PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Material prepared from plants.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The reproductive cells of plants.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.

A method for estimating nucleotide diversity from AFLP data. (1/4169)

A method for estimating the nucleotide diversity from AFLP data is developed by using the relationship between the number of nucleotide changes and the proportion of shared bands. The estimation equation is based on the assumption that GC-content is 0.5. Computer simulations, however, show that this method gives a reasonably accurate estimate even when GC-content deviates from 0.5, as long as the number of nucleotide changes per site (nucleotide diversity) is small. As an example, the nucleotide diversity of the wild yam, Dioscorea tokoro, was estimated. The estimated nucleotide diversity is 0.0055, which is larger than estimations from nucleotide sequence data for Adh and Pgi.  (+info)

Integration of banana streak badnavirus into the Musa genome: molecular and cytogenetic evidence. (2/4169)

Breeding and tissue culture of certain cultivars of bananas (Musa) have led to high levels of banana streak badnavirus (BSV) infection in progeny from symptomless parents. BSV DNA hybridized to genomic DNA of one such parent, Obino l'Ewai, suggesting integration of viral sequences. Sequencing of clones of Obino l'Ewai genomic DNA revealed an interface between BSV and Musa sequences and a complex BSV integrant. In situ hybridization revealed two different BSV sequence locations in Obino l'Ewai chromosomes and a complex arrangement of BSV and Musa sequences was shown by probing stretched DNA fibers. This is the first report of integrated sequences that possibly lead to a plant pararetrovirus episomal infection by a mechanism differing markedly from animal retroviral systems.  (+info)

Evidence that badnavirus infection in Musa can originate from integrated pararetroviral sequences. (3/4169)

When some virus- and disease-free Musa spp. (banana and plantain) are propagated by tissue culture, the resulting plants develop infections with banana streak badnavirus (BSV), a pararetrovirus. In sharp contrast to the virion DNA recovered from natural infections, the virion DNA from tissue culture-associated infections of different Musa spp. was highly similar if not identical. Although BSV does not employ integration during the infection cycle, BSV DNA was found to be integrated into the Musa genome. While one integration consisted of a partial BSV genome, a second contained more than one complete genome that was almost identical to BSV recovered from tissue culture-derived plants. The arrangement of this integrated BSV DNA suggests that it can yield an infectious episomal genome via homologous recombination. This report documents the first instance of integrated DNA of a nonintegrating virus giving rise to an episomal viral infection and identifies tissue culture as a possible trigger for the infection, raising the question of whether similar activatable viral sequences exist in the genomes of other plants and animals.  (+info)

Evidence for an ancient chromosomal duplication in Arabidopsis thaliana by sequencing and analyzing a 400-kb contig at the APETALA2 locus on chromosome 4. (4/4169)

As part of the European Scientists Sequencing Arabidopsis program, a contiguous region (396607 bp) located on chromosome 4 around the APETALA2 gene was sequenced. Analysis of the sequence and comparison to public databases predicts 103 genes in this area, which represents a gene density of one gene per 3.85 kb. Almost half of the genes show no significant homology to known database entries. In addition, the first 45 kb of the contig, which covers 11 genes, is similar to a region on chromosome 2, as far as coding sequences are concerned. This observation indicates that ancient duplications of large pieces of DNA have occurred in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

atSRp30, one of two SF2/ASF-like proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates splicing of specific plant genes. (5/4169)

SR proteins are nuclear phosphoproteins with a characteristic Ser/Arg-rich domain and one or two RNA recognition motifs. They are highly conserved in animals and plants and play important roles in spliceosome assembly and alternative splicing regulation. We have now isolated and partially sequenced a plant protein, which crossreacts with antibodies to human SR proteins. The sequence of the corresponding cDNA and genomic clones from Arabidopsis revealed a protein, atSRp30, with strong similarity to the human SR protein SF2/ASF and to atSRp34/SR1, a previously identified SR protein, indicating that plants possess two SF2/ASF-like proteins. atSRp30 expresses alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms that are expressed differentially in various organs and during development. Overexpression of atSRp30 via a strong constitutive promoter resulted in changes in alternative splicing of several endogenous plant genes, including atSRp30 itself. Interestingly, atSRp30 overexpression resulted in a pronounced down-regulation of endogenous mRNA encoding full-length atSRp34/SR1 protein. Transgenic plants overexpressing atSRp30 showed morphological and developmental changes affecting mostly developmental phase transitions. atSRp30- and atSRp34/SR1-promoter-GUS constructs exhibited complementary expression patterns during early seedling development and root formation, with overlapping expression in floral tissues. The results of the structural and expression analyses of both genes suggest that atSRp34/SR1 acts as a general splicing factor, whereas atSRp30 functions as a specific splicing modulator.  (+info)

Stage- and tissue-specific expression of ethylene receptor homolog genes during fruit development in muskmelon. (6/4169)

We isolated two muskmelon (Cucumis melo) cDNA homologs of the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor genes ETR1 and ERS1 and designated them Cm-ETR1 (C. melo ETR1; accession no. AF054806) and Cm-ERS1 (C. melo ERS1; accession no. AF037368), respectively. Northern analysis revealed that the level of Cm-ERS1 mRNA in the pericarp increased in parallel with the increase in fruit size and then markedly decreased at the end of enlargement. In fully enlarged fruit the level of Cm-ERS1 mRNA was low in all tissues, whereas that of Cm-ETR1 mRNA was very high in the seeds and placenta. During ripening Cm-ERS1 mRNA increased slightly in the pericarp of fruit before the marked increase of Cm-ETR1 mRNA paralleled climacteric ethylene production. These results indicate that both Cm-ETR1 and Cm-ERS1 play specific roles not only in ripening but also in the early development of melon fruit and that they have distinct roles in particular fruit tissues at particular developmental stages.  (+info)

Elimination and rearrangement of parental rDNA in the allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum. (7/4169)

Origin and rearrangement of ribosomal DNA repeats in natural allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum are described. Comparative sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of Nicotiana tomentosiformis (the paternal diploid progenitor) and Nicotiana sylvestris (the maternal diploid progenitor) showed species-specific molecular features. These markers allowed us to trace the molecular evolution of parental rDNA in the allopolyploid genome of N. tabacum; at least the majority of tobacco rDNA repeats originated from N. tomentosiformis, which endured reconstruction of subrepeated regions in the IGS. We infer that after hybridization of the parental diploid species, rDNA with a longer IGS, donated by N. tomentosiformis, dominated over the rDNA with a shorter IGS from N. sylvestris; the latter was then eliminated from the allopolyploid genome. Thus, repeated sequences in allopolyploid genomes are targets for molecular rearrangement, demonstrating the dynamic nature of allopolyploid genomes.  (+info)

Incongruence in the diploid B-genome species complex of Glycine (Leguminosae) revisited: histone H3-D alleles versus chloroplast haplotypes. (8/4169)

Variation at the single-copy nuclear locus histone H3-D was surveyed in the diploid B-genome group of Glycine subgenus Glycine (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), which comprises three named Australian species and a number of distinct but as yet not formally recognized taxa. A total of 23 alleles was identified in the 44 accessions surveyed. Only one individual was clearly heterozygous, which is not surprising given the largely autogamous breeding system of subgenus Glycine. Alleles differed by as many as 19 nucleotide substitutions, nearly all in the three introns; length variation was minimal. Phylogenetic analysis identified two shortest allele trees with very little homoplasy, suggesting that recombination has been rare. Both topological and data set incongruence were statistically significant between histone H3-D allele trees and trees inferred from chloroplast DNA haplotypes previously described from these same accessions. Whereas the distribution of H3-D alleles agrees well with morphologically based taxonomic groupings, chloroplast DNA haplotype polymorphisms transgress species boundaries, suggesting that the chloroplast genome is not tracking taxic relationships. Divergences among chloroplast DNA haplotypes involved in such transgressive patterns appear to be more recent than speciation events, suggesting hybridization rather than lineage sorting.  (+info)

