Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A family of DNA plant viruses that infect eukaryotic algae.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A family of nucleocytoplasmic, large, double-stranded DNA viruses with extremely complex genomes.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A family of very small viruses containing circular, single-stranded DNA and possessing no envelope. The modes of transmission are not known.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Viruses that produce tumors.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of non-enveloped DNA virus in the genus ANELLOVIRUS, associated with BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS; and HEPATITIS. However, no etiological role has been found for TTV in hepatitis.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The lone species of the genus Asfivirus. It infects domestic and wild pigs, warthogs, and bushpigs. Disease is endemic in domestic swine in many African countries and Sardinia. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are also infected and act as vectors.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A family of DNA viruses infecting plants and transmitted by APHIDS. Genera include NANOVIRUS and BABUVIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Diseases of plants.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
A family of large icosahedral DNA viruses infecting insects and poikilothermic vertebrates. Genera include IRIDOVIRUS; RANAVIRUS; Chloriridovirus; Megalocytivirus; and Lymphocystivirus.
A family of double-stranded DNA viruses containing one genus Asfivirus. It is the source of AFRICAN SWINE FEVER.
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A genus of potentially oncogenic viruses of the family POLYOMAVIRIDAE. These viruses are normally present in their natural hosts as latent infections. The virus is oncogenic in hosts different from the species of origin.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A family of very small DNA viruses containing a single molecule of single-stranded DNA and consisting of two subfamilies: PARVOVIRINAE and DENSOVIRINAE. They infect both vertebrates and invertebrates.
A family of DNA plant viruses with isometric or bacilliform virions and no envelope. The host ranges of most species are narrow. There are six genera: CAULIMOVIRUS; BADNAVIRUS; Cavemovirus; Soymovirus; Petuvirus; and TUNGROVIRUS.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A genus of IRIDOVIRIDAE comprising small iridescent insect viruses. The infected larvae and purified virus pellets exhibit a blue to purple iridescence.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, infecting a variety of vertebrates including humans. Parvoviruses are responsible for a number of important diseases but also can be non-pathogenic in certain hosts. The type species is MINUTE VIRUS OF MICE.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Virus diseases caused by the POXVIRIDAE.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
A genus of plant viruses in the family GEMINIVIRIDAE that are transmitted in nature by whitefly Bemisia tabaci.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
The type species of PARAPOXVIRUS which causes a skin infection in natural hosts, usually young sheep. Humans may contract local skin lesions by contact. The virus apparently persists in soil.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. This is achieved by producing cytotoxicity-enhancing proteins and/or eliciting an antitumor immune response. They are genetically engineered so that they can replicate in CANCER cells but not in normal cells, and are used in ONCOLYTIC VIROTHERAPY.
A strain of PRIMATE T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 isolated from mature T4 cells in patients with T-lymphoproliferation malignancies. It causes adult T-cell leukemia (LEUKEMIA-LYMPHOMA, T-CELL, ACUTE, HTLV-I-ASSOCIATED), T-cell lymphoma (LYMPHOMA, T-CELL), and is involved in mycosis fungoides, SEZARY SYNDROME and tropical spastic paraparesis (PARAPARESIS, TROPICAL SPASTIC).
Monier, Adam; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Ogata, Hiroyuki (2008). "Taxonomic distribution of large DNA viruses in the sea". Genome ... the largest marine virus Parvovirus - smallest known single stranded DNA viruses Pithovirus - largest virus by capsid length ( ... Megavirus also joins a group of large viruses known as nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), although this term appears ... - an information resource on the genome of giant viruses. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) ...
Monier A, Claverie JM, Ogata H (2008). "Taxonomic distribution of large DNA viruses in the sea". Genome Biol. 9 (7): R106. doi: ... Viruses in this family belong to the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus clade (NCLDV), also referred to as giant viruses. ... "Genome of brown tide virus (AaV), the little giant of the Megaviridae, elucidates NCLDV genome expansion and host-virus ... Within the genome of Lentille virus integrated genome of a virophage (Sputnik 2) and a transpoviron-a mobile genetic element- ...
... is a family of viruses first named in 2012. The genomes of these viruses are double-stranded DNA. Amoeba are ... Genomes are circular, around 372kb in length. The genome has 457 open reading frames. Dna templated transcription is the method ... A seventh virus-Brazilian Marseillevirus-has been reported. This virus appears to belong to a fourth lineage of virus in this ... It is a member of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses clade. Group: dsDNA Order: Pimascovirales Family: Marseilleviridae ...
These families all contain large icosahedral viruses with DNA genomes. The Pithovirus genome has 36% GC-content, similar to the ... Viruses portal DNA virus List of viruses Microbiology Virology Virus classification Yong, Ed (3 March 2014). "Giant virus ... It is a double-stranded DNA virus, and is a member of the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses clade. The 2014 discovery was ... Duchêne, S; Holmes, EC (2018). "Estimating evolutionary rates in giant viruses using ancient genomes". Virus Evol. 4. doi: ...
... is a family of viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes. Amphibians, fish, and invertebrates such as arthropods ... Parental DNA produces a genome which is then the template for replication in the cytoplasm. Large concatemers of viral DNA are ... The viral DNA is transported to the host cell nucleus, where it is transcribed by host RNA polymerase II modified by the virus ... Packaging of the new genomes into virions occurs in the cytoplasm and the virus is released either by budding from the cell ...
... is a family of single-stranded DNA viruses. The genomes of this family are small (2.3-2.8 kilobases in length). ... These viruses have single stranded genomes of 2.3-2.8 kilobases in length. The genome encodes six proteins including a Rep ( ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 27 April 2020.. ... The genomes are circular single-stranded DNA and encode rolling-circle replication initiation proteins (Rep) and unique capsid ...
... is a family of single stranded DNA viruses. The genomes of this family are small (2.2-2.4 kilobases in length). ... 1 species These viruses have single stranded genomes of 2.1-2.2 kilobases in length. The genome encodes two proteins-a Rep ( ... Krupovic M, Ghabrial SA, Jiang D, Varsani A (2016). "Genomoviridae: a new family of widespread single-stranded DNA viruses". ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Retrieved 27 April 2020.. ...
... is a family of single-stranded DNA viruses that primarily infect diatoms. The genome of these viruses appears ... There are at least three major open reading frames in the genome. Similar to other eukaryotic ssDNA viruses, bacilladnaviruses ... Yuji Tomaru, Kensuke Toyoda, Hidekazu Suzuki, Tamotsu Nagumo, Kei Kimura & Yoshitake Takao: New single-stranded DNA virus with ... Proposal of new species "Chaetoceros setoensis DNA virus" (CsetDNAV), ssDNA circular.. ...
Reverse transcribing viruses replicate their genomes by reverse transcribing DNA copies from their RNA; these DNA copies are ... Like DNA, RNA can carry genetic information. RNA viruses have genomes composed of RNA that encodes a number of proteins. The ... Many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome. Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by ... Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA, RNA is found in nature as a single strand folded onto ...
"Complete DNA sequences of two oka strain varicella-zoster virus genomes". Journal of Virology. 82 (22): 11023-44. doi:10.1128/ ... The Varicella zoster vaccine is made from the Oka/Merck strain of live attenuated varicella virus. The Oka virus was initially ... It is made from weakened virus. A live attenuated varicella vaccine, the Oka strain, was developed by Michiaki Takahashi and ... "Varicella virus vaccine (Varivax) Use During Pregnancy". 6 February 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019. "Varivax - ...
and most known plant EVEs originate from viruses with DNA genomes in the family Caulimoviridae. Integration is thought to occur ... Petunia vein clearing virus), banana (Banana streak OL virus, Banana streak GF virus, Banana streak IM virus) and Nicotiana ... viruses from the family Caulimoviridae do not require the integration of the viral genome into the genome of their hosts in ... therefore viruses from the family Caulimoviridae are not considered true dsDNA viruses - instead they are termed DNA reverse- ...
... from its genome). The type species is Heterocapsa circularisquama DNA virus 01. The virus has an icosahedral capsid ~200 ... The genome is a single molecule of double stranded DNA of a ~356-kilobases. It infects the dinoflagellate Heterocapsa ... Dinodnavirus is a genus of viruses that infect dinoflagellates. This genus belongs to the clade of nucleocytoplasmic large DNA ... DNA studies have shown that it seems more likely to be related to the family Asfarviridae. Tarutani K, Nagasaki K, Itakura S, ...
Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is the largest known DNA virus. It genome encodes four aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: RARS, CARS ... The single YARS gene that is present in the genomes of trypanosomatids, codes for a protein that has twice the length of ... Abergel, C; Rudinger-Thirion, J; Giegé, R; Claverie, JM (Nov 2007). "Virus-encoded aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: structural and ... Genome Research. 9 (8): 689-710. doi:10.1101/gr.9.8.689 (inactive 2021-01-14). PMID 10447505.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of ...
Thompson, Helen (20 April 2012). "Hot spring yields hybrid genome: Researchers discover natural chimaeric DNA-RNA virus". ... They named this "mythological beast of a virus" the "Boiling Springs Lake RNA−DNA Hybrid Virus" or "BSL−RDHV". The study showed ... novel virus genome discovered in an extreme environment suggests recombination between unrelated groups of RNA and DNA viruses ... BioMed Central Limited (18 April 2012). "Could a newly discovered viral genome change what we thought we knew about virus ...
There are 78 predicted proteins encoded by the genome. DVE has similar morphology to other Herpesvirales viruses. Common ... Immature capsids are formed from coiled DNA. L genes are transcribed "after the synthesis of DNA and viral protein onset". ... "Molecular characterization of the genome of duck enteritis virus". Virology. 391 (2): 151-161. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2009.06.018 ... has a linear double stranded DNA genome. The dsDNA weight is 119×106 Daltons and approximately 158,091 base pairs long. AHV-1 ...
They are Group VII viruses that possess double-stranded DNA genomes and replicate using reverse transcriptase. This unique ... The minus-strand DNA is complete and spans the entire genome, while the plus strand spans only about two-thirds of the genome ... Viruses in this genus exclusively infect birds; duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and heron hepatitis B virus (HHBV) are the ... consisting of core protein and protecting the partially double-stranded DNA genome, bounding with DNA polymerase. The capsid is ...
Polyomaviruses are non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses with circular genomes of around 5000 base pairs. The genome is ... most notably BK virus, JC virus, and SV40. It is essential for proliferation in the viruses that express it and is thought to ... when the host cell's genome is replicated - because host cell DNA replication machinery is needed for viral genome replication ... LT induces DNA replication from the viral genome's non-coding control region (NCCR), after which expression of the early mRNA ...
A transpoviron is a plasmid-like genetic element found in the genomes of giant DNA viruses. They are linear DNA elements of ... polinton-like viruses, Tlr1 transposons and transpovirons". Virus Evolution. 2 (1): vew019. doi:10.1093/ve/vew019. PMC 5499653 ... Mart Krupovic, Natalya Yutin, Eugene V. Koonin (2016). "Fusion of a superfamily 1 helicase and an inactivated DNA polymerase is ... Homologs of this unique polymerase-helicase fusion protein are widespread in Polinton-Like Viruses (PLV). Based on the ...
The virus was named BSL-RDHV (Boiling Spring Lake RNA DNA Hybrid Virus). Its genome is related to a DNA circovirus, which ... Thompson, Helen (20 April 2012). "Hot spring yields hybrid genome: Researchers discover natural chimaeric DNA-RNA virus". ... novel virus genome discovered in an extreme environment suggests recombination between unrelated groups of RNA and DNA viruses ... The study surprised scientists, because DNA and RNA viruses vary and the way the chimera came together was not understood. ...
DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by nuclear pore export. Parasitoid ... Viruses in Ichnovirus are enveloped, with prolate ellipsoid and Cylindrical geometries. Genomes are circular and segmented, ... The wasp injects one or more eggs into its host along with a quantity of virus. The virus and wasp are in a symbiotic ... Ichnovirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Polydnaviridae. Parasitoid wasps serve as hosts, but these wasps are themselves ...
This refers to the size of their genomes, which are among the smallest of the DNA viruses. Enterobacteria, intracellular ... Replication of the genome now begins via a rolling circle mechanism. The host's DNA polymerase converts the single-stranded DNA ... mechanism of switch from DNA replication to DNA packaging" Cell 47(1) 99-106 Hafenstein S and Fane BA (2002) X174 Genome-capsid ... Viruses in this family replicate their genomes via a rolling circle mechanism and encode dedicated RCR initiation proteins. ...
The genomes of several large DNA viruses and RNA viruses have been cloned as BACs. These constructs are referred to as " ... BACs are often used to sequence the genome of organisms in genome projects, for example the Human Genome Project. A short piece ... "Cloning the vaccinia virus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome in Escherichia coli and recovery of infectious virus in ... "Engineering the largest RNA virus genome as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome". Proceedings of the National Academy ...
Virus genomes (either DNA or RNA) are extremely tightly packed into the viral capsid. Many viruses are therefore little more ... the genomes of negative-strand RNA viruses never exist as free RNA molecule. The ribonucleoproteins protect their genomes from ... These particles play an important role in influenza A virus replication. The influenza viral genome is composed of eight ... Baudin, F; Bach, C; Cusack, S; Ruigrok, R W (1994-07-01). "Structure of influenza virus RNP. I. Influenza virus nucleoprotein ...
It is an icosahedral double stranded DNA virus with a genome size of 474kb. CeV-01B belongs to a subclade of the Megaviridae ... CpV-BQ1 is an icosahedral nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus with a genome size 485kb. It is a member of the Megavirales order ... a Virus Infecting Haptolina (Chrysochromulina) ericina (Prymnesiophyceae)". Genome Announcements. 3 (6). doi:10.1128/genomeA. ... Two major viruses have been found to infect Chrysochromulina: CpV-BQ1 and CeV-01B. Freshwater samples from Lake Ontario were ...
