DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Begomovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Heterochromatin: The portion of chromosome material that remains condensed and is transcriptionally inactive during INTERPHASE.Centromere Protein B: A DNA-binding protein that interacts with a 17-base pair sequence known as the CENP-B box motif. The protein is localized constitutively to the CENTROMERE and plays an important role in its maintenance.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Hospitals, Satellite: Those hospitals which are extensions of a main hospital and are wholly or partly administered by that hospital.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Melilotus: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite: A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bisbenzimidazole: A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Deoxyribonuclease EcoRI: One of the Type II site-specific deoxyribonucleases (EC 126.96.36.199). It recognizes and cleaves the sequence G/AATTC at the slash. EcoRI is from E coliRY13. Several isoschizomers have been identified. EC 3.1.21.-.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).Cytidine Monophosphate: Cytidine (dihydrogen phosphate). A cytosine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2', 3' or 5' position.Nucleic Acid Renaturation: The reformation of all, or part of, the native conformation of a nucleic acid molecule after the molecule has undergone denaturation.Tobacco mosaic satellite virus: A spherical RNA satellite virus which requires an obligatory helper TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS for replication.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
... s are single stranded satellite DNA that are dependent on a virus for transmission. The genome is a single ... July 2004). "Diversity of DNA 1: a satellite-like molecule associated with monopartite begomovirus-DNA beta complexes". ... 2008). "Recommendations for the classification and nomenclature of the DNA-beta satellites of begomoviruses". Arch. Virol. 153 ... This portion of the genome appears to be redundant. A putative second ORF in the genome of an alphasatellite virus has been ...
One year later, a hammerhead ribozyme was also reported in the satellite DNA of newt genomes. New examples of this ribozyme ... ISBN 978-1-904455-25-7. Epstein LM, Gall JG (1987). "Self-cleaving transcripts of satellite DNA from the newt". Cell. 48 (3): ... Ferbeyre G, Smith JM, Cedergren R (1998). "Schistosome satellite DNA encodes active hammerhead ribozymes". Mol. Cell. Biol. 18 ... In eukaryotic genomes, many of the detected hammerhead ribozymes seem to be related to short interspersed retroelements (SINEs ...
Brown, S. D. M.; Dover, G. A. (1980). "Conservation of segmental variants of satellite DNA of Mus musculus in a related species ... Genome Evolution (Academic Press, 1982) - Baglioni, C. (1983). "Genome evolution GA Gaber and RB Flavell (eds) London: Academic ... Dover co-edited the textbook Genome Evolution with Richard Flavell. He has also written a popular book on evolution, Dear Mr ... Dover's research has been on the evolution of genes and genomes, particularly the complex processes that occur in multigene ...
Early in her career Frommer investigated the molecular biology of "satellite DNAs" in the human genome. She and her colleague ... Frommer, M., Prosser, J., Tkachuk, D., Reisner, A.H. and Vincent, P.C. (1982). Simple repeated sequences in human satellite DNA ... Frommer, M., Paul, C. and Vincent, P.C. (1988). Localisation of satellite DNA sequences on human metaphase chromosomes using ... CpG-rich DNA. Cell 40: 91-99. Gardiner-Garden, M. and Frommer, M. (1987). CpG islands in vertebrate genomes. J. Mol. Biol. 196 ...
Enterobacteria phage P4
The P4 virion has a tail and an icosohedral head containing a linear double-stranded DNA genome of 11,627 kb. Phage P4 infects ... Pruss, G; Goldstein, RN; Calendar, R (June 1974). "In vitro packaging of satellite phage P4 DNA". Proceedings of the National ... It generally follows a lysogenic life cycle: after infection, the P4 genome integrates into that of its host. The P4 genome can ... It is a satellite virus which cannot engage in lytic growth without the presence of a P2-related helper phage. ...
Some research suggest that MSIs are short tandem DNA repeat sequences of one to six base pairs throughout the genome, while ... Longer sequences are called minisatellite, and even longer sequences are called satellite DNA sites. Some scientists ... Microsatellites make up approximately three percent of the human genome, or more than one million fragments of DNA. ... In a broad sense, MSI results from the inability of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins to fix a DNA replication error. DNA ...
Satellite nucleic acids Single-stranded satellite DNAs Alphasatellites Tomato leaf curl virus satellite DNA Betasatellites ... The genomes of satellite viruses range upward from 359 nucleotides in length for Satellite Tobacco Ringspot Virus RNA (STobRV ... The symbiotic relationship between a satellite and a helper virus to catalyze the replication of a satellite viral genome is ... and another satellite virus. The emergence of Satellite RNA is said to have come from either the genome of the host or its co- ...
Human artificial chromosome
HACs were first constructed de novo in 1997 by adding alpha-satellite DNA to telomeric and genomic DNA in human HT1080 cells. ... but the inserts also disrupt the original genome. HACs differ in this regard, as they are entirely separate chromosomes. This ... Grimes, Brenda R.; Rhoades, Angela A.; Willard, Huntington F. (May 2002). "Alpha-Satellite DNA and Vector Composition Influence ... HACs allow for delivery of more DNA (including promoters and copy-number variation) than is possible with viral vectors. Yeast ...
The DNA B genome originated as a satellite that was captured by the monopartite progenitor of all extant bipartite ... Many begomoviruses have a bipartite genome: this means that the genome is segmented into two segments (referred to as DNA A and ... They reduce virus DNA levels and symptom severity. The two components of the genome have very distinct molecular evolutionary ... Briddon RW, Patil BL, Bagewadi B, Nawaz-ul-Rehman MS, Fauquet CM (2010). "Distinct evolutionary histories of the DNA-A and DNA- ...
Type I genomes are characterized by a small circular DNA genome (approximately 2-kb), with the Rep protein and the major open ... Satellite viruses are small viruses with either RNA or DNA as their genomic material that require another virus to replicate. ... A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. The nucleic ... Type IV genomes have the largest genomes of nearly 4-kb, with up to eight ORFs. This type of genome is found in the Inoviridae ...
Fowler, R. F.; Skinner, D. M. (1985-01-25). "Cryptic satellites rich in inverted repeats comprise 30% of the genome of a hermit ... Satellite DNA consists of very large arrays of tandemly repeating, non-coding DNA. Satellite DNA is the main component of ... Satellite DNA, together with minisatellite and microsatellite DNA, constitute the tandem repeats. Some types of satellite DNA ... and the total size of a satellite DNA block can be several megabases without interruption. Most satellite DNA is localized to ...
Medalha Davy - Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre
Repeated sequence (DNA)
DNA in our genome." Brookhaven Symp Biol. Vol. 23. 1972. Orgel, Leslie E., F. H. C. Crick, and C. Sapienza. "Selfish dna." ( ... either directly or inverted Satellite DNA - typically found in centromeres and heterochromatin Minisatellite - repeat units ... Shapiro J.A., von Sternberg R.Why repetitive DNA is essential to genome function. Biol. Rev. 2005;80:227-250. The 3D folding of ... Together with these regulatory roles, a structural role of repeated DNA in shaping the 3D folding of genomes has also been ...
It is also referred to as extranuclear DNA or cytoplasmic DNA. Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA ... In animals, eccDNA molecules have been shown to contain repetitive sequences that are seen in satellite DNA, 5S ribosomal DNA ... Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found ... incorporate their own DNA into the genome of the host cell. Viral genomes can be made up of single stranded DNA (ssDNA), double ...
Segmental Duplication on the Human Y Chromosome
Genome Research,15(2), 195-204. Horvath, Juliann E. et al. (2000). The Mosaic Structure of Human Pericentromeric DNA: A ... Both the human region and the homologous chimpanzee region are encompassed by typical alpha-satellite DNA found near the ... The human genome contains around 130 regions, totaling 274Mb and ten percent of the total genome, that are flanked by these ... Finally, the main distinguishing factor of primate genomes from other mammalian genomes is the abundance of interchromosomal ...
