Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Protein PrecursorsGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Nerve Tissue ProteinsChromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Nucleotide Mapping: Two-dimensional separation and analysis of nucleotides.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Pandalidae: A family of CRUSTACEA, order DECAPODA, comprising the pandalid shrimp. They are protandric hermaphrodites and can breed in both male and female stages. Many species are commercially harvested in the Pacific Northwest.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genomic Structural Variation: Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Parakeets: Common name for one of five species of small PARROTS, containing long tails.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.
"Direct Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Enzymatically Amplified Genomic Sequences" Science vol. 233, pp. 1076-78 (1986). Saiki ... The use of DNA polymerase for nick translation was the most common method used to label DNA probes for Southern blotting. In ... These oligos were used as probes for screening cloned genes, as primers for DNA sequencing and cDNA synthesis, and as building ... The use of DNA polymerase to extend oligonucleotide primers was a common procedure in DNA sequencing and the production of cDNA ...
DNA sequencing, or Southern blotting for further characterization. In simple terms, electrophoresis is a process which enables ... in molecular genetic diagnosis or genetic fingerprinting Separation of restricted genomic DNA prior to Southern transfer, or of ... Buell, GN; Wickens, MP; Payvar, F; Schimke, RT (Apr 10, 1978). "Synthesis of full length cDNAs from four partially purified ... Traditional DNA sequencing techniques such as Maxam-Gilbert or Sanger methods used polyacrylamide gels to separate DNA ...
Southern desenvolve a técnica do Southern blot de localización de secuencias específicas de ADN (1976),[30] comeza a ... "Identification of interferon-modulated proliferation-related cDNA sequences" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Olshen, A. B.; Venkatraman, E. S. (2002). "Change-point analysis of array-based comparative genomic hybridization data". ... Southern, E. M. (1975). "Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis". Journal of ...
... (Inverse PCR) is a variant of the polymerase chain reaction that is used to amplify DNA with only one known sequence. One limitation of conventional PCR is that it requires primers complementary to both termini of the target DNA, but this method allows PCR to be carried out even if only one sequence is available from which primers may be designed. Inverse PCR is especially useful for the determination of insert locations. For example, various retroviruses and transposons randomly integrate into genomic DNA. To identify the sites where they have entered, the known, "internal" viral or transposon sequences can be used to design primers that will amplify a small portion of the flanking, "external" genomic DNA. The amplified product can then be sequenced and compared with DNA databases to locate the sequence which has been disrupted. The inverse PCR method involves a series of restriction digests and ligation, resulting in a looped fragment that can be ...
... is a method of investigating the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins in vitro. This technique can be used to study protein-DNA interactions both outside and within cells. The regulation of transcription has been studied extensively, and yet there is still much that is not known. Transcription factors and associated proteins that bind promoters, enhancers, or silencers to drive or repress transcription are fundamental to understanding the unique regulation of individual genes within the genome. Techniques like DNA footprinting help elucidate which proteins bind to these associated regions of DNA and unravel the complexities of transcriptional control. In 1978, David Galas and Albert Schmitz developed the DNA footprinting technique to study the binding specificity of the lac repressor protein. It was originally a modification of the Maxam-Gilbert chemical sequencing technique. The simplest application of this technique is to assess whether a given protein binds to a ...
The touchdown polymerase chain reaction or touchdown style polymerase chain reaction is a method of polymerase chain reaction by which primers avoid amplifying nonspecific sequences. The annealing temperature during a polymerase chain reaction determines the specificity of primer annealing. The melting point of the primer sets the upper limit on annealing temperature. At temperatures just above this point, only very specific base pairing between the primer and the template will occur. At lower temperatures, the primers bind less specifically. Nonspecific primer binding obscures polymerase chain reaction results, as the nonspecific sequences to which primers anneal in early steps of amplification will "swamp out" any specific sequences because of the exponential nature of polymerase amplification. The earliest steps of a touchdown polymerase chain reaction cycle have high annealing temperatures. The annealing temperature is decreased in increments for every ...
