DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Centromere Protein B: A DNA-binding protein that interacts with a 17-base pair sequence known as the CENP-B box motif. The protein is localized constitutively to the CENTROMERE and plays an important role in its maintenance.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Hospitals, Satellite: Those hospitals which are extensions of a main hospital and are wholly or partly administered by that hospital.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Melilotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite: A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bisbenzimidazole: A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 3.1.21.4). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).Cytidine Monophosphate: Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Tobacco mosaic satellite virus: A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
  • However, no one chromosome has yet been finished end to end, and hundreds of gaps persist across the genome. (labroots.com)
  • To address this challenge, I will present a whole-genome de novo assembly that surpasses the continuity of GRCh38, along with the first complete, telomere-to-telomere assembly of a human X chromosome. (labroots.com)
  • suggesting a role of 1.688 satellites in chromosome congression. (genetics.org)
  • A human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector was constructed from a 1-Mb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) that was selected based on its size from among several YACs identified by screening a randomly chosen subset of the Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) (Paris) YAC library with a degenerate alpha satellite probe. (pnas.org)
  • Hybridization-facilitated genome merger and repeated chromosome fusion after eight million years. (nih.gov)
  • Chromosomal territories have also been demonstrated in Drosophila early embryo and polytene nuclei, where most of the genome is contained on only five large chromosome arms. (rupress.org)
  • The centromere is the chromosomal locus essential for chromosome inheritance and genome stability. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, the presence of a satellite "chromosome Y" (motif length: 860 bp) was detected in this region. (mdpi.com)
  • We report new analysis that identified in silico and confirmed in situ 3/17 chromosome-specific probe TRPC-21-MM. Thus, the new classification had proven to be useful tool for continuation of genome study, while annotated TR can be the valuable source of cytogenetic probes for chromosome recognition. (ufl.edu)
  • That doesn't work because not all of the human genome has been sequenced and organized into a contiguous assembly of 24 different strands (one for each chromosome). (blogspot.com)
  • Human centromeres are multi-megabase regions of highly ordered arrays of alpha satellite DNA that are separated from chromosome arms by unordered alpha satellite monomers and other repetitive elements. (duke.edu)
  • Nucleolar organization, ribosomal DNA array stability, and acrocentric chromosome integrity are linked to telomere function. (duke.edu)
  • The Y-Chromosome has definable segments of DNA with known genetic characteristics. (encognitive.com)
  • Although there are several types of markers used in DNA studies, the Y-Chromosome test uses only one type. (encognitive.com)
  • mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) the DNA of the mitochondrial chromosome, existing in several thousand copies per cell and inherited exclusively from the mother. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Here we present a de novo human genome assembly that surpasses the continuity of GRCh38 2, along with the first gapless, telomere-to-telomere assembly of a human chromosome. (nanoporetech.com)
  • This complete chromosome X, combined with the ultra-long nanopore data, also allowed us to map methylation patterns across complex tandem repeats and satellite arrays for the first time. (nanoporetech.com)
  • A single AAV-cellular junction was identified from a tonsil sample and it mapped to a highly repetitive satellite DNA element on chromosome 1. (asm.org)
  • In the absence of helper virus, AAV is unique among viruses in its ability to direct site-specific integration of its genome into a specific locus (AAVS1) on human chromosome 19 ( 22 , 23 , 39 ). (asm.org)
  • They also found that more than half of the satellites are clustered on a single chromosome and, surprisingly, they were present in tens or hundreds of contigs (a set of overlapping DNA segments that together represent a consensus region of DNA), different from this species' genome, which suggests that they are scattered around the genome. (eurekalert.org)
  • The authors of this research expect that the in-depth analysis of satellitomes in other species by these new methodologies opens new lines of research about the evolution of satellite DNAs in intra- and interspecific levels, and that the use of satDNAs as markers of chromosome identification may be helpful to complete genomic sequencing currently in progress. (eurekalert.org)
  • Finally, the UGR scientists hope the discovery of so many new satellites helps find new features for this largely unknown part of the chromosome. (eurekalert.org)
  • 2 The first complete human chromosome has been sequenced, 3 and the Human Genome Project expects to complete its work sometime in 2003, as does the Mouse Genome Project. (creation.com)
  • The results led to determining a highly homologous satellite repeat region (231 bp) among parasite strains as a molecular marker for diagnosing the disease. (cdc.gov)
  • According to this view, junk DNA results when undirected biochemical processes and random chemical and physical events transform a functional DNA segment into a useless molecular artifact. (reasons.org)
  • Advances in genome analysis (in particular genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) have led to a new and deeper understanding of the complex influences of endogenous and exogenous molecular mechanisms that shape organismal phenotypes. (g3journal.org)
  • Using mutant models of target-related cell death, Herrup and Busser (1995) showed that target-deprived neurons initiated the synthesis of cell cycle enzymes [cyclin D and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)] and incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into high molecular weight DNA just before dying. (jneurosci.org)
  • Due to the rise of DNA technologies, several researchers have been able to develop rapid methods for the molecular diagnosis of vector-borne parasitic diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • The rise of molecular techniques and DNA detection has played a prominent role in detecting infections, treatment follow-ups, disease installations and infection outcomes. (omicsonline.org)
  • A major rate-limiting step in this process can be the extraction of sufficiently pure, high-molecular weight DNA from the sample, and so to address this limitation we evaluated several different methods of cell lysis, including both enzymatic and physical approaches. (nanoporetech.com)
  • Master degree in Biological Sciences at University of Bologna, with Thesis on "Molecular characterisation of Bag320 satellite DNA in hybrid unisexual insects of the genus Bacillus (Insecta Phasmatodea)" (Supervisors: Prof. V. Scali, Prof. B. Mantovani). (unibo.it)
  • Scholarship on "Canziani" founds, working on "Molecular variability trends of satellite DNA families in arthropods with non-canonical reproductive modes" (Supervisor: Prof. B. Mantovani). (unibo.it)
  • Graduate student at Biochemical and Molecular Systematic Lab, Department of Evolutionary and Experimental Biology, University of Bologna, working on satellite DNA variability in Bacillus rossius , and molecular phylogenetics of subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes (Supervisor: Prof. B. Mantovani). (unibo.it)
  • Dr. Zhou's extensive fundamental research has focused on identification and elucidation of molecular functions of geminiviruses and their associated DNA satellites. (apsnet.org)
  • There is a lot that evolutionary biologists can learn about the purpose of junk DNA from my wife. (reasons.org)
  • Junk pieces of DNA remain part of an organism ' s genome, persisting from generation to generation as a vestige of evolutionary history. (reasons.org)
  • Evolutionary biologists highlight the fact that, in many instances, identical (or nearly identical) segments of junk DNA appear in a wide range of related organisms. (reasons.org)
  • Accordingly, the junk DNA segment arose prior to the time that the organisms diverged from their shared evolutionary ancestor and then persisted in the divergent evolutionary lines. (reasons.org)
  • Even if you assume an evolutionary timeline of up to six million years since the fusion event occurred, the data do not match up with known mutation rates or the variability found in human DNA. (icr.org)
  • Integrated analysis sheds light on evolutionary trajectories of young transcription start sites in the human genome. (amedeo.com)
  • We can liken it to a selfish insurance policy implemented by the older cells, whereby they're hoarding these bits of DNA in the hope that they might confer an evolutionary advantage even at the cost of some inconvenience in having them around, including interference with essential cellular pathways and a likely contribution to aging. (upi.com)
  • Transposons, genome size, and evolutionary insights in animals. (springer.com)
  • Junk' DNA: evolutionary discards or God's tools? (creation.com)
  • Junk' DNA is thought by evolutionists to be useless DNA leftover from past evolutionary permutations. (creation.com)
  • Junk or 'selfish' DNA is believed to be largely parasitic in nature, persisting in the genomes of higher organisms as 'evolutionary remnants' by their ability to reproduce and spread themselves, or perhaps because they have supposedly mutated into a function the cell can use. (creation.com)
  • Bennett and Smith (1991) described the utility of nuclear DNA content values in phlyogenetic and evolutionary studies. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are responsible for the establishment of DNA methylation patterns during development. (asm.org)
  • DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases, which transfer a methyl group (-CH 3 ) from S -adenosyl- l -methionine to the C-5 position of cytosine residues. (asm.org)
  • Both types of silencing are associated with cytosine methylation, the most common epigenetic modification of DNA higher eukaryots. (ibp.cz)
  • We now aim to develop new inhibitors of DNA and histone methylation. (ibp.cz)
  • DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing engaged by DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt)-catalyzed methyl group transfer to cytosine residues in gene-regulatory regions. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is unknown whether aberrant DNA methylation can cause neurodegeneration. (jneurosci.org)
  • Inhibition of Dnmt catalytic activity with RG108 and procainamide protected cultured neurons from excessive DNA methylation and apoptosis. (jneurosci.org)
  • Thus, motor neurons can engage epigenetic mechanisms to drive apoptosis, involving Dnmt upregulation and increased DNA methylation. (jneurosci.org)
  • DNA methylation also plays an important role in allele-specific repression at imprinted gene loci, regulating such processes as fetal growth and development as well as X inactivation (reviewed in refs. (pnas.org)
  • Whereas the genome-wide methylation patterns and levels of differentiated somatic lineages remain largely constant, very dynamic changes have been reported to occur in the preimplantation embryo in association with the formation of pluripotent embryonic nuclei. (pnas.org)
  • By using an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5mC), the presumptive male pronucleus of mouse, rat, pig, human, and, to a lesser extent, cow embryos have been shown to actively demethylate before syngamy, whereas the female pronucleus retains genome-wide methylation ( 7 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The discovery that the dramatic changes in DNA methylation associated with early formative events in the mouse embryo are not conserved in the sheep allows a unique opportunity to investigate the regulatory mechanisms involved. (pnas.org)
  • These findings show that the βC1 protein interacts with a host methyltransferase co-factor to suppress methylation activities that interfere with epigenetic modifications of the viral genome. (apsnet.org)
  • E. coli presents a very low tandemly repeated DNA content, as is usually observed in prokaryotes (Hancock, 2002). (usp.br)
  • This was first noticed in 2002 by secular researchers, although the chimp genome had not been well sequenced at that time. (icr.org)
  • Centromere DNA Destabilizes H3 Nucleosomes to Promote CENP-A Deposition during the Cell Cycle. (abcam.com)
  • Researchers used machine learning to conduct analysis on whole genomes of 1,790 individuals with autism, as well as their unaffected parents and siblings, according to a news release from the Simons Foundation, via Eureka . (ageofautism.com)
  • The The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute is part of the Genome Reference Consortium but it maintains its own website on the human genome [ Whole Genome ]. (blogspot.com)
  • The reference genome finishers are the members of the Genome Reference Consortium (GRC) at the European Bioinformatics Institute, the US National Center for Biotechnology Information, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and The Genome Institute at Washington University. (nature.com)
  • There are no distinctive virons because the viral genomes are encapsidated within the coat protein of the helper virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The basecalled read can then be compared to a database of reference genomes using the What's in My Pot? (nanoporetech.com)
  • Considering a genome complexity of circa 23 Mbp, this estimation predicts an overall microsatellite content varying from 1% to 6% (23,000 loci x period size of 1-2 bp x n value of 10-30 bp). (usp.br)
  • Linkage disequilibrium and association at loci reaching genome-wide significance for primary tooth development in meta-analysis of NFBC1966 and ALSPAC. (prolekare.cz)
  • Epigenetic maintenance of topological domains in the highly rearranged gibbon genome. (amedeo.com)
  • Expression of a major satellite DNA TCAST1 is strongly induced by heat shock, and increased level of satellite-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is accompanied by increase of repressive epigenetic modifications of histones at satellite DNA regions. (irb.hr)
  • SvABA: genome-wide detection of structural variants and indels by local assembly. (amedeo.com)
  • It states on the basis of observation and of structural similarities between the capsid proteins of geminiviruses and the Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, it was proposed that. (ebscohost.com)
  • The high abundance of UBF, its colocalization with rDNA in vivo, and its DNA binding characteristics, suggest that it plays a more generalized structural role over the rDNA repeat. (asm.org)
  • A cell cycle-coordinated Polymerase II transcription compartment encompasses gene expression before global genome activation. (abcam.com)
  • recombinant DNA DNA artificially constructed by insertion of foreign DNA into the DNA of an appropriate organism so that the foreign DNA is replicated along with the host DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As a strand of DNA from an organism passes through a nanopore, the electrical current flowing through the pore is measured, and these current levels are converted into basecalls in real time. (nanoporetech.com)
  • In situations where the amount of available sample DNA is limited, or where there is a low level of pathogen DNA mixed with a high level of host DNA, and we wish to identify the pathogen, it can be helpful to amplify the target organism by PCR. (nanoporetech.com)