Tandemly arrayed genes
Satellite DNA Tandem repeats Pan & Zhang 2008. Lajoie, Bertrand & El-Mabrouk 2007, p. 96. Lodish, Harvey; Arnold Berk; Chris ... Plant Genome Diversity Volume 1: Plant Genomes, their Residents, and their Evolutionary Dynamics. Plant Genome Diversity. 1. ... TAGs represent a large proportion of genes in a genome, including between 14% to 17% of the human, mouse, and rat genomes. TAG ... Barker, Michael S.; Baute, Gregory J.; Liu, Shao-Lun (5 March 2012). "Duplications and turnover in plant genomes". In Wendel, ...
Variable number tandem repeat
Repetitive DNA, representing over 40% of the human genome, is arranged in a bewildering array of patterns. Repeats were first ... identified by the extraction of Satellite DNA, which does not reveal how they are organized. The use of restriction enzymes ... Now that many genomes have been sequenced, VNTRs have become essential to forensic crime investigations, via DNA fingerprinting ... DNA sequencing later showed that other repeats are clustered at specific locations, with tandem repeats being more common than ...
The term satellite DNA originates from the observation in the 1960s of a fraction of sheared DNA that showed a distinct buoyant ... mutability and genome architecture". Genome Res. 10 (7): 899-907. doi:10.1101/gr.10.7.899. PMID 10899139. Wyman AR, White R ( ... The name "satellite" refers to the early observation that centrifugation of genomic DNA in a test tube separates a prominent ... layer of bulk DNA from accompanying "satellite" layers of repetitive DNA. Minisatellites and their shorter cousins, the ...
Zamilon's DNA is rich in adenine and thymine bases; the proportion of guanine and cytosine bases is 29.7%. The Zamilon genome ... Krupovic M, Kuhn JH, Fischer MG (2016), "A classification system for virophages and satellite viruses" (PDF), Archives of ... Its circular double-stranded DNA genome is 17,276 base pairs in length. Virophages typically have particles whose diameter is ... Putative functions of the products include transposase, helicase, integrase, cysteine protease, DNA primase-polymerase and DNA- ...
Modern phylogenetics uses sophisticated techniques such as alloenzymes, satellite DNA and other molecular markers to describe ... the genomes of the endosymbionts have retained an element of distinction, separately replicating their DNA during mitosis of ... the problem with this theory is that it is still not known how each organism's DNA could be incorporated into one single genome ... eventually leading to the incorporation of their genomes into one multicellular organism. Each respective organism would become ...
Stephen D. M. Brown
Brown, S. D. M.; Dover, G. A. (1980). "Conservation of segmental variants of satellite DNA of Mus musculus in a related species ... Silver, L. M.; Nadeau, J. H.; Brown, S. D. M.; Eppig, J. T.; Peters, J (1998). "Mammalian Genome, Incorporating Mouse Genome". ... which were used to sequence the mouse genome. He subsequently pioneered efforts to functionally annotate the mouse genome and ... He pioneered studies of repeated sequences in the mouse genome and the use of novel approaches to generate molecular maps of ...
DNA. The name "satellite" DNA refers to the early observation that centrifugation of genomic DNA in a test tube separates a ... Microsatellites are distributed throughout the genome. The human genome for example contains 50,000-100,000 ... "satellite" layers of repetitive DNA. The increasing availability of DNA amplification by PCR at the beginning of the 1990s ... DNA refers to the early observation that centrifugation of genomic DNA in a test tube separates a prominent layer of bulk DNA ...
Immortal DNA strand hypothesis
Intestinal stem cells protect their genome by selective segregation of template DNA strands. J. Cell Science 115: 2381-2388. ... Asymmetric division and cosegregation of template DNA strands in adult muscle satellite cells. Nature Cell Biology 8: 677-687. ... After pulsing for long enough to label all the newly replicated DNA, the DNA label is chased out (each DNA replication now ... In 2002, he proposed that in addition to using immortal DNA strand mechanisms to segregate DNA, when the immortal DNA strands ...
1997). "A complex satellite DNA polymorphism flanking the human ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1)". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 72 (2-3 ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... 2004). "The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19". Nature. 428 (6982): 529-35. doi:10.1038/nature02399. PMID ...
The supernumeraries, which have a satellite DNA, occur in warm, dry environments, and are scarce or absent in humid, cooler ... Camacho, J.P.M. (2004). "B Chromosomes in the Eukaryote Genome". Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 106 (2-4). doi:10.1159/ ... This supernumerary DNA was found to code for a group of enzymes that metabolize toxins, known as phytoalexins, that are ... Bivalent pairing is ensured by a gene on chromosome 5 of the B genome Ph locus. The B chromosomes also have the following ...
Genome diversity and karyotype evolution of mammals
"Satellite DNA and cytogenetic evolution. DNA quantity, satellite DNA and karyotypic variations in kangaroo rats (genus ... or direct DNA-DNA hybridization. To compare the genomes and chromosomes of two species, RHs should be obtained for both species ... Sherwood, S. W.; Patton, J. L. (1982). "Genome evolution in pocket gophers (genus Thomomys). II. Variation in cellular DNA ... These techniques use DNA probes of diverse sizes to compare chromosomes at the DNA level. Homology can be confidently compared ...
DNA. The name "satellite" DNA refers to the early observation that centrifugation of genomic DNA in a test tube separates a ... Microsatellite loci are widely distributed throughout the genome and can be isolated from semi-degraded DNA of older specimens ... The name "satellite" DNA refers to the early observation that centrifugation of genomic DNA in a test tube separates a ... prominent layer of bulk DNA from accompanying "satellite" layers of repetitive DNA. They are widely used for DNA profiling in ...
"Suv39h-mediated histone H3 lysine 9 methylation directs DNA methylation to major satellite repeats at pericentric ... Human CBX5 genome location and CBX5 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... The charges on the β sheets are negative thus making it difficult for it to bind to the DNA as a DNA-binding motif. Instead, ... is a DNA-binding protein which possesses a DNA-binding motif with weak similarity to that of human centromere protein C (CENP-C ...
Single-cell DNA template strand sequencing
It can also aid in assembling early-build genomes and assigning orphan scaffolds to locations within late-build genomes. The ... It exploits the uniform orientation of major satellites relative to the direction of telomeres, thus allowing strands to be ... The following methods concentrate on the DNA sequencing of a single daughter cell's DNA. At this point the chromosomes are ... Misoriented contigs are present in reference genomes at significant rates (ex. 1% in the mouse reference genome). Strand-seq, ...
Molecular characterization of SSS139, a new satellite DNA family in sibling species of the Drosophila buzzatii cluster
A species-specific satellite DNA from the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indicus. Genome 41:148-153. [ Links ]. ... Key words: Drosophila buzzatii cluster, molecular evolution, repetitive DNA, satellite DNA, SSS139 satellite DNA. ... Satellite DNA consists of highly repetitive and tandemly arranged DNA sequences (Charlesworth et al., 1994) which are ... This satellite DNA is unrelated to the other two satellite families (pBuM and DBC-150) described for the D. buzzatii cluster ...
Widely separated sequence elements within cucumber mosaic virus satellites contribute to their ability to induce lethal tomato...
... satellites to elicit lethal tomato necrosis, three satellite variants D, S and Y were used in the construction and cloning of ... The results revealed the presence of structural elements in CMV satellite variant Y that modulate or even suppress the ... They indicate that in CMV satellites widely separated sequence elements constituting a three-dimensional requirement are ... halves of the three satellite variants divided by a common restriction site, as well as with a mutated chimera. None of the ...