Once the virus infects the host, the replication cycle takes place in the cytoplasm. Within the genome, DNA repair enzymes can ... The Marseilleviridae viruses have double stranded DNA genomes that are about 372 kilobases long. Members of the family can have ... This is a double stranded DNA virus with its size being 610 kilobases long. The genome is estimated to code for 476 open ... The Megaviridae contains some of the largest viruses ever discovered. They have linear double stranded DNA genomes with the ...
The smallest viruses in terms of genome size are single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses. Perhaps the most famous is the ... The smallest RNA viruses in terms of genome size are small retroviruses such as rous sarcoma virus with genomes of 3.5 kilo ... Other environmentally characterized ssDNA viruses such as CRESS DNA viruses, among others, can have genomes that are ... However, some ssDNA viruses can be even smaller. For example, Porcine circovirus type 1 has a genome of 1759 nucleotides and a ...
... s are single stranded satellite DNA that are dependent on a virus for transmission. The genome is a single ... These viruses were earlier known as DNA 1 components. These viruses are generally found in the Old World. A number have been ... This portion of the genome appears to be redundant. A putative second ORF in the genome of an alphasatellite virus has been ... Katul L, Maiss E, Vetten HJ (February 1995). "Sequence analysis of a faba bean necrotic yellows virus DNA component containing ...
"Archaeal virus with exceptional virion architecture and the largest single-stranded DNA genome". Proceedings of the National ... Notably, the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA ... If the hypothesis is correct, it can be concluded that other double-stranded DNA viruses that make up the rest of the archaea- ... Two groups of single-stranded DNA viruses that infect archaea have been recently isolated. One group is exemplified by the ...
... is a small nonenveloped virus with a monomeric single-stranded circular DNA genome. DuCV has been clustered in ... The Duck circovirus (DuCV) is a type of virus found in ducks. Strains of the virus have predominantly been found in China, ... "Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Duck Circovirus Strain GH01 from Southwestern China". Genome Announcements. 1 (1): e00166 ... Experimental DNA vaccines encoding the DuCV capsid protein were found to provide protection in vivo, as well as inactivated ...
... a newly proposed family comprising archaeal pleomorphic viruses with single-stranded or double-stranded DNA genomes. . In: ... Usutu-Virus - en. Usutu virus (USUV), Zika-Virus - en. Zika virus (ZIKV), sowie Gelbfieber-Virus - en. Yellow fever virus (YFV) ... Genus ‚Negevirus', mit Species ‚Blackford virus', ‚Bofa virus', ‚Buckhurst virus', ‚Marsac virus', sowie ‚Muthill virus'[53] ... Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Lily-Mottle-Virus - en. Lily mottle virus (LMoV), sowie Sellerie-Virus Y - en. Apium virus Y (ApVY ...
... transcribed into genome copies of negative-strand virus progeny.[52] Newly synthesised structural proteins and genomes self- ... December 1999). "Identification of Ebola virus sequences present as RNA or DNA in organs of terrestrial small mammals of the ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ...
"The duck genome and transcriptome provide insight into an avian influenza virus reservoir species". Nature Genetics. 45 (7): ... Mallards are differentiated in their mitochondrial DNA between North American and Eurasian populations,[17] but the nuclear ... Mitochondrial DNA data for the D-loop sequence suggests that mallards may have evolved in the general area of Siberia. Mallard ... The genome of Anas platyrhynchos was sequenced in 2013.[6] ... genome displays a notable lack of genetic structure.[18] ...
Human APOC4 genome location and APOC4 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Kamboh MI, Aston CE, Hamman RF (2000). "DNA sequence variation in human apolipoprotein C4 gene and its effect on plasma lipid ... "Large-scale candidate gene analysis of spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus". J. Infect. Dis. 201 (9): 1371-80. doi ... "Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928 . PMID 15489334.. ...
DNA repair. *DNA replication. *DNA virus. G. *Gene. H. *Haplogroup. *Human genome ... Pages in category "DNA". The following 33 pages are in this category, out of 33 total. ... Retrieved from "" ...
A second copy of the tomato gene polygalacturonase was inserted into the tomato genome in the antisense direction.[7] The ... DNA Plant Technology (DNAP), Agritope and Monsanto developed tomatoes that delayed ripening by preventing the production of ... anthrax and respiratory syncytial virus.[41] Korean scientists are looking at using the tomato to express a vaccine against ... techniques were developed in the late 1980s that could successfully transfer genetic material into the nuclear genome of ...
Genome complexity has generally increased since the beginning of the life on Earth.[17][18] Some computer models have suggested ... Sharov, Alexei A (2006). "Genome increase as a clock for the origin and evolution of life". Biology Direct. 1 (1): 17. doi: ... Recently work in evolution theory has proposed that by relaxing selection pressure, which typically acts to streamline genomes ... Markov, A. V.; Anisimov, V. A.; Korotayev, A. V. (2010). "Relationship between genome size and organismal complexity in the ...
At 4.7 million nucleotides in length, A1::DQ2 is the second longest haplotype identified within the human genome.[1] A1::DQ2 ... Type 1 diabetes has a risk associated with coxsackie 4B virus, there is a potential for involvement of class I loci, ... either as a consequence of recombination-obstruction within the DNA, as a consequence of repeated selection for the entire ... "Genome-wide association study identifies HLA 8.1 ancestral haplotype alleles as major genetic risk factors for myositis ...
Dna templated transcription, with some alternative splicing mechanism is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host ... Viruses in Deltapapillomavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries. The diameter is around 60 nm. Genomes are ... Deltapapillomavirus is a genus of viruses, in the family Papillomaviridae. Ruminants serve as natural hosts. There are ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Deltapapillomavirus ICTV. ...
"Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing ... Human Genome Project (2003). "International Consortium Completes Human Genome Project". Human Genome Project Information (en ... National Human Genome Research Institute - NIH (1996). "International Team Completes DNA Sequence of Yeast" (en inglés). ... U. S. Human Genome Project (2008). Office of Science - U. S. Dpt. of Energy, ed. "Major Events in the U.S. Human Genome Project ...
Kelp fly virus: a novel group of insect picorna-like viruses as defined by genome sequence analysis and a distinctive virion ... and a poliovirus clone was the first infectious DNA clone made of an RNA virus in animals. Along with rhinovirus, poliovirus ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ...
"Archaeal virus with exceptional virion architecture and the largest single-stranded DNA genome". Proceedings of the National ... Archaea can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ... On average, archaeal DNA sequences (whole genome) show higher levels of complexity than those of Bacteria.[33] ...
Four phenylalanine residues(Phe57, Phe74, Phe148, Phe 165) on TBP bind to DNA and form kinks in the DNA, forcing the DNA minor ... "Genome Research. 11 (5): 677-84. doi:10.1101/ PMC 311086. PMID 11337467.. ... MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1.[44] Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... Compounds that trap the protein-DNA intermediate could result in it being toxic to the cell once they encounter a DNA ...
RNA interference (RNAi) and small-RNA biology; DNA replication; RNA splicing; signal transduction; genome structure; non-coding ... Upon taking charge in 1968, he focused the Laboratory on cancer research, creating a tumor virus group and successfully ... "Genome-wide in situ exon capture for selective resequencing". Nat Genet. 39: 1522-7. doi:10.1038/ng.2007.42. PMID 17982454.. ... The DNA Learning Center (DNALC), founded in 1988, was among the early pioneers[15] in developing hands-on genetics lab ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
These estimates are made using genetic mapping of plant chloroplasts.[12] A DNA study published in Nature in 2018 concludes ... A phylogenetic analysis of 34 chloroplast genomes elucidates the relationships between wild and domestic species within the ... the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid-transmitted Citrus tristeza virus ... Briggs, Helen (8 Feb 2018), "DNA Story of when life first gave us lemons," BBC, ...
... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... radiology - randomized trial - rebound - receptor (immunology) - recombinant - recombinant DNA - recombinant DNA technology - ... genome - genotypic assay - germinal centers - giardiasis - globulins - glycoprotein - gonorrhea - gp120 (gp120) - gp160 (gp160 ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ...
Human GAA genome location and GAA gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... DNA and Cell Biology. 10 (9): 681-7. doi:10.1089/dna.1991.10.681. PMID 1684505.. ... Land A, Braakman I (August 2001). "Folding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein in the endoplasmic ... DNA and Cell Biology. 9 (2): 85-94. doi:10.1089/dna.1990.9.85. PMID 2111708.. ...
Group VII viruses[edit]. Both families in Group VII have DNA genomes contained within the invading virus particles. The DNA ... to produce DNA from the initial virion RNA genome. This DNA is often integrated into the host genome, as in the case of ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... A retrovirus is a type of RNA virus that inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of a host cell that it invades, thus ...
"Exceptionally diverse morphotypes and genomes of crenarchaeal hyperthermophilic viruses". Biochem. Soc. Trans. 32 (Pt 2): 204-8 ... Rosenshine I, Tchelet R, Mevarech M. (1989). "The mechanism of DNA transfer in the mating system of an archaebacterium". ... As arqueas poden ser infectadas por virus de ADN bicatenario que non están relacionados con ningún outro tipo de virus e teñen ... Pietilä MK, Roine E, Paulin L, Kalkkinen N, Bamford DH (2009). "An ssDNA virus infecting archaea; A new lineage of viruses with ...
"Sequences from Ancestral Single-Stranded DNA Viruses in Vertebrate Genomes: the Parvoviridae and Circoviridae Are More than 40 ... Domingo, Esteban (2001). "RNA Virus Genomes". ELS. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0001488.pub2. ISBN 0470016175. ... International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (October 2004). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome". ... "Tandem chimerism as a means to increase protein complexity in the human genome". Genome Research 16 (1): 37-44. doi:10.1101/gr. ...
"Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121-7. PMC 528928. . PMID 15489334. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. ... 2006). "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1". Nature. 441 (7091): 315-21. PMID 16710414. doi: ... a novel SH2D1A-associated surface molecule contributing to the inability of natural killer cells to kill Epstein-Barr virus- ... "Genome Res. 13 (10): 2265-70. PMC 403697. . PMID 12975309. doi:10.1101/gr.1293003. ...
Astrin SM, Laurence J (1992). "Human immunodeficiency virus activates c-myc and Epstein-Barr virus in human B lymphocytes". Ann ... Aktivnost transkripcionog faktora specifičnog za specifičnu DNA sekvencu. • proteinsko vezivanje. • vezivanje transkripcionog ... "N-Myc regulates a widespread euchromatic program in the human genome partially independent of its role as a classical ... Blackwood EM, Eisenman RN (1991). "Max: a helix-loop-helix zipper protein that forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding complex ...
... including the Israeli acute paralysis virus and the black queen cell virus.[35] ... A. mellifera, the most common domesticated[15] species, was the third insect to have its genome mapped. It seems to have ... inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data"". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 40 (1): 315. doi:10.1016/j. ... inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (1): 25-35. doi:10.1016/j ...
... of the technique of homologous recombination of transgenic DNA with genomic DNA, a much more reliable method of altering animal ... He is an atheist, and the man who suggested to Richard Dawkins the analogy of viruses of the mind for religions; yet nowadays ... genomes than previously used, and the technique behind gene targeting and knockout mice.[325] ... He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1993 for the discovery of introns in eukaryotic DNA and the mechanism of ...
... an RNA-based gene into DNA and then incorporating it into a more complex DNA-based genome might have been common in the Virus ... Some of the viruses evolved into DNA viruses to protect their genes from attack. Through the process of viral infection into ... novel virus genome discovered in an extreme environment suggests recombination between unrelated groups of RNA and DNA viruses" ... In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. If these viruses ...
From Genome-wide Association Mapping to Genome Sequencing". The Neuroscientist. 21 (6): 599-615. doi:10.1177/1073858414555404. ... The zebrafish has transparent embryos that can be injected with DNA or RNA and has a lifespan of up to two years.[79] Induced ... A number of infectious diseases can sometimes cause ALS-like symptoms,[4] including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T ... There are also new methods of developing animal models, including viral transgenesis, in which viruses are used to deliver ...
Cooper, A. (2001). "Human Origins and Ancient Human DNA". Science. 292 (5522): 1655-6. doi:10.1126/science.292.5522.1655. PMID ... 10-fold increase in tuberculosis, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus, 20-fold increase in chlamydia, 40-fold increase in ... 2005). "Single, Rapid Coastal Settlement of Asia Revealed by Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes". Science. 308 (5724): ... Callaway, E. (2011). "First Aboriginal genome sequenced". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2011.551.. ...
For virus-associated tumors, such as cervical cancer and a subset of head and neck cancers, epitopes derived from viral open ... For human tumors without a viral etiology, novel peptides (neo-epitopes) are created by tumor-specific DNA alterations.[15] ... Deep-sequencing technologies can identify mutations within the protein-coding part of the genome (the exome) and predict ... An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and sometimes DNA or RNA) that is recognized by the immune ...
Molekul DNA rekombinan pertama dibuat oleh Paul Berg pada tahun 1972 dengan menggabungkan DNA virus monyet SV40 dengan virus ... Synthetic genome brings new life to bacterium". Science. 328 (5981): 958-9. doi:10.1126/science.328.5981.958. PMID 20488994.. ... "Simian virus 40 DNA sequences in DNA of healthy adult mice derived from preimplantation blastocysts injected with viral DNA". ... Paul Berg menciptakan molekul DNA rekombinan pertama dengan menggabungkan DNA dari virus monyet SV40 dengan virus lambda.[22] ...
Genetic engineering of novel genomes of large DNA viruses Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Science ... of large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses and poxviruses present special problems because of the size of their genomes (120 to ... the identification of genes nonessential for virus growth in cell culture, and the expression of foreign genes. These methods ... based on the use of selectable markers have been developed and applied for the elucidation of the function of specific DNA ...
