Silene: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. The common name of campion is also used with LYCHNIS. The common name of 'pink' can be confused with other plants.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Genes, Y-Linked: Genes that are located on the Y CHROMOSOME.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Dianthus: A plant genus of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. Members contain dianthins, which are ribosome inactivating proteins.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Plastocyanin: A copper-containing plant protein that is a fundamental link in the electron transport chain of green plants during the photosynthetic conversion of light energy by photophosphorylation into the potential energy of chemical bonds.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Aphrodisiacs: Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)TennesseeWilliams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems: A concept, developed in 1983 under the aegis of and supported by the National Library of Medicine under the name of Integrated Academic Information Management Systems, to provide professionals in academic health sciences centers and health sciences institutions with convenient access to an integrated and comprehensive network of knowledge. It addresses a wide cross-section of users from administrators and faculty to students and clinicians and has applications to planning, clinical and managerial decision-making, teaching, and research. It provides access to various types of clinical, management, educational, etc., databases, as well as to research and bibliographic databases. In August 1992 the name was changed from Integrated Academic Information Management Systems to Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems to reflect use beyond the academic milieu.Prader-Willi Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Human Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Nymphaea: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.Liriodendron: A plant genus of the family MAGNOLIACEAE. Members include hardwood trees of eastern North America with distinct large tuliplike flowers.Nymphaeaceae: The sour gum plant family of the order Nymphaeales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. All have horizontal or hanging branches and broad alternate leaves, and they are dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants).Ardisia: A plant genus of the family MYRSINACEAE. Members contain ardisiacrispins (oleanane triterpenoid saponins), ardicrenin, and cyclamiretin.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Medicare Part B: The voluntary portion of Medicare, known as the Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program, that includes physician's services, home health care, medical services, outpatient hospital services, and laboratory, pathology, and radiology services. All persons entitled to Medicare Part A may enroll in Medicare Part B on a monthly premium basis.Awards and PrizesVitaceae: A plant family of the order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for the VITIS genus, the source of grapes.
  • Most (~ 80%, 176 out of 214) of the plant mitogenomes deposited in the GenBank database ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/organelle/ ) were generated in the past several years (since 2011). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To date (as of July 2018), 53 bryophyte and 108 vascular plant complete mitogenomes have been reported ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/organelle/ ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to Amborella with six genome equivalents of foreign mitochondrial DNA, not a single horizontal gene transfer event was observed in the Nymphaea mitogenome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Angiosperm mitochondrial genomes are characterized by a number of unusual properties, including their large and variable sizes (ranging from ∼200 kb to over 10 Mb), low gene densities, extensive posttranscriptional modifications, and propensity to capture foreign DNA sequences ( 24 , 25 ). (pnas.org)
  • The highly rearranged mitochondrial genomes with a variation in gene flanking regions make Silene vulgaris an excellent model for the study of mitochondrial gene expression in plants. (cas.cz)
  • Conclusions Frequent homologous recombination events that are widespread in plant mitochondrial genomes may change chromosomal configurations and also the control of gene transcription including CMS gene expression. (cas.cz)
  • 2012. Intraspecific variation in mitochondrial genome sequence, structure, and gene content in Silene vulgaris , an angiosperm with pervasive cytoplasmic male sterility. (virginia.edu)
  • In contrast to Amborella with six genome equivalents of foreign mitochondrial DNA, not a single horizontal gene transfer event was observed in the Nymphaea mitogenome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A detailed comparison of C. apetalus and C. quitensis cp genomes revealed identical gene content and order. (peerj.com)
  • With the use of a whole-genome bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, we amplified and sequenced a ~200 kb region containing the male-determining gene Nix . (biomedcentral.com)
  • As exemplified above, the evolution of separate sexes can originate from an initial gene, or whole-genome, duplication event, resulting in a situation more permissive of gain-of-function mutations, possibly required for this transition. (plantcell.org)
  • This project uses RAD sequencing and genome skim data to investigate patterns of gene flow in sympatric populations (largely Northern Californian) and elucidate how interspecific hybridization influences plastome content and function. (pyrola.org)
  • However, it appears that the contribution of parentel genomes need not to be equal and that altered gene expression is common. (cas.cz)
  • Limited functional genomics resources and whole genome association studies could be substantially improved through the application of molecular approach for the characterization of gene content and identification of molecular markers. (springeropen.com)
  • The mitochondrial genomes of flowering plants vary greatly in size, gene content, gene order, mutation rate and level of RNA editing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Magnolia genome has evolved at an even lower rate, revealing a roughly 5,000-fold range of synonymous-site divergence among angiosperms whose mitochondrial gene space has been comprehensively sequenced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the genome level, there are three, compatible mechanisms: changes in gene content, structural differences in gene products, and quantitative differences in gene expression. (lu.se)
  • The analysis showed that L. bicolor has a relatively large genome, and that the large genome size is partly due to an expansion of gene family sizes. (lu.se)
  • José Carlos del Valle, Inés Casimiro-Soriguer, Ma Luisa Buide, Eduardo Narbona & Justen B. Whittall 2019: Whole Plastome Sequencing Within Silene Section Psammophilae Reveals Mainland Hybridization and Divergence With the Balearic Island Populations. (sav.sk)
  • In some plants such as kiwifruit, melon, willow, papaya, date palm and strawberry, genetic divergence is limited, while in others such as Silene , Cannabis , and some loci in Rumex the level of divergence is remarkable. (felixbeaudryresearch.com)
  • Identification and properties of UDP-glucose: cyanidin-3-O-glucosyltransferase isolated from petals of the red campion (Silene dioica). (genome.jp)
  • Distinction between the traditional genera Lychnis and Silene in morphology is that Lychnis usually has five styles and an entire capsule, whereas Silene has three styles and a split capsule ( Desfeux and Lejeune, 1996 ). (ashs.org)
  • 3 ] published in Genome Biology revealed an unexpected trend in genetic diversity in wild and domestic papaya populations: X-linked loci harbor the lowest levels of diversity within the genome, ten-fold lower than autosomal diversity and twelve-fold lower than Y-linked diversity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Most (~ 80%, 176 out of 214) of the plant mitogenomes deposited in the GenBank database ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/organelle/ ) were generated in the past several years (since 2011). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To date (as of July 2018), 53 bryophyte and 108 vascular plant complete mitogenomes have been reported ( https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/organelle/ ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Screening of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in parents and 10 F1 progeny identified 39 de novo mutations and yielded a rate of 7.31 × 10-9 (95% confidence interval: 5.20 × 10-9 - 8.00 × 10-9) mutations per site per haploid genome per generation. (pacb.com)
  • The inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes is not universally maternal. (springer.com)
  • On the other hand, the variability occasionally observed in the inheritance mechanisms of cytoplasmic genomes reduces heritability and increases environmental components in phenotypic features and, consequently, decreases the potential for adaptive evolution. (springer.com)
  • Cytogenetic and Molecular Evidence and Sequencing of a Haploid Genome \ Soukupova M. · Nevrtalova E. · Čížková J. · Vogel I. · Cegan R. · Hobza R. · Vyskot B. (nhbs.com)
  • The complete cp genome of C. apetalus has the length of 151,228 bp, 36.65% GC content, and a quadripartite structure with a large single copy (LSC) of 83,380 bp and a small single copy (SSC) of 17,206 bp separated by inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,321 bp. (peerj.com)