Completing the Human Genome: The Progress and Challenge of Satellite DNA Assembly
... the current human reference genome (GRCh38) is the most accurate and compl ... Release of the first human genome assembly was a landmark achievement, and after nearly two decades of improvements, ... Completing the Human Genome: The Progress and Challenge of Satellite DNA Assembly. Presented at: Genetics & Genomics 2019 ... Miga is a satellite DNA biologist based out of UC Santa Cruz. As an Assistant Research Scientist at the UCSC Genomics Institute ...
TRAP - Satellite DNA survey of five genomes
In order to test TRAP in real-life examples, we decided to analyze the satellite content of the following genomes: Escherichia ... Tóth,G., et al. (2000) Microsatellites in different eukaryotic genomes: survey and analysis. Genome Res., 10, 967-981.. ... Hancock,J.M. (2002) Genome size and the accumulation of simple sequence repeats: implications of new data from genome ... falciparum genome. The extreme compositional bias of P. falciparum genome, in excess of 80% A+T content (Gardner et al., 2002 ...
Transcription of the 1.688 Satellite DNA Family Is Under the Control of RNA Interference Machinery in Drosophila melanogaster...
In the Drosophila melanogaster genome, each centromeric region seems to contain different sets of satellite DNA sequences (Abad ... Transcription of the 1.688 satellite DNA in the D. melanogaster genome has not been previously shown. We detected transcription ... The ratio of signals from precipitated satellite DNA and DNA of the control Pgd gene vs. signals from input chromatin was ... Abad, J. P., M. Agudo, I. Molina, A. Losada, P. Ripoll et al., 2000 Pericentromeric regions containing 1.688 satellite DNA ...
Conservation, divergence and functions of centromeric satellite DNA families in the Bovidae | Molecular cytogenetics and genome...
Repetitive satellite DNA (satDNA) sequences are abundant in eukaryote genomes, with a structural and functional role in ... Genome Biology and Evolution 11(4):1152-1165. doi:10.1093/gbe/evz061 https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evz061 (Open access) ... Conservation, divergence, and functions of centromeric satellite DNA families in the Bovidae. ... Key words: satellite DNA; centromeric function; SAT1.723; Bovinae; Caprinae; Bovidae genomes.. 350. Escudeiro A, Adega F, ...
DNA damage tolerance, mismatch repair and genome instability
It also contributes to the cytotoxic effects of some kinds of DNA damage, and cells defective in mismatch repair are resistant ... or tolerant, to the presence of some normally cytotoxic base analogues in their DNA. The absence of a par … ... DNA mismatch repair is an important pathway of mutation avoidance. ... DNA Repair* * DNA, Satellite / genetics* * Escherichia coli / drug effects * Escherichia coli / genetics ...
Population variation in the A chromosome distribution of satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis...
... a satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA) in 12 natural populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis ploranscollected at the south ( ... DNA loci in primitive and advanced urodele amphibians Genome 36:762-773.Google Scholar ... The double FISH analysis of two repetitive DNAs (a satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA) in 12 natural populations of the ... Population variation in the A chromosome distribution of satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis ...
Satellite DNA: Critical Constituent of Chromosomes
DNA in genomes originated from DNA sequences that at one time performed useful functions. But these functional DNA sequences ... Satellite DNA. Satellite DNA, which consists of nucleotide sequences that repeat over and over again, is one class of junk DNA ... Biologists have long regarded satellite DNA as junk because it doesnt encode any useful information. Satellite DNA sequences ... Their perspective causes them to see the features of genomes, such as satellite DNA, as little more than the remnants of an ...
A Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Tandem Repetitive Satellite DNA Sequence as a Molecular Marker for a LAMP Assay for Diagnosing...
A Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Tandem Repetitive Satellite DNA Sequence as a Molecular Marker for a LAMP Assay for Diagnosing ... A Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Tandem Repetitive Satellite DNA Sequence as a Molecular Marker for a LAMP Assay for Diagnosing ... cruzi CL Brener or Dm28 strain DNA (0.5 ng/μL); lanes N: negative controls (ultrapure water, no DNA). Trematode DNA in lanes Sm ... LAMP detection of Trypanosoma cruzi CL Brener and Dm28 strain DNA. Lanes Tc: T. cruzi DNA (0.5 ng/μL) from CL Brener and Dm28 ...
Genomes of replicatively senescent cells undergo global epigenetic changes leading to gene silencing and activation of...
Pezer Z, Brajkovic J, Feliciello I, Ugarkovic D (2012). Satellite DNA-mediated effects on genome regulation. In Repetitive DNA ... FA-SAT Is an Old Satellite DNA Frozen in Several Bilateria Genomes, Genome Biology and Evolution, 2017, 9, 11, 3073. CrossRef ... Ultrafast and memory-efficient alignment of short DNA sequences to the human genome. Genome Biol. 10, R25.. *CrossRef , ... Suzuki T, Fujii M, Ayusawa D (2002) Demethylation of classical satellite 2 and 3 DNA with chromosomal instability in senescent ...
Microsatellite repeats - definition of Microsatellite repeats by The Free Dictionary
n. 1. A short sequence of DNA consisting of multiple repetitions of a set of two to nine base pairs, used as a genetic marker ... satellite-DNA mediated effects on genome regulation; the evolutionary dynamics of transposable elements in eukaryotic genomes; ... 1997, "Molecular characterization of GATA/GACA microsatellite repeats in tomato," Genome, 40, pp.. Genetic diversity and DNA ... and Brazil describe the repetitive content of eukaryotic genomes and the impact on genome structure, function, and evolution; ...
Human artificial chromosomes generated by modification of a yeast artificial chromosome containing both human alpha satellite...
L2H2 DNA did not always form HACs after transfection; it was sometimes observed integrated into the HT1080 genome. One possible ... and the presence of alpha satellite DNA. This YAC contains both alpha satellite and non-alpha satellite DNA and was modified to ... containing small amounts of alpha satellite DNA together with non-alpha satellite DNA. An array of various sized HAC vectors of ... including satellite 1, satellite 3, a 48-bp satellite, and a chromosome 22-specific alpha satellite sequence; however, none of ...
MGI Quick Search Results
Name : mouse minor satellite DNA 2 and 1 more... unclassified other genome feature Hrs3 mouse minor satellite DNA 3 2 Syntenic ... unclassified other genome feature Hrs1 mouse minor satellite DNA 1 4 cytoband A1 Name : mouse minor satellite DNA 1 and 1 more ... Name : mouse minor satellite DNA 3 and more detail... heritable phenotypic marker tmgc10 Tennessee Mouse Genome Consortium 10 7 ... unclassified other genome feature Hrs2 mouse minor satellite DNA 2 4 cytoband A1 ...
Meiotic Drive of Chromosomal Knobs Reshaped the Maize Genome | Genetics
... satellite DNA); i.e., satellite DNA may be the remnant of ancient episodes of meiotic drive. ... that could favor knob DNA even if knob DNA were normally deleterious. The permissive hypothesis suggests repetitive DNA is ... 1992 Variation across species in the size of the nuclear genome supports the junk dna explanation for the c-value paradox. Proc ... This selection for rapid mitotic cycles might favor smaller genome sizes and selection against repetitive DNA, while slower ...
A conserved function for pericentromeric satellite DNA | eLife
DNA mediates clustering of multiple chromosomes via formation of chromocenter to encapsulate the full complement of the genome ... n satellite DNA (~8% of the Drosophila male diploid genome) and mouse major satellite DNA (~6% of the mouse genome), ... that a satellite DNA binding protein must evolve not only with its cognate satellite DNA but also with other satellite DNA ... Moreover, highly divergent satellite DNA sequences even among closely related species has led to the idea that satellite DNA ...