... reveals the journey to discovering that 8 percent of the human genome has viral DNA - in other words, weve got the building ... blocks for bacteria and viruses in our own genetic make-up. ... DNA From Viruses, Bacteria Have Weaved Themselves Into Human ... appear within a genome - contributed to the development of molecular phylogenetics. This field involves sequencing the DNA ... and sizable stretches of DNA that have come to us sideways from viruses in the course of viral infections that have gotten into ...
Although there are no viruses similar to these ancient pathogens curre...,Viruses,for,a,healthy,pregnancy,medicine,medical news ... Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient vira...Retrovirus infections represent the most intimate host ... The virus inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of the host cell, resulting in an irreversible, stable and sometimes ... Viruses for a healthy pregnancy. ...Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient vira...Retrovirus ...
Here we show that, similar to RNA viruses, the entire genome sequences of DNA viruses are densely covered with siRNAs in both ... Our findings show that deep siRNA sequencing allows for de novo reconstruction of any DNA or RNA virus genome and its ... Consistent with our finding and hypothesis, we demonstrate that the complete genomes of DNA viruses from Caulimoviridae and ... Finally, we utilized this approach to reconstruct an emerging DNA virus and two viroids associated with economically-important ...
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A partially coincides with EBNA3C genome-wide and is tethered to DNA through BATF complexes ... Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3A partially coincides with EBNA3C genome-wide and is tethered to DNA through BATF complexes ... Genome-wide data on EBNA3C DNA binding found low EBNA3C and RBPJ co-occupancy at the same DNA site in LCLs, indicating that ... 1996) Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C is a powerful repressor of transcription when tethered to DNA. J Virol 70(4):2481- ...
... led to CpG island hypermethylation as an epigenetic scar of prior EBV infection that was retained after loss of the virus. Such ... Genome-wide DNA methylation as an epigenetic consequence of Epstein-Barr virus infection of immortalized keratinocytes J Virol ... The impact of this work is that we have provided a mechanistic framework for how a tumor virus using the epigenetic machinery ... The oral cavity is a persistent reservoir for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with lifelong infection of resident epithelial and B ...
We find that vDNA produced during RNA virus infection of Drosophila and mosquitoes is present in both linear and circular forms ... cvDNAs bear homology to defective viral genomes (DVGs), and DVGs serve as templates for vDNA and cvDNA synthesis. Accordingly, ... is sufficient to produce siRNAs that confer partially protective immunity when challenged with a cognate virus. ... Virus-specific siRNA responses are amplified via the reverse transcription of viral RNA to viral DNA (vDNA). The nature, ...
In most icosahedral double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses, the viral genome enters and exits the capsid through a unique vertex. ... Two crucial steps in the virus life cycle are genome encapsidation to form an infective virion and genome exit to infect the ... DNA viruses, the viral genome enters and exits the capsid through a unique vertex. Internal membrane-containing viruses possess ... A structural model of the genome packaging process in a membrane-containing double stranded DNA virus PLoS Biol. 2014 Dec 16;12 ...
Genome Announcements. Complete Genome Sequence of a New Circular DNA Virus from Grapevine. Björn Krenz, Jeremy R. Thompson, ... Complete Genome Sequence of a New Circular DNA Virus from Grapevine. Björn Krenz, Jeremy R. Thompson, Marc Fuchs, Keith L. ... Complete Genome Sequence of a New Circular DNA Virus from Grapevine. Björn Krenz, Jeremy R. Thompson, Marc Fuchs, Keith L. ... Complete Genome Sequence of a New Circular DNA Virus from Grapevine Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Complete DNA Sequences of Two Oka Strain Varicella-Zoster Virus Genomes. Sueli L. Tillieux, Wendy S. Halsey, Elizabeth S. ... Complete DNA Sequences of Two Oka Strain Varicella-Zoster Virus Genomes. Sueli L. Tillieux, Wendy S. Halsey, Elizabeth S. ... Complete DNA Sequences of Two Oka Strain Varicella-Zoster Virus Genomes. Sueli L. Tillieux, Wendy S. Halsey, Elizabeth S. ... Complete DNA Sequences of Two Oka Strain Varicella-Zoster Virus Genomes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
DNA, a 400-base-pair ecotropic type-specific segment in the env region has been identified. This DNA segment and other defined ... probes to identify and analyze the structure of integrated ecotropic viral DNA sequences in uninfected mouse genomes. Those ... ecotropic MuLV of the AKR type have been isolated contained at least one virtually complete linear copy of the viral genome. ... contained MuLV DNAs of genomic length whose restriction endonuclease digestion pattern was characteristic of xenotropic viruses ...
Reconstruction of putative DNA virus from endogenous rice tungro bacilliform virus-like sequences in the rice genome: ... Home » Reconstruction of putative DNA virus from endogenous rice tungro bacilliform virus-like sequences in the rice genome: ... Recent discoveries of virus-like sequences in plant genomes led us to set the objective of elucidating the origin of the ... The DNA methylation state of the ERTBV sequences was correlated with their copy number in the genome. Conclusions: These ERTBV ...
Evidence for altered DNA conformations in the simian virus 40 genome: Site-specific DNA cleavage by the chiral complex Lambda- ... Evidence for altered DNA conformations in the simian virus 40 genome: Site-specific DNA cleavage by the chiral complex Lambda- ... which was found earlier to bind anti-Z-DNA antibodies. Throughout the simian virus 40 genome, variations in structure ... Because of its chirality, the complex cannot bind to regular right-handed B-form DNA but exhibits site-specific cleavage along ...
... the associated domains points to extensive domain shuffling and lineage-specific gene family expansion within DNA virus genomes ... that is found in a wide range of proteins of large bacterial and eukaryotic DNA viruses. The KilA-N domain is suggested to be ... The amino-terminal module of the Bro proteins is another, distinct DNA-binding domain (the Bro-N domain) that is present in ... The phyletic range and the conserved DNA-binding domains of the viral regulatory proteins of the poxvirus D6R/N1R and ...
Hepatitis B computer virus (HBV) synthesizes its DNA genome through reverse. By Celina Scott in Nitric Oxide Synthase April 28 ... Hepatitis B computer virus (HBV) synthesizes its DNA genome through reverse transcription which is catalyzed by viral ... and duck hepatitis B computer virus (DHBV) (1). The DNA genome of hepadnaviruses is usually replicated through reverse ... DNA or duplex linear (DL) DNA-is generated (Fig. 1E and ?andF).F). The RC DNA is usually generated when the RNA primer ...
Recent discoveries of virus-like sequences in plant genomes led us to set the objective of elucidating the origin of the ... The DNA methylation state of the ERTBV sequences was correlated with their copy number in the genome. These ERTBV segments are ... Comparisons of DNA and amino acid sequences suggested the closely relationship between ERTBV and RTBV. The Oryza AA-genome ... Comparison of ERTBV among the Oryza AA-genome species allowed us to speculate a possible role of endogenous virus segments ...
... yield and DNA genome pattern of the entomopathogenic virus Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpliMNPV) to ... Pathogenicity, yield and DNA genome pattern of the entomopathogenic virus Spodoptera littoralis multicapsid ... n African Entomology - Pathogenicity, yield and DNA genome pattern of the entomopathogenic virus Spodoptera littoralis ...
The possibility is discussed that the expression of other open reading frames near the genome termini may depend upon genome ... A DNA sequence of 7747 base pairs containing the repeat was determined and analysed. The G + C content of the repeat is not ... T-rich sequence with the potential of forming a hairpin structure which may form part of an origin of DNA replication, and ... Summary The major inverted repeat of 7319.5 base pairs is present at an internal site in the varicella-zoster virus genome and ...
DNA sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 1 gene encoding glycoprotein gH, and identification of homologues in the genomes ... DNA sequence of the herpes simplex virus type 1 gene encoding glycoprotein gH, and identification of homologues in the genomes ... We have determined the sequence of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA around the previously mapped location of sequences encoding ... namely varicella-zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. ... of varicella-zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus. Nucleic Acids ...
2013) Genome of Phaeocystis globosa virus PgV-16T highlights the common ancestry of the largest known DNA viruses infecting ... Typical of large DNA viruses, the dominant functional categories were DNA transcription (17 genes), DNA repair (11 genes, ... Giant DNA viruses are visible under a light microscope and their genomes encode more proteins than some bacteria or ... 2006) Genome of invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (mosquito iridescent virus) J Virol 80(17):8439-8449. ...
Recent studies have revealed that DNA forms of arboviral RNA genomes play a significant role in viral persistence in mosquitoes ... We have initiated experiments to determine whether ZIKV generates viral DNA (vDNA) forms following infection in mosquitoes. ... allowing persistent infections and conferring lifelong ability to transmit the virus. ... Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and has historically been reported to cause mild symptomatic diseases during ...
... viruses including tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages and herpesvirus... ... Genome packaging is a key step in morphogenesis of large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) ... Genome packaging in DNA viruses. Tang, Liang / University of Kansas Lawrence. NIH 2013. R01 GM. Genome packaging in DNA viruses ... Our goal is to understand molecular mechanisms of genome packaging in DNA viruses by analyzing assemblies of genome-packaging ...
Li, Hui ; Mináróvits, J. / Host cell-dependent expression of latent Epstein-Barr virus genomes : Regulation by DNA methylation ... Host cell-dependent expression of latent Epstein-Barr virus genomes : Regulation by DNA methylation. / Li, Hui; Mináróvits, J. ... Li, H & Mináróvits, J 2003, Host cell-dependent expression of latent Epstein-Barr virus genomes: Regulation by DNA methylation ... Host cell-dependent expression of latent Epstein-Barr virus genomes: Regulation by DNA methylation. Advances in Cancer Research ...
Recent progress in isolation of new viruses and genome sequencing resulted in a substantial expansion of the NCLDV diversity, ... a set of 47 conserved genes that were probably present in the genome of the common ancestor of this class of eukaryotic viruses ... A comprehensive comparison of the protein sequences encoded in the genomes of 45 NCLDV belonging to 6 families was performed in ... The NCVOGs are a flexible and expandable platform for genome analysis and functional annotation of newly characterized NCLDV. ...
The cleavage of viral DNA genomes with restriction enzymes and the cloning of such DNA fragments in bacter ... The development of recombinant DNA technology has made a marked impact on molecular virology. ... Cloning of the DNA form of an RNA Virus Genome. * Front Matter Pages 221-221 ... The cleavage of viral DNA genomes with restriction enzymes and the cloning of such DNA fragments in bacterial p1asmids has led ...
Ancient origin of hepatitis B viruses revealed by DNA fossils in bird genomes. As the old adage goes; "One mans trash is ... another mans treasure": what has often been described as "junk DNA" has revealed a hidden gem. Not only … ...
CRISPR-Resistant Viruses Build Safe Rooms to Shield Genomes from DNA-Dicing Enzymes After phages infect bacteria, they ... This compartment, which resembles a cell nucleus, is the most effective CRISPR shield ever discovered in viruses. ... construct an impenetrable "safe room" inside of their host, which protects vulnerable phage DNA from antiviral enzymes. ...
An ancestral mitochondrial DNA resembling a eubacterial genome in miniature. Nature 387: 493-497. ... DNA viruses). ... The mitochondrial genome is the highly reduced remnant of the ... In summary, the mitochondrial genomes of jakobids are primitively complex-they more closely resemble the genomes of their ... and retain only faint similarities to the genomes of living prokaryotes. Amongst other things, mitochondrial genomes are not ...
Its complete DNA sequence was reported in 1997. Here we present an updated annotation of the 44,016 bp SPP1 genome and its ... We propose SPP1 as the reference species for a new SPP1-like viruses genus of the Siphoviridae family. ... The extensive genetic, biochemical and structural biology studies on the molecular mechanisms of SPP1 DNA replication and phage ... Five early polycistronic transcriptional units encode phage DNA replication proteins and lysis functions together with less ...
DNA viruses infiltrate 3D cellular genome organization and preferentially contact active chromatin ... DNA viruses infiltrate 3D cellular genome organization and preferentially contact active chromatin ... DNA viruses infiltrate 3D cellular genome organization and preferentially contact active chromatin ... respiratory viruses, such as the influenza or SARS virus;. *cancer-causing viruses, such as papillomavirus (HPV), Human T- ...