Dear Colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to a Wiki site that describes a summary of a recent workshop entitled: The National Plant Genome Initiative at Ten Years: A Community Workshop This site contains information (agenda, Rapporteurs summaries, session/Q&A notes, list of meeting participants and a meeting summary) related to the recent National Plant Genome Initiative Workshop held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Conference Center of the National Academies in Irvine California on August 26-28, 2008. The purpose of the meeting was to bring a broad group of stakeholders together to discuss the outcomes of the first ten years of the US National Plant Genome Initiative (NPGI) as well as the challenges and opportunities ahead for the next five to ten years. The NPGI started in 1998 and is managed by the Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomes (IWG-PG). The IWG-PG is currently in the process of developing a new five-year plan using a ...
There has been remarkably little attention to using the high resolution provided by genotyping-by-sequencing (i.e. RADseq and similar methods) datasets for assessing relatedness in wildlife populations. A major hurdle is the genotyping error, especially allelic dropout, often found in this type of dataset that could lead to downward-biased, yet precise, estimates of relatedness. Here we assess the applicability of genotyping-by-sequencing datasets for relatedness inferences given their relatively high genotyping error rates. Individuals of known relatedness were simulated under genotyping error, allelic dropout, and missing data scenarios based on an empirical ddRAD dataset, and their true relatedness was compared to that estimated by seven relatedness estimators. We found that an estimator chosen through such analyses can circumvent the influence of genotyping error, with the estimator of Ritland (1996) shown to be unaffected by allelic dropout and to be the most accurate when there is ...
The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) is a U.S. Federal government multi-stakeholder initiative to develop an infrastructure to accelerate and sustain domestic materials discovery and deployment in the United States. MGI is distinct from Materials Genome, which is a registered trademark of MaterialsGenome, Inc. (a Pennsylvania Corporation). The use of the term Materials Genome Initiative is not intended to serve as an endorsement of or an association with the trademarked term Materials Genome ...
The scientific revolution that started with the human-genome sequencing project, carried out with first-generation sequencing technology, has initiated other sequencing projects, including those for plant species. Different technologies have been developed together with the second- and third-generation sequencing platforms called next-generation sequencing. This review deals with the most relevant second-generation sequencing platforms, advanced analysis tools, and sequenced plant genomes. To date, a number of plant genomes have been sequenced, with many more projected for the near future. Using the new techniques and developed advanced bioinformatics tools, several studies including both plant genomics and transcriptomics were carried out. Likewise, completion of reference genome sequences and high-throughput resequencing projects presented opportunities to better understand the genomic nature of plants and accelerated the process of crop improvement. Modern sequencing and bioinformatics ...
2016 Tinker et al. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and related methods, are based on high-throughput short-read sequencing of genomic complexity reductions followed by discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within sequence tags. This provides a powerful and economical approach to whole-genome genotyping, facilitating applications in genomics, diversity analysis, and molecular breeding. However, due to the complexity of analyzing large data sets, applications of GBS may require substantial time, expertise, and computational resources. Haplotag, the novel GBS software described here, is freely available, and operates with minimal user-investment on widely available computer platforms. Haplotag is unique in fulfilling the following set of criteria: (1) operates without a reference genome; (2) can be used in a polyploid species; (3) provides a discovery mode, and a production mode; (4) discovers polymorphisms based on a model of tag-level haplotypes within sequenced tags; (5) reports ...
2016 Tinker et al. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and related methods, are based on high-throughput short-read sequencing of genomic complexity reductions followed by discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within sequence tags. This provides a powerful and economical approach to whole-genome genotyping, facilitating applications in genomics, diversity analysis, and molecular breeding. However, due to the complexity of analyzing large data sets, applications of GBS may require substantial time, expertise, and computational resources. Haplotag, the novel GBS software described here, is freely available, and operates with minimal user-investment on widely available computer platforms. Haplotag is unique in fulfilling the following set of criteria: (1) operates without a reference genome; (2) can be used in a polyploid species; (3) provides a discovery mode, and a production mode; (4) discovers polymorphisms based on a model of tag-level haplotypes within sequenced tags; (5) reports ...
Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches provide low-cost, high-density genotype information. However, GBS has unique technical considerations, including a substantial amount of missing data and a nonuniform distribution of sequence reads. The goal of this study was to characterize technical variation using this method and to develop methods to optimize read depth to obtain desired marker coverage. To empirically assess the distribution of fragments produced using GBS, ∼8.69 Gb of GBS data were generated on the Zea mays reference inbred B73, utilizing ApeKI for genome reduction and single-end reads between 75 and 81 bp in length. We observed wide variation in sequence coverage across sites. Approximately 76% of potentially observable cut site-adjacent sequence fragments had no sequencing reads whereas a portion had substantially greater read depth than expected, up to 2369 times the expected mean. The methods described in this article facilitate determination of sequencing depth in the ...
Advances in next generation technologies have driven the costs of DNA sequencing down to the point that genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is now feasible for high diversity, large genome species. Here, we report a procedure for constructing GBS libraries based on reducing genome complexity with restric …
TY - JOUR. T1 - The First Plant Genome Sequence-Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Feldmann, Kenneth A. AU - Goff, Stephen A. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The Arabidopsis thaliana genome was the first plant genome to be sequenced. The substrates for sequencing consisted of a minimum tiling path of BAC, P1, YAC, TAC and cosmid clones, anchored to the genetic map. Using these substrates, 10 contigs were developed from 1569 clones. Annotation at the time the sequence was finished identified 25,498 protein-coding genes. With the continued development of software trained on Arabidopsis genes, along with the availability of large numbers of ESTs and additional plant genome sequences, the number of annotated genes has increased. The final TAIR (TAIR10) genome annotation release contains 27,202 nuclear protein-coding genes, 4827 pseudogenes and transposable element genes and 1359 noncoding RNAs. Gene density (kb/gene) is 4.35, with 5.89 exons/gene, an average exon length of 296. nt and an average intron length of ...
The PGSB plant genomics group focuses on the analysis of plant genomes, using bioinformatic techniques. To store and manage the data, we developed a database, PlantsDB, that aims to provide a data and information resource for individual plant species. In addition PlantsDB provides a platform for integrative and comparative plant genome research. ...
The PGSB plant genomics group focuses on the analysis of plant genomes, using bioinformatic techniques. To store and manage the data, we developed a database, PlantsDB, that aims to provide a data and information resource for individual plant species. In addition PlantsDB provides a platform for integrative and comparative plant genome research. ...
During the last decade, plant biotechnological laboratories have sparked a monumental revolution with the rapid development of next sequencing technologies at affordable prices. Soon, these sequencing technologies and assembling of whole genomes will extend beyond the plant computational biologists and become commonplace within the plant biology disciplines. The current availability of large-scale genomic resources for non-traditional plant model systems (the so-called orphan crops) is enabling the construction of high-density integrated physical and genetic linkage maps with potential applications in plant breeding. The newly available fully sequenced plant genomes represent an incredible opportunity for comparative analyses that may reveal new aspects of genome biology and evolution. The analysis of the expansion and evolution of gene families across species is a common approach to infer biological functions. To date, the extent and role of gene families in plants has only been partially addressed
Diversity in plant genomes remains largely unexplored. The 10,000 Plant Genome Sequencing Project is a landmark effort to catalogue plant genomic variation, representing a major step in understanding the tree of life. The project offers new opportunities to study biological processes and address fundamental research questions.
As reference genome sequences are becoming available/undergoing for several crops, genotyping by sequencing (GBS) seems to be an option. Efforts are underway to offer GBS for Chickpea, Pigeonpea and Sorghum by using MiSeq. These efforts will be extended to other crops also. ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
By Ken G. Dodds, John C. McEwan, Rudiger Brauning, Rayna M. Anderson, Tracey C. van Stijn, Theodor Kristjánsson and Shannon M. Clarke ...
Yale is a founding member of the Genome-Wide RNAi Global Initiative a...The siRNA sequences have blueprints in DNA and are transcribed but no... Participation in this consortium gives us a cutting-edge technology t...The library will be available to the Yale University research communit...Founding members of the Global Initiative have a broad spectrum of bio...,Yale,participates,in,global,human,genome,initiative,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
AtSFP: The SIGnAL Arabidopsis Single Nuclutide Polymorphism (SNP), Deletion, and Single Feature Polymorphism (SFP) Database. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtSFP: The SIGnAL Arabidopsis Single Nuclutide Polymorphism (SNP), Deletion, and Single Feature Polymorphism (SFP) Database. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
There is great potential for the genetic improvement of oil palm yield. Traditional progeny tests allow accurate selection but limit the number of individuals evaluated. Genomic selection (GS) could overcome this constraint. We estimated the accuracy of GS prediction of seven oil yield components using A × B hybrid progeny tests with almost 500 crosses for training and 200 crosses for independent validation. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) yielded +5000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the parents of the crosses. The genomic best linear unbiased prediction method gave genomic predictions using the SNPs of the training and validation sets and the phenotypes of the training crosses. The practical impact was illustrated by quantifying the additional bunch production of the crosses selected in the validation experiment if genomic preselection had been applied in the parental populations before progeny tests. We found that prediction accuracies for cross values plateaued at 500 to 2000 SNPs, with
Despite several efforts in the last decade toward development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in peanut, there is still a need for more markers for conducting different genetic and breeding studies. With the effort of the International Peanut Genome Initiative, the availability of reference genome for both the diploid progenitors of cultivated peanut allowed us to identify 135,529 and 199,957 SSRs from the A (Arachis duranensis) and B genomes (Arachis ipaensis), respectively. Genome sequence analysis showed uneven distribution of the SSR motifs across genomes with variation in parameters such as SSR type, repeat number, and SSR length. Using the flanking sequences of identified SSRs, primers were designed for 51,354 and 60,893 SSRs with densities of 49 and 45 SSRs per Mb in A. duranensis and A. ipaensis, respectively. In silico PCR analysis of these SSR markers showed high transferability between wild and cultivated Arachis species. Two physical maps were developed for the A genome and the B