Molecular and evolutionary characteristics of the fraction of human alpha satellite DNA associated with CENP-A at the...
Genome Res. 1998, 8: 100-110.PubMedGoogle Scholar. *. Choo KHA: Why is the centromere so cold?. Genome Res. 1998, 8: 81-82. ... PCR, cloning and DNA sequencing. DNA samples were PCR amplified using Promega GoTaq Flexi DNA polymerase and associated buffer ... Politi V, Perini G, Trazzi S, Pliss A, Raska I, Earnshaw WC, Della Valle G: CENP-C binds the alpha-satellite DNA in vivo at ... Although human alpha satellite DNA sequences have been studied for decades, a number of their structural and evolutionary ...
The Institute for Creation Research
Genome Biology. 9 (10): R155.. * Adega, F., H. Guedes-Pinto and R. Chaves. 2009. Satellite DNA in the karyotype evolution of ... Genome Research. 12 (11): 1651-1662.. * Tomkins, J. 2013. Alleged Human Chromosome 2 "Fusion Site" Encodes an Active DNA ... All known fusions in living animals are associated with a sequence called satellite DNA (satDNA) that fuses in one of the two ... Cytogenetics and Genome Research. 126 (1-2): 12-20.. * Fan, Y. et al. 2002. Gene Content and Function of the Ancestral ...
More DNA Evidence Against Human Chromosome Fusion | The Institute for Creation Research
Genome Biology. 9 (10): R155.. * Adega, F., H. Guedes-Pinto, and R. Chaves. 2009. Satellite DNA in the karyotype evolution of ... Centromeres are composed of a type of DNA sequence called alphoid DNA, a clearly recognizable DNA sequence pattern about 171 ... Alphoid DNA is actually found all over the human genome, but it is important to understand that there are different types ( ... Genome Research. 12 (11): 1663-1672.. * Tomkins, J. P. 2013. Alleged Human Chromosome 2 "Fusion Site" Encodes an Active DNA ...
Mapping of Hieracium (Asteraceae) chromosomes with genus-specific satDNA elements derived from next-generation sequencing data ...
The highly repetitive DNA fraction of the eukaryotic genome is considered a mobile, rapidly changing entity, thus reflecting ... The highly repetitive DNA fraction of the eukaryotic genome is considered a mobile, rapidly changing entity, thus reflecting ... Hemleben V, Kovařík A, Torres-Ruiz RA, Volkov RA, Beridze T (2007) Plant highly repeated satellite DNA: molecular evolution, ... It consists of several large classes in which transposable elements and satellite DNA (satDNA) predominate. Despite a growing ...
Currículo do Sistema de Currículos Lattes (Arthur Gruber)
SOBREIRA, T.J.P. ; DURHAM, A.M. ; CONSORTIUM, The Eimeria Tenella Genome ; GRUBER, A. . The satellite DNA of Eimeria tenella: a ... GRUBER, A.; STOLF, B. S. ; ZINGALES, B. . Characterization of a repetitive DNA sequence interspersed along the genome of ... The Trypanosoma Cruzi Genome Project: Genome Sequence Sampling (Gss) Strategy For Higt Resolution Physical Mapping. In: XXII ... ROMANO, C. M. ; FERNANDEZ, S. ; PAGOTTO, A. H. ; MADEIRA, Alda Maria Backx Noronha ; GRUBER, A. . The mitochondrial genome of ...
Alphasatellite - Wikipedia
Alphasatellites are single stranded satellite DNA that are dependent on a virus for transmission. The genome is a single ... July 2004). "Diversity of DNA 1: a satellite-like molecule associated with monopartite begomovirus-DNA beta complexes". ... 2008). "Recommendations for the classification and nomenclature of the DNA-beta satellites of begomoviruses". Arch. Virol. 153 ... This portion of the genome appears to be redundant. A putative second ORF in the genome of an alphasatellite virus has been ...
Gabriel Dover - Wikipedia
Brown, S. D. M.; Dover, G. A. (1980). "Conservation of segmental variants of satellite DNA of Mus musculus in a related species ... Genome Evolution (Academic Press, 1982) - Baglioni, C. (1983). "Genome evolution GA Gaber and RB Flavell (eds) London: Academic ... Dover co-edited the textbook Genome Evolution with Richard Flavell. He has also written a popular book on evolution, Dear Mr ... Dovers research has been on the evolution of genes and genomes, particularly the complex processes that occur in multigene ...
Lysak MA[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Diverse retrotransposon families and an AT-rich satellite DNA revealed in giant genomes of Fritillaria lilies. ... Analysis of the giant genomes of Fritillaria (Liliaceae) indicates that a lack of DNA removal characterizes extreme expansions ... Genome expansion of Arabis alpina linked with retrotransposition and reduced symmetric DNA methylation. ... Nuclear DNA content variation among Central European Koeleria taxa.. Pecinka A, Suchánková P, Lysak MA, Trávnícek B, Dolezel J. ...
Our First View into the "Blackout Zones" of the Human Genome - Scientific American Blog Network
... is a postdoctoral scholar and satellite DNA biologist. She has proudly called the blackout zone of the human genome her ... alpha satellite DNA. Alpha satellite is the expected flagship sequence for these blackout zones as it benefits from prior ... In the human genome these neighborhood blocks are equivalent to stretches of DNA that are repeated in a head-to-tail fashion ... forms over regions enriched in alpha satellite DNA. While it is not yet clear why such a critical biological process associates ...
The PWWP Domain of Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b Is Required for Directing DNA Methylation to the Major Satellite Repeats at Pericentric...
... with about 100 and 1,000 copies per haploid genome, respectively. The major and minor satellite repeats are located in the ... the minor satellite repeats (C), the major satellite repeats (D), or the 5′ region of Xist (E). DNA from J1 cells digested with ... of sheared salmon sperm DNA to the reactions. Salmon sperm DNA inhibited the binding of all the DNA probes to GST-Dnmt3b:PWWP ... 32P-labeled DNA probes corresponding to the 234-bp unit sequence of the major satellite repeats or similar-sized random genomic ...
Large-scale Chromosomal Movements During Interphase Progression in Drosophila | JCB
1996) Dynamic elastic behavior of alpha-satellite DNA domains visualized in situ in living human cells. J Cell Biol 135:545-557 ... This portion of the genome consists mainly of middle repetitive sequences and highly repetitive simple satellite sequences, ... Evolution of satellite DNA sequences in Drosophila. In Heterochromatin molecular and structural aspects. R.S. Verma, editor. ... For example, DNA replication of 2R euchromatin could cause an overall stiffening that would push apart the proximal and distal ...
HIV-1 integration in the human genome favors active genes and local hotspots
A defining feature of HIV replication is integration of the proviral cDNA into human DNA. The selection of chromosomal targets ... DNA, Satellite / genetics * DNA, Viral / genetics* * Endogenous Retroviruses / genetics * Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / ... HIV-1 integration in the human genome favors active genes and local hotspots Cell. 2002 Aug 23;110(4):521-9. doi: 10.1016/s0092 ... Here we describe mapping of 524 sites of HIV cDNA integration on the human genome sequence. Genes were found to be strongly ...
Chromosomal localization and evolution of satellite DNAs and heterochromatin in grasses (Poaceae), especially tribe Aveneae -...
Proportions of satDNAs and other sequences of the heterochromatin relative to the entire genome appear subjected to a much ... All satellite DNAs (satDNA) tested are situated predominantly subtelomerically in the chromosomes, but occur also colocalized ... The physical mapping of three abundant tandemly repeated DNA sequences, CON1, CON2, and COM2, and the distributional pattern of ... Distribution and complex organization of satellite DNA sequences in Aveneae species.. *B. Grebenstein, O. Grebenstein, W. Sauer ...