  • Analyses of the function of specific genes and sequences of large DNA viruses such as herpesviruses and poxviruses present special problems because of the size of their genomes (120 to 250 kilobase pairs). (
  • Various methods for engineering site-specific insertions or deletions based on the use of selectable markers have been developed and applied for the elucidation of the function of specific DNA sequences, the identification of genes nonessential for virus growth in cell culture, and the expression of foreign genes. (
  • Analysis of global cellular DNA methylation identified over 13,000 differentially methylated CpG residues in cells exposed to EBV compared to uninfected controls, with CpG island hypermethylation observed at several cellular genes. (
  • Although the vast majority of the DNA methylation changes were silent, 65 cellular genes that acquired CpG methylation showed altered transcript levels. (
  • Genes with increased transcript levels frequently acquired DNA methylation within the gene body while those with decreased transcript levels acquired DNA methylation near the transcription start site. (
  • Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, decitabine, restored expression of some hypermethylated genes in EBV-infected and EBV-negative transiently infected clones. (
  • Recent progress in isolation of new viruses and genome sequencing resulted in a substantial expansion of the NCLDV diversity, resulting in additional opportunities for comparative genomic analysis, and a demand for a comprehensive classification of viral genes. (
  • A comprehensive comparison of the protein sequences encoded in the genomes of 45 NCLDV belonging to 6 families was performed in order to delineate cluster of orthologous viral genes. (
  • A maximum-likelihood reconstruction of the NCLDV evolution yielded a set of 47 conserved genes that were probably present in the genome of the common ancestor of this class of eukaryotic viruses. (
  • Nevertheless, large groups of viruses infecting diverse hosts do appear to be monophyletic as indicated by the conservation of sets of genes encoding proteins responsible for most of the functions essential for virus reproduction. (
  • RNA virus genomes which can be transcribed to their cDNA form were also cloned in bacterial p1asmids, facilitating the study of RNA virus genes. (
  • Cloning and expression of viral genes in mammalian cells was made possible by the construction of shuttle plasmid vectors which carry the origins of DNA replication from bacteria and/or mammalian viruses. (
  • Megavirus and Mimivirus share 594 orthologous genes, mostly located within the center segment of their genomes. (
  • In addition, we identified typical micropathological changes such as multiple gross lesions in infected piglets through pathological analysis and conclude that the FJ-2012 genome is significantly different from known pseudorabies viruses, in which insertions, deletions, and substitutions are observed in multiple immune and virulence genes. (
  • The virulence of PRVs and the immunology mutual protection between them are determined by multiple genes, and thus the genome-wide analysis is necessary to define all the characteristics of the viruses [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • The lambda repressor prevents the transcription of the genes under those arrows in the top part of the diagram, and it's those genes which code for the things required for active virus particles, such as enzymes required to rupture the host cell's wall, and the proteins required to form the virus' coat. (
  • Ten of the 30 MITEs in the P. salinus genome are located within coding regions of predicted genes, while others are close to genes, suggesting that these transposons may have contributed to viral genetic novelty. (
  • This genome displayed a typical GcV architecture, with a 2,264-nt circular DNA molecule carrying a capsid gene on 1 strand and 2 genes on the opposite strand, which coded for Rep1 (involved in replication initiation) and Rep2 (involved in replication termination), respectively. (
  • The ability to genetically engineer Wolbachia could lead to inserting genes that cause the bacteria to produce traits that increase the effectiveness of usingWolbachia against dengue and Zika viruses. (
  • Origins of Viruses and their Genes: 4. (
  • Conversely, many host genes have been incorporated into large DNA viruses, such as herpesviuses and poxviruses, as well as oncogene-bearing retroviruses. (
  • expressed after DNA replication, but before late genes. (
  • RNA polymerase, TK, genes for DNA replication, viral growth factors, immune evasion factors and transcription activators for intermediate genes. (
  • A grand challenge for genomic sciences has been mapping the functional elements - the regions that determine the extent to which genes are expressed - in the remaining 98% of our DNA. (
  • There's nothing in that article about the number of genes, the number of regulatory sites, or the number of other functional elements in the human genome. (
  • In the appropriate cell, DNA viruses are able to program the cell to replicate the virus using the genes contained within the viral DNA genome. (
  • For a DNA virus, the virion is composed of a set of DNA genes protected by a proteincontaining coat called a capsid. (
  • On invasion of a susceptible cell the virion is disassembled to release the viral genome into the cell, at which time the genes within the viral DNA are transcribed, producing viral messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). (
  • Small DNA viruses generally have less than ten genes encoded within the viral genome, whereas large DNA viruses can have anywhere from fifty genes to well over one hundred genes. (
  • When that molecule binds to DNA, it turns on nearby genes whose products fight pathogens. (
  • Gene regulation is why a brain cell is different from a blood cell is different from a kidney cell-even though they all have the same set of genes in their DNA. (
  • Environmental sequence databases were examined for homologous genes arranged in similar configurations and three similar putative virus genomes from marine environments were identified. (
  • Instead, "virus hallmark genes" [ 8 ] that are present in sub-groups of viruses are often used as the basis for taxonomic classification and evolutionary studies. (
  • Although sharing the same morphological features (enveloped rod-shaped nucleocapsid) as baculoviruses, nudiviruses, and nimaviruses, analysis of its genome revealed that GpSGHV differs significantly from these viruses at the level of its genes. (
  • Sequence comparisons indicated that only 23% of GpSGHV genes displayed moderate homologies to genes from other invertebrate viruses, principally baculoviruses and entomopoxviruses. (
  • A retrovirus invades a host cell and inserts its genes into that cell's DNA. (
  • These viral genes co-opt the cell's machinery, using it to make new viruses that escape to infect more cells. (
  • Our cells can coat their DNA with molecules that suppress viral genes, for example. (
  • They contain 100 times more genes than the normal virus. (
  • And you would not expect to find that many genes in a virus genome. (
  • So the question is, if there is a fourth domain- and there were ideas that giant viruses originated from cellular organisms as it's adjusting, so unlikely to accumulate so many genes, which are usually found in cellular organisms. (
  • And yes, so researchers thought, well, this could be the explanation that we find these cellular genes in giant viruses. (
  • FREDERIK SCHULTZ: I think when we first discovered this new group of viruses and we saw that they have such a much more comprehensive complement of these genes than are typically found in cellular organisms, really wanted to prove, they really wanted to show that they come from this cellular ancestor, because that just sounds supercool. (
  • Rather, chemical modifications to the DNA can efficiently turn genes on and off without changing the sequence. (
  • Using ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), based upon HPV virus-like particles synthesized by the expression of HPV late genes in recombinant vectors, antibodies reactive to the virus capsid have been found in a proportion of patients with HPV infections and HPV-related diseases. (
  • Genetic variants in Alzheimer's- and smoking-related genes appear to be under selection pressure, according to a study comparing the genomes of old and young participants. (
  • It inserted its genes into host immune cells, which then produced new viruses. (
  • To figure out where the koala retrovirus came from, scientists have compared its genes to those of other species of viruses. (
  • In many koalas, the virus' genes aren't present just in the immune cells. (
  • The koalas carry the virus genes in every cell of their bodies, from their vestigial tails to their snub noses and in every organ in between. (
  • It inserts its genes into the DNA of the host cell, as it normally does. (
  • It's likely that at some point every koala left on Earth will carry the virus' genes. (
  • And in future generations, those genes will gradually mutate and lose their ability to make new viruses. (
  • Many Synechococcus genomes from strains isolated in the open ocean lack most known genes for iron stress, while genomes from strains isolated in coastal and upwelling areas contain many such genes, suggesting that maintaining multiple iron limitation compensation strategies is not a selective advantage in the open ocean [16] . (
  • A nucleic acid vaccine for dengue-2 virus was developed, consisting of a plasmid DNA vector with the pre-membrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes expressed from a cytomegalovirus promoter. (
  • It is demonstrated that the genome of C. cochliodes contains genes encoding putative enzymes from all four known heme peroxidase superfamilies including bifunctional catalase-peroxidase (KatG), cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP), manganese peroxidase, two paralogs of hybrid B peroxidases (HyBpox), cyclooxygenase, linoleate diol synthase, dye-decolorizing peroxidase (DyP) of type B and three paralogs of heme thiolate peroxidases. (
  • Analysis of the genome of C. thermophilum [ 1 ] mainly focused on the presence of genes coding for nucleoporins of high thermal stability, whereas the draft genome of Chaetomium globosum [ 2 ] was mainly asked for diverse genes coding cellulolytic pathways. (
  • The best-studied member of this family, Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus ( Ac MNPV), encodes for 150 genes and has its own genome completely sequenced. (
  • Researchers who were not involved with the study said it highlighted an important hypothesis, but that the system described doesn't fully explain how a cell can differentiate between genes from a virus and genes from itself. (
  • Generally, though, the animal genome has tools to suppress the expression of viral genes. (
  • If this is a secondary immune response to a viral DNA invasion-one that specifically tamps down certain genes-then the system described in the new paper is like a primary, broader defense, Theurkauf said. (
  • The reassortant viruses generated by cotransfection of plasmids may comprise genes encoding the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from an influenza virus currently infecting the population and the internal genes from an attenuated influenza virus. (
  • Like Mimivirus and CroV, Megavirus contains many genes for sugar, lipid and amino acid processing, as well as some metabolic genes not found in any other virus. (
  • Transpovirons are linear DNA elements of about 7 kilobases that encompass six to eight protein coding genes, two of which are homologous to virophage genes. (
  • Two crucial steps in the virus life cycle are genome encapsidation to form an infective virion and genome exit to infect the next host cell. (
  • The Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) comprise an apparently monophyletic class of viruses that infect a broad variety of eukaryotic hosts. (
  • After phages infect bacteria, they construct an impenetrable "safe room" inside of their host, which protects vulnerable phage DNA from antiviral enzymes. (
  • We then conducted a few downstream bioinformatics analyses including phylogenetic analysis and pathogenic analysis and used the virus to infect 6 pseudorabies virus-free piglets. (
  • To achieve this, its research teams are studying how viruses infect their hosts, cause disease and how they spread. (
  • Viruses can infect all types of life forms , from animals and plants to microorganisms , including bacteria and archaea . (
  • Like all viruses, DNA viruses are small when compared to the cells they infect and as such are obligate intracellular parasites (parasites that can only replicate within cells). (
  • There are six different DNA virus families that infect and may cause significant disease in humans. (
  • Adenovirus, herpesvirus, and poxvirus are all examples of large DNA viruses that infect humans. (
  • Other herpes viruses that infect humans include Epstein-Barr virus , which causes mononucleosis and is important in a variety of human cancers, and varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox in children and shingles in adults. (
  • The final large DNA virus that can infect humans is smallpox. (
  • If a retrovirus happens to infect an egg or sperm, its DNA can potentially be passed to the next generation and the generation after that. (
  • But over the generations, the viral DNA mutates, and endogenous retroviruses eventually lose the ability to infect new cells. (
  • But instead of churning out new viruses that infect other cells, the infected sex cell does something else: It becomes a new koala. (
  • In many cases, the inherited virus DNA still has the potential to make new viruses that can infect other koalas and trigger cancer in them. (
  • Some viruses infect a variety of cells in different hosts, like rabies. (
  • Single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses with circular genomes are the smallest viruses known to infect eukaryotes. (
  • We investigate viruses that infect bacteria, insects, plants, and the extreme thermophile Sulfolobus . (
  • This group of viruses includes four other families, including the enveloped Poxviridae , which infect vertebrates ( Chordopoxvirinae ) and insects ( Entomopoxvirinae ). (
  • Iridoviridae and Phycodnaviridae are aquatic viruses, and Asfarviridae infect vertebrates ( 6 ). (
  • If they infect germ cells, the DNA they're embedding into is the germline, and the viral DNA can potentially catch a ride into future generations. (
  • Viruses for a healthy pregnancy ( Sequences of DNA in the human genome. (
  • Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient vira. (
  • Sequences of DNA in the human genome that originated from ancient viral infections have some surprising effects on our bodies and are even essential for a healthy pregnancy, according to an article in the February issue of Microbiology Today. (
  • This DNA segment and other defined viral subgenomic fragments have been used as 32P-labeled probes to identify and analyze the structure of integrated ecotropic viral DNA sequences in uninfected mouse genomes. (
  • Background: Plant genomes contain various kinds of repetitive sequences such as transposable elements, microsatellites, tandem repeats and virus-like sequences. (
  • Most of them, with the exception of virus-like sequences, do not allow us to trace their origins nor to follow the process of their integration into the host genome. (
  • Recent discoveries of virus-like sequences in plant genomes led us to set the objective of elucidating the origin of the repetitive sequences. (
  • Endogenous rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV)-like sequences (ERTBVs) have been found throughout the rice genome. (
  • Here, we reconstructed putative virus structures from RTBV-like sequences in the rice genome and characterized to understand evolutionary implication, integration manner and involvements of endogenous virus segments in the corresponding disease response. (
  • Comparisons of DNA and amino acid sequences suggested the closely relationship between ERTBV and RTBV. (
  • The DNA methylation state of the ERTBV sequences was correlated with their copy number in the genome. (
  • However, these sequences facilitate to establish putative virus that provided information underlying virus integration and evolutionary relationship with existing virus. (
  • The virus-like sequences that have been found in plant genomes are divided into two groups of plant viruses, single-stranded DNA geminivirus and double-stranded DNA pararetroviruses. (
  • Compared to the intact virus sequences, most of the endogenous virus-like sequences were rearranged in the host genomes. (
  • The integrations of these viruses were shown to have been relatively recent events and the copy numbers of the endogenous virus sequences were found to be very low. (
  • The finding of such endogenous virus sequences raises questions concerning 1) the integration process giving rise to endogenous virus sequences, 2) possible differences in the evolutionary rate between the virus and endogenous virus and 3) resistance potential as a result of endogenous virus integration. (