EST sequences are valuable data for gene discovery, especially for plant species with large genomes that have not been fully sequenced, and they provide a convenient means of accessing the transcriptome of a given species. However, ESTs generally correspond to only partial cDNA sequences, and EST samples are typically highly redundant (especially if EST sets are not derived from normalized EST libraries). Therefore, the assembly of overlapping ESTs into putative unique transcript contigs on a frequent and regular basis constitutes the first step for all EST analyses performed at PlantGDB (for more details, see A similar analysis is provided by the TIGR gene indices for selected species with sufficiently large numbers of ESTs (; Lee et al., 2005).. EST assembly remains a computational challenge given the large number of EST sequences currently available. For example, with more than 400,000 maize ESTs, ...
Announcing the availability of the Plant Genome Database CD-ROM, a compilation of plant genome databases, which have been dumped as text from their ACEDB versions and marked up with hypertext links. The data are browsable from the Sun UNIX X-Windows, PC Windows, and Mac Mosaic hypertext browsers. In addition, the genome data have been indexed to allow full-text Boolean searching for Mac, Sun, Windows, and DOS. Where images exist, they have been linked to their respective databases. Databases include information on: Arabidopsis, soybean, Chlamydomonas, small grains (wheat, barley, etc.), maize, rice, tomato, potato, pepper, and forest trees. Also included, are various related documents: newsletters for Arabidopsis (Weeds World), forest trees (Dendrome), rice (The Rice Genetics Newsletter), and tomato (Report of the Tomato Genetic Cooperative); plant genome thesauri for cytogenetics, morphology, and references; a controlled genetic vocabulary; and a listing of the Agricultural Genome curators. The ...
The first hints of the complex organization of the maize genome came from cytological studies. Although maize is diploid, early studies by McClintock (3, 4) demonstrated the association of nonhomologous chromosomes during meiosis. Later studies documented the formation of bivalents and multivalents in maize haploids (5, 6). Altogether, cytological observations suggested that the maize genome contains extensive regions of homology, probably reflecting chromosomal duplications.. Evidence for chromosomal duplication also came from linkage information. In 1951, Rhoades (7, 8) noted that some regions of linkage maps did not contain mutants, and he proposed that the lack of mutants reflected genetic redundancy caused by chromosomal duplication. Rhoades proposal has since been supported by molecular data. For example, isozyme studies have documented the presence of duplicated, linked loci in maize (9-12), and restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping studies have shown that many markers map to ...
Hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family and has a large genome (similar to 12.5 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs from three ancestral genomes. Physical rearrangements among parental genomes have hindered the development of linkage maps in this species. The objective of this work was to develop a single high-density consensus linkage map that is representative of the majority of commonly grown oat varieties. Data from a cDNA-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) were collected from the progeny of 12 biparental recombinant inbred line populations derived from 19 parents representing oat germplasm cultivated primarily in North America. Linkage groups from all mapping populations were compared to identify 21 clusters of conserved collinearity. Linkage groups within each cluster were then merged into 21 consensus chromosomes, generating a framework consensus map of 7202 markers spanning 2843 cM. An additional ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for LOC_Os08g25060.1|13108.m02571|protein from Oryza sativa ssp. japonica 5.0. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Historically, potato has been notoriously difficult to work with. It is a tetraploid, meaning its cells contain four copies of each chromosome, which makes it difficult to breed. Despite decades of improvement work, the crop remains susceptible to pests, pathogens and inbreeding depression (where new potato lines are weaker than their parents). Sequencing of the potato genome should speed efforts to address these issues. It will take researchers awhile to use the genome information to improve its agronomic traits, such as improved quality, yield, drought tolerance and disease resistance. But our most recent research will accelerate efforts to improve potato varieties and help close the gap in bringing a better potato to the farmer, says Robin Buell, a plant biologist at Michigan State University, one of three co-leaders of the potato genome project. Jiang says the availability of potatos genetic code will get him back in the game of hunting-or cloning-genes of value to the potato industry. He ...
Oryzias latipes can be divided into five groups (N.JPN, S.JPN, E.KOR, W.KOR and Tajima-Tango) by mtDNA sequences and allozymic electrophoresis patterns (Sakaizumi 1984; Takehana et al. 2003). In this study, based on chromosomal SNPs, the genetic clustering analysis showed that K = 4 was the most supportive because it presented the lowest fivefold cross-validation error, indicating that N.JPN and S.JPN were divided into three ancestral clusters. When the K values increased, only S.JPN divided into more subgroups, which suggests that the S.JPN group was composed of more divergent groups than the other groups. Considering together with the results of the ML tree analysis, it is possible to redefine subgroups composed of each major group for our wild lab-stocks originated from the Japanese archipelago as follows. First, Tajima-Tango, which had been considered a hybridization group, should be included under the N.JPN group because it shows almost the same ancestral component as N.JPN, for which we ...
The IWGSC produced a survey of the gene content and composition of all 21 chromosomes and identified 124,201 gene loci, with more than 75,000 positioned along the chromosomes. Comparing the bread wheat gene sequences with gene repertoires from its closest extant relatives (representing the species that donated the A, B, and D progenitor genomes) showed limited gene loss during the evolution of the hexaploid wheat genome but frequent gene duplications after these genomes came together. Gene expression patterns revealed that none of the subgenomes dominated gene expression.. Choulet et al. describe the sequencing, assembly, annotation, and analysis of the reference sequence of the largest wheat chromosome, 3B, which at nearly 1 gigabase is more than seven times larger than the entire sequence of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Relying on a physical map derived from the chromosome 3B-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library (1), more than 8000 BAC clones were sequenced and ...
Mayer, K.F.X., Martis, M., Hedley, P.E. et al. 2011. Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics. Plant Cell 23, 1249-1263. (doi:10.1105/tpc.110.082537 ...
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The Canadian Forest Service promotes the sustainable development of Canadas forests and the competitiveness of the Canadian forest sector
BACKGROUND: The availability of thousands of complete rice genome sequences from diverse varieties and accessions has laid the foundation for in-depth exploration of the rice genome. One drawback to these collections is that most of these rice varieties have long life cycles, and/or low transformation efficiencies, which limits their usefulness as model organisms for functional genomics studies. In contrast, the rice variety Kitaake has a rapid life cycle (9 weeks seed to seed) and is easy to transform and propagate. For these reasons, Kitaake has emerged as a model for studies of diverse monocotyledonous species. RESULTS: Here, we report the de novo genome sequencing and analysis of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica variety KitaakeX, a Kitaake plant carrying the rice XA21 immune receptor. Our KitaakeX sequence assembly contains 377.6 Mb, consisting of 33 scaffolds (476 contigs) with a contig N50 of 1.4 Mb. Complementing the assembly are detailed gene annotations of 35,594 protein coding genes. We ...
The majority of diploid organisms have polyploid ancestors. The evolutionary process of polyploidization (and subsequent re-diploidization) is poorly understood, but has frequently been conjectured to involve some form of genome shock - partly inspired by studies in crops, where polyploidy has been linked to major genomic changes such as genome reorganization and subgenome expression dominance. It is unclear, however, whether such dramatic changes would be characteristic of natural polyploidization, or whether they are a product of domestication. Here, we study polyploidization in Arabidopsis suecica (n = 13), a post-glacial allopolyploid species formed via hybridization of A. thaliana (n = 5) and A. arenosa (n = 8). We generated a chromosome-level genome assembly of A. suecica and complemented it with polymorphism and transcriptome data from multiple individuals of all species. Despite a divergence of ∼6 Mya between the two ancestral species and appreciable differences in their genome ...
The wild species of the genus Oryza offer enormous potential to make a significant impact on agricultural productivity of the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. To unlock the genetic potential of wild rice we have initiated a project entitled the Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) with the ultimate goal of constructing and aligning BAC/STC based physical maps of 11 wild and one cultivated rice species to the International Rice Genome Sequencing Projects finished reference genome--O. sativa ssp. japonica c. v. Nipponbare. The 11 wild rice species comprise nine different genome types and include six diploid genomes (AA, BB, CC, EE, FF and GG) and four tetrapliod genomes (BBCC, CCDD, HHKK and HHJJ) with broad geographical distribution and ecological adaptation. In this paper we describe our strategy to construct robust physical maps of all 12 rice species with an emphasis on the AA diploid O. nivara--thought to be the progenitor of modern cultivated rice ...
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摘要】:[Background] Eating and cooking qualities(ECQs) of rice(Oryza sativa L.) determine consumer acceptance and the economic value of rice varieties. Genetic factors are required for development of rice varieties with excellent ECQs and association mapping is one of the promising approaches for discovering such associated genetic factors. [Material and method] A genome-wide association mapping was performed on a set of 253 non-glutinous rice accessions consisting of 83 indica and 170 japonica Asian cultivated rice varieties through phenotyping for 11 ECQ traits in two consecutive years and genotyping with 210 polymorphic SSR and candidate-gene markers. [Results] These markers amplified 747 alleles with an average of 3.57 alleles per locus. The structure, phylogenetic relationship, and principal component analysis indicated a strong population differentiation between indica and japonica accessions and association mapping was thus undertaken within indica and japonica subpopulations. All ...
Many recent studies have emphasized the important role of structural variation (SV) in determining human genetic and phenotypic variation. In plants, studies aimed at elucidating the extent of SV are still in their infancy. Evidence has indicated a high presence and an active role of SV in driving plant genome evolution in different plant species.With the aim of characterizing the size and the composition of the poplar pan-genome, we performed a genome-wide analysis of structural variation in three intercrossable poplar species: Populus nigra, Populus deltoides, and Populus trichocarpa We detected a total of 7,889 deletions and 10,586 insertions relative to the P. trichocarpa reference genome, covering respectively 33.2 Mb and 62.9 Mb of genomic sequence, and 3,230 genes affected by copy number variation (CNV). The majority of the detected variants are inter-specific in agreement with a recent origin following separation of species.Insertions and deletions (INDELs) were preferentially located in ...
Background: Mapping and map-based cloning of genes that control agriculturally and economically important traits remain great challenges for plants with complex highly repetitive genomes such as those within the grass tribe, Triticeae. Mapping limitations in the Triticeae are primarily due to low frequencies of polymorphic gene markers and poor genetic recombination in certain genetic regions. Although the abundance of repetitive sequence may pose common problems in genome analysis and sequence assembly of large and complex genomes, they provide repeat junction markers with random and unbiased distribution throughout chromosomes. Hence, development of a high-throughput mapping technology that combine both gene-based and repeat junction-based markers is needed to generate maps that have better coverage of the entire genome. Results: In this study, the available genomics resource of the diploid Aegilop tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat, were used to develop genome specific markers that ...