Genes | Free Full-Text | The Past, Present, and Future of Human Centromere Genomics
... of the genome. Contiguous alpha satellite DNA sequence is absent from the assembled reference genome, limiting current ... Human centromeres are located at repetitive alpha satellite DNA arrays that compose approximately 5% ... sequence to its molecular characterization and the work done during the Human Genome Project era to elucidate alpha satellite ... We discuss exciting recent advances in alpha satellite sequence assembly that have provided important insight into the ...
Extrachromosomal DNA - Wikipedia
It is also referred to as extranuclear DNA or cytoplasmic DNA. Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA ... In animals, eccDNA molecules have been shown to contain repetitive sequences that are seen in satellite DNA, 5S ribosomal DNA ... Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found ... incorporate their own DNA into the genome of the host cell. Viral genomes can be made up of single stranded DNA (ssDNA), double ...
Widely separatedSequenceChromosomeGenomicDrosophilaEvolutionMolecularRegions of the genomeEvolutionaryRibosomalOrganismsMethylationPericentromericHolding the genome together20022018Updating the human genomeGeneticsCentromereWhole genomesWellcome Trust SanCopiesViral genomesReference genomesLociEpigeneticTransposonsStructuralSatDNAArabidopsisGene expressionOrganismVariationDouble-stranded
- During her doctorate work, under the mentorship of Huntington Willard at Duke University, she gained expertise in human alpha satellite DNA sequence structure and evolution. (labroots.com)
- 1. A short sequence of DNA consisting of multiple repetitions of a set of two to nine base pairs, used as a genetic marker when individuals differ in the number of repetitions. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It has been demonstrated that telomeric DNA, consisting of tandem repeats of the sequence T 2 AG 3 , can seed the formation of new telomeres when reintroduced into human cells ( 4 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
- As for the third required element, the study of origins of DNA replication also has led to conflicting reports, with no apparent consensus sequence having yet been determined for the initiation of DNA synthesis in human cells ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
- Supposed proof for the alleged fusion came in 1991, when researchers discovered a fusion-like DNA sequence about 800 bases in length on human chromosome 2. (icr.org)
- All known fusions in living animals are associated with a sequence called satellite DNA (satDNA) that fuses in one of the two following scenarios: 1) satDNA-satDNA or 2) satDNA-telomereDNA. (icr.org)
- In 2002, 614,000 bases of DNA surrounding the fusion site were fully sequenced, revealing that the alleged fusion sequence was in the middle of a gene originally classified as a pseudogene because there was not yet any known function for it. (icr.org)
- Comparative sequence analyses reveal sites of ancestral chromosomal fusions in the Indian muntjac genome. (icr.org)
- A third major problem is the fusion site contains no type of sequence called satellite DNA (satDNA). (icr.org)
- In chromosome fusion events that occur in nature in living mammals-a very rare event-the DNA signature always involves satDNA producing a DNA signature that occurs as either satDNA-satDNA or satDNA-teloDNA sequence. (icr.org)
- The fusion-like sequence itself has an important functional purpose based on recent data available at the UCSC Genome Browser ( genome.ucsc.edu ) genomic database. (icr.org)
- This has all changed, however, with the most recent release of the human genome reference assembly, known to sequence-gazers as GRCh38 . (scientificamerican.com)
- First, this release describes roughly a third of the missing data, offering sequence information for one type of tandem repeat family, named 'alpha satellite DNA. (scientificamerican.com)
- Here we describe mapping of 524 sites of HIV cDNA integration on the human genome sequence. (nih.gov)
- In both geminiviruses and nanoviruses this sequence contains the origin of replication (ori) and is nicked by the rolling circle replication initiator protein to initiate viral DNA replication. (wikipedia.org)
- Contiguous alpha satellite DNA sequence is absent from the assembled reference genome, limiting current understanding of centromere organization and function. (mdpi.com)
- Here, we review the progress in centromere genomics spanning the discovery of the sequence to its molecular characterization and the work done during the Human Genome Project era to elucidate alpha satellite structure and sequence variation. (mdpi.com)
- Human cardiac cis-regulatory elements, their cognate transcription factors, and regulatory DNA sequence variants. (amedeo.com)
- This value is close to estimates of the genome size from the years before the first draft of the genome sequence was published. (blogspot.com)
- I was suspicious of this number since we know that there are many gaps in the human genome sequence. (blogspot.com)
- To better understand the heterochromatic component of the Drosophila melanogaster genome, we characterized and annotated portions of a whole-genome shotgun sequence assembly. (biomedcentral.com)
- WGS3, an improved whole-genome shotgun assembly, includes 20.7 Mb of draft-quality sequence not represented in the Release 3 sequence spanning the euchromatin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Whole-genome shotgun assembly produced a reliable draft-quality sequence of a significant part of the Drosophila heterochromatin. (biomedcentral.com)
- Our analysis suggests strategies for improving the sequence and annotation of the heterochromatic portions of the Drosophila and other complex genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- A significant fraction of the fly and human genomes are heterochromatic, yet our current understanding of the sequence and organization of heterochromatin is very limited. (biomedcentral.com)
- DNA sequence of a Drosophila satellite associated sequence. (nih.gov)
- DNA sequence adjacent to and specific for the 1.672 g/cm3 satellite DNA in the Drosophila genome. (nih.gov)
- DNA sequence indicates the Lacertidae contain two subfamilies, Gallotiinae and Lacertinae, the latter comprising two monophyletic tribes, the Eremiadini of Africa and arid southwest and central Asia, and the Lacertini of Europe, northwest Africa and southwest and east Asia. (lacerta.de)
- What Larry doesn't mention in this estimate, but I know he's familiar with the idea, is that most of those mutations will be neutral: about 95% will fall into junk DNA, many won't affect the amino acid sequence of any proteins, others may cause slight changes in the protein sequence that don't detectably affect the phenotype. (freethoughtblogs.com)
- repetitive DNA DNA whose base sequence is repeated many times throughout the genome of an organism. (encyclopedia.com)
- PAirwise Sequence Comparison (PASC) is a tool that uses genome sequence similarity to help with virus classification. (ebscohost.com)
- In contrast, in most other eukaryotes, including mammals, centromere identity and function cannot be transmitted simply by a specific DNA sequence. (rupress.org)
- typically the numerous copies of a satellite DNA family show high levels of intraspecific sequence similarity contrasting a relatively high interspecific diversity with respect to sequence and/or copy number. (ibp.cz)
- This repeated sequence appears to be an unusually abundant satellite DNA, since it constitutes about 45% of the H. indicus genome. (ovid.com)
- DNA sequence data reveal that monomers are quite homogeneous. (ovid.com)
- Such homogeneity suggests that some mechanism is acting to maintain the homogeneity of this satellite DNA, despite its abundance, or that this repeated sequence could have appeared recently in the genome of H. indicus. (ovid.com)
- Hybridization analysis of genomic DNAs from different Heterorhabditis species shows that this satellite DNA sequence is specific to the H. indicus genome. (ovid.com)
- Considering the species specificity and the high copy number of this AluI satellite DNA sequence, it could provide a rapid and powerful tool for identifying H. indicus strains. (ovid.com)
- Focusing our efforts on the human X chromosome 3, we reconstructed the ∼2.8 megabase centromeric satellite DNA array and closed all 29 remaining gaps in the current reference, including new sequence from the human pseudoautosomal regions and cancer-testis ampliconic gene families (CT-X and GAGE). (nanoporetech.com)
- A significant fraction of the nuclear DNA of all eukaryotes is comprised of simple sequence repeats (SSRs). (frontiersin.org)
- Not only has Genome Reference Consortium build 38 (GRCh38) eliminated some pesky previous gaps, it will be the first human reference assembly to have sequence information for centromeres. (nature.com)