  • The PRV genome encompasses a unique long segment (UL) and a unique short region (US) flanked by the internal and terminal repeat sequences (IRS and TRS, resp. (
  • Transposable elements are mobile DNA sequences that are widely distributed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes, where they represent a major force in genome evolution. (
  • Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that can insert into new genomic locations, often replicating themselves during the process. (
  • These sequences are more typical of eukaryotic viruses, not phages," Bordenstein commented. (
  • Their sequencing and bioinformatic efforts also allowed the Bordensteins to identify the genetic sequences that phage WO uses to insert its genome into theWolbachia chromosome. (
  • Nowadays, the notion that viral genetic sequences are present in host genomes is commonplace [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • We employed limiting dilution polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by DNA sequencing to obtain full-length sequences of integrated HIV proviruses in four subjects on suppressive ART over time. (
  • Bioinformatic analysis of viral metagenomic sequences derived from a hot, acidic lake revealed a circular, putatively single-stranded DNA virus encoding a major capsid protein similar to those found only in single-stranded RNA viruses. (
  • As a positive control, a nuclear DNA fragment (chr12: 53,959,600-53,964,000) devoid of repeated sequences that would lead to an overestimation of aligned reads and set to 4.4 kb to fit with the monoploid 8.8 kb BLV genome was selected from the human genome. (
  • A. It's a glass slide onto which we've printed little DNA fragments of every virus ever discovered - about 22,000 different viral sequences. (
  • As of March 2020, the full-length genome sequences of 9,240 different viruses, including the smallpox virus, are publicly available in an online database maintained by the National Institutes of Health. (
  • To study the pathogenicity and evolution of the circulating pseudorabies viruses in Fujian Province, mainland China, we isolated and sequenced the whole genome of a wild-type pseudorabies virus strain named "FJ-2012. (
  • The New York Genome Center has received approval from the New York State Department of Health to offer whole genome and RNA transcriptome sequencing in its Clinical Laboratory Evaluation Program-certified laboratory. (
  • On average, the whole genome sequencing procedure generated 660 million reads per sample. (
  • Providing that the BLV provirus is integrated in a single copy per cell, the whole genome sequencing procedure would thus generate 880 reads on average. (
  • They typically load very large files, such as whole genome FASTA files and display them in a way that users can make sense of the information there. (
  • Whole genome shotgun sequencing is under way. (
  • In this study, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of the Varilrix (Oka-V GSK ) and Varivax (Oka-V Merck ) vaccine strain genomes. (
  • Sequence analysis indicates 36 nucleotide differences between the two vaccine strains throughout the entire genome, among which only 14 are involved in unique amino acid substitutions. (
  • A novel circular DNA virus sequence is reported from grapevine. (
  • The corresponding genomic organization, coding potential, and conserved origin of replication are similar to those of members of the family Geminiviridae , but the genome of 3,206 nucleotides is 4% larger than the largest reported geminiviral genome and shares only 50% overall sequence identity. (
  • We provide here the first description of a gemini-like virus sequence from grapevine ( Vitis vinifera ), for which the corresponding virus is provisionally named grapevine cabernet franc-associated virus (GCFaV). (
  • BLASTN analysis ( 1 ) showed the closest related sequence to be that of a dicot-infecting mastrevirus, chickpea chlorotic dwarf Syria virus, the genome of which is 634 nt smaller and shares only 50% identity. (
  • A DNA virus belonging to the genus Badnavirus , family Caulimoviridae , was recently detected in grapevine by deep sequencing ( 8 ), but this is the first report of a geminivirus sequence in grapevine. (
  • A DNA sequence of 7747 base pairs containing the repeat was determined and analysed. (
  • The repeat contains a G + C-rich reiterated sequence, an A + T-rich sequence with the potential of forming a hairpin structure which may form part of an origin of DNA replication, and three open reading frames predicted to encode primary translation products with approximate molecular weights of 140 000, 30 000 and 20 000. (
  • Its complete DNA sequence was reported in 1997. (
  • We identified a DNA transposon related to Submariner in the genome of Acanthamoeba castellanii , a species thought to host pandoraviruses, which contains remnants of coding sequence for a Tc1/ mariner transposase. (
  • Several years ago, Bordenstein and his colleagues felt that they had answered the major scientific questions involving the phage, but they decided to sequence its genome for completeness sake. (
  • New Software Tools Streamline DNA Sequence Design-and-Build Process Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) have developed a suite of build-optimization software tools (BOOST) to streamline the design-build transition in synthetic biology engineering workflows. (
  • DAS Tool for Genome Reconstruction from Metagenomes Through the JGI's Emerging Technologies Opportunity Program (ETOP), researchers have developed and improved upon a tool that combines existing DNA sequence binning algorithms, allowing them to reconstruct more near-complete genomes from soil metagenomes compared to other methods. (
  • Alignment of 51 breast tumors genomes on the nuclear control sequence identified between 283 and 1287 paired-reads (illustrated on Fig. 1 and summarized on Table 1 ). (
  • In 19 biopsies adjacent to the breast tumors, 386-1197 paired-reads aligned onto the nuclear DNA sequence whereas none mapped on BLV (Table 1 ). (
  • All DNA samples contained extranuclear DNA as indicated by alignment of a control mitochondrial sequence (NC_012920) (Table 1 ). (
  • Given that the BLV provirus length is 8.8 kb and that a normal human diploid genome is 6.6 billion base pairs, the average number of reads that would be generated by a 8.8 kb-long monoploid sequence is 880 (660,000,000/6600,000,000 × 8800). (
  • About 3% of the GpSGHV genome is composed of 15 sequence repeats, distributed throughout the genome. (
  • The presence of blood isolate sequence 8-17 (BIS8-17) in the original plasma was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), validating the approach, since TTV is a known plasma virus. (
  • CLL patients with an unmutated (≤2% difference from the germline IGHV DNA sequence) BCR tend to have a worse clinical outcome ( 5 , 6 ), suggesting that antigen binding to the BCR is important for the initiation and/or progression of CLL. (
  • Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution. (
  • Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome. (
  • While genetics deals with the DNA sequence itself and the heritable changes in the DNA (mutations), epigenetics deals with heritable traits that are not caused by mutations. (
  • The genome is sequenced and the complete sequence is about 6450 nucleotides long. (
  • The 5'-end of the genome has a methylated nucleotide cap and the cap sequence type is m7G5'ppp5 ('Gp). (
  • These findings - together with the fact that peroxidases participate in diverse fungal secondary metabolism pathways [ 5 - 9 ] - prompted us to sequence the entire genome of Chaetomium cochliodes strain CCM-F232 for detailed comparative studies. (
  • Comparisons to DNA and protein sequence databases (GenBank, Swissprot, and Tr-EMBL) did not reveal any sign of amoebal or other contamination. (
  • The first member of this family, Mimivirus, was discovered in 2003, and the first complete genome sequence was published in 2004. (
  • The ability to synthesize viruses has far-reaching consequences, since viruses can no longer be regarded as extinct, as long as the information of their genome sequence is known and permissive cells are available. (
  • In a recently-published book, " The Tangled Tree: A Radical New History of Life ," nature writer David Quammen reveals the journey to discovering that 8 percent of the human genome has viral DNA - in other words, we've got the building blocks for bacteria and viruses in our own genetic make-up. (
  • We contain some ancestry from bacteria, some ancestry from viruses and some ancestry of course from other primates. (
  • But it happens also in higher creatures, so that we humans contain some stretches of DNA that have come to us sideways from bacteria, and sizable stretches of DNA that have come to us sideways from viruses in the course of viral infections that have gotten into the reproductive cells of humans and been passed down," he said. (
  • Large DNA viruses of bacteria and eukaryotes have complex life cycles with several distinct phases that involve diverse virus-host interactions. (
  • To use the lambda phage (which is a bacteriophage and thus infects bacteria, not humans, but the underlying principles are the same) as an example, the expression of the viral DNA is controlled. (
  • Aside: cI stands for clear I, because virus mutants which don't have c1 go straight into the lytic cycle and so produce clear spots on agar plates of bacteria since the bacteria are straight out killed rather than hosting the virus in the prophage form. (
  • The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids -pieces of DNA that can move between cells-while others may have evolved from bacteria. (
  • The team is led by Hendrik Poinar , who previously reconstructed woolly mammoth DNA and retrieved the genomes of plague bacteria from the teeth of sixth-century skeletons. (
  • Discovering DNA related to the black widow spider toxin gene came as a total surprise because it is the first time that a phage - a virus that infects bacteria - has been found carrying animal-like DNA," said Associate Professor of Biological Sciences Seth Bordenstein. (
  • The large dark patch is bacteria DNA that has been degraded by the phage. (
  • Bordenstein began studying the WO 15 years ago because he was curious about how such a virus survives and flourishes in a symbiotic bacteria like Wolbachiathat has a very small genome. (
  • He postulated that RNA tumour viruses made DNA copies which then integrated into host chromosomal DNA, analogous to integration of prophage in bacteria. (
  • Two new high containment level laboratories have been built and equipped, allowing research on pathogenic viruses, bacteria and parasites. (
  • Giant viruses can reach sizes larger than some bacteria and contain genomes that can encode hundreds of proteins. (
  • Both KatG and DyP-type B are shown to be introduced into ascomycetes genomes by horizontal gene transfer from various bacteria. (
  • The x-ray structure of the major capsid protein of the virus revealed a fold nearly identical to the folds of the major capsid proteins of the eukaryotic adenoviruses and PRD-1, a virus that infects bacteria. (
  • Its genome is thus larger than the sequenced genomes of several bacteria, including Mycoplasma genitalium (580 kbp), Ureaplasma urealyticum (752 kbp), Buchnera sp. (
  • Consistent with this large genome, Mimivirus particles have a size comparable to that of small bacteria such as U. urealyticum ( Fig. 1 B). The viruses with the largest genomes previously described are a Phycodnavirus infecting Pyramimonas algae (560 kbp) and phage D of Bacillus megaterium (670 kbp) ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Infection of these cell types results in distinct EBV gene expression patterns regulated by epigenetic modifications involving DNA methylation and chromatin structure. (
  • Throughout the simian virus 40 genome, variations in structure delineated with the cobalt complex appear to correlate with regions important for control of gene expression. (
  • A detailed analysis of the KilA-N and Bro-N domains and the associated domains points to extensive domain shuffling and lineage-specific gene family expansion within DNA virus genomes. (
  • We also demonstrate the extensive role of lineage-specific gene expansion and domain shuffling, within a limited set of approximately 24 domains, in the generation of the diversity of virus-specific regulatory proteins. (
  • This reconstructed ancestral gene set is robust to the parameters of the reconstruction procedure and so is likely to accurately reflect the gene core of the ancestral NCLDV, indicating that this virus encoded a complex machinery of replication, expression and morphogenesis that made it relatively independent from host cell functions. (
  • However, no gene is common to all viruses, so there is no evidence of a monophyletic origin of all viruses, at least, not within the traditional concept of monophyly. (
  • The cleavage of viral DNA genomes with restriction enzymes and the cloning of such DNA fragments in bacterial p1asmids has led to the amplification of selected viral DNA fragments for sequencing and gene expression. (
  • In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer , which increases genetic diversity . (
  • Circular replication initiation protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) (CRESS-DNA) genomes are found in diverse group II virus families, which all possess a conserved Rep-encoding gene and a nonenveloped icosahedral capsid, except geminiviruses, which have twinned particles ( 1 ). (
  • But in this case, "the portion of DNA related to the black widow spider toxin gene is intact and widespread in the phage," said Bordenstein. (
  • require DNA rep/intermediate gene products. (
  • The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, among other large collaborative efforts, was established in 2003 to create a catalogue of these functional elements and to outline their roles in regulating gene expression. (
  • These "early" proteins are also important for promoting "late" viral gene synthesis and preparing the cell for the production of progeny virus. (
  • Following late gene synthesis, which includes proteins that are important for replicating and encasing the virus, progeny virions are then released by the infected cell to invade other cells so that the process can be repeated. (
  • They control microbial abundance and community structure ( 3 ), and microbial genetic diversity and evolution are shaped by virus-mediated gene transfer and host range ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Their latest update now incorporates ClusterScout, a tool for targeted identification of custom biosynthetic gene clusters across several thousand isolate microbial genomes, as well as a new search capability. (
  • As a growing fetus, you co-opted a gene from an ancient virus to form the placenta that kept you nourished in the womb. (
  • The same gene that allowed a virus to fuse to a mammal cell now lets cells of the placenta fuse together to form the organ. (
  • Clear examples of recent lateral gene transfer (LGT) from RNA-only to DNA-only viral types have not been observed. (
  • We report the discovery of a group of circovirus-like DNA genomes whose common ancestor appears to have incorporated a capsid protein (CP) gene known previously only in RNA viruses. (
  • The GpSGHV genome is a double-stranded circular DNA molecule of 190,032 bp containing 160 nonoverlapping open reading frames (ORFs), which are distributed equally on both strands with a gene density of one per 1.2 kb. (
  • Gene expression of DNA viruses requires nuclear import of the viral genome. (
  • Human Adenoviruses (Ads), like most DNA viruses, encode factors within early transcription units promoting their own gene expression and counteracting cellular antiviral defense mechanisms. (
  • The cellular transcriptional repressor Daxx prevents viral gene expression through the assembly of repressive chromatin remodeling complexes targeting incoming viral genomes. (
  • Capsid proteins from other DNA viruses were also shown to activate the Ad E1A promoter independent of Ad gene expression and support virus replication. (
  • Viruses with mutated PPxY motif in protein VI (M1) have altered gene expression. (
  • Instead, it is made in her fetus and in the placenta, by a gene that originally came from a virus that infected our mammalian ancestors more than 100 million years ago. (
  • The long control region contains cis -responsive elements, which are required for the regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. (
  • DNA destruction due to gene mutation or experiment. (
  • Plants were inoculated with a virus that contained a portion of the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, which induced RdDM of the promoter integrated in the plant genome and transcriptional silencing of the green fluorescent protein gene driven by the promoter. (
  • The DNA was adsorbed onto gold microspheres for administration by a gene gun. (