An expression cassette is a distinct component of vector DNA consisting of a gene and regulatory sequence to be expressed by a transfected cell. In each successful transformation, the expression cassette directs the cell's machinery to make RNA and protein(s). Some expression cassettes are designed for modular cloning of protein-encoding sequences so that the same cassette can easily be altered to make different proteins. An expression cassette is composed of one or more genes and the sequences controlling their expression. An expression cassette comprises three components: a promoter sequence, an open reading frame, and a 3' untranslated region that, in eukaryotes, usually contains a polyadenylation site. Different expression cassettes can be transfected into different organisms including bacteria, yeast, plants, and mammalian cells as long as the correct regulatory sequences are used. Expression vector Gene cassette Papadakis, E.D.; et al. (2004). ...
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. Sequencing results in a symbolic linear depiction known as a sequence which succinctly summarizes much of the atomic-level structure of the sequenced molecule. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the nucleotide order of a given DNA fragment. So far, most DNA sequencing has been performed using the chain termination method developed by Frederick Sanger. This technique uses sequence-specific termination of a DNA synthesis reaction using modified nucleotide substrates. However, new sequencing technologies such as pyrosequencing are gaining an increasing share of the sequencing market. More genome data are now being produced by pyrosequencing than Sanger DNA sequencing. Pyrosequencing has enabled rapid genome sequencing. Bacterial genomes can be sequenced in a single run with several times coverage with this technique. This technique was ...
A cDNA library is a combination of cloned cDNA (complementary DNA) fragments inserted into a collection of host cells, which together constitute some portion of the transcriptome of the organism and are stored as a "library". cDNA is produced from fully transcribed mRNA found in the nucleus and therefore contains only the expressed genes of an organism. Similarly, tissue-specific cDNA libraries can be produced. In eukaryotic cells the mature mRNA is already spliced, hence the cDNA produced lacks introns and can be readily expressed in a bacterial cell. While information in cDNA libraries is a powerful and useful tool since gene products are easily identified, the libraries lack information about enhancers, introns, and other regulatory elements found in a genomic DNA library. cDNA is created from a mature mRNA from a eukaryotic cell with the use of reverse transcriptase. In ...
A restriction map is a map of known restriction sites within a sequence of DNA. Restriction mapping requires the use of restriction enzymes. In molecular biology, restriction maps are used as a reference to engineer plasmids or other relatively short pieces of DNA, and sometimes for longer genomic DNA. There are other ways of mapping features on DNA for longer length DNA molecules, such as mapping by transduction. One approach in constructing a restriction map of a DNA molecule is to sequence the whole molecule and to run the sequence through a computer program that will find the recognition sites that are present for every restriction enzyme known. Before sequencing was automated, it would have been prohibitively expensive to sequence an entire DNA strand. To find the relative positions of restriction sites on a plasmid, a technique involving single and double restriction digests is used. Based on the sizes of the resultant DNA fragments the positions of the sites can be inferred. ...
This article contains a list of the most studied restriction enzymes whose names start with Ba to Bc inclusive. It contains approximately 120 enzymes. The following information is given: Enzyme: Accepted name of the molecule, according to the internationally adopted nomenclature, and bibliographical references. (Further reading: see the section "Nomenclature" in the article "Restriction enzyme".) PDB code: Code used to identify the structure of a protein in the PDB database of protein structures. The 3D atomic structure of a protein provides highly valuable information to understand the intimate details of its mechanism of action. Source: Organism that naturally produces the enzyme. Recognition sequence: Sequence of DNA recognized by the enzyme and to which it specifically binds. Cut: Cutting site and DNA products of the cut. The recognition sequence and the cutting site usually match, but sometimes the cutting site can be dozens of nucleotides away from the recognition site. Isoschizomers and ...
Coiled-Coil Domain Containing protein 82 (CCDC82) is a protein that in humans, is encoded for by the gene of the same name, CCDC82. The CCDC82 gene is expressed in nearly all of human tissues at somewhat low rates. As of today, there are no patents involving CCDC82 and the function remains unknown. CCDC82 is located on chromosome 11 at 11q21.5. It contains two domains of unknown function, DUF4196 and DUF4211. The DNA sequence is 37,155 base pairs long and contains 7 exons. CCDC82 is present in many orthologs. It is conserved throughout other mammals, reptiles, birds and bony fish. It is not found in invertebrates, bacteria or fungi. There are no paralogs. The predicted promoter for CCDC82 is located on the minus strand and spans from base pairs 96,122,963 to 96,123,587. It is 625 base pairs long. The transcription factors listed below are for the predicted promoter sequence and are located on the minus strand. The protein it encodes for is 344 amino acids in length. The protein itself is very ...
The staggered extension process (also referred to as StEP) is a common technique used in biotechnology and molecular biology to create new, mutated genes with qualities of one or more initial genes. The technique itself is a modified polymerase chain reaction with very short (approximately 10 seconds) cycles. In these cycles the elongation of DNA is very quick (only a few hundred base pairs) and synthesized fragments anneal with complementary fragments of other strands. In this way, mutations of the initial genes are shuffled and in the end genes with new combinations of mutations are amplified. The StEP protocol has been found to be useful as a method of directed evolution for the discovery of enzymes useful to industry. Zhao, Huimin; Giver, Lori; Shao, Zhixin; Affholter, Joseph A.; Arnold, Frances H. (1998). "Molecular evolution by staggered extension process (StEP) in vitro recombination". Nature Biotechnology. 16 (3): 258-261. doi:10.1038/nbt0398-258. Zhao, Huimin; Zha, Wenjuan (1 November ...
Itoh S; Yanagimoto T; Tagawa S; et al. (1992). „Genomic organization of human fetal specific P-450IIIA7 (cytochrome P-450HFLa)-related gene(s) and interaction of transcriptional regulatory factor with its DNA element in the 5' flanking region". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1130 (2): 133-8. PMID 1562592 ...
மரபு நூலிழையில் உள்ள குறிப்பிட்ட ஒரு பகுதியைப் பெருக்குவதற்கு இந்தத் தொழில்நுட்பம் உதவுகின்றது. இலக்குப் பகுதியானது பொதுவாக 0.1-10 கிலோ தாங்கிச் சோடிகளைக் (kilo base pairs - kb) கொண்டதாக இருக்கும். ஆனாலும் ஒரு சில தாக்கங்கள் 40 கிலோ தாங்கிச் சோடிகள் வரை பெருக்கும் தன்மை கொண்டன.[2] குறிப்பிட்ட பகுதியின் பெருக்கமானது வழங்கப்படும் பொருட்களின் அளவில் தங்கியிருக்கும். செயற்பாட்டிற்குத் ...
注意:此处包括了那些只有微弱男性化效应(或抗男性化(如氧雄龙))的蛋白同化甾类(因为它们合成代谢效应也是通过激活雄激素受体而是显得)。. ...
The isolated promoter is operably linked to a coding sequence of interest to make a chimeric gene. ... A. Cotton Genomic Southern Analysis. Genomic Southern blots are prepared by standard procedures using nitrocellulose filters. ... Comparison of their sequences with formerly published rbcS sequences from other species showed that they are indeed rbcS cDNA ... Reporter, 1983, 1:12). Genomic Southern analysis, using our rbcS cDNA clone as a probe, revealed 4 to 5 genomic fragments ...
The blot was hybridized using the labeled cDNA insert CalsepRRP1. Numbers on the right show RNA size (kb). B, Southern-blot ... Analysis of the genomic sequence revealed the presence of seven intron sequences in CalsepRRP, whereas RNases from Rosaceae and ... Sequence analysis revealed a sequence virtually identical to the sequence of the cDNA interspersed with seven intron sequences ... Southern-Blot Analysis. Genomic DNA isolated from young leaves of C. sepium was digested with the restriction enzymes BamHI,Eco ...
... end of the cDNA sequence. The first nine A residues in the poly(A) tail of the cDNA sequence match the osm-6 genomic sequence. ... Southern blots of DNA isolated from m511, m533, revertant and N2 stocks probed with Tc1 sequence were inspected for mutant- ... Nucleotide sequence of osm-6 cDNA and amino acid sequence encoded by the osm-6 cDNA open reading frame (EMBL accession number ... Comparison of the cDNA and genomic nucleotide sequences indicated that the cDNA is composed of 11 exons, five of which (exons 4 ...
Unexpectedly, Southern blot analyses of the ida5-t genome using four different fragments from the wild-type actin genomic clone ... Sequence analysis of the ida5 mutation. Sequencing patterns of the partial cDNA clones obtained from wild type and ida5 by RT- ... DNA and RNA Blotting. DNA was isolated by the method of Weeks et al. (1986). For Southern blot analysis, DNA was digested with ... The sequence indicated that a base (C) had been deleted from the CCCC sequence starting at nucleotide 838 (in the cDNA ...
DNA sequences are provided for production of beta -actin or untranslated regions of beta -actin genes may be employed in ... as well as the 3UTR and plasmid vector sequence in these rare clones was confirmed by blotting experiments on Southern ... 1. A genomic DNA sequence of less than 15kb encoding for a human B-actin. 2. A DNA sequence according to Claim 1, which is ... Furthermore, the nucleotide sequences of the coding regions of Ml(ssl)-2 was shown to be identical to the p-actin cDNA sequence ...
Overexpression of the eIF4B2 cDNA mimicked phenotypic traits of the sns-D mutant indicating that the sns-D mutant phenotype is ... Overexpression of the eIF4B2 cDNA mimicked phenotypic traits of the sns-D mutant indicating that the sns-D mutant phenotype is ... In order to obtain the plant DNA sequences flanking the left border of the T-DNA, the genomic DNA sequences from DNA of ... Figure 1. Southern blot analysis of sns-D. (A) Plant DNA (5 μg) of the sns-D mutant (lane 2) was digested with HindIII and ...
Differential display, SAGE, northern / southern Blotting, Microarray. DB-Anforderungen. Wen, X., Fuhrman, S., Michaels, G. S., ... Cornell, M., Paton, N.; Goble, C.A. et al.: GIMS - A Data Warehouse for Storage and Analysis of Genome Sequence and Functional ... Gelbart, W.M.: Databases in Genomic Research. Science, 1998, Vol. 282. Baxevanis, A.D.: The Molecular Biology Database ... Cheung, V.G. et al.: Expression profiling using cDNA microarrays. Nature genetics supplement, 1999, Vol. 21. ...
... antisense oligonucleotides complementary to any sequences of a nucleic acid molecule which encodes a human 5-HT 1F receptor, ... or to isolate related cDNA or genomic clones by the screening of cDNA or genomic libraries, by methods described in more detail ... Lambda phage hybridizing to the probe were plaque purified and DNA was prepared for southern blot analysis (Southern, 1975; ... Examples of DNA are DNA or cDNA molecules having a coding sequence substantially the same as the coding sequence shown in FIGS ...
Restriction digestion and Southern-blot analyses showed that the gene was very large and was dispersed over two cloned genomic ... The complete nucleotide sequence of the nearly full-length, 3429-bp cDNA and the deduced amino acid sequence are presented in ... b, Overlapping cDNAs and PCR products used to obtain the complete nucleotide sequence of the cDNA for barley limit dextrinase. ... The nucleotide sequences of all overlapping fragments were identical. A partial restriction map of the cDNA sequence and the ...
Specifically, marker DNA sequences which detect either directly or indirectly the identity of the codon encoding for the amino ... acid at position 57 of the DQ-beta protein sequence are disclosed as well as sequences from the DR-beta region. These sequences ... Such antibodies and peptides encoded by said DNA sequences can be used therapeutically or prophylactically. ... DNA sequences and corresponding amino acid sequences from the HLA class II beta region of the human genome that are associated ...
"Direct Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Enzymatically Amplified Genomic Sequences" Science vol. 233, pp. 1076-78 (1986). Saiki ... The use of DNA polymerase for nick translation was the most common method used to label DNA probes for Southern blotting. In ... These oligos were used as probes for screening cloned genes, as primers for DNA sequencing and cDNA synthesis, and as building ... The use of DNA polymerase to extend oligonucleotide primers was a common procedure in DNA sequencing and the production of cDNA ...
The sequences disclosed herein may be used directly in the preparation of genetic constructs, or may be employed in the ... These sequences may prove useful in an analysis of normal and abnormal sexual differentiation, benign prostatic hyperplasia, ... The DNA sequence encoding steroid 5α-reductase 2, the major active isozyme of human genital tissue, is disclosed herein, in ... preparation of hybridization probes for the selection of enzyme-encoding sequences from other sources. ...
Notably, current nucleic acid technologies, like reverse transcription, blotting, cloning, or sequencing, were not yet ... 1; and see above). Synthesis of RSV cDNA and subtractive hybridization with td RNA led to a src-specific DNA probe that was ... used for annealing experiments showing that normal cells contain sequences closely related to src in their genomic DNA (12). ... then at the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and with Hidesaburo Hanafusa at the Rockefeller University (9⇓-11). ...
In addition, a cDNA common to both A and B forms of MCP-1R hybridized to a single band on Southern blots of human genomic DNA ... The encoded protein sequence is shown below that of the cDNA sequence. The cDNA sequence (SEQ ID NO:3) and encoded amino acid ... Structure of MCP-1R Deduced from the cDNA Sequence. The full sequence of MCP-1RA cDNA (SEQ ID NO: 1) and the encoded amino acid ... Analysis of additional clones in the MM6 cDNA library revealed a second sequence that was identical to the 2.1 kb cDNA sequence ...
b) Blotting. The Southern Blot assay, developed in the 1970s, is an inexpensive and rapid means of determining the presence or ... 2004) Aligning multiple genomic sequences with the threaded blockset aligner. Genome Res. 14:708-715, (doi:10.1101/gr.1933104). ... 1987) Identification of interferon-modulated proliferation-related cDNA sequences. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 84:8453-8457, (doi ... e) DNA sequencing. Sequencing is a key technique in genomics. Since the 1970s, a wide variety of DNA sequencing technologies ...
Southern blot analyses of C. sativa genomic DNA showed that at least four homologous PKS genes are present (Raharjo et al., ... PKS full-length cDNAs were re-sequenced with sequencing primer in order to confirm that the ORFs of the sequences were correct ... Nucleotide and protein sequence analyses. Several full-length PKS cDNAs containing ORFs of 1158 bp were obtained (Table 1). The ... Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% ...
Dot blot hybridization with a cDNA probe derived from the human calicivirus Sapporo 1982 strain. Arch Virol 1996;141:1949--59. ... Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus. Virology 1993;195:51--61. ... reverse transcription-PCR and southern hybridization. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:64--71. ... During the early 1990s, breakthroughs in cloning and sequencing of Norwalk virus and Southampton virus (15--18) led to the ...
Also of interest are plants, plant parts and plant cells comprising the nucleic acid sequences. ... compositions and methods of use of Ricinus communis cDNAs encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, are provided. ... A DNA sequence of this invention may include genomic or cDNA sequence. A cDNA sequence may or may not contain pre-processing ... A nitrocellulose filter containing PCR product DNA was prepared by the Southern blot technique (Maniatis et al., supra) The ...
Southern blot analysis.Genomic DNA was digested with restriction enzymes, size separated on a 1% agarose gel, and blotted onto ... Cloning of the bcaba1 gene.A cDNA fragment derived from an expressed sequence tag (EST) library of strain ATCC 58025 under ABA ... The genomic copy of bcaba1 was isolated from the genomic EMBL3 library of strain SAS56 by using the cDNA clone as probe. ... A) Southern blot analysis of DNA from wild-type strain ATCC 58025; replacement mutants ΔBccpr1-3, ΔBccpr1-8, and ΔBccpr1-16; ...
Overlapping molecular clones were obtained and the complete nucleotide sequence of the gag and env genes was ascertained. An ... antigenic envelope polypeptide having the following amino acid sequence was identified: NH2-VTAIEKYLEDQARLNSWGCAFRQVC-COOH. The ... However, preliminary hybridization experiments indicated that there are substantiated differences between the sequences of the ... and 35 clones were amplified and their DNA characterized by restriction mapping and Southern blotting with the HIV-2 cDNA clone ...
G418-resistant ES cells were screened for homologous recombinants by Southern blot hybridization with genomic probes that were ... y mice hybridized using a fragment of the mouse cDNA including sequences from the active site of the ACE2 enzyme that should ... C) Northern blot analysis of kidneys from Ace2-/y and Ace2+/y mice hybridized with a cDNA probe for mouse ACE2. ACE2 mRNA was ... B) The genotype at the Ace2 locus was determined by Southern blot hybridization using the 5′ flanking probe. After digestion of ...
Genomic (top) and cDNA (bottom) structure of PS6K as determined from the analysis of chromosome 17 sequence entered into the ... The results showed predominant expression of the p70 isoform (14 , 15) and, as would be expected based upon the Southern ... Expression levels for the protein product of PS6K, s6k, were detected in cell lines by Western blot analysis. ... synthesized by PCR of genomic DNA) and ERBB2 (full-length cDNA coding sequence, bases 149-3955). After hybridization, filters ...
A cDNA clone, generated by PCR, was also sufficient for complementation of sonA1. Sequence of the genomic and cDNA clones ... resistant sectors and plasmid loss was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Wild-type isolates were confirmed to have lost the ... Sequence of sonA and alignment of SONA to GLE2 and RAE1. (A) The nucleotide sequence and predicted ORF in the 2.6-kb genomic ... a potential nuclear localization sequence. The position of the intron was confirmed by sequencing a cDNA clone. (B) An ...
Genotyping of transgenic mice. Mice transgenic for NSE-apoE3 or NSE-apoE4 were identified by Southern blot analysis of genomic ... and a genomic segment representing exon 4 noncoding sequence and 112 bp of 3′ untranslated region including the polyadenylation ... nucleotides 281-469 of APOE cDNA (GenBank accession number M12529)] or β-actin mRNA [nucleotides 480-559 of mouse β-actin cDNA ... Nine NSE-apoE3 and 12 NSE-apoE4 transgenic founder mice were identified by Southern blot analysis. Two lines of transgenic mice ...
  • DNA sequences are provided for production of beta -actin or untranslated regions of beta -actin genes may be employed in conjunction with genes encoding for polypeptides for efficient expression in mammalian hosts. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Discovery of Three Genes Specifically Expressed in Human Prostate by Expressed Sequence Tag Database Analysis. (uni-leipzig.de)
  • 1. A marker DR-beta-I DNA sequence from the HLA class II beta genes associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and with DR4-associated susceptibility to Pemphigus vulgaris. (google.com.au)
  • 5. Marker DQ-beta DNA sequences from the HLA class II beta genes associated with DRw6-associated susceptibility to Pemphigus vulgaris. (google.com.au)
  • As part of an examination of expressed sequence tags for novel amplified genes in this region, we identified PS6K amplifications in both breast tumor tissues and cell lines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specific genes involved in q22-24 amplifications have yet to be identified, and until recently, these alterations had only been demonstrated by comparative genomic hybridization (3 , 4) , a technique with limited resolving power. (aacrjournals.org)
  • First, although Antarctic notothenioid AFGP genes have been shown to originate from a pancreatic trypsinogen, Arctic cod AFGP genes share no sequence identity with the trypsinogen gene, indicating trypsinogen is not the progenitor. (pnas.org)
  • Second, the AFGP genes of the two fish have different intron-exon organizations and different spacer sequences and, thus, different processing of the polyprotein precursors, consistent with separate genomic origins. (pnas.org)
  • Third, the repetitive AFGP tripeptide (Thr-Ala/Pro-Ala) coding sequences are drastically different in the two groups of genes, suggesting that they arose from duplications of two distinct, short ancestral sequences with a different permutation of three codons for the same tripeptide. (pnas.org)
  • Notothenioid AFGP genes have recently been discovered to evolve from a trypsinogen gene through recruitment of segments of the trypsinogen sequence, plus de novo amplification of a 9-nt Thr-Ala-Ala coding element from the trypsinogen progenitor, to form a new coding region for the repetitive tripeptide backbone of AFGPs ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • We generated cDNAs and updated gene models for four genes, CTR1 , CTR2 , CTR3 , and COPT1 , encoding CTR-type copper transporters in Chlamydomonas . (plantcell.org)
  • Southern analysis suggested this was due to loss of the genes for the death receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We used a molecular epidemiological ( 31 ) approach involving genomic subtraction followed by a dot blot hybridization screening of a panel of pneumococcal isolates to identify genes that might play a role in otitis media. (asm.org)
  • Northern blot analyses showed the six genes to be developmentally regulated and expressed during conidiation. (asm.org)
  • Two full-length cDNA clones (4CL-216 and 4CL-9) representing two different genes (4CL1 and 4CL2) were isolated from a young leaf library and characterized. (ubc.ca)
  • Southern blot analysis demonstrated that other 4CL genes exist in the poplar genome. (ubc.ca)
  • However, no sequences similar to the Brassica S locus genes that are known to be required for the self-incompatibility response were detected within this interval or other regions of the Arabidopsis genome. (plantcell.org)
  • Sequence and transcription analysis reveals that Ses is composed of two closely linked genes, SesA , mutated in the s 1 and s 2 mutant strains, and SesB , mutated in the s * mutant strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During the course of our study on their genes, a unique partial cDNA clone was isolated, which has homology to known thiolases in Protein Database. (ijbs.com)
  • We report here the cloning and sequencing of the P. aeruginosa ppk and ppx genes and the characterization of their promoters and gene products. (asm.org)
  • We then performed comparative FISH mapping using 29 mouse complementary DNA (cDNA) clones of the 22 X-linked genes and the seven genes linked to mouse chromosome 11 (whose homologue had fused to the sex chromosomes), and FISH mapping using two T. muenninki cDNA clones of the Y-linked genes. (springer.com)
  • US 2003/0009011 (WO 02/059324) discloses inositol polyphosphate kinase genes and use for modulating phytate levels, and additionally proposes consensus sequences to identify other inositol polyphosphate kinase genes. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The gene encoding the Ov-phy-1 open reading frame contained 11 introns, similar in structure to the gene encoding human prolyl 4-hydroxylase isoform I. Genomic Southern blot, EST and genomic PCR studies demonstrated that the O. volvulus genome contained between three and eight genes closely related to Ov-phy-1. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • METHODS H pylori isolates from Japanese patients were evaluated for CagA by immunoblot, for cagA transcription by northern blot, and for cagA and 13 other cag PAI genes by Southern blot. (bmj.com)
  • From the bacteriocyte of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum , we previously identified two clusters of expressed sequence tags that display similarity only to bacterial genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sequence similarity searches demonstrated that these fully sequenced transcripts are significantly similar to the bacterial genes ldcA (product, LD-carboxypeptidase) and rlpA (product, rare lipoprotein A), respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The isolated promoter is operably linked to a coding sequence of interest to make a chimeric gene. (google.com)
  • Sequence-specific oligonucleotides were used both as building blocks for the gene, and as primers and templates for DNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The application of comparative genomic hybridization to the analysis of genetic abnormalities in breast carcinoma has consistently revealed that chromosome region 17q22-24 is a frequent site of gene amplification in this type of cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ILF cDNA transfected into either unstimulated or stimulated T-cells inhibits gene expression under the transcriptional control of both IL-2 promoter and the HIV-1 LTR. (patents.com)
  • Despite these apparent similarities, detailed analyses of the AFGP gene sequences and substructures provide strong evidence that AFGPs in these two polar fishes in fact evolved independently. (pnas.org)
  • The gene we isolated from a genomic library utilizes GTG as the start codon and codes for a protein of 48347 Da which is in agreement with the molecular mass determined by SDS-PAGE for the Anabaena enzyme. (springer.com)
  • Southern analysis indicated that there is only one copy of this gene in the Anabaena genome. (springer.com)
  • Based on DNA sequence similarity, gene disruption results, and biochemical analyses, we conclude that the 19-kb DNA fragment contains a six-gene cluster which is required for conidial pigment biosynthesis in A. fumigatus . (asm.org)
  • Sequence analysis of the exons and exon-intron boundaries of the apo A-I gene revealed heterozygosity for a single T-to-G point mutation substituting arginine for leucine at residue 159 of the mature apo A-I protein (apo A-I Fin ). (ahajournals.org)
  • The gene is extremely large, spanning 2 400 kb of genomic DNA and comprising 79 exons which encode a 14 kb transcript. (scielo.org.za)
  • Taking advantage of this technology to gain insights into the gene regulation in the unique intergenic region of LAT, I have also identified a cluster of promoters within the 434 bp sequences as well as possible enhancing activities embedded in the flanking exonic or intronic sequences. (ufl.edu)
  • A targeting vector containing a 13-kb mouse genomic DNA segment was constructed with 3 LoxP insertions, 2 of them flanking a Neo gene insertion, which also includes 2 FLPe recombinase sites. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although this approach in other systems has typically required a translation-enhancing element such as an internal ribosome entry site for the downstream marker, we found that a short stretch of unstructured junction sequence was sufficient to obtain adequate expression of the downstream gene, presumably through post-termination reinitiation. (stanford.edu)
  • The cagA gene is located in the most downstream portion of cag I. In some strains, the two parts of the cag PAI are reported to be interposed by a segment called insertion sequence 605 (IS605). (bmj.com)
  • Stable SH-SY5Y transfectants of all three NF-YA isoforms were also propagated and compared by RT-PCR and Western blotting for differences in cell-death and stem cell (SC)-associated gene expression, in cell-death assays for sensitivity to doxorubicin and in in vitro proliferation, substrate-independent growth and in vivo tumour xenograft assays for differences in growth and tumourigenic capacity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alternative gene splicing is a fundamental physiological mechanism for the differential expression of proteins from the same gene coding sequence and is largely responsible for the increased proteomic complexity of higher organisms that cannot be explained by differences in individual gene numbers alone [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, in order to assess the possibility of lateral gene transfer, we determined the full-length sequences of these transcripts, and performed detailed structural and phylogenetic analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When they analyzed the genomic RNAs of transforming, acutely oncogenic RSV and of transformation-defective ( td ) mutant derivatives, they found that all transforming virus stocks contained two classes of RNA subunits, a larger one ( a ) and a smaller one ( b ), whereas the nontransforming yet replication-competent mutants contained the smaller b subunits only. (pnas.org)
  • Aqueous, RNA-containing phases were isolated from centrifuged specimens, and sample RNAs were precipitated with isopropanol and resuspended in DEPC-treated H 2 O. RNA samples were electrophoresed through formaldehyde-agarose gels (1.0%) and blot-transferred and fixed to nitrocellulose membranes as described above. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that the viral RNAs may be passively packaged in adenovirus virion during encapsidation of viral genomic DNA in cell nuclei. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, the characteristics of packaged viral RNAs were further examined by Southern blot hybridization and real-time RT-PCR analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Remarkable technologies such as microarrays and their descendants, high-throughput sequencing, in vivo imaging techniques and many others have enabled biologists to begin to analyse function at molecular and higher scales. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This cDNA encodes a ubiquitously expressed 60 kD protein, termed interleukin binding factor (ILF), which binds specifically to such purine rich motifs in the HIV-LTR. (patents.com)
  • Western blot with different kinds of anti-actin antibodies suggested that the proteins responsible for the two novel spots and conventional actin are different but share some antigenicity. (rupress.org)
  • The novel human proteins (NHPs) described for the first time herein share structural similarity with animal kinases, including, but not limited to, receptor tyrosine kinases (SEQ ID NOS:1-2 show particular similarity to NEK family kinases, and SEQ ID NOS:3-5 are particularly similar to calcium and calmodulin dependent kinases as well as sequences encoding PK 80), and serine-threonine kinases. (google.de)
  • These studies indicate that in vitro, both subgenomic and genomic-length CNV RNA molecules may act as templates for the synthesis of the ca. 41,21 and 20 Mr proteins as well as the ca. 33 Mr protein. (ubc.ca)
  • SesB shares sequence similarity with animal and fungal putative proteins, with potential esterase/lipase/thioesterase activity, whereas SesA is similar to proteins of unknown function present only in the filamentous fungi Fusarium graminearum and Podospora anserina . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of cis-Acting Repressive Sequences within the Negative Regulatory Element of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1," J. of Virol. (patents.com)
  • The DNA sequence encoding steroid 5α-reductase 2, the major active isozyme of human genital tissue, is disclosed herein, in addition to methods and compositions for its preparation and pharmacological analysis. (google.co.uk)
  • By this invention, compositions and methods of use of Ricinus communis cDNAs encoding β-ketoacyl-ACP synthase, are provided. (google.com)
  • A full-length cDNA (Ov-phy-1) encoding a catalytically active alpha-subunit of Onchocerca volvulus prolyl 4-hydroxylase was isolated and characterized. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Using the membrane-based yeast two-hybrid system to screen a newly built cDNA library made predominantly from OHCs, we identified two completely different groups of potential protein partners using prestin and cdh23 as bait. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In other outbreaks, the detection in the implicated vehicle of NLVs with a sequence identical to that of the strain detected from the patients confirmed the causal link. (cdc.gov)
  • Kakefuda G, Charng YY, Iglesias AA, McIntosh L, Preiss J: Molecular cloning and sequence of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase from Synechocystis PCC 6803. (springer.com)
  • We utilized a molecular epidemiological approach involving genomic subtraction of the S. pneumoniae serogroup 19 middle ear strain 5093 against the laboratory strain R6. (asm.org)
  • A recent surge in developmental and genomic research focused on "slipper snails" in the genus Crepidula is resulting in the development of Crepidula fornicata (Linnaeus, 1758), as a de facto model system for molluscan development (see Fig. 1A). (thefreelibrary.com)