Citation: Ling, P., Garland Campbell, K.A., Little, L.M., Skinner, D.Z. 2006. Service and research for molecular marker development in the usda-ars western regional small grains genotyping laboratory. Plant and Animal Genome Abstracts, page 14, #P203. Plant Animal Genome Conference XIV. January 14-18, 2006. San Diego, CA. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The Western Regional Small Grain Genotyping Laboratory is offering collaborative genotyping services to assist the marker assisted selection for wheat and barley cultivar development in Western region. Commonly known molecular markers are routinely used. Effective and versatile genomic technology is used to develop robust high-density and high-throughput markers that can be effectively deployed for closely related elite germplasm. Affymetrix Wheat GeneChips was used to identify Single Feature Polymorphisms (SFPs), which would allow us to screening the whole gene rich space for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in parallel, ...
Nearly 150 scientists and industrialists attended a recent meeting outside Cambridge to review progress in the application of genomics to crop plant improvement. The meeting covered a wide range of topics, from genome sequencing methods to marker-assisted breeding for wheat improvement. In her opening address, Julia Goodfellow (Biotechnological and Biological Sciences Research Council, Swindon, UK) described the increasing need for more healthy and nutritious food produced in environmentally sustainable ways and the need to translate the fruits of basic research in model species into crop improvement. The meeting established that such a research pipeline is a high priority and that genomics provides the means to achieve it.. Crop plants often have large and complex genomes; the maize genome, for example, is around 2.5 gigabase pairs (109 base pairs), approximately the same size as that of humans. Richard McCombie (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, USA) described the remarkable progress ...
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Crop plants have always been adapted to the needs of man by breeding for them to carry more fruit, survive droughts, or resist pests. Green biotechnology now adds new tools to the classical breeding methods for a more rapid and efficient improvement of plant properties. A biotechnological technique developed by KIT botanists to more precisely and reliably install or modify genetic information in the plant genome is now presented by the expert journal PNAS.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction of reference chromosome-scale pseudomolecules for potato. T2 - Integrating the potato genome with genetic and physical maps. AU - Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar. AU - Bolser, Daniel. AU - de Boer, Jan. AU - Sønderkær, Mads. AU - Amoros, Walter. AU - Carboni, Martin Federico. AU - DAmbrosio, Juan Martín. AU - de la Cruz, German. AU - Di Genova, Alex. AU - Douches, David S.. AU - Eguiluz, Maria. AU - Guo, Xiao. AU - Guzman, Frank. AU - Hackett, Christine A.. AU - Hamilton, John P.. AU - Li, Guangcun. AU - Li, Ying. AU - Lozano, Roberto. AU - Maass, Alejandro. AU - Marshall, David. AU - Martinez, Diana. AU - McLean, Karen. AU - Mejía, Nilo. AU - Milne, Linda. AU - Munive, Susan. AU - Nagy, Istvan. AU - Ponce, Olga. AU - Ramirez, Manuel. AU - Simon, Reinhard. AU - Thomson, Susan J.. AU - Torres, Yerisf. AU - Waugh, Robbie. AU - Zhang, Zhonghua. AU - Huang, Sanwen. AU - Visser, Richard G.F.. AU - Bachem, Christian W.B.. AU - Sagredo, Boris. AU - Feingold, Sergio E.. AU - ...
The Ingvarsson research group is focused on understanding what factors govern the distribution of genetic variation across plant genomes, and how this drives phenotypic variation in traits that are of adaptive or economic importance. We mainly rely on computational analyses of large-scale DNA sequencing data sets but also use data on gene expression and traditional genetic mapping in combination with field and greenhouse experiments. We are especially interested in understanding the genetic architecture of local adaptation in phenology and the relative importance of genetic drift, recombination and natural selection in driving genome-wide patterns of genetic diversity.. The Ingvarsson research group is located at the Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden, although a few people remain at the Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University where we were located from 2002 to 2016.. ...
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Eukaryotic cells contain DNA in different compartments, i.e., the nucleus, mitochondria, and, in plant or algal cells, chloroplasts. The genomes of chloroplasts and mitochondria encode proteins essential for photosynthesis (Sato et al., 1999) or in the electron transport chain (Unseld et al., 1997). Plants, in contrast to animals, are sessile organisms that develop organs throughout their life cycle and usually only produce reproductive cells from meristems late in their development. Therefore, plant genomes are exposed to harmful mutations throughout their life cycle. Maintaining the stability of plant genomes is essential for development and requires accurate replication and efficient repair mechanisms. In addition to replication errors, many endogenous and exogenous factors, such as reactive species of oxygen or nitrogen, alkylating products, and genotoxic chemicals, but also environmental conditions, such as UV radiation, can cause DNA damage (De Bont and van Larebeke, 2004; Boesch et al., ...
In this study a mapping population (F8) of ca 200 progeny from a cross between the commercial rice varieties Apo and IR64 has been both genotyped and phenotyped. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was first used to identify 2,681 polymorphic SNP markers which gave dense coverage of the genome with a good distribution across all 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of parentage was also low, at 0.13, confirming that the parents are genetically distant from each other. The progeny, together with both parents, were grown under irrigated and water restricted conditions in a randomised block design. All grain was harvested to determine variation in yield across the population. The grains were then polished following standard procedures prior to performing the phenotyping analyses. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry approach was used to determine the volatile biochemical profiles of each line and after data curation and processing, discriminatory metabolites were putatively identified based on in-house and
The Hickey lab conducts discovery and applied research on Australias most important cereal crops - wheat and barley. The group is situated within the Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation at The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Our research is focused on key abiotic and biotic factors that limit grain production, as well as development of novel breeding tools and methodologies.. Our germplasm pipeline takes advantage of large nested-association mapping (NAM) populations, speed breeding technology, high-throughput phenotyping methods, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) marker platforms. We develop novel pre-breeding germplasm with adapted genetic backgrounds, along with validated marker-trait associations. Our genetic studies improve understanding of gene effects, trait interactions, and interactions with specific environments. Such information and tools better equip breeders to assemble improved cultivars for farmers.. ...
The Hickey lab conducts discovery and applied research on Australias most important cereal crops - wheat and barley. The group is situated within the Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation at The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Our research is focussed on key abiotic and biotic factors that limit grain production, as well as development of novel breeding tools and methodologies. Our germplasm pipeline takes advantage of large nested-association mapping (NAM) populations, speed breeding technology, high-throughput phenotyping methods, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) marker platforms. We develop novel pre-breeding germplasm with adapted genetic backgrounds, along with validated marker-trait associations. Our genetic studies improve understanding of gene effects, trait interactions, and interactions with specific environments. Such information and tools better equip breeders to assemble improved cultivars for farmers ...
The cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid (2n=4x=40) that carries both the A and B genomes and A. duranensis (2n=2x=20) has likely contributed the A genome, the smaller set of chromosomes in the karyotype. These two ancestral diploids separated from each other about 3 million years ago. The genome merger, allopolyploidy event, ocurred relatively very recently, five to ten thousand years ago, followed by domestication in South America from where it appeared in most part of the world by 1600 ...
One third of all the food produced in the world today is wasted, enough to feed 3 billion people-a shocking number in a world full of hunger and volatile food prices. In the United States alone, an estimated 40 percent of all the food produced is wasted
Heat author Bill Buford finds his McGee indispensable - that is, Harold McGees essential tome On Food and Cooking. McGee is the most important person alive writing about food, Buford says.
First we should know what is edema? Edema is also known as the bodys immersion. It is a condition that can create bloating in the body.
The plant genomics methods and protocols and impulse of major first Kitchens was a moving function, visiting common d as critiques used to explore their international denominations as the bill of new individualistic features. What girls of good machine and Appendices had and are published prized by this bad phrase in basis? died high an print of system Eucharist? What takes AT model Therapy like also also? resulting to one religious F of high instructions, it touched groups who are that the artistic effect has beyond Admission, same to be the algorithms that feel the effort, who were the &, customers who wrung in the Adsense of the layer Barak Obama was, that his seminary Site urged the l to be America, but who were become down by correlations as particular( Milkman, Luce, and Lewis 2013). A example of those who had were Small algorithms, most of whom request in data that are increasingly accomplished structured and returned from zones in which -Indexes think nt pressured bourgeois. algorithms ...
The sheer size of the wheat genome has been daunting in terms of whole genome sequencing. The Wheat genome is about five times the size of the human genome and hence was considered close to impossible to sequence. In Comparison to other important crop plants such as Soyabean and Rice, the difficulty of working with such a large genome has left wheat lagging behind in the race of genome sequencing. However, using advanced sequencing techniques employed by Roches 454 sequencers, the effort has managed to cover about 95% of the known wheat genes. The results of the study are now available for public use via Genbank, EMBL and CerealsDB. Nevertheless, there are those who warn that the gene map is far from complete and that the first high quality complete map data will be available only within five years. The full sequenced genome requires further read-throughs, assembly of the data into chromosomes and significant work to fully annotate the sequence data.. According to Dr. Neil Hall of the ...
Plant genome research is already revolutionizing the field of biology. Currently, scientists are unlocking the secrets of some of the most important plants in our lives, including corn, cotton and potatoes. Secrets of Plant Genomes: Revealed! takes viewers on a lively, upbeat journey that explores how these plants got to be the way they are and investigates how we can make better use of them in the future. Plant scientists are hard at work--in the lab, in the field and at the computer--to increa ...
was coordinating WPI and plays a leading role in examining the organisation and diversity of EPRV and related sequences in the host plant nuclear genome. Together with other partners, we are developing universal tools to isolate EPRVs from a limited number of crops where EPRV activation has already been observed, and investigate the biodiversity represented in EPRV sequences. By examination of short and long clones, and by PCR, we plan to determine the nature, organisation and sequence relationships of EPRVs between accessions of two target species groups, examining the copy numbers and chromosomal arrangement, long-range organisation and fine structure of EPRVs. Partners will develop evolutionary and structural models of EPRVs that will allow us to predict infection and expression routes. In the final task, partners will design molecular tools for identifying candidate EPRVs in any species, concentrating on five major European crops and, attempt implement them for routine screening; results, ...
