES elements identified in picornaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have conducted studies to learn the structure of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA found in picornaviruses (Kim et al. (unomaha.edu)
  • Prior work by many laboratories has generated that translation of picornavirus RNA requires energetic eIF2α for translation in cell free of charge systems or following transfection in culture cells. (labourlists.org)
  • Therefore translation of picornavirus RNA might exhibit a dual mechanism in regards to the participation of eIF2. (labourlists.org)
  • Around 2000, the taxonomy was revised based on genomic sequence data. (iastate.edu)
  • The hospitals sent specimens to CDC's Polio and Picornavirus Laboratory to sequence the virus and determine the type. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we purify and characterise LGP2/RNA complexes from cells infected with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a picornavirus detected by MDA5 and LGP2 but not RIG-I. We show that those complexes contain RNA that is highly enriched for MDA5-stimulatory activity and for a specific sequence corresponding to the L region of the EMCV antisense RNA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • They share identical genomic organization and high sequence homology. (medchemexpress.com)
  • This review focuses on the functions of viral and host factors involved in the life cycle of picornaviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This feature is attributed to frequent intertypic recombination events that have reshuffled orthologous genomic regions between different HAdV-D types. (asm.org)
  • We are developing a pipeline to identify orthologous genomic regions (synteny) across various species, and this should help to distinguish the numerous random breaks from rare "forbidden breaks" that are constrained by selection. (unige.ch)
  • Pirodavir is a potent, broad-spectrum picornavirus inhibitor, and is highly active against both group A and group B rhinovirus serotypes. (medchemexpress.com)
  • CDC's labs provide critical diagnostic services and genomic sequencing of polioviruses to help guide disease control efforts in many countries. (cdc.gov)
  • Polioviruses containing picornavirus type 1 and/or type 2 internal ribosomal entry site elements: genetic hybrids and the expression of a foreign gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Complete genomic sequencing shows that polioviruses and members of human enterovirus species C are closely related in the noncapsid coding region. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The polyprotein is subsequently cleaved in a typical picornavirus L4-3-4 layout, namely Leader (Lpro)-P1 region (VP1 to Vp4)-P2 region (2A to 2B)-and P3 region (3A to 3D) ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Our research is focused on how picornaviruses employ unique mechanisms for translation initiation and viral RNA replication in infected human cells. (uci.edu)
  • Enterovirus Persistence in Cardiac Cells of Patients With Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Is Linked to 5' Terminal Genomic RNA-Deleted Viral Populations With Viral-Encoded Proteinase Activities. (nih.gov)
  • Nucleotides 1-40 of the HCV mRNA are thought not to contribute to translation, and are rather required for genomic RNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Launch The genome of picornaviruses comprises MF498 a molecule of single-stranded RNA of positive polarity that also works as the just viral mRNA that's translated in contaminated cells [1]. (labourlists.org)
  • B) Cutaway view of the A-particle showing capsid separation from genomic RNA and structural changes that result from the 5% expansion of the capsid. (kenyon.edu)
  • B (nonstructural) and M (structural) genomic segments of CPMV were translated in rabbit reticulocyte lysates and used as in vitro antigens. (eurekamag.com)
  • This is primarily achieved by the 33.1-kD HCoV 229E main proteinase (M pro ) ( 7 ), which is frequently also called 3C-like proteinase (3CL pro ) to indicate a similarity of its cleavage-site specificity to that observed for picornavirus 3C proteinases [3C pro (table S1)], although we have recently shown that the structural similarities between the two families of proteinases are limited ( 8 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The site for structural protiens is about mid-way through, and if replicase initiates there then a subgenomic (smaller than genomic) plus RNA will be synthesized. (studentreader.com)
  • Picornaviruses are small icosahedral particles containing a single-stranded plus sense RNA genome with approximately 7,500 nt in length. (biomedcentral.com)
  • HAV genomic replication occurs exclusively in the cytoplasm of the infected hepatocyte by a mechanism involving an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (abcam.com)