  • We determined an asymmetric reconstruction of this particle that revealed spooled DNA, the dodecameric portal, and the location of the 9 gene products known to be in the particle. (
  • 5. The expression plasmid of claim 1, further comprising a negative strand RNA virus viral gene segment inserted between the pol I promoter and the termination signal. (
  • Synthetic viruses have also been researched as potential gene therapy tools. (
  • For a retrovirus to become part of the host genome it is usually inactivated by mutation or silencing so it does not express any proteins. (
  • VZV has a linear, double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 125 kb that encodes at least 71 proteins ( 12 ). (
  • Viral DNA-binding proteins have served as good models to study the biochemistry of transcription regulation and chromatin dynamics. (
  • Computational analysis of viral DNA-binding regulatory proteins and identification of their previously undetected homologs encoded by cellular genomes might lead to a better understanding of their function and evolution in both viral and cellular systems. (
  • The phyletic range and the conserved DNA-binding domains of the viral regulatory proteins of the poxvirus D6R/N1R and baculoviral Bro protein families have not been previously defined. (
  • Using computational analysis, we show that the amino-terminal module of the D6R/N1R proteins defines a novel, conserved DNA-binding domain (the KilA-N domain) that is found in a wide range of proteins of large bacterial and eukaryotic DNA viruses. (
  • The amino-terminal module of the Bro proteins is another, distinct DNA-binding domain (the Bro-N domain) that is present in proteins whose domain architectures parallel those of the KilA-N domain-containing proteins. (
  • We define a large class of novel viral DNA-binding proteins and their cellular homologs and identify their domain architectures. (
  • Much less is known of the domain architecture and evolutionary history of those viral DNA-binding regulatory proteins whose cellular homologs have not (yet) been identified. (
  • Genome packaging is a precisely coordinated molecular synergy, in which a certain amount of viral DNA from a DNA concatemer is inserted into a preformed procapsid, followed by binding of additional viral proteins to the capsid to retain the packaged DNA. (
  • In particular, these genome-packaging proteins have to form high-order molecular assemblies in order to function. (
  • Our goal is to understand molecular mechanisms of genome packaging in DNA viruses by analyzing assemblies of genome-packaging proteins using structural approaches. (
  • Five early polycistronic transcriptional units encode phage DNA replication proteins and lysis functions together with less characterized, mostly non-essential, functions. (
  • This relative independence of the viruses from the host cells is consistent with the fact that all these viruses encode several conserved proteins that mediate most of the processes essential for viral reproduction. (
  • The lysogenic cycle involves the viruses' DNA being integrated into the host's genome, such that the host has a dormant infection, the lytic cycle involves the virus' DNA being transcribed and translated to make the components of viruses, like capsid proteins, which then self-assemble to form many viruses which then leave the cell. (
  • This sets up the general replication scheme: first of enzymes to help the virus replicate (early stage), then double-stranded DNA replication (semi-conservative mode) begins (late stage), followed by translation of structural proteins, such as the penton and hexon precursors. (
  • Endogenous retrovirus (ERV) genomes integrated into the chromosomal DNA of the host were first detected in chickens and mice as Mendelian determinants of Gag and Env proteins and of the release of infectious virus particles. (
  • If the RNA world came before the evolution of DNA and proteins, one could argue that reverse transcription is actually a fossil relic turned to good use alongside telomerase and other oddities of nature [ 5 ]. (
  • Less than 2% of the human genome encodes proteins. (
  • Our data further suggest a common principle for genome activation of DNA viruses by counteracting Daxx related repressive mechanisms through virion proteins. (
  • Furthermore, these proteins induce structural and numerical chromosome alterations and modulate cellular response to DNA damage. (
  • The early region codes for proteins involved in the regulation of viral transcription (E2), viral DNA replication (E1 and E2), cell proliferation (E5, E6 and E7) and, possibly, some late steps in the viral life cycle (E4). (
  • Envelopes are made up of proteins, phospholipid bilayer, and some glycoproteins protruding out (looking like spikes) at the surface of the virus. (
  • This domain, also known as KilAC domain, may be a DNA-binding domain of the viral regulatory proteins [ PMID: 11897024 ]. (
  • Even after stretches of viral DNA get passed along and mutate over millions of years, they can sometimes still be expressed and make proteins. (
  • In most icosahedral double-stranded (ds) DNA viruses, the viral genome enters and exits the capsid through a unique vertex. (
  • The DNA genome of hepadnaviruses is usually replicated through reverse transcription which takes place within the viral capsid in the cytoplasm of infected cells Saquinavir (Fig. 1). (
  • The portal forms a conduit at a single vertex of the capsid that allows viral DNA to enter during virus assembly and exit during infection. (
  • Until the discovery of pandoraviruses in 2013, it had the largest capsid diameter of all known viruses, as well as the largest and most complex genome among all known viruses. (
  • In the case of some DNA viruses, the capsid can be surrounded by a membrane that is formed from cellular membranes. (
  • Transcriptional activation of the adenoviral genome is mediated by capsid protein VI. (
  • A virion contains a protein coating called a capsid, which surrounds the core of the virus containing the nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA). (
  • Together with the capsid and the DNA or RNA core is called a nucleocapsid . (
  • Both the capsid and the envelope are important in protection and providing shape to the virus. (
  • Although viruses lack cell membrane, some viruses have a viral membrane surrounding its capsid. (
  • An electron cryomicroscopy reconstruction of the virus showed that the capsid has pseudo T = 31 quasi symmetry and is 1000 Å in diameter, including the pentons. (
  • Geminiviruses are plant viruses with geminate icosahedral particles and a circular single-stranded DNA genome, among other features. (
  • Genomic features of gemycircularviruses HV-GcV1 and HV-GcV2 and of a novel circular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) virus, HV-CV1, including hairpin structure and predicted open reading frames. (
  • Arctic viromes are dominated by unknown and single-stranded DNA viruses with no close relatives in the database. (
  • An Antarctic freshwater lake was shown to host a diverse viral DNA community, unexpected for such an extreme and high-latitude ecosystem, and to be dominated by viruses belonging to unknown families related to single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses ( 14 ). (
  • The genome of Tobamovirus is usually monomeric or polymeric, not segmented, and contains a single molecule of linear, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA. (
  • These viruses have genomes of single-stranded RNA, and double-stranded DNA. (
  • Flock House virus is a T = 3, single-stranded RNA virus that infects Drosophila . (
  • The resultant minimal plasmid-based system may be used to synthesize any RNA virus, preferably viruses with a negative single stranded RNA genome. (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a herpesvirus and is the causative agent of chicken pox (varicella) and shingles (herpes zoster). (
  • Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a human alphaherpesvirus that causes chicken pox (varicella) and shingles (herpes zoster) ( 75 ). (
  • The major inverted repeat of 7319.5 base pairs is present at an internal site in the varicella-zoster virus genome and at one terminus. (
  • Herpes zoster is viral infection that occurs with reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. (
  • Reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) that has remained dormant within dorsal root ganglia, often for decades after the patient's initial exposure to the virus in the form of varicella (chickenpox), results in herpes zoster (shingles). (
  • We find that vDNA produced during RNA virus infection of Drosophila and mosquitoes is present in both linear and circular forms. (
  • Circular vDNA (cvDNA) is sufficient to produce siRNAs that confer partially protective immunity when challenged with a cognate virus. (
  • For each phylogenetic cluster, we were able to make a consensus alignment for a circular virus-like structure carrying two complete ORFs. (
  • The data indicated that in the R703A and D777A mutants minus-strand DNA synthesis was incomplete due to loss of catalytic activity of RNase H. In contrast in the R781A mutant the minus-strand DNA synthesis was near complete to some extent while the plus-strand DNA synthesis (i.e. relaxed circular DNA) was severely impaired due to the defect in RNase H activity. (
  • Depending on whether or not the second template switch takes place during plus-strand DNA synthesis one of two distinct double-strand DNA products-relaxed circular (RC) DNA or duplex linear (DL) DNA-is generated (Fig. 1E and ?andF).F). The RC DNA is usually generated when the RNA primer translocates to DR2 termed primer translocation near the 5′ end of the minus-strand DNA template (Fig. 1D). (
  • The third template switch termed circularization results in a relaxed circular conformation of the genome. (
  • Three contigs were of viral origin (viral first hit, E-value ≤1E-03), all belonging to the ssDNA circular viruses. (
  • For small DNA tumour viruses, the full replication cycle occurs via non-integrated circular viral genomes, whereas viral integration into host DNA usually leads to abortive infection and sometimes to cell transformation. (
  • The presence and circular configuration of the complete virus genome was confirmed by inverse PCR amplification from native DNA extracted from lake sediment. (
  • Bergoin, M. / Genome analysis of a Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus reveals a novel, large, double-stranded circular DNA virus . (
  • Papillomaviruses are small, non-enveloped, viruses that contain a double-stranded, circular 8 kb DNA genome. (
  • As it resembles a bacterium on Gram staining, it was named Mimivirus (for Mimicking microbe) ( Fig. 1 A). DNA digestion by Sal I and Sac II treatment of purified particles ( 2 ), followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, demonstrated that Mimivirus has a double-stranded DNA circular genome of about 800 kilobase pairs (kbp). (
  • Since then they have garnered considerable interest for evolutionary reasons, primarily because of their uniquely bacterial-like mitochondrial genomes. (
  • In herpesviruses and many bacterial viruses, genome-packaging is a precisely mediated process fulfilled by a virally encoded molecular machine called terminase that consists of two protein components: A DNA-recognition component that defines the specificity for packaged DNA, and a catalytic component that provides energy for the packaging reaction by hydrolyzing ATP. (
  • But, the viral DNA is not a monolith - parts of the viral DNA of a prophage (the genetic material of the bacteriophage integrated into the bacterial host genome) are expressed but their expression prevents the expression of those parts of the viral DNA which would cause a transition from prophage an active infection, i.e a switch from lysogeny to the lytic cycle. (
  • Since Dmitri Ivanovsky 's 1892 article describing a non-bacterial pathogen infecting tobacco plants, and the discovery of the tobacco mosaic virus by Martinus Beijerinck in 1898, [2] about 5,000 virus species have been described in detail, [3] although there are millions of types. (
  • Biochemical and cytologic testing, bacterial cultures, and PCR of pericardial fluid samples for cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster and herpes simplex viruses, parvovirus B19, fungal 18S rRNA, bacterial 16S rRNA, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were negative. (
  • That is one of the surprise discoveries made by a pair of Vanderbilt biologists when they sequenced the genome of a virus that attacks Wolbachia, a bacterial parasite that has successfully infected not only black widow spiders but more than half of all arthropod species, which include insects, spiders and crustaceans. (
  • For example, as of July 2016, there were 47,516 archaeal, bacterial, and eukaryotic genomes in the IMG with Microbiome Samples ( IMG/M ) system, with researchers noting that number "represents an over 300% increase since September 2013. (
  • Prophages P1 and P7 exist as unit copy DNA plasmids in the bacterial cell. (
  • Most strikingly, the GpSGHV genome encodes homologues to the four baculoviral per os infectivity factors (p74 [pif-0], pif-1, pif-2, and pif-3). (
  • The HPV genome encodes several oncoproteins [5]. (
  • Megavirus also encodes a fused version of the mismatch DNA repair enzyme MutS, uniquely similar to the one found in the mitochondrion of octocorals. (
  • With complete host genomes available for analysis, we can now see the great extent of viral invasion into the genomes of numerous vertebrate species, including humans. (
  • Recent updates focus on database analytical tools for microbial genomics and viruses relevant to DOE missions in bioenergy and environment. (
  • The study of the genome is called genomics. (
  • EBNA3A was tethered to DNA through BATF protein complexes. (
  • These data strongly support a model in which EBNA3A is tethered to DNA through a BATF-containing protein complexes to enable continuous cell proliferation. (
  • The P8-genome complex is then packaged into the procapsid through the unique vertex while the genome terminal protein P8 functions as a valve that closes the channel once the genome is inside. (
  • Minus-strand DNA synthesis is initiated by protein priming using Pol Saquinavir as a primer and the bulge region of ε as a template (5 6 Following synthesis of three or four nucleotides the nascent minus-strand DNA switches templates to a position near the 3′ end of the pgRNA i.e. the 3′ copy of direct repeat 1 (DR1*) (Fig. 1A). (
  • iii) elucidate the mode of DNA-binding for a terminase DNA-recognition protein;and (iv) explore the assembly of the terminase complex in vitro. (
  • The terminase docks onto the portal protein complex embedded in a single vertex of a preformed viral protein shell called procapsid, and pumps the viral DNA into the procapsid through a conduit formed by the portal. (
  • The structure reveals a ring-like octamer formed by interweaved protein monomers with a highly extended fold, embracing a tunnel through which DNA may be translocated. (
  • The structure reveals a common scheme for oligomerization of terminase DNA-recognition components, and provides insights into the role of gp1 in formation of the packaging-competent terminase complex and assembly of the terminase with the portal, in which ring-like protein oligomers stack together to form a continuous channel for viral DNA translocation. (
  • Endogenous PML (first column) and virus, derived protein VI (second column), were detected with specific Ab. (
  • Scientists have learned that a protein called Hemo, made by a fetus and the placenta, is produced from viral DNA that entered our ancestors' genomes 100 million years ago. (
  • Hemo is not the only protein with such an alien origin: Our DNA contains roughly 100,000 pieces of viral DNA. (
  • Unique genome architectures and phylogenetic analysis of the Rep protein suggest that these viruses belong to novel genera and/or families. (
  • Baculoviruses are insect viruses extensively exploited as eukaryotic protein expression vectors. (
  • Endogenous Retroviruses, for example are thought to make up between 5~8% of the human genome. (
  • If it couldn't, then would there be much point (from a virus' perspective) to the storage of viral DNA in the genome which, as you've noted, retroviruses can do? (
  • DOE JGI Database of DNA viruses and retroviruses debuts on IMG platform In a series of four articles published in the Database issue of the Nucleic Acids Research journal, DOE JGI researchers report on the latest updates to several publicly accessible databases and computational tools that benefit the global community of microbial researchers. (
  • Endogenous genomes were first found in avian alpha-retroviruses, and soon after in murine beta- and gamma-retroviruses. (
  • There is little evidence yet of endogenous versions of delta-retroviruses related to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and bovine leukosis virus. (
  • IMG/VR: A database of cultured and uncultured DNA Viruses and retroviruses. (
  • So that viral DNA got passed down from generation to human generation as so-called endogenous retroviruses. (
  • Most of our viral DNA comes from one group in particular: retroviruses, a group that includes HIV. (
  • Just as we have defenses against free-living viruses, we have also developed defenses against endogenous retroviruses. (
  • Some endogenous retroviruses offer protection against other viruses, for example. (
  • Our, and other organisms, genome is inhabited by lots of bits of selfish DNA, including retroviruses. (
  • But retroviruses are not the only group of viruses who have made themselves right at home in our DNA-- once we started looking, it turns out that there are allllll kinds of viruses just hangin out ! (
  • On two locations in the 3R chromosome, and one location on the X chromosome, there are Sigma viruses snuggled up inside of endogenous retroviruses ! (
  • Endogenous retroviruses are weird, but how they got into our genomes and what they mean, evolutionarily, isnt too hard to understand (unless youre an IDiot). (
  • ERVs are retroviruses that accidentally infected an egg/sperm cell, and became a permanent part of that egg/sperms DNA. (
  • Retroviruses like KoRV replicate by inserting their genome into the DNA of an infected cell. (
  • This field involves sequencing the DNA within living things and comparing it to other organisms to see whether there's a close relationship that exists between them and at what point those organisms diverged. (
  • However, beyond an incremental change in size, the Megavirus genome exhibits 7 aminoacyl tRNA synthetases (Table 2), the archetypes of enzymes previously thought only to be encoded by cellular organisms. (
  • Our findings continue to blur the division between viral and cellular genomes, adhering to the emerging view that the content, dynamics, and evolution of the genomes of giant viruses do not substantially differ from those of cellular organisms. (
  • A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms . (
  • Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life", [8] and as replicators. (
  • Science fiction books and movies are filled with examples of out-of-control machines, viruses , artificial organisms and artificial intelligences. (
  • Geographic distribution of biosamples and organisms encompassed by the Genomes OnLine Database. (
  • Viruses are known to be the most abundant organisms on earth, yet little is known about their collective origin and evolutionary history. (
  • While viruses are known to be the most abundant organisms on earth, their collective evolutionary history, biodiversity and functional capacity is poorly understood [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Giant viruses grow by acquiring DNA from other organisms. (
  • These outsized particles straddle the line between viruses and cellular organisms and their origin is up for debate - did they evolve from smaller viruses or an unknown ancestral organism. (
  • A group of scientists discovered four new species of giant virus called Klosneuviruses in a wastewater treatment plant in Austria and analyzed the genome to come up with a hypothesis that these giant viruses evolved by picking up DNA from other organisms. (
  • And so the more likely approach would have been that this virus indeed came from cellular organisms, that they were from a cellular organism. (
  • Microbial metagenomes are DNA samples of the most abundant, and therefore most successful organisms at the sampling time and location for a given cell size range. (
  • To piece together the story, the University of Utah team first trawled through previously published genomic data, looking for stretches of DNA that bind to a molecule known for switching immune cells into attack mode. (
  • PCR did not detect it in CLL peripheral blood genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (n = 20). (
  • In the last decade, leaps in DNA sequencing technologies have transformed our ability to collect and analyze genomic information. (
  • Genomic and electron microscopy data confirmed the initial diagnosis as infection with orf virus and identified this virus as the etiologic agent. (
  • Some of the genomes exhibit a mixture of genomic features associated with different families of ssDNA viruses (i.e. circoviruses, geminiviruses and parvoviruses). (
  • In bioinformatics, a genome browser is a graphical interface for display of information from a biological database for genomic data. (
  • The fact that this transition can occur means someone can experience an active viral infection, with proliferating virus particles, without exposure to additional viral contaminants. (
  • While not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. (
  • The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. (
  • Viral particles were harvested at 24, 48 and 72 h p.i. and virus yield was determined by quantitative E2A stain. (
  • We use a variety of physical methods to investigate structure-function relationships, including single-crystal x-ray diffraction, static and time-resolved solution x-ray diffraction, electron cryomicroscopy and image reconstruction, mass spectrometry, structure-based computational analyses, and methods associated with thermodynamic characterization of virus particles and their transitions. (
  • We seek to investigate a common molecular mechanism in life cycles of herpesvirus and many other large double- stranded DNA viruses, in search of new measures to control and prevent infection and diseases caused by these viral pathogens. (
  • The DNA polymerase encoded by GpSGHV is of type B and appears to be phylogenetically distant from all DNA polymerases encoded by large double-stranded DNA viruses. (
  • Parapoxvirus is a genus of double-stranded DNA viruses (family Poxviridae ) that contains 4 virus species: orf virus, bovine papular stomatitis virus, parapoxvirus of red deer, and pseudocowpoxvirus. (
  • The Oryza AA-genome species vary in the ERTBV copy number. (
  • Comparison of ERTBV among the Oryza AA-genome species allowed us to speculate a possible role of endogenous virus segments against its related disease. (
  • We propose SPP1 as the reference species for a new SPP1-like viruses genus of the Siphoviridae family. (
  • and which events enable animal viruses to cross species barriers and spread in humans. (
  • Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope . (
  • This can be narrow, meaning a virus is capable of infecting few species, or broad, meaning it is capable of infecting many. (
  • Several species of tsetse flies can be infected by the Glossina pallidipes salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV). (
  • To expand the basic nucleotide alphabet, many species modify their DNA with epigenetic marks. (
  • Investigating the complex community of ssDNA viruses in the environment can lead to the discovery of divergent species and help elucidate evolutionary links between ssDNA viruses. (
  • Li, H & Mináróvits, J 2003, ' Host cell-dependent expression of latent Epstein-Barr virus genomes: Regulation by DNA methylation ', Advances in Cancer Research , vol. 89, pp. 133-156. (
  • However, pE-containing MVM DNA produced more NS2 mRNA than iE-containing DNA, apparently the result of virus-strain-specific differences in the regulation of splicing. (
  • Altogether, they make up about 8 percent of the human genome. (
  • Pictured is one page in a volume of about 1,000 pages, of which more than 100 volumes exist, that reveal the 3.4 billion bases of DNA that comprise the human genome. (
  • Now, human ERVs (HERVs) make up around 8% of our genome, say Dr David Griffiths from the Moredun Research Institute and Ccile Voisset from the Facult de Mdecine et des Sciences de la Sant in France. (
  • We have described the EBNA3A genome-wide landscape in EBV-infected human lymphoblasts. (
  • The parental virus, Oka-P, was isolated in primary human embryo lung cell culture from vesicle fluid from a 3-year-old boy with typical varicella. (
  • The virus was attenuated by 10 passages in HEL and 12 passages in guinea pig embryo cells, plaque-purified, and passaged five times further in human diploid cells (WI38) to prepare a strain suitable for use as a vaccine (Oka-V) (Fig. 1 ) ( 67 ). (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human gammaherpesvirus associated with a wide spectrum of malignant neoplasms. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and has historically been reported to cause mild symptomatic diseases during human infections. (
  • While ZIKV causes acute human diseases, infections of vector mosquitoes are basically non-pathogenic, allowing persistent infections and conferring lifelong ability to transmit the virus. (
  • Herpes viruses are important human pathogens that cause diseases ranging from chickenpox to various forms of cancer. (
  • We are working to understand the molecular mechanisms of viruses to improve human health and protect populations against viral infections. (
  • Some viruses can cause their genetic material to be pemanently stored in the human genome -- even getting passed on to offspring. (
  • Does stored viral DNA present in an otherwise uninfected human being's (a newborn baby for example) genome ever get used to spontaneously manufacture new virus bodies, thus infecting the host, and causing them to suddenly become contagious without ever having encountered an actual virus? (
  • Put differently, is it possible that a human being harboring viral DNA and quarantined in a sterile enclosed environment (bubble, etc) preventing any contact with external contaminants (viruses), could ever spontaneously become infected with a virus, due to the stored viral DNA getting expressed? (
  • Given this morning's reports of infants possibly born in China whose genomes were edited by CRISPR-based technology, the American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) reaffirms the cautious but proactive approach recommended in its 2017 position statement on human germline genome editing, published in The American Journal of Human Genetics. (
  • A koala virus could help researchers explain millions of years of accumulated 'junk' DNA in the human genome. (
  • Phylogenetic inference from concatenated Rep placed this virus close to another GcV (found in sewage) in a clade comprising 2 other human-associated GcVs ( Technical Appendix Figure 1). (
  • Indeed, germ-line integration has not yet been described for DNA tumour viruses, although we now know that it occasionally occurs with human herpesvirus 6 [ 9 , 10 ]. (
  • Scientists have made tremendous strides in decoding human and animal genomes, synthesizing DNA and cloning . (
  • Among the skeptics is Francis Collins, head of the Human Genome Project, says the 10-year time frame is too ambitious. (
  • Parrington's book was full of misleading and incorrect statements about the human genome so I was anxious to see if Oxford had upped it's game. (
  • The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) is a large-scale, and very expensive, attempt to map all of the functional elements in the human genome. (
  • The preliminary study (ENCODE 1) was published in 2007 and the main publicity campaign surrounding that study focused on the fact that much of the human genome was transcribed. (
  • Hundreds of knowledgeable scientists pointed out that it was ridiculous for ENCODE researchers to claim that most of the human genome is functional based on their data. (
  • Viruses with small DNA genomes include human papillomavirus (HPV). (
  • The human genome is three billion letters long. (
  • Yes, eight percent of human DNA comes from ancient viruses that once infected our ancestors. (
  • Since this association might have major consequences for human health, we evaluated 51 whole genomes of breast cancer samples for the presence of BLV DNA. (
  • Representative alignment of dbGaP sequencing reads to human and BLV DNA. (
  • International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium: Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. (
  • International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. (
  • Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses that cause hyperproliferative lesions of the mucosa and skin. (
  • human cytomegalovirus and other DNA viruses. (
  • -An ancient retrovirus that altered the DNA of Neanderthals and Denisovans has now been found to have left alterations in modern human DNA as well-in some cancer patients. (
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (
  • Koala pandemic genetics: Viruses have inserted themselves into the human genome 31 times. (
  • Most human cases of infection with parapoxvirus reported are caused by orf virus ( 2 , 6 , 7 ), but some human infections are caused by pseudocowpoxviruses ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Diagnosis of human infections with orf virus is usually made by histologic analysis, molecular biology (PCR) studies, or electron microscopy. (
  • Nevertheless, a unique orf virus was sequenced after a human case report ( 14 ) (orf virus strain B029). (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are able to recognize the GP120 and binds to the GP120. (
  • Concept destroyed code human genome. (
  • Tumor will focus on the DNA viruses in the human population that are associated with cancers. (
  • It will cover most of the viruses that are thought to contribute to human malignancy. (
  • The human genome is not entirely human. (
  • The only virus of this family isolated from a human to date is LBA 111. (
  • Woese's research into early genome sequencing - which is the process of figuring out the correct order that four chemicals, called bases, appear within a genome - contributed to the development of molecular phylogenetics . (
  • Lambda-Tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)cobalt(III), a photoactivated DNA-cleaving agent, is a small molecular probe of DNA structure. (
  • This DNA insertion process is fulfilled by a powerful molecular machine consisting of the terminase and the portal. (
  • Molecular mechanisms of genome packaging in these large viruses are not well understood, owing to unusual complexity and lack of high resolution structural data. (
  • The extensive genetic, biochemical and structural biology studies on the molecular mechanisms of SPP1 DNA replication and phage particle assembly rendered it a model system for tailed phages research. (
  • The development of recombinant DNA technology has made a marked impact on molecular virology. (
  • In summary, this study shed lights on the molecular basis of the prevalence and pathology of the pseudorabies virus strain FJ-2012. (
  • However, the complete genomes of the variants and their molecular characteristics are unclear, which is an obstacle in producing effective vaccines. (
  • Advances in molecular biology have led to huge increases in determining the phylogenetic history of viruses. (
  • Further chapters detail genetic variation of viruses and the molecular basis of interrelation at the population level and the molecular basis and evolution of this relationship. (
  • Molecular Interactions of Viruses and their Hosts: 10. (
  • The DNA provirus hypothesis involving reverse transcription and integration is generally regarded as a revolutionary paradigm shift, but the science historian Fisher suggests in a recent reappraisal that Temin was actually thinking-albeit boldly-within the conceptual framework of his time and that the synthesis of DNA from an RNA template did not overturn the 'central dogma' of molecular biology [ 4 ]. (
  • The latest book is DNA Demystified by Alan McHughen , a molecular geneticist at the University California, Riverside. (
  • To better understand the molecular basis underlying the pathogenesis of this unusual virus, we sequenced and analyzed its genome. (
  • Biology involves the study of life at all levels, from the molecular biology of virus replication to the study of animals and plants in their natural habitats. (
  • molecular and cellular biology of virus-host interactions. (
  • In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. (
  • Molecular biology studies have provided exciting discoveries on virus-host interactions, but the application of omic high-throughput techniques on the baculovirus-insect cell system has been hampered by the lack of host genome sequencing. (
  • The aim of this review is to summarize the state of the art in the molecular biology of the baculovirus replication and host-virus interaction in this system. (
  • Here, we report the structure of the genome packaging complex with a membrane conduit essential for viral genome encapsidation in the tailless icosahedral membrane-containing bacteriophage PRD1. (
  • Here we report the 1.65 A resolution structure of the DNA-recognition component gp1 of the Shigella bacteriophage Sf6 genome-packaging machine. (
  • Integration of viral DNA into host DNA was first discerned for the prophage of the temperate bacteriophage lambda by Andre Lwoff in 1950 and for the simian DNA virus SV40 in cultured mammalian cells in 1968 [ 8 ]. (
  • HK97 is a double-stranded DNA virus similar to bacteriophage λ. (
  • The first man-made infectious viruses generated without any natural template were of the polio virus and the φX174 bacteriophage. (
  • The polio virus is a pretty small genome," Zilinskas said. (
  • RNA viruses have historically been utilized due to the typically small genome size and existing reverse transcription machinery present. (
  • The virus inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of the host cell, resulting in an irreversible, stable and sometimes lifelong infection. (
  • The oral cavity is a persistent reservoir for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with lifelong infection of resident epithelial and B cells. (
  • Here, we show that EBV infection of oral keratinocytes led to CpG island hypermethylation as an epigenetic scar of prior EBV infection that was retained after loss of the virus. (
  • We have initiated experiments to determine whether ZIKV generates viral DNA (vDNA) forms following infection in mosquitoes. (
  • Guillain-barré syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study. (
  • Role of extracellular virus on the maintenance of the persistent infection induced in Aedes albopictus (mosquito) cells by Sindbis virus. (
  • This proposal is anticipated to contribute to public health by identification of novel targets of antiviral to control and prevent infection and diseases caused by herpes viruses. (
  • In contrast, and in full confirmation of Temin's DNA provirus hypothesis, retroviral integration is an obligatory step in replication, whereas non-integrated 2-LTR circles lead to abortive infection. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection induces genome-wide de novo DNA methylation in non-neoplastic gastric epithelial cells. (
  • Matsusaka K, Funata S, Fukuyo M, Seto Y, Aburatani H, Fukayama M, Kaneda A. Epstein-Barr virus infection induces genome-wide de novo DNA methylation in non-neoplastic gastric epithelial cells. (
  • Increasingly, HSV DNA detection in clinical samples is being used to define clinical infection with HSVs ( 1 , 2 , 4 , 10 , 11 ). (
  • After a single infection, an endogenous retrovirus may build up hundreds of copies of itself in its host's DNA. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in Chinese children: a retrospective study of age-specific prevalence. (
  • The cytological and histological alterations that occur as a result of a productive infection reflect the cytopathic effects of the virus on epithelial cells and include nuclear atypia, an increased mitotic rate and koilocytosis. (
  • By turning koalas' immune systems cancerous, the virus was leaving the koalas open to infection by other pathogens. (
  • These koala-virus hybrids are the result of a peculiar sort of infection. (
  • More research is needed on the genus Parapoxvirus to understand worldwide distribution of and infection by orf virus, especially transmission between goats and sheep. (
  • Infection of small ruminants with orf virus is frequent and widely distributed worldwide. (
  • Knowledge of the etiology of virus-mediated carcinogenesis, the networking of pathways involved in the transition from infection to cancer and the risk factors associated with each type of cancer, all suggest prophylactic and therapeutic strategies that may reduce the risk of virus-mediated cancer. (
  • For many viruses, viral RNA is infectious when introduced into a cell (during infection or after reverse transcription). (
  • Vector NTI software assembly) revealed a single DNA circle of 3,206 nucleotides (nt). (
  • This genome size is larger than the largest previously reported geminivirus genome of 3,080 nucleotides ( 3 ). (
  • To create DNA, some scientists advocate placing nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) inside the cell casing. (
  • The nucleotides could somehow be combined to form DNA. (
  • Large eukaryotic DNA viruses, such as poxviruses, phycodnaviruses, phaeoviruses, asfarviruses, iridoviruses (all of which form the recently identified monophyletic clade of nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) [ 9 ]), baculoviruses and herpesviruses, also encode a number of transcription factors. (
  • The ENCODE 2 results were published in 2012 and the publicity campaign emphasized that up to 80% of our genome is functional. (
  • They also pointed out that ENCODE researchers ignored most of the evidence supporting junk DNA. (
  • The Nature article mentions ENCODE 1 and ENCODE 2 but it conveniently ignores the fact that Nature heavily promoted the demise of junk DNA back in 2007 and 2012. (
  • The emphasis now is not on how much of the genome is functional-the main goal of ENCODE-but on how much data has been generated and how many papers have been published. (
  • You'd think with such an introduction that you would be about to learn how much of the genome is functional according to ENCODE 3 but you will be disappointed. (
  • Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus is an archaeal virus isolated from Sulfolobus , which grows in the acidic hot sulfur springs (pH 2-4, 72°C-92°C) in Yellowstone National Park. (
  • Viruses in Mimiviridae have icosahedral and round geometries, with between T=972 and T=1141, or T=1200 symmetry. (
  • Thus, DNA methylation does not play a role in silencing Qp. (
  • Cytosine methylation can be induced by double-stranded RNAs through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. (
  • These results provide evidence for the presence of antagonistic activity of NbROS1 against virus-induced RdDM and suggest that the simultaneous induction of promoter-targeting RdDM and NbROS1 knockdown by a virus vector is useful as a tool to enhance targeted DNA methylation. (
  • The scientists also found that WO shares a number of other segments of DNA with animal genomes. (
  • Genome packaging is a key step in morphogenesis of large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses including tailed double-stranded DNA bacteriophages and herpesviruses, and is essential for assembly of infectious progeny virions. (
  • ERVs are found at many loci in host DNA and also in the genomes of large DNA viruses, such as herpesviruses and poxviruses. (
  • Herpesviruses are a very diverse family of viruses. (
  • While the virus contains genetic material, it is not considered a living entity, meaning the scientists did not "create life. (
  • [7] Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection , but lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. (
  • Two strains of minute virus of mice (MVM) show different host-cell specificities. (
  • By constructing recombinant viral DNAs between the genomes of the two strains, we have shown that two segments of the MVM(i) genome are required for lytic viral growth in T lymphocytic EL4 cells. (
  • Among 32 billion sequencing reads retrieved from the NCBI database of genotype and phenotype, none mapped on different strains of the BLV genome. (
  • The present study identified 10 novel genomes similar to ssDNA circoviruses through data-mining of public viral metagenomes. (
  • I don't have time to discuss all of its shortcomings so let's just skip right to the few paragraphs that discuss junk DNA (p.46). (
  • Poxviruses are brick or oval-shaped viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes. (
  • HV-GcV2 belongs to another clade of the phylogenetic tree that also contains sewage- and bird feces-associated viruses ( Technical Appendix Figure 1). (
  • Perhaps the greatest impediment to the evolutionary study of viruses is that there is no single phylogenetic marker in common amongst all viruses. (
  • a Neighbour-joining phylogenetic tree of BLV and HTLV-1 genomes. (
  • TEs are widely distributed among both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. (
  • Viruses with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) genomes are called DNA viruses. (
  • The preserved partial body of a child found in the same crypt contains the oldest known sample of smallpox virus. (
  • However, transposable elements have rarely been documented in viruses, and their contribution to viral genome evolution remains largely unexplored. (
  • The present volume attempts to capture for the reader some of the high- lights of recombinant DNA research in the field of animal and plant viruses. (
  • 7. As a general rule all DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus, except the Pox viruses which replicate in the cytoplasm We will use Adenoviruses as a model system for understanding replication of DNA viruses in general Most DNA viruses are naked (see model of soccer ball), with 12 blue penton bases on the vertices and 20 yellow hexons on the rest of the face. (
  • Small DNA tumor viruses (Papilloma viruses, Polyoma viruses and adenoviruses). (
  • The NCVOGs were manually curated and annotated and can be used as a computational platform for functional annotation and evolutionary analysis of new NCLDV genomes. (
  • Evolutionary reconstructions employing NCVOGs point to complex ancestral viruses. (
  • With exceptionally high rates of genetic mutation and mosaicism, it is not currently possible to resolve deep evolutionary histories of the known major virus groups. (
  • The mechanism responsible for the integration of the RNA virus cistron into the DNA virus, and the point in evolutionary time at which it occurred, are unclear. (
  • So if you look at the evolutionary tree of viruses, you can find parts of their genome that haven't changed over evolutionary time. (
  • The Megavirus chilensis genome is a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA with 1,259,197 base pairs in length. (
  • 3D illustration Virus DNA molecule, structure. (
  • Damage DNA molecule. (
  • We have developed a high-throughput, semiautomated, quantitative fluorescence-based PCR assay to detect and type herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA in clinical samples. (
  • The rising seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 2 (HSV-2) infections and the increasing reactivation of HSV among immunocompromised patients have made clinical management of HSV infections a common and increasing problem in clinical practice. (
  • Complex DNA tumor viruses (Herpes viruses and Hepatitis B viruses). (
  • Although there are no viruses similar to these ancient pathogens currently infecting humans, there are some related viruses in animals. (
  • One of the most expansive, apparently monophyletic divisions of viruses consists of at least 6 families of eukaryotic viruses with large DNA genomes including Poxviridae, an expansive viral family that includes major pathogens of humans and other mammals. (
  • A new paper out today in Science suggests humans have also co-opted the remnants of ancient viruses to direct the immune system against other pathogens. (
  • Many of those binding stretches of DNA in fact looked like a virus called MER41, which infected a monkey-like ancestor of humans some 45 to 60 million years ago. (
  • When scientists look at the genomes of humans and other animals, they see stretches of DNA that bear indisputable hallmarks of viruses. (
  • Humans can be infected with orf virus by contact with sheep and goats during religious or cultural practices and during slaughter of animals ( 4 , 10 ), and infections appear to be more frequent during the last 3 months of each year ( 3 ). (
  • In humans, a copy of the entire genome-more than 3 billion DNA base pairs-is contained in all cells that have a nucleus. (
  • But it's also extended scientists an opportunity to research the transition as a virus goes from exogenous (external) to endogenous (built into the genome), a process that hasn't played out in humans in hundreds of thousands of years. (
  • Several viral DNA-binding regulators have conserved domains that are shared with cellular transcription factors. (
  • This book is one of the first solely devoted to the origins and evolution of viruses, and of the ways in which they interact with their cellular hosts and vectors. (
  • Pseudorabies virus (PRV), also called Aujeszky's disease virus or Suid herpesvirus 1, is the causative agent of pseudorabies (PR), which infects a wide variety of animals from mollusks to mammals and damages world economy. (
  • Hepatitis B is another small DNA virus that infects the liver, causes hepatitis, and is associated with liver cancer. (
  • One of the most similar viruses to it infects the grassland mosaic-tailed rat of Australia. (
  • Chaetomium thermophilum and Chaetomium globosum ) the completely sequenced genomes are available. (
  • Members of this new family defined by a number of common specific features (Table 1 and 2) will include various viruses likely to share a common ancestor with Mimivirus and Megavirus, although their present genome size was reduced below 1 Mb. (
  • A thorough knowledge of virus biology and the defense mechanisms they trigger in their hosts enable the teams to suggest and develop strategies (vaccines, antiviral drugs, etc.) to fight or protect against these diseases. (
  • positive strand RNA virus biology. (
  • We have also developed viruses as reagents for applications in nanomedicine, chemistry, and biology. (
  • It is a multidisciplinary research field at the intersection of virology, synthetic biology, computational biology, and DNA nanotechnology, from which it borrows and integrates its concepts and methodologies. (
  • Recently, a complete genome from a gray seal infected by a parapoxvirus was reported and constituted a putative novel virus in this genus ( 1 ). (
  • At least 11 complete orf virus genomes are available, and at least 19 are available for the entire genus Parapoxvirus . (
  • The folks in this paper found Sigma Virus in the genomes of the Drosophila genus (fruit flies). (
  • Comparing mature virion, procapsid, and mutant particle structures led us to propose an assembly pathway for the genome packaging apparatus in the PRD1 virion. (
  • Megavirus also joins a group of large viruses known as nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV), although this term appears increasingly inappropriate to designate viruses replicating entirely within the cytoplasm of their hosts through the de novo synthesis of large virion factories. (
  • The extracellular form of a virus is known as a virion. (
  • If it is found extracellular, the virus is called a virion . (
  • which goes on to create a viable organism, which then permanently has the retrovirus in its DNA, which gets passed on to its offspring. (
  • Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism. (
  • This database is the largest publicly available database for viruses, with 3,908 isolate reference DNA viruses and 264,413 computationally identified viral contigs from more than 6,000 ecologically diverse metagenomic samples. (
  • Using genome amplification methods, we identified a new isolate (BIS8-17) of torque teno virus (TTV) 10. (
  • Hepatitis B virus subtype ADR DNA, complete genome, isolate:HBV-115. (
  • They seem to be closely related to the Mimivirus subfamily rather than the Cafeteriavirus subfamily (and so might be summarized in Mimivirus group I as well).The first isolate from this group is Bodo saltans virus infecting the kinetoplastid Bodo saltans. (
  • Pandoraviruses are recently described DNA viruses with genome sizes that exceed those of some prokaryotes, rivaling parasitic eukaryotes. (
  • Conclusions: These ERTBV segments are unlikely to have functional potential as a virus. (
  • Hepatitis B computer virus (HBV) synthesizes its DNA genome through reverse transcription which is catalyzed by viral polymerase (Pol). (
  • In fact reverse transcriptases (RTs) exhibit RNase H activity as well as RNA- and DNA-directed DNA polymerase activities (9). (
  • Regarding minus-strand DNA synthesis substitution mutations of the putative catalytic residues in the RNase H domain name affected removal of the RNA strand of RNA-DNA hybrids synthesis of viral plus-strand DNA and DNA polymerase activity (12). (
  • Furthermore, no homologues to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunits were detected. (
  • The DNA polymerase assay has been widely used for monitoring antiviral treatments. (
  • In this assay, levels of DNA polymerase are quantified in vitro by the incorporation of radio-labeled deoxynucleoside monophosphates ( 8 ), which is difficult to standardize among laboratories ( 3 ). (
  • Mimivirus is a nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV). (
  • Viruses in this family belong to the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus clade (NCLDV), also referred to as giant viruses. (
  • To avoid potential experimental artifacts associated with DNA amplification techniques, we directly analyzed whole genomes of breast tumors and adjacent tissues. (
  • We hypothesized that genome amplification from small numbers of cells could be adapted to circumvent this difficulty. (
  • the RNA-only viruses, which do not require a DNA intermediate in the replication cycle, viruses with DNA-based genomes, and retroid viruses that require the reverse transcription of their RNA into DNA during the virus life-cycle [ 12 ]. (
  • Group: dsDNA Order: Imitervirales Family: Mimiviridae *Cafeteria roenbergensis virus *Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus Family Mimiviridae is currently divided into three subfamilies. (
  • However, it has remained unclear how initial transcriptional activation of the adenoviral genome is achieved. (
  • Our results show how Ad entry is connected to transcriptional activation of their genome in the nucleus. (