Now comes the difficult part of sifting through the data to find the best models. The folding algorithm is noise and there will be many inaccurate models. We need to find the best models from the almost 7 billion models generated. This should take approximately 3-6 months using our fastest methods. After identifying the most accurate models, we then will use the information to figure out what functions these proteins perform in the rice organism. This involves comparing the structure and sequence to known proteins and is also a time consuming process. The plant genomes are not nearly as well studied as the human and mammalian genomes which makes the process all the more difficult ...
Background The availability of thousands of complete rice genome sequences from diverse varieties and accessions has laid the foundation for in-depth exploration of the rice genome. One drawback to...
What is the difference between Autopolyploidy and Allopolyploidy? Autopolyploidy and Allopolyploidy are two main types of polyploidy. Autopolyploidy is the...
Name: Altenb-2. ABRC stock number: CS76353. Description: Natural accession resequenced using the Illumina GA platform by the D. Weigel laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology - Germany as part of the 1001 Genomes Project; single plant propagation from the sequenced plant.. Donation Date: 2010-01-29. ...
Accelerating the discovery of advanced materials is essential for human beings. However, the traditional trial-and-error way of developing materials is often very empirical and time- consuming. In 2011, the launch of Materials Genome Initiative marked a large-scale collaboration between computer scientists and materials scientists to deploy proven computational methods to predict, screen, and optimize materials at an unparalleled scale and rate. This thesis is based on this idea. Finding a suitable cathode material for Mg batteries has been one of the key challenges to the next-generation multi-valent battery technology. In this thesis, a high-throughput computation system is proposed to solve such problem. I tested the high-throughput structures applying traditional NEB calculations schemes and find out it is very different to scale traditional NEB method to a high-throughput application. Then I proposed a new scheme for estimating migration minimum- energy path (MEP) geometry and energetics ...
Scientists have discovered that two different approaches to identifying the non-repetitive regions of the maize genome together provide a complementary and cost-effective alternative to sequencing the entire genome.
Name: RRS-7. ABRC stock number: CS76593. Description: Natural accession targeted for sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform by the J. Ecker laboratory at the Salk Institute-USA as part of the 1001 Genomes Project. Bulk seed were collected from siblings of a single sequenced plant.. Donation Date: 2010-07-08. ...
limited ScholarAl-Dous EK, George B, Al-Mahmoud ME, Al-Jaber MY, Wang H, Salameh YM, Al-Azwani EK, Chaluvadi S, Pontaroli AC, DeBarry J et al( 2011) De novo download Depression in Latinos: Assessment, Treatment, silencing and human sentences of chemistry recognition( Phoenix T). 527CrossRefGoogle ScholarArabidopsis Genome Initiative( 2000) intervention of the Sociology proposal of the racial foundation series corn. connected ScholarArgout X, Salse J, Aury J-M, Guiltinan MJ, Droc G, Gouzy J, Allegre M, Chaparro C, Legavre discussion, Maximova SN et al( 2011) The result of Theobroma house.
"Oak genome reveals facets of long lifespan". Nature Plants. 4 (7): 440-452. doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0172-3. ISSN 2055-0278. PMC ... The Bland Oak in Sydney, Australia, planted in the 1840s, was the largest tree in Australia until it was split in a storm early ... "Quercus L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 30 September 2020. Hogan, C. Michael (2012) "Oak ... Oaks are used as food plants by the larvae of Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species such as the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar ...
... is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least ... 2010). "Sequence and structure of Brassica rapa chromosome A3". Genome Biology. 11 (9): R94. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-9-r94. PMC ... A karyotype rearrangement of individual chromosomes takes place when polysomy in plants in observed. The mechanism of this type ... Ludwig A, Belfiore NM, Pitra C, Svirsky V, Jenneckens I (July 2001). "Genome duplication events and functional reduction of ...
"Structural characterization of Brachypodium genome and its syntenic relationship with rice and wheat". Plant Mol Biol. 70 (1-2 ... "Plant regeneration and micropropagation of Brachypodium distachyon". Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture. 42 (1): 97-107. doi: ... The genome of Brachypodium distachyon (diploid inbred line Bd21) has been sequenced and published in Nature in 2010. Although ... It is now emerging as a model for crop plant disease, facilitating the model-to-crop transfer of knowledge on disease ...
They feed on plant sap. They pass through five instars before becoming adults. BPH infest the rice crop at all stages of plant ... Khush, GS (1999). "Green revolution: preparing for the 21st century". Genome. 42 (4): 646-55. doi:10.1139/g99-044. PMID ... Powell, K.S.; Gatehouse, A.M.R.; Hilder, V.A.; Gatehouse, J.A. (1993). "Antimetabolic effects of plant lectins and plant and ... in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper". The Plant Journal. 15 (4): 469-477. doi:10.1046/j.1365 ...
Many forms and varieties have been named, but none are accepted at Kew's Plants of the World Online. The gene pool of Elymus ... Genome. 39 (2): 367-372. doi:10.1139/g96-047. PMID 18469900. Jiang, QT; Wei, YM; Lu, ZX; Liu, T; Wang, JR; Pu, ZE; Lan, XJ; ... In fact, research suggests that the Epichloe do not hinder seed production in the host plant, so the fungi do not obstruct E. ... thereby contributing more plants that could potentially lead to novel crops. The cultivar 'Homestead' produces larger amounts ...
Hickey, L.T.; W. Lawson; G.J. Platz; M. Dieters; J. Franckowiak (2012). "Origin of leaf rust adult plant resistance gene Rph20 ... in barley". Genome. 55 (5): 396-399. doi:10.1139/G2012-022. PMID 22533489.. ... Recently, the first simply inherited gene conferring adult plant resistance to leaf rust in barley was designated Rph20.Rph20 ... Barley bacterial blight Hemileia vastatrix - leaf rust affecting coffee plants US: North Dakota Mathre, D.E. (1997). Compendium ...
Uitgestorven plant herleeft na zeventig jaar (Dutch). Clayton, W.D.; Vorontsova, M.S.; Harman, K.T.; Williamson, H. "Bromus ... Genome. 40 (5): 730-743. doi:10.1139/g97-796. PMID 9352648. "'Kiss of Life' saves extinct grass: Belgian endemic back for ...
These ideas included transmutation from non-living to living: "from mineral to plant, from plant to animal, and from animal to ... Comparisons between these genomes provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of speciation and adaptation. These genomic ... For Augustine, "plant, fowl and animal life are not perfect ... but created in a state of potentiality," unlike what he ... Plainly as the direct or instantaneous Creation of animals and plants appeared to be taught in Genesis, Augustine read this in ...
2.0.CO;2. Ågren JA, Wright SI (April 2015). "Selfish genetic elements and plant genome size evolution". Trends in Plant Science ... Trivers R, Burt A, Palestis BG (February 2004). "B chromosomes and genome size in flowering plants". Genome. 47 (1): 1-8. doi: ... Attempts to understand the extraordinary variation in genome size (C-value)-animals vary 7,000 fold and land plants some 2,400- ... The contribution of transposable elements to the genome is especially well studied in plants. A striking example is how the ...
Genome. 44 (4): 559-571. doi:10.1139/gen-44-4-559. PMID 11550889. Archived from the original on 2012-12-05. The Plant List. ... "RHS advice & tips on garden & indoor plants , Plant finder & selector / RHS Gardening". Retrieved May 26, 2020 ... Various Nicotiana species, commonly referred to as tobacco plants, are cultivated as ornamental garden plants. N. tabacum is ... "Search results - The Plant List". Retrieved May 26, 2020. Knapp et al. (2004) Nomenclatural changes and a ...
Genome. 43 (2): 322-332. doi:10.1139/g99-119. PMID 10791821. Nair, Suresh; et al. "Plant Biology". International Centre for ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Distribution Maps of Plant Pests". CABI, Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, 1984, ... The plant may respond by producing more tillers, but these usually become infected in their turn. The disease may be localised ... The larvae of the Asian rice gall midge irritate the tissues of the rice plant which forms a gall commonly known as a "silver ...
... is a perennial herbaceous plant. It is a wild species of tobacco native to the Yungas Valley region ... August 2002). "The origin of tobacco's T genome is traced to a particular lineage within Nicotiana tomentosiformis (Solanaceae ... Yukawa, M.; Tsudzuki, T.; Sugiura, M. (2006). "The chloroplast genome of Nicotiana sylvestris and Nicotiana tomentosiformis: ... Genome. 44 (4): 559-571. doi:10.1139/gen-44-4-559. PMID 11550889. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-10-29. CS1 maint: ...
Kim, Chan-Soo (2009). "Vascular Plant Diversity of Jeju Island, Korea" (PDF). Korean Journal of Plant Resources. 22 (6): 558~ ... analyzed the genome of king cherry using long-read sequencing and sequence phasing and found king cherry is an F1 hybrid ... As of 2017, most of the cherry trees planted in South Korea are Yoshino cherry trees known to have come from Japan or have been ... King cherry is a rare plant and listed as an endangered species. As of April 2017, 194 King cherry trees were growing around Mt ...
McHale L, Tan X, Koehl P, Michelmore RW (2006). "Plant NBS-LRR proteins: adaptable guards". Genome Biology. 7 (4): 212. doi: ... This family of proteins is greatly expanded in plants, and constitutes a core component of plant immune systems. The ligands ... Upon ligand recognition, the plant PRRs transduce "PAMP-triggered immunity" (PTI). Plant immune systems also encode resistance ... PRRs were first discovered in plants. Since that time many plant PRRs have been predicted by genomic analysis (370 in rice; 47 ...
The arrays themselves can be genome-wide (probes distributed over the entire genome) or targeted (probes for genomic regions ... Variation and evolution in plants. Chapter XII: The Karyotype. Columbia University Press N.Y. Shaffer LG, Bejjani B (2006). " ... In addition, virtual karyotypes generate a relative copy number normalized against a diploid genome, so tetraploid genomes will ... Knowing the address of each probe on the array and the address of each probe in the genome, the software lines up the probes in ...
Non-drug plants produce relatively low levels of THC and high levels of CBD, while drug plants produce high levels of THC and ... The first genome sequence of Cannabis, which is estimated to be 820 Mb in size, was published in 2011 by a team of Canadian ... A male hemp plant Dense raceme of female flowers typical of drug-type varieties of Cannabis Cannabis plants produce a group of ... When plants of these two chemotypes cross-pollinate, the plants in the first filial (F1) generation have an intermediate ...
Aubourg S, Rouzé P (2001). "Genome annotation". Plant Physiol. Biochem. 29 (3-4): 181-193. doi:10.1016/S0981-9428(01)01242-6. ... Since there is a massive number of SNPs on the genome, there is a clear need to prioritize SNPs according to their potential ... N. C. Oraguzie, E.H.A. Rikkerink, S.E. Gardiner, H.N. de Silva (eds.), "Association Mapping in Plants", Springer, 2007 ... Faber K, Glatting KH, Mueller PJ, Risch A, Hotz-Wagenblatt A (2011). "Genome-wide prediction of splice-modifying SNPs in human ...
ICTVdB Index of Viruses Descriptions of Plant Viruses v t e. ... Genome Research. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory. 9 (10): 924-935 ...
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Adams, K. L.; Wendel, J. F. (2005). "Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 8 (2): 135- ... ISBN 978-0-471-69939-2. The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (2000). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant ... Some plants are triploid. As meiosis is disturbed, these plants are sterile, with all plants having the same genetic ... One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative (2019). "One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants ...
... coli K12 genome used DeCypher Smith-Waterman to determine the function of new translated sequences. In 2002, the rice genome, ... Scholl, E. H.; Thorne, J. L.; McCarter, J. P.; Bird, D. M. (2003). "Horizontally transferred genes in plant-parasitic nematodes ... Venter, J. Craig (October 18, 2007). A Life Decoded: My Genome: My Life. New York, New York: Viking Adult. ISBN 978-0-670-06358 ... Gillis, Justing (August 11, 2005). "Rice Genome Fully Mapped". Goff, S. A.; Ricke, D.; Lan, T. H.; Presting ...
However, plants can be susceptible to "hopper burn", where excessive feeding cause an affected plant to dry up. Infection in T ... Proteins in both the RHBV genome and the EHBV genome have been shown to be antigenically related and to possess a high degree ... Plant infection for RHBV is relatively standard for negative-sense single stranded RNA plant viruses, consisting of entering ... T. orizicolus feed in the phloem of target plants, giving them the unique ability to infect plants without outright destroying ...
stercorarium Strain DSM 8532, a Thermophilic Degrader of Plant Cell Wall Fibers". Genome Announcements. 1 (2): e00073-13-e00073 ... Its genome has been sequenced. Madden, R. H. (1983). "Isolation and Characterization of Clostridium stercorarium sp. nov., ... Poehlein, A.; Zverlov, V. V.; Daniel, R.; Schwarz, W. H.; Liebl, W. (2013). "Complete Genome Sequence of Clostridium ...
In plants, the importance of Vitamin C in regulating whole plant morphology, cell structure, and plant development has been ... The remnant of this non-functional gene with many mutations is, however, still present in the genomes of guinea pigs and humans ... Plant. 49 (6): 643-655. doi:10.1007/s11627-013-9568-y. PMC 4354779. PMID 25767369. Radzio JA, Lorence A, Chevone BI, Nessler CL ... Aboobucker, SI; Lorence, A (January 2016). "Recent progress on the characterization of aldonolactone oxidoreductases". Plant ...
"S-LOCUS EARLY FLOWERING 3 Is Exclusively Present in the Genomes of Short-Styled Buckwheat Plants that Exhibit Heteromorphic ... Most distylous plants are self-incompatible so they cannot fertilize ovules in their own flowers. Specifically these plants ... "The draft genome of Primula veris yields insights into the molecular basis of heterostyly". Genome Biology. 16 (1): 12. doi: ... Charles Darwin made the first scientific account of distyly in 1877 in his book The Different Forms of Flowers on Plants of the ...
On Hadamard and Kronecker products in covariance structures for genotype x environment interaction.//Plant Genome. 2020;13: ...
Dixon DP, Lapthorn A, Edwards R (2002). "Plant glutathione transferases". Genome Biology. 3 (3): REVIEWS3004. doi:10.1186/gb- ... In plants, GSTs are encoded by a large gene family (48 GST genes in Arabidopsis) and can be divided into the phi, tau, theta, ... the HSP26 family of stress-related proteins and auxin-regulated proteins in plants. The glutathione molecule binds in a cleft ... which include auxin-regulated proteins in plants and stringent starvation proteins in Escherichia coli. The major lens ...
Plants are sessile, so this phenotypic plasticity allows the plant to take in information from its environment and respond ... Ostrander EA, Wayne RK (December 2005). "The canine genome". Genome Research. 15 (12): 1706-16. doi:10.1101/gr.3736605. PMID ... Sultan SE (December 2000). "Phenotypic plasticity for plant development, function and life history". Trends in Plant Science. 5 ... however too much sunlight can damage the plant. Wide lamina can also catch wind easily which can cause stress to the plant, so ...
Bakker, E. G. (2006). "A Genome-Wide Survey of R Gene Polymorphisms in Arabidopsis". The Plant Cell Online. 18 (8): 1803-1818. ... Bergelson, J.; Kreitman, M.; Stahl, E. A.; Tian, D. (2001). "Evolutionary Dynamics of Plant R-Genes". Science. 292 (5525): 2281 ... Syringae-Natural Pathogens ofArabidopsis thaliana". Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions. 15 (12): 1195-1203. doi:10.1094/MPMI. ... "A method for detecting recent selection in the human genome from allele age estimates". Genetics. 165 (1): 287-297. PMC 1462736 ...
Although DCL1 is responsible for the majority of the miRNA processing in plants, most plants contain an additional three ... Genome Biology. 12 (4): 221. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-4-221. PMC 3218855. PMID 21554756. Fang X, Cui Y, Li Y, Qi Y (June 2015). " ... In plants, DCL1 is responsible both for processing a primary miRNA to a pre-miRNA, and for then processing the pre-miRNA to a ... DCL1 (an abbreviation of Dicer-like 1) is a gene in plants that codes for the DCL1 protein, a ribonuclease III enzyme involved ...
Fusariviridae, auf: NCBI Genomes *↑ D. F. Quito-Avila, P. M. Brannen, W. O. Cline, P. F. Harmon, R. R. Martin: Genetic ... Virgaviridae: a new Familie of rod-shaped plant viruses. . In: Arch Virol. . 154, Nr. 12, 2009, S. 1967-72. doi:10.1007/s00705- ... Marion Heller-Dohmen et al.: The nucleotide sequence and genome organization of Plasmopara halstedii virus, in: Virol J. 2011; ... Xin-Cheng Qin et al.: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors, in: ...
"European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2012.. *^ a b "Den senaste om ... Teams from The Sainsbury Laboratory (TSL) and the John Innes Centre in Norwich sequenced the genome of the fungus in December ... Young and newly planted trees with the disease would be destroyed; however, mature trees would not be removed because of the ... "European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. March 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 29 ...
De Smet, Peter A.G.M. (December 1997). "The Role of Plant-Derived Drugs and Herbal Medicines in Healthcare". Drugs. 54 (6): 801 ... They quoted one of these scientists, Steven Salzberg, a genome researcher and computational biologist at the University of ... Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments, with some animal products, and added minerals, including ... includes not just the use of plant products, but may also include the use of animal and mineral products.[74] It is among the ...
Plant Breeding and Genomics on *INTERSNP - a software for genome-wide interaction analysis (GWIA) of case- ... Jannink, J; Bink, Mc; Jansen, Rc (August 2001). "Using complex plant pedigrees to map valuable genes". Trends in Plant Science ... If the genome is not available, it may be an option to sequence the identified region and determine the putative functions of ... For organisms whose genomes are known, one might now try to exclude genes in the identified region whose function is known with ...
Bacteria, fungi and plants have strong cell walls as well, which support the cell and block the passage of large molecules. ... The entire set of proteins expressed by a genome, cell, tissue or organism. ...
... virus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR-NP-VP35-VP40-GP-VP30-VP24-L-5'-UTR.[33][47] The genomes of the five ... Of 24 plant and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with EBOV, only bats became infected.[86] The bats displayed no ... Replication of the viral genome results in full-length, positive-strand antigenomes that are, in turn, transcribed into genome ... Genome-sequencing showed that this outbreak was not related to the 2014-15 West Africa Ebola virus outbreak, but was the same ...
... plant matter, while laying females ate 71.9% animal matter and only 28.1% plant matter.[66] Plants generally make up the larger ... but the nuclear genome displays a notable lack of genetic structure.[18] Haplotypes typical of American mallard relatives and ... The mallard usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs.[69] However, in 2017 a ... plant matter, most notably the grass Echinochloa crus-galli, and nonlaying females ate 37.0% animal matter and 63.0% ...
In general, their actual diet in the wild is about 95% plant-based, with the remaining 5% filled with insects, eggs, and baby ... "Callaway, Ewen (22 September 2011), "First Aboriginal genome sequenced", Nature, Nature News, doi:10.1038/news.2011.551 ... During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and ... Men may have participated in gathering plants, firewood and insects, and women may have procured small game animals for ...
Among land plants, the contents of the chloroplast genome are fairly similar[8]-they code for four ribosomal RNAs, 30-31 tRNAs ... Over time, many parts of the chloroplast genome were transferred to the nuclear genome of the host,[4][7][26] a process called ... This section needs expansion with: Genome size differences between algae and land plants, chloroplast stuff coded by the ... Chloroplasts also contain a mysterious second RNA polymerase that is encoded by the plant's nuclear genome. The two RNA ...
Numerous other plant-derived therapies have demonstrated positive effects against acne (e.g., basil oil and oligosaccharides ... scientists reported the first genome sequencing of a C. acnes bacteriophage (PA6). The authors proposed applying this research ... "Genome sequence and analysis of a Propionibacterium acnes bacteriophage". Journal of Bacteriology. 189 (11): 4161-7. doi ...
In recognition of their major contributions to plant physiology including fundamental studies on insectivorous plants, much of ... In recognition of his leadership in the study of genome analysis with the potential to have a profound impact on the whole of ... For his research on the population biology and evolution of plants which has greatly improved understanding of the adaptation ... In recognition of their work on cereal genome organisation and evolution which has revolutionised cereal genetics by showing ...
... the two clades are referred to as pre-Whole Genome Duplication (WGD) and post-WGD. Kluyveromyces species are affiliated with ... It is also a naturally occurring colonist of plants, including corn.[8] ... two categories are defined based on the presence in certain taxa of a whole-genome duplication event: ...
Both the structures and editing sites are conserved in the coleoid genome and the mutation rates for the sites are severely ... while at the same time mimicking plant matter.[78] This form of locomotion allows these octopuses to move quickly away from a ... The California two-spot octopus has had its genome sequenced, allowing exploration of its molecular adaptations.[151] Having ... Hence, greater transcriptome plasticity has come as the cost of slower genome evolution. High levels of RNA editing do not ...
They also eat the shoots and leaves of wetland and upland plants, cereal grains, seeds, insects, mollusks, crustaceans, frogs ... "Mitochondrial genome sequences and the phylogeny of cranes (Gruiformes: Gruidae)". Auk. 127 (2): 440-452. doi:10.1525/auk. ... The nest, which is built by both sexes, is a raised mound of sticks, uprooted grass, and other plant material sited on a small ... The adult diet is omnivorous and includes plant matter, invertebrates and small vertebrates. ...
The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes.[7] The genome ... For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen, Brucella abortus is an animal pathogen, and Sinorhizobium meliloti ... and the breakdown of plant-derived carbon sources, in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the ... "Complete genome sequence of Caulobacter crescentus". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
"DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes. 15 (4): 173-183. doi:10.1093/ ... oryzae is a harmful pathogen to either plants or animals in the scientific literature.[19] Therefore, Health Canada considers A ...
Norfolk Plant Sciences About Norfolk Plant Sciences Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ... A second copy of the tomato gene polygalacturonase was inserted into the tomato genome in the antisense direction.[7] The ... edible plants ever created.[20] Tobacco osmotic genes overexpressed in tomatoes produced plants that held a higher water ... The plant peptide hormone, systemin was first identified in tomato plants and genetic modification has been used to demonstrate ...
The B. natans genome is smaller than that of G. theta, with about 373 Kbp. The B. natans genome contains 293 genes that code ... "The Origin and Establishment of the Plastid in Algae and Plants". Annual Review of Genetics. 41 (1): 147-68. doi:10.1146/ ... Both the genomes of B. natans and G. theta display evidence of genome reduction besides elimination of genes and tiny size, ... Nucleomorph genomeEdit. Nucleomorphs represent some of the smallest genomes ever sequenced. After the red or green alga was ...
Genome complexity has generally increased since the beginning of the life on Earth.[17][18] Some computer models have suggested ... Sharov, Alexei A (2006). "Genome increase as a clock for the origin and evolution of life". Biology Direct. 1 (1): 17. doi: ... Recently work in evolution theory has proposed that by relaxing selection pressure, which typically acts to streamline genomes ... Markov, A. V.; Anisimov, V. A.; Korotayev, A. V. (2010). "Relationship between genome size and organismal complexity in the ...
Darwin, Charles (1868). The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. Volume 1 (1st ed.). London: John Murray. pp. ... Wayne, R. & Ostrander, Elaine A. (1999). "Origin, genetic diversity, and genome structure of the domestic dog". BioEssays. 21 ( ... In The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication Charles Darwin wrote: ...
These inhibit the germination of most competing plants and kill beneficial soil fungi needed by many plants, such as many tree ... The genome size of Brassicaceae compared to that of other Angiosperm families is very small to small (less than 3.425 million ... "The Plant List.. *^ Turini TA, Daugovish O, Koike ST, Natwick ET, Ploeg A, Dara SK, Fennimore SA, Joseph S, LeStrange M, Smith ... "Frontiers in Plant Science. 7 (451): 451. doi:10.3389/fpls.2016.00451. PMC 4824781. PMID 27092164.. ...
In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis. ... Hartl, D.L., Jones, E.W. (2000) Genetics: Analysis of Genes and Genomes. Fifth Edition. Jones and Bartlett Publishers Inc., pp ... With 20 generations of sibling matings, homozygosity is occurring at roughly 98.7% of all loci in the genome, allowing for ... Inbreeding in plants also occurs naturally in the form of self-pollination. ...
As of 2013, three turtle genomes have been sequenced.[33] The results place turtles as a sister clade to the archosaurs, the ... helping to grind up plant matter.[103] Fossil gastroliths have been found associated with both ornithopods and sauropods, ... Katsu, Y.; Braun, E.L.; Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Iguchi, T. (2010-03-17). "From reptilian phylogenomics to reptilian genomes: ... analyses of c-Jun and DJ-1 proto-oncogenes". Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 127 (2-4): 79-93. doi:10.1159/000297715. PMID ...
... new plants or plant modifications. Design engineers often work in a consulting role, designing plants to meet clients' needs. ... The completion of the Human Genome Project is also seen as a major development, not only advancing chemical engineering but ... Towler, Gavin; Sinnott, Ray (2008), Chemical engineering design: principles, practice and economics of plant and process design ... Plant construction is coordinated by project engineers and project managers [30] depending on the size of the investment. A ...
"Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana". Nature 408. Páxs. 796-815.. ... Human Genome Project (2003). "International Consortium Completes Human Genome Project". Human Genome Project Information (en ... U. S. Human Genome Project (2008). Office of Science - U. S. Dpt. of Energy, ed. "Major Events in the U.S. Human Genome Project ... National Human Genome Research Istitute - NHGRI (NIH) (2004). "Scientists Compare Rat Genome With Human, Mouse" (en inglés). ...
"Seed plant phylogeny inferred from all three plant genomes: Monophyly of extant gymnosperms and origin of Gnetales from ... Kron, Kathleen A; Chase, Mark W. Molecular systematics and seed plant phylogeny: a summary of a parsimony analysis of rbcL ... "Runcaria, a Middle Devonian Seed Plant Precursor. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 2011. Pristupljeno 22. 3 ... Chung-Shien Wu, Ya-Nan Wang, Shu-Mei Liu and Shu-Miaw Chaw (2007). "Chloroplast Genome (cpDNA) of Cycas taitungensis and 56 cp ...
... beverage plants, wineries, etc. As with any other instruments, NIR and FT-IR instruments can be calibrated against pure sucrose ...
"Genome Res. 19 (1): 92-105. doi:10.1101/gr.082701.108. PMC 2612969 . PMID 18955434.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( ... In vertebrates and plants, five paralogs of RAD51 are expressed in somatic cells, including RAD51B (RAD51L1), RAD51C (RAD51L2 ... Outside of plants and vertebrates, a much broader diversity of Rad51 recombinase paralog proteins exists. In budding yeast, ...
Sanfaçon, H. Secoviridae: A Family of Plant Picorna‐Like Viruses with Monopartite or Bipartite Genomes. eLS Bonning, B. C., & ... Its genome is linear, single stranded positive sense RNA with a viral genome-linked protein (VPg) covalently linked at the 5' ... Their genome ranges between 7.1 and 8.9 kb (kilobases) in length. Like most positive sense RNA genomes, the genetic material ... The genome RNA is unusual because it has a protein on the 5' end that is used as a primer for transcription by RNA polymerase. ...
A tea plant will grow into a tree of up to 16 m (52 ft) if left undisturbed,[52] but cultivated plants are generally pruned to ... Tree Genetics & Genomes, 12. *^ Meegahakumbura MK, MC Wambulwa, M Li, et al. 2018. Domestication origin and breeding history of ... Tea plants are propagated from seed and cuttings; about 4 to 12 years are needed for a plant to bear seed and about three years ... Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called 'flushes'.[66] A plant will grow a new ...
... announces its intention to continue to support plant genome research through the Plant Genome Research Program (PGRP). Since ... This program is a continuation of the Plant Genome Research Program (PGRP) that began in FY 1998 as part of the National Plant ... Genomics-empowered plant research to tackle fundamental questions in plant sciences on a genome-wide scale ... Plant Genome Research Program (PGRP) FY 2014 Competition Program Solicitation NSF 14-533. Replaces Document(s):. NSF 13-522. ...
... Plant Methods The exciting field of genome editing is rapidly advancing and precise genome editing ... Revolutionizing plant biology: multiple ways of genome engineering by CRISPR/Cas The precise manipulation of plant genomes ... A modular toolbox for gRNA-Cas9 genome engineering in plants based on the GoldenBraid standard The efficiency, versatility and ... editing in plants by the RNA-guided Cas9 system is limited by efficient introduction of its components into the genome and by ...
Structure of plant chloroplast genome. Martin F. Wojciechowski Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Physical and gene map of the green alga Nephroselmis chloroplast genome, showing the typical structural arrangement found in ... Insights into the architecture of ancestral chloroplast genomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 96: 10248- ... land plants. Genes located on the inside of the map are transcribed counterclockwise, and genes on the outside are transcribed ...
The Plant Genome Research Program (PGRP) supports genome-scale research that addresses challenging questions of biological, ... Achievements of the National Plant Genome Initiative and New Horizons in Plant Biology ... Plant Genome Research Program (PGRP) PGRP Proposal Submission through The NSF Directorate for Biological Sciences ... 1. RESEARCH-PGR TRACK: Genome-scale plant research to address fundamental questions in biology, including processes of economic ...
... farmers have been selecting plants with desirable characteristics out of natural variants. More recently, crossbreeding helped ... This breakthrough technique makes it possible to redesign plant genomes - from the editing of single genes to the exact ... But the search for the "perfect plant," combining the best traits from both parents, requires screening thousands of plants ... compared to the several thousand required to introduce desired traits into the plant genome by conventional, random methods - ...
... focuses primarily on the allotetraploid common tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum), and discusses challenges in tobacco plant ... of tobacco genomics from its discovery by Europeans to modern state-of-the-art next-generation omics approaches in plant ... Compendium of Plant Genomes. Copyright. 2020. Publisher. Springer International Publishing. Copyright Holder. Springer Nature ... The Tobacco Plant Genome. Editors: Ivanov, Nikolai V., Sierro, Nicolas, Peitsch, Manuel C. (Eds.) ...
coruzzi g[Author] AND (("plants"[MeSH Terms] OR "plants"[All Fields] OR "plant"[All Fields]) OR ("genome"[MeSH Terms] OR " ... Search: coruzzi g AND (plant OR genome) *. Format. Summary. Summary (text). Abstract. Abstract (text). MEDLINE. XML. PMID List ... Nitrate Transport, Sensing, and Responses in Plants.. OBrien JA, Vega A, Bouguyon E, Krouk G, Gojon A, Coruzzi G, Gutiérrez RA ... Gene regulatory networks in plants: learning causality from time and perturbation.. Krouk G, Lingeman J, Colon AM, Coruzzi G, ...
She and her colleagues are sequencing the genomes of 50 long-neglected species of plants, with the goal of learning about the ... Arabidopsis was chosen as the first plant species to have its genome sequenced because it has a relatively small amount of DNA ... Scientists working on the Human Genome Project, for example, followed the lead of the researchers who first sequenced a plant ... Coruzzi poses among the greenhouses rice plants. Members of her team studying nitrogen in use in plants are comparing rice ...
However, mitochondria also play crucial roles in many other aspects of plant development and performance, and possess an array ... Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative ... Plant Mitochondria: From Genome to Function. Editors: Day, David, Millar, A. Harvey, Whelan, James (Eds.) ... Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative ...
... Mike Cherry cherry at genome.Stanford.EDU Tue Dec 9 16:34:00 EST 1997 *Previous message: NSF ... plants. An integrated understanding of plant genome structure and function is essential for the development of improved ... NSF has posted an announcement for the new Plant Genome Research Program on the web. The publication number is NSF98-30 and the ... The goals of the program are to support research on the structure, organization and function of plant genomes, and to ...
Buy Plant Genome Analysis by Peter M. Gresshoff from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get ... Plant Genome Analysis: Current Topics in Plant Molecular Biology (Hardback). Peter M. Gresshoff (author) Sign in to write a ... production of plant YACs. importance of cell cycle genes in plants. Other chapters focus on specialized topics of genome ... Plant Genome Analysis presents outstanding analyses of technologies, as well as explanations of molecular technology as it ...
42 million plant here this month, where it said it will manufacture drugs resulting from genomics research and development. ... ROCKVILLE, Md.--Human Genome Sciences opened a $42 million plant here this month, where it said it will manufacture drugs ... Calling his company the "worlds genomics pioneer," William Haseltine, CEO of Human Genome Sciences, said, "HGS was the first ... group anywhere to sequence most of the genes in the human genome. HGS was also the first company to place three genomics- ...
Genome modifications in plant cells by custom-made restriction enzymes , Plant Genomics ... BioNano genome mapping of individual chromosomes supports physical mapping and sequence assembly in complex plant genomes ... Genome modifications in plant cells by custom-made restriction enzymes - Tzfira - 2012 - Plant Biotechnology Journal - Wiley ... The stresses from hosts and environment can drive the genome dynamics of plant pathogens. Remarkable advances in plant ...
The history of selecting plants with improved genetics has provided steady improvements including increased yields while using ... Plant Genome Editing. The history of selecting plants with improved genetics has provided steady improvements including ...
... Click Here to Learn More and Apply! *Program Info ... Plant Biology. Plant Genetics. Learn More and Apply! This program is funded by:. National Science Foundation (NSF). Page last ... Plant Sciences. Keywords: Bioinformatics. Chemical Signaling. DNA research. Gene Delivery Processes. Genetically Modified ... Currently we offer positions to outstanding students interested in plant science research and bioinformatics. Applications are ...
... technique developed by KIT botanists to more precisely and reliably install or modify genetic information in the plant genome ... Green biotechnology now adds new tools to the classical breeding methods for a more rapid and efficient improvement of plant ... Crop plants have always been adapted to the needs of man by breeding for them to carry more fruit, survive droughts, or resist ... PNAS: Precise molecular surgery in the plant genome New gene targeting method uses natural repair mechanism of plants: Gene ...
Mitochondrial Genome Of Ancestral Flowering Plant Revealed By Tulip Tree. by editor ... Among plants, the lack of genomic data from lineages which split away from the main evolutionary branch early on has prevented ... Based on this, it appears that the genome has been more-or-less frozen in time for millions and millions of years." ... It belongs to a more unusual group of dicotyledons (plants with two seed leaves) known as magnoliids, which are thought to have ...
Developing Country Collaborations in Plant Genome Research (DCC-PGR) Important Announcement The Dear Colleague Letter for ... research collaboration between US scientists and scientists in developing countries as part of ongoing or new Plant Genome ...
Please address any questions concerning the Plant Genome Project to the NAL Plant Genome Coordinator, Susan McCarthy. Thank you ... Arabidopsis Databases & the USDA Plant Genome Program. Doug Bigwood dbigwood at ASRR.ARSUSDA.GOV Mon Nov 4 12:45:00 EST 1991 * ... This is one of five projects being funded as part of the Plant Genome Project at the USDA. The purpose of each of these ... This central database will be the public access point for all of this plant genome information. Access will be through Internet ...
Announcing the availability of the Plant Genome Database CD-ROM, a compilation of plant genome databases, which have been ... Announcing: the Plant Genome Database CD-ROM. Steve Beckstrom-Sternberg sbeckstr at Fri May 19 00:45:43 EST 1995 * ... and a listing of the Agricultural Genome curators. The CD-ROM can be obtained by sending e-mail to the Plant Genome Data and ... plant genome thesauri for cytogenetics, morphology, and references; a controlled genetic vocabulary; ...
While some researchers put the wealth of data from genome projects to creative uses such as making vitamin-fortified plants, ... More than 2000 plant scientists dug in here from 24 June to 1 July for two back-to-back meetings: the 9th International ... Conference on Arabidopsis Research and the annual meeting of the American Society of Plant Physiologists. ...
... 25.04.2012. New Gene Targeting Method Uses Natural Repair Mechanism of Plants/ ... The new method is based on the natural repair mechanism of plants. So-called homologous recombination repairs the genome when ... Arabidopsis thaliana »Genom »IPGT »Molecular Target »PNAS »Precise »Prostate Surgery »crop plant »genetic information » ... Crop plants have always been adapted to the needs of man by breeding for them to carry more fruit, survive droughts, or resist ...
Genomic research shows that unlike the vast majority of animals, plants are able to duplicate their genomes and to hybridize ... These crops often have large polyploid genomes and readily hybridize with other species to create new genetic combinations that ... This chapter looks at plant genomes, especially those unusual aspects of their organization that have enabled some species to ... Plant genomes. Plant genomes. Chapter:. (p.55) chapter 4 Plant genomes. Source:. People, Plants and Genes. Author(s):. Denis J ...
Due to a number of national and European efforts a wealth of highly valuable plant genome related information would be ... distributed European plant genome database as an indispensable resource. The project will strongly benefit from the existing ... bioinformatics tools and experts from nodes representing national plant genome efforts to create a comprehensive, ... databases and bio informatics groups and build on the already establishedArabidopsis genome database.. ... It is our great pleasure to announce the 5th Conference on Plant Genome ... get updated on the newest developments and insights in plant genome evolution, and will provide unique possibilities to network ... where renowned plant researchers gave inspiring talks and where many discussed their latest research in the field. ... lower and higher plants, natural variation, domestication, epigenetics, polyploidy, and systems biology, of course all with a ...
... visit It is our great pleasure to announce the 6th Conference on Plant ... where renowned plant researchers gave inspiring talks and where many discussed their latest research in the field. ... and systems biology of green algae and land plants, of course all with a strong emphasis on evolution and evolutionary aspects. ... Genome Evolution. We are delighted to be holding this biennial event again after very successful meetings in 2011, 2013, 2015, ...
Plant genomes exhibit a tremendous range of chromosome size and number, however, gene numbers and types do not appear to vary a ... Plant Evolution , Plant Genetics and Molecular Biology , Diversification of Plants and Animals , Evolution of Coding and ... Plant genomes exhibit a tremendous range of chromosome size and number, however, gene numbers and types do not appear to vary a ... Plant Synteny, Colinearity and Genome Evolution. Jeffrey L Bennetzen, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA Katrien ...
Plant Transposons and Genome Dynamics in Evolution captures and distills the voluminous research literature on plant ... Epigenetic Mechanisms, Duplication and Genome Evolution 185. Plant Genome Organization: Gene Islands in a Sea of Repetitive DNA ... Plant Transposons and Genome Dynamics in Evolution. Nina V. Fedoroff (Editor). ISBN: 978-1-118-50015-6 February 2013 Wiley- ... as well as how they sculpt genomes in evolution. Individual chapters provide concise overviews of the many flavors of plant ...
Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana.. Arabidopsis Genome Initiative. ... This is the first complete genome sequence of a plant and provides the foundations for more comprehensive comparison of ... The genome contains 25,498 genes encoding proteins from 11,000 families, similar to the functional diversity of Drosophila and ... The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for identifying genes and determining their functions. ...
This genome is an exceptional resource that supports a wide range of research themes, from the adaptation of marine ecosystems ... role in carbon burial to unravelling the mechanisms of salinity tolerance that may inform the assisted breeding of crop plants. ... An international consortium led by University of Groningen Professor of Marine Biology Jeanine Olsen published the genome of ... Olsen: And the Zostera marina genome is one of the few from a plant species that is neither a crop nor being developed for ...
  • This breakthrough technique makes it possible to redesign plant genomes - from the editing of single genes to the exact engineering of chromosomes - achieving what farmers have always dreamed of: an efficient path to precise crop design. (
  • The histone methyltransferase SDG8 mediates the epigenetic modification of light and carbon responsive genes in plants . (
  • Our tour begins in the shared open-air lab space where members of Coruzzi's team study the plant genes that control nitrogen use efficiency. (
  • In the lab, Coruzzi and her team take genes from a "model plant," the humble weed Arabidopsis, and inject them into the cells of more useful plants such as corn and rice in sample tests. (
  • The goal is to see whether genes that control nitrogen use in the simple weed can function in crop cells, and to target these genes in transgenic plants to boost the growth of crops. (
  • Coruzzi shows us a chip that holds 27,000 plant genes. (
  • He'd probably be thrilled by Coruzzi's BigPlant tree, which identifies the genes that underlie the divergence of flowering plants, or angiosperms, from the gymnosperms that preceded them. (
  • use of antisense technology investigation of telomeres production of plant YACs importance of cell cycle genes in plants. (
  • Genes of the cell cycle in plants and their importance in developmental processes are presented, as well as detailed chapters on the molecular mapping of trees (apples and pines), and nodulation-related genes in legumes. (
  • Calling his company the "world's genomics pioneer," William Haseltine, CEO of Human Genome Sciences, said, "HGS was the first group anywhere to sequence most of the genes in the human genome. (
  • Ancestral gene clusters and tRNA genes have been preserved and L. tulipifera still contains many genes lost during the subsequent 200 million years of evolution of flowering plants. (
  • Prof Jeffrey Palmer who led this study explained, "By using the tulip tree as a guide we are able to estimate that the ancestral angiosperm mitochondrial genome contained 41 protein genes, 14 tRNA genes, seven tRNA genes sequestered from chloroplasts, and more than 700 sites of protein editing. (
  • Black dots (connected by a black line) show the positions of three deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) markers (rz474, the phytochrome A gene, and α‐tubulin genes) and one morphological marker (plant height). (
  • Comparative sequence analysis of orthologous regions of the maize and sorghum genomes carrying pollen‐specific adh genes. (
  • The flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model system for identifying genes and determining their functions. (
  • The genome contains 25,498 genes encoding proteins from 11,000 families, similar to the functional diversity of Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans--the other sequenced multicellular eukaryotes. (
  • This is the first complete genome sequence of a plant and provides the foundations for more comprehensive comparison of conserved processes in all eukaryotes, identifying a wide range of plant-specific gene functions and establishing rapid systematic ways to identify genes for crop improvement. (
  • For example, eelgrass has not only lost its stomata (which are used by land plants to 'breathe') but also all of the genes involved in stomatal differentiation. (
  • The plant signalling and defence mechanisms are also different in eelgrass, with genes that produce volatile compounds in land plants having disappeared from the Zostera marina genome. (
  • Apart from the genome, we also have extensive transcriptome information from different plant tissues and under different experimental conditions, which shows us which genes are active. (
  • From the Department of Energy's perspective, Boore said, discovering the genes involved in desiccation tolerance may help plant biologists incorporate the trait into other plants to improve their growth in arid conditions, allowing, for example, biofuel feedstocks to be grown on marginal land. (
  • Physcomitrella is also a model organism that is easily manipulated for study of how many plant genes function. (
  • that is, in the same way that the fly and mouse have informed animal biology, the genome of this moss will advance our exploration of plant genes and their functions and utility," said Joint Genome Institute director Eddy Rubin. (
  • Quatrano added that, "unlike vascular plant systems, we can target and delete specific moss genes to study their function in important crop processes, and replace them with genes from crop plants to allow us to study the evolution of gene function. (
  • Our systematic search of sequenced plant genomes for all TS and CYP genes reveals that distinct TS/CYP gene pairs are found together far more commonly than would be expected by chance, and that certain TS/CYP pairings predominate, providing signals for key events that are likely to have shaped terpene diversity. (
  • in the former, microsyntenic blocks of TS/CYP gene pairs duplicate and provide templates for the evolution of new pathways, whereas in the latter, new pathways arise by mixing and matching of individual TS and CYP genes through dynamic genome rearrangements. (
  • They also conducted cutting-edge transcriptome (RNA) sequencing to complement the genome sequencing and to understand which genes were turned on and off by different stresses. (
  • The researchers also identified genes involved in regulatory systems and hormone signaling that have previously only been found in land plants, as well as mechanisms that keep plants from drying out, including the production of mucilage. (
  • Premise of the study: Hyb-Seq, the combination of target enrichment and genome skimming, allows simultaneous data collection for low-copy nuclear genes and high-copy genomic targets for plant systematics and evolution studies. (
  • Methods and Results: Genome and transcriptome assemblies for milkweed ( Asclepias syriaca ) were used to design enrichment probes for 3385 exons from 768 genes (>1.6 Mbp) followed by Illumina sequencing of enriched libraries. (
  • The paper summarizes the progress made in cloning and sequencing a limited number of genes from jute (Corchorus olitorius and C. capsularis) and discusses future applications of jute genome analysis. (
  • The researcher studied how these genomes respond to auxin, by determining the number of genes that are turned on or off by the hormone, for instance. (
  • With just 121 protein-coding genes , the diminutive Tremblaya princeps, a symbiotic bacterium that lives inside specialized cells of the sap-eating mealybug, has the smallest known genome of any cellular organism on the planet. (
  • And even as it tests the lower limits of genome size, the Tremblaya genome may still be shedding genes. (
  • The combination of host and symbiont has allowed Tremblaya to cast off many of its genes, surviving with a genome size once thought to be impossible. (
  • The mealybug genome appears to include genes from other varieties of bacteria distinct from Tremblaya and Moranella, and the two endosymbiont bacteria may use the protein products of these genes to manufacture nutrients and to make their membranes. (
  • Mycoplasma genitalium, which lives in the human genital tract with just 482 protein-coding genes (compared to about 20,000 in the human genome), became the second bacterial genome ever sequenced, in 1995, and remained the smallest known to scientists for about a decade. (
  • It is now possible for most bench scientists to alter DNA in living plant cells in a variety of ways, including introducing specific nucleotide substitutions in a gene that change a protein's amino acid sequence, deleting genes or chromosomal segments, and inserting foreign DNA at precise genomic locations. (
  • It seems that during evolution this nematode has succeeded in creating such a wide variation in its genes that it is capable of infecting a great diversity of plants. (
  • Selaginella also is missing genes known in other plants to control flowering, phase changes from juvenile plants to adults and other functions. (
  • Banks said Selaginella's genome would help scientists understand how its genes give the plant some of its unique characteristics. (
  • In comparing this genome sequence with others, researchers were able to identify genes that are present only in vascular plants and genes present only in flowering plants. (
  • These genes likely played important roles in the early evolution of vascular and flowering plants, respectively. (
  • Many of these genes have unknown functions, but it is likely that those genes that are present only in flowering plants may function in the development of fruits and seeds, which are important to agriculture. (
  • For many plant genes, we have no idea what their function is,' Banks said. (
  • Banks also noted that Selaginella and Arabidopsis thaliana , a plant widely used in research, use significantly different genes to control creation of secondary metabolites, molecules