  • Retroviruses therefore encodes an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase) to make the DNA provirus which then is transcribed to genomic RNA by a host enzyme, RNA polymerase II. (erfejmnihe.mobi)
  • We compared the polymerase chain reaction and viral culture for the identification of picornaviruses in nasal aspirates from children during episodes of respiratory symptoms and when asymptomatic and from asymptomatic adults. (monash.edu)
  • Picornaviruses were isolated by culture in 47 (46 rhinoviruses) of 292 symptomatic episodes (16%), whereas the polymerase chain reaction identified picornavirus genomic material in 146 episodes (50%), including all but one of the culture-positive episodes. (monash.edu)
  • RNA-directed RNA polymerase 3D-POL replicates genomic and antigenomic RNA by recognizing replications specific signals (By similarity). (bioon.com.cn)
  • Picornaviruses are non-enveloped, with an icosahedral capsid. (wikipedia.org)
  • To understand the organization of the RhPV genome, its 10 kb genomic RNA was sequenced from cDNAs clones. (usda.gov)
  • ARB inhibits the replication of FMDV RNA sub-genomic replicons. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a single stranded RNA virus in the picornavirus family. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Unique aspects are also found within the coding region, where FMDV is the only picornavirus reported to contain multiple copies of the 3B gene. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Sub-genomic FMDV replicons are used in tandem with infectious virus to help dissect the roles of these elements in distinct areas of the viral lifecycle. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • 2008): A highly divergent picornavirus in a marine mammal. (uvic.ca)
  • OTHER MARINE MAMMALS Seiffert, E.R. (2007): A new estimate of afrotherian phylogeny based on simultaneous analysis of genomic, morphological, and fossil evidence. (uvic.ca)
  • More recently, we have turned our attention to understanding the structure and function of viral RNA molecules, particularly enteroviral genomic RNA. (unomaha.edu)
  • MNV replication results in the synthesis of new positive sense genomic and subgenomic RNA molecules, the latter of which corresponds to the last third of the viral genome ( Figure 1 ). (jove.com)
  • These minus strands then serve as templates for the synthesis of plus-strand genomic RNA molecules ( 1 , 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Many picornaviruses have similar receptor molecules that are members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), whose extracellular regions comprise two to five amino-terminal immunoglobulin-like domains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CV-A24v strains of the same genogroup with few genomic variations but different disease manifestations need to be explored to investigate the molecular basis of evolution of neurovirulence. (deepdyve.com)
  • In Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses , pp. 127-148. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The genomic RNA of SBV is longer than that of typical mammalian picomaviruses (8854 nucleotides) and contains a single, large open reading frame (201-8774) encoding a polyprotein of 2858 amino acids. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Outside of the antiviral activity of the innate immune system, few host factors have been identified that restrict picornavirus replication. (asm.org)
  • This factor will be essential MF498 to translate the insight genomic RNA but after viral RNA replication the system of viral RNA translation switches to 1 indie of eIF2. (labourlists.org)
  • Picornavirus proteases also cleave nucleoporins, disrupting the orchestrated manner in which signaling pathways use active nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, including those involved in apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Picornaviruses can selectively alter cellular pathways in order to promote viral replication, mostly through the action of viral proteases, including modulation of proapoptotic factors or processes. (asm.org)
  • In this minireview, we aim to review and discuss current literature on Picornavirus modulation of cell death pathways with a view to integrating diverse studies to form a rational informed model of Picornavirus disruption of apoptotic pathways. (asm.org)
  • Along with modification of cellular pathways to favor virus replication, picornaviruses must also disrupt processes that restrict virus replication. (asm.org)
  • Diverse Strategies Used by Picornaviruses to Escape Host RNA Decay Pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Picornavirus infectious particles use the fecal-oral or respiratory routes as primary modes of transmission. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results show that the incoming genomic plus-strand RNA does not activate MDA5, but minus-strand RNA synthesis and production of the 7.5 kbp replicative form trigger a strong IFN-α/β response. (nih.gov)
  • This reveals an unexpected commonality in the mechanism that picornavirus IRESs use to recruit eIF4F. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, our data reveal how picornavirus IRESs use eIF4E-dependent and -independent mechanisms to promote their translation. (pnas.org)
  • Positioning of PTB on Type II picornavirus IRESs. (brainscape.com)
  • Genomic differences between the diabetogenic and nondiabetogenic variants of encephalomyocarditis virus. (ictvonline.org)
  • To address the limitations of existing viral detection methodologies, we have developed a genomic approach to virus identification. (pnas.org)
  • Identification of an LGP2-associated MDA5 agonist in picornavirus-infected cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The isolates shared 98.1-99.0% genomic pairwise identity to each other and had the highest similarity, of 98.3-98.7%, with the American strain KS15-01, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the genomic information is still very limited in these regions except Guangdong province which account for over 70% of Chinese isolates ( 19 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • During both regulatory and routine surveillance sampling of baitfish from the states of Illinois, Minnesota, Montana, and Wisconsin, USA, isolates (n = 20) of a previously unknown picornavirus were obtained from kidney/spleen or entire viscera of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and brassy minnows (Hybognathus hankinsoni). (jove.com)
  • Phylogenetic analysis based on 491 amino acid residues of the 3D gene showed 98.6% to 100% identity among the 20 isolates of FHMPV compared in this study while only 49.5% identity with its nearest neighbor, the bluegill picornavirus (BGPV) isolated from bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus). (jove.com)
  • 2005, Bailey and Tapprich 2007) and we have determined virulence determinants in picornal genomic RNA (Prusa et al. (unomaha.edu)
  • Domingo, "Deletion mutants of VPg reveal new cytopathology determinants in a picornavirus ," PLoS ONE, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In fact, there is 4 times as much subgenomic RNA as genomic RNA in cells infected with togavirus. (studentreader.com)
  • Picornaviruses cause a wide variety of diseases in humans. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Picornaviruses primarily infect the gastrointestinal or upper respiratory tracts of humans and animals and may disseminate to tissues of the central nervous system, heart, skin, liver, or pancreas. (asm.org)
  • Picornaviruses cause several diseases, not only in humans but also in various animal hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, picornaviruses display a substantial amount of genetic variability driven by both mutation and recombination. (frontiersin.org)
  • We are now using genetic ablation approaches to determine the precise role of this enzyme during picornavirus replication cycles. (uci.edu)
  • Neurovirulence can be attenuated by point mutations or by exchange of genetic elements between different picornaviruses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Picornavirus is ingested and replicates in the tonsil, intestinal tract and probably in lymphoid tissue in the lamina propria. (iastate.edu)
  • To facilitate the comprehensive and unbiased analysis of viral prevalence in a given biological setting, we have developed a genomic strategy for highly parallel viral screening. (pnas.org)
  • In order to understand why the paradoxical trend has been possible in HAdV-D evolution, we conducted an interregional coevolution analysis between different genomic regions of 45 different HAdV-D types and found that ca. 70% of the genome has coevolved, even though these are fragmented into several pieces via short intertypic recombination hot spot regions. (asm.org)
  • Comparative genomic analysis of the Aedes mosquito, the primary vector for yellow fever and dengue fever, with a genome at ~1.38 Gbp is ~5-fold larger in size than the genome of the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae . (unige.ch)
  • Based on complete polyprotein analysis, the FHMPV shared 58% (P1), 33% (P2) and 43% (P3) amino acid identities with BGPV and shared less than 40% amino acid identity with all other picornaviruses. (jove.com)
  • Next generation sequencing analysis retrieved whole-capsid genomic nucleotide sequences of EV strains belonging to all four A, B, C, and D species. (bvsalud.org)
  • The lack of HRV full-length genome sequences and the absence of analysis comparing picornaviruses at the whole genome level limit our knowledge of the genomic features supporting these differences. (biomedcentral.com)