- Scientists may not have physically camped like concert-goers in front of the buildings where genome finishers scurry to get the sequence out the door. (nature.com)
- We propose that satellite DNA-associated siRNAs could affect epigenetic state of euchromatic regions containing dispersed satellite elements by targeting these elements in a sequence-specific manner and by guiding chromatin modifiers, primarily histone methyltransferase. (irb.hr)
- Southern hybridization and nucleotide sequence analysis of individual randomly cloned repeats shows that these satellite DNA families are highly abundant in the genome, are composed of unique repeats, and are species-specific. (umd.edu)
- The repeats do not have identifiable core elements or substructures that are similar in all three families, and most interspecific sequence similarity is confined to homopolymeric runs of A and T. Satellite DNA from N. marginatus and N. americanus show single-base-pair indels among repeats, but single-nucleotide substitutions characterize most of the repeat variability. (umd.edu)
- The sequence of the fruit fly genome, just completed, has over 130 million base pairs (bp) and is the largest genome sequenced so far. (creation.com)
- rapdb.dna.affrc.go.jp/) has been providing a comprehensive set of gene annotations for the genome sequence of rice, Oryza sativa (japonica group) cv. (psu.edu)
- The ENCODE project made a big splash a couple of years ago - it is a huge project to not only ask what the sequence of a strand of human DNA was, but to analyzed and annotate and try to figure out what it was doing. (scienceblogs.com)
- The genomes of closely related species have revealed very few genes added from non-coding DNA, and all of the structural RNA we've found has very specific sequence requirements. (scienceblogs.com)
- We've known about this kind of data for 15 years and it's one of the reasons why many scientists over-estimated the number of humans genes in the decade leading up to the publication of the human genome sequence. (scienceblogs.com)
- However, no one chromosome has yet been finished end to end, and hundreds of gaps persist across the genome. (labroots.com)
- To address this challenge, I will present a whole-genome de novo assembly that surpasses the continuity of GRCh38, along with the first complete, telomere-to-telomere assembly of a human X chromosome. (labroots.com)
- suggesting a role of 1.688 satellites in chromosome congression. (genetics.org)
- A human artificial chromosome (HAC) vector was constructed from a 1-Mb yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) that was selected based on its size from among several YACs identified by screening a randomly chosen subset of the Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) (Paris) YAC library with a degenerate alpha satellite probe. (pnas.org)
- Hybridization-facilitated genome merger and repeated chromosome fusion after eight million years. (nih.gov)
- Chromosomal territories have also been demonstrated in Drosophila early embryo and polytene nuclei, where most of the genome is contained on only five large chromosome arms. (rupress.org)
- The centromere is the chromosomal locus essential for chromosome inheritance and genome stability. (mdpi.com)
- In addition, the presence of a satellite "chromosome Y" (motif length: 860 bp) was detected in this region. (mdpi.com)
- We report new analysis that identified in silico and confirmed in situ 3/17 chromosome-specific probe TRPC-21-MM. Thus, the new classification had proven to be useful tool for continuation of genome study, while annotated TR can be the valuable source of cytogenetic probes for chromosome recognition. (ufl.edu)
- That doesn't work because not all of the human genome has been sequenced and organized into a contiguous assembly of 24 different strands (one for each chromosome). (blogspot.com)
- Human centromeres are multi-megabase regions of highly ordered arrays of alpha satellite DNA that are separated from chromosome arms by unordered alpha satellite monomers and other repetitive elements. (duke.edu)
- Nucleolar organization, ribosomal DNA array stability, and acrocentric chromosome integrity are linked to telomere function. (duke.edu)
- The Y-Chromosome has definable segments of DNA with known genetic characteristics. (encognitive.com)
- Although there are several types of markers used in DNA studies, the Y-Chromosome test uses only one type. (encognitive.com)
- mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) the DNA of the mitochondrial chromosome, existing in several thousand copies per cell and inherited exclusively from the mother. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Here we present a de novo human genome assembly that surpasses the continuity of GRCh38 2, along with the first gapless, telomere-to-telomere assembly of a human chromosome. (nanoporetech.com)
- This complete chromosome X, combined with the ultra-long nanopore data, also allowed us to map methylation patterns across complex tandem repeats and satellite arrays for the first time. (nanoporetech.com)
- A single AAV-cellular junction was identified from a tonsil sample and it mapped to a highly repetitive satellite DNA element on chromosome 1. (asm.org)
- In the absence of helper virus, AAV is unique among viruses in its ability to direct site-specific integration of its genome into a specific locus (AAVS1) on human chromosome 19 ( 22 , 23 , 39 ). (asm.org)
- They also found that more than half of the satellites are clustered on a single chromosome and, surprisingly, they were present in tens or hundreds of contigs (a set of overlapping DNA segments that together represent a consensus region of DNA), different from this species' genome, which suggests that they are scattered around the genome. (eurekalert.org)
- The authors of this research expect that the in-depth analysis of satellitomes in other species by these new methodologies opens new lines of research about the evolution of satellite DNAs in intra- and interspecific levels, and that the use of satDNAs as markers of chromosome identification may be helpful to complete genomic sequencing currently in progress. (eurekalert.org)
- Finally, the UGR scientists hope the discovery of so many new satellites helps find new features for this largely unknown part of the chromosome. (eurekalert.org)
- 2 The first complete human chromosome has been sequenced, 3 and the Human Genome Project expects to complete its work sometime in 2003, as does the Mouse Genome Project. (creation.com)
- 17 ) synthesized arrays of alpha satellite DNA, which were combined in vitro with telomeres and fragmented genomic DNA, and transfected into HT1080 cells. (pnas.org)
- Inactivation of Dnmt1 in embryonic stem (ES) cells and mice leads to global demethylation of genomic DNA but has little effect on de novo methylation of newly integrated retrovirus DNA ( 21 , 24 ). (asm.org)
- Genomic size of CENP-A domain is proportional to total alpha satellite array size at human centromeres and expands in cancer cells. (duke.edu)
- In addition to genomic DNA, satellite-lake DNA are commonly found, usually encoding for Rep proteins. (omicsonline.org)
- These satellite rep proteins are only able to initiate replication of their genomic DNA, unlike genomic rep which promotes replication of all 6-8 viral genomic ssDNAs. (omicsonline.org)
- To equate SD with g/h-SD is erroneous because in recent years numerous sceintific article have been reporting genomic-DNA sex differences that are neither gonadal nor hormonal. (bio.net)
- Until scientists (including neuroscientists and behavioralists) acknowledge and research possible ramifications of these sex differences, many possible genomic-DNA contributors to sexual- and/or gender- orientation shall be overlooked. (bio.net)
- Because satellite DNA circles can be more easily acquired or quickly ditched, these extrachromosomal structures provide cells with greater genomic flexibility. (upi.com)
- This study provides the first estimates of genome size within the superorder, providing a baseline for genomic and evolutionary studies within the group. (springer.com)
- Satellite DNAs are major building elements of pericentromeric and centromeric heterochromatin in many eukaryotes, and in certain species they account for the majority of genomic DNA. (irb.hr)
- The majority of genomic DNA in most plant species is made up of repetitive elements including satellites and retrotransposons. (usda.gov)
- Amanda Larracuente - Our lab integrates genomic, cytological and molecular approaches to study selfish DNA and its impact on genome evolution. (rochester.edu)
- A major goal of genomic studies is to understand the role, if any, of the various classes of so-called 'junk' DNA. (creation.com)
- Diploid, autopolyploid, and allopolyploid species that are characteristic of the tribe were used to relate DNA content to previously reported genomic relationships. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Here we show that RNA interference (RNAi) machinery operates in Drosophila melanogaster 1.688 satellite transcription. (genetics.org)
- Expression of the ribosomal DNA insertions in bobbed mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. (nih.gov)
- Dosage regulation of ribosomal DNA in Drosophila melanogaster. (nih.gov)
- Comparisons with Caenorhabditis (approximately 100 Mb) and Drosophila (approximately 175 Mb) using flow cytometry show genome size in Arabidopsis to be approximately 157 Mb and thus approximately 25% larger than the Arabidopsis genome initiative estimate of approximately 125 Mb. (springer.com)
- Analysis of Drosophila species genome size and satellite DNA content reveals significant differences among strains as well as between species. (springer.com)
- A species specific satellite DNA of Drosophila guanche , Z. (springer.com)
- Dani is an E2G2 student working on the evolution and functional genomics of satellite DNA in Drosophila species. (rochester.edu)
- She is using deep real time single molecule sequencing from Pacific Biosciences to study the structural organization of satellite DNA loci in Drosophila genomes. (rochester.edu)
- Genome Biology and Evolution 11(4):1152-1165. (molcyt.org)
- Evolutionary biologists consider the existence of "junk" DNA as one of the most potent pieces of evidence for biological evolution. (reasons.org)
- and chromosomal distribution and evolution of repetitive DNA in fish. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Meiotic drive may be a major force of genome evolution, allowing revolutionary changes in genome structure and diversity over short evolutionary periods. (genetics.org)
- The mode of evolution of the highly homogeneous Higher-Order-Repeat-containing alpha satellite arrays is still subject to discussion. (biomedcentral.com)
- 2009. Satellite DNA in the karyotype evolution of domestic animals-clinical considerations. (icr.org)
- Monophyletic Origin and Evolution of the Largest Crucifer Genomes. (nih.gov)
- Dover co-edited the textbook Genome Evolution with Richard Flavell. (wikipedia.org)
- The molecular organisation and evolution of rodent genomes (PhD thesis). (wikipedia.org)
- Genome Evolution (Academic Press, 1982) - Baglioni, C. (1983). (wikipedia.org)
- Double insertion of transposable elements provides a substrate for the evolution of satellite DNA. (amedeo.com)
- The enriched association of specific categories of repetitive elements with fish habitats suggests the importance of repetitive elements in genome evolution and their potential roles in fish adaptation to their living environments. (biomedcentral.com)
- Conclusions The CANR4 satellite arose early in the evolution of the genus Rosa. (muni.cz)
- The primary research objective is to understand the implication of plant polyploidy on plant evolution, plant genome structure, genome dynamics and organisation, systematics and biodiversity. (ibp.cz)
- Satellite DNA is expected to evolve according to the concept of ?concerted evolution? (ibp.cz)
- The C -value enigma and the evolution of eukaryotic genome content. (springer.com)
- These awards provide recognition for outstanding student papers in the two SMBE journals, Molecular Biology & Evolution and Genome Biology & Evolution , in the calendar year prior to the meeting are eligible for nomination. (smbe.org)
- I am interested in the evolution of bacterial genomes. (smbe.org)
- Metabolic Determinants of Enzyme Evolution in a Genome-Scale Bacterial Metabolic Network" (José Aguilar-Rodríguez, Andreas Wagner) Genome Biology and Evolution , Volume 10, Issue 11, 1 November 2018, Pages 3076-3088, https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evy234. (smbe.org)
- In order to accomplish these goals, the Society publishes two peer-reviewed journals, Molecular Biology and Evolution and Genome Biology and Evolution . (smbe.org)
- of Molecular Zoology, Department of Evolutionary and Experimental Biology, University of Bologna, with Thesis on "Evolution of repetitive DNA in model arthropods" (Supervisor: Prof. B. Mantovani). (unibo.it)
- The results led to determining a highly homologous satellite repeat region (231 bp) among parasite strains as a molecular marker for diagnosing the disease. (cdc.gov)
- According to this view, junk DNA results when undirected biochemical processes and random chemical and physical events transform a functional DNA segment into a useless molecular artifact. (reasons.org)
- Advances in genome analysis (in particular genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) have led to a new and deeper understanding of the complex influences of endogenous and exogenous molecular mechanisms that shape organismal phenotypes. (g3journal.org)
- Using mutant models of target-related cell death, Herrup and Busser (1995) showed that target-deprived neurons initiated the synthesis of cell cycle enzymes [cyclin D and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)] and incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) into high molecular weight DNA just before dying. (jneurosci.org)
- Due to the rise of DNA technologies, several researchers have been able to develop rapid methods for the molecular diagnosis of vector-borne parasitic diseases. (omicsonline.org)
- The rise of molecular techniques and DNA detection has played a prominent role in detecting infections, treatment follow-ups, disease installations and infection outcomes. (omicsonline.org)
- A major rate-limiting step in this process can be the extraction of sufficiently pure, high-molecular weight DNA from the sample, and so to address this limitation we evaluated several different methods of cell lysis, including both enzymatic and physical approaches. (nanoporetech.com)
- Master degree in Biological Sciences at University of Bologna, with Thesis on "Molecular characterisation of Bag320 satellite DNA in hybrid unisexual insects of the genus Bacillus (Insecta Phasmatodea)" (Supervisors: Prof. V. Scali, Prof. B. Mantovani). (unibo.it)
- Scholarship on "Canziani" founds, working on "Molecular variability trends of satellite DNA families in arthropods with non-canonical reproductive modes" (Supervisor: Prof. B. Mantovani). (unibo.it)
- Graduate student at Biochemical and Molecular Systematic Lab, Department of Evolutionary and Experimental Biology, University of Bologna, working on satellite DNA variability in Bacillus rossius , and molecular phylogenetics of subterranean termites of the genus Reticulitermes (Supervisor: Prof. B. Mantovani). (unibo.it)
- Dr. Zhou's extensive fundamental research has focused on identification and elucidation of molecular functions of geminiviruses and their associated DNA satellites. (apsnet.org)
Regions of the genome3
- MEIOTIC drive is found in many taxa, where it ordinarily causes the preferential segregation of small regions of the genome ( L yttle 1991 ). (genetics.org)
- As one of the contributors , I would like to take this opportunity to provide some cautionary points to those who wish to venture into these strange regions of the genome. (scientificamerican.com)
- hypothesized that the relative frequency of microsatellites is higher in the single- or low-copy regions of the genome than in the repetitive regions. (frontiersin.org)
- There is a lot that evolutionary biologists can learn about the purpose of junk DNA from my wife. (reasons.org)
- Junk pieces of DNA remain part of an organism ' s genome, persisting from generation to generation as a vestige of evolutionary history. (reasons.org)
- Evolutionary biologists highlight the fact that, in many instances, identical (or nearly identical) segments of junk DNA appear in a wide range of related organisms. (reasons.org)
- Accordingly, the junk DNA segment arose prior to the time that the organisms diverged from their shared evolutionary ancestor and then persisted in the divergent evolutionary lines. (reasons.org)
- Even if you assume an evolutionary timeline of up to six million years since the fusion event occurred, the data do not match up with known mutation rates or the variability found in human DNA. (icr.org)
- Integrated analysis sheds light on evolutionary trajectories of young transcription start sites in the human genome. (amedeo.com)
- We can liken it to a selfish insurance policy implemented by the older cells, whereby they're hoarding these bits of DNA in the hope that they might confer an evolutionary advantage even at the cost of some inconvenience in having them around, including interference with essential cellular pathways and a likely contribution to aging. (upi.com)
- Transposons, genome size, and evolutionary insights in animals. (springer.com)
- Junk' DNA: evolutionary discards or God's tools? (creation.com)
- Junk' DNA is thought by evolutionists to be useless DNA leftover from past evolutionary permutations. (creation.com)
- Junk or 'selfish' DNA is believed to be largely parasitic in nature, persisting in the genomes of higher organisms as 'evolutionary remnants' by their ability to reproduce and spread themselves, or perhaps because they have supposedly mutated into a function the cell can use. (creation.com)
- Bennett and Smith (1991) described the utility of nuclear DNA content values in phlyogenetic and evolutionary studies. (thefreelibrary.com)
- The moral of my little story also applies to the genomes of eukaryotic organisms. (reasons.org)
- Many biologists hold the view that a vast proportion of the genomes of other eukaryotic organisms is junk, just like the disassembled cabinet I temporarily stored in my car. (reasons.org)
- Frequently, the identical junk DNA segments reside in corresponding locations in these genomes-and for many biologists, this feature clearly indicates that these organisms shared a common ancestor. (reasons.org)
- One challenging question these scientists ask is, Why would a Creator purposely introduce nonfunctional, junk DNA at the exact location in the genomes of different, but seemingly related, organisms? (reasons.org)
- A second challenging question is, Why would a Creator intentionally introduce satellite DNA into the genomes of eukaryotic organisms? (reasons.org)
- Most eukaryotic organisms evolved methylation of lysine amino acid residues of histone proteins and methylation of cytosine in DNA. (ibp.cz)
- As a postdoc, she has worked in a variety of organisms, from ferns to turtles, trying to understand how genomes evolve. (rochester.edu)
- The last decade of the 20th century has seen an explosion in research into the structure and function of the DNA in genomes of a wide range of organisms. (creation.com)
- As of April 2000, the whole genomes, or full DNA complements of over 600 organisms have been sequenced or mapped. (creation.com)
- Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b are responsible for the establishment of DNA methylation patterns during development. (asm.org)
- DNA methylation is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases, which transfer a methyl group (-CH 3 ) from S -adenosyl- l -methionine to the C-5 position of cytosine residues. (asm.org)
- Both types of silencing are associated with cytosine methylation, the most common epigenetic modification of DNA higher eukaryots. (ibp.cz)
- We now aim to develop new inhibitors of DNA and histone methylation. (ibp.cz)
- DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing engaged by DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt)-catalyzed methyl group transfer to cytosine residues in gene-regulatory regions. (jneurosci.org)
- It is unknown whether aberrant DNA methylation can cause neurodegeneration. (jneurosci.org)
- Inhibition of Dnmt catalytic activity with RG108 and procainamide protected cultured neurons from excessive DNA methylation and apoptosis. (jneurosci.org)
- Thus, motor neurons can engage epigenetic mechanisms to drive apoptosis, involving Dnmt upregulation and increased DNA methylation. (jneurosci.org)
- DNA methylation also plays an important role in allele-specific repression at imprinted gene loci, regulating such processes as fetal growth and development as well as X inactivation (reviewed in refs. (pnas.org)
- Whereas the genome-wide methylation patterns and levels of differentiated somatic lineages remain largely constant, very dynamic changes have been reported to occur in the preimplantation embryo in association with the formation of pluripotent embryonic nuclei. (pnas.org)
- By using an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5mC), the presumptive male pronucleus of mouse, rat, pig, human, and, to a lesser extent, cow embryos have been shown to actively demethylate before syngamy, whereas the female pronucleus retains genome-wide methylation ( 7 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
- The discovery that the dramatic changes in DNA methylation associated with early formative events in the mouse embryo are not conserved in the sheep allows a unique opportunity to investigate the regulatory mechanisms involved. (pnas.org)
- These findings show that the βC1 protein interacts with a host methyltransferase co-factor to suppress methylation activities that interfere with epigenetic modifications of the viral genome. (apsnet.org)
- The strength of the effects of the spn-E mutation differs for 1.688 satellite DNA subfamilies and is more pronounced for autosomal pericentromeric satellites compared to the X-linked centromeric ones. (genetics.org)
- a unifying theme for pericentromeric satellite DNA function remains elusive. (elifesciences.org)
- 2) The pericentromeric major satellite is the most abundant superfamily and reveals high order repeat structure. (ufl.edu)
- Despite multi locus location, TRPC-21A-MM is placed into a separated family due to its abundance, strictly pericentromeric location, and resemblance to big human satellites. (ufl.edu)
- Key Results A pericentromeric satellite repeat, CANR4. (muni.cz)
Holding the genome together1
Updating the human genome1
Wellcome Trust San2
- The The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute is part of the Genome Reference Consortium but it maintains its own website on the human genome [ Whole Genome ]. (blogspot.com)
- The reference genome finishers are the members of the Genome Reference Consortium (GRC) at the European Bioinformatics Institute, the US National Center for Biotechnology Information, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and The Genome Institute at Washington University. (nature.com)
- The mitochondria present in eukaryotic cells contain multiple copies of mitochondrial DNA referred to as mtDNA which is housed within the mitochondrial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
- Many transposons also occur as numerous copies throughout the genome, and so contribute to repetitive DNA. (encyclopedia.com)
- The Xenopus genome contains 450 copies of the rDNA repeat in a single NOR. (asm.org)
- Considering a genome complexity of circa 23 Mbp, this estimation predicts an overall microsatellite content varying from 1% to 6% (23,000 loci x period size of 1-2 bp x n value of 10-30 bp). (usp.br)
- Linkage disequilibrium and association at loci reaching genome-wide significance for primary tooth development in meta-analysis of NFBC1966 and ALSPAC. (prolekare.cz)
- Epigenetic maintenance of topological domains in the highly rearranged gibbon genome. (amedeo.com)
- Expression of a major satellite DNA TCAST1 is strongly induced by heat shock, and increased level of satellite-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is accompanied by increase of repressive epigenetic modifications of histones at satellite DNA regions. (irb.hr)
- and RNA-independent class II DNA transposons. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we observed the correlation between high numbers of DNA transposons, especially the Tc1 transposons, with freshwater bony fish, high level of microsatellites with marine bony fish, and high numbers of class I transposons with cartilaginous fish and lamprey. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using the yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, we describe a mechanism by which transposons are initially targeted for RNAi-mediated genome defense. (semanticscholar.org)
- SvABA: genome-wide detection of structural variants and indels by local assembly. (amedeo.com)
- It states on the basis of observation and of structural similarities between the capsid proteins of geminiviruses and the Satellite tobacco necrosis virus, it was proposed that. (ebscohost.com)
- The high abundance of UBF, its colocalization with rDNA in vivo, and its DNA binding characteristics, suggest that it plays a more generalized structural role over the rDNA repeat. (asm.org)
- recombinant DNA DNA artificially constructed by insertion of foreign DNA into the DNA of an appropriate organism so that the foreign DNA is replicated along with the host DNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
- As a strand of DNA from an organism passes through a nanopore, the electrical current flowing through the pore is measured, and these current levels are converted into basecalls in real time. (nanoporetech.com)
- In situations where the amount of available sample DNA is limited, or where there is a low level of pathogen DNA mixed with a high level of host DNA, and we wish to identify the pathogen, it can be helpful to amplify the target organism by PCR. (nanoporetech.com)
- These regions harbor largely unexplored variation of unknown consequence, and their absence from the current reference genome can lead to experimental artifacts and hide true variants when re-sequencing additional human genomes. (nanoporetech.com)
- Comparative analyses with the A andB genomes showed that many of the previously described transposable elements (TEs) were differently represented in theD genome, and that this variation accompanied changes in DNA content. (conicet.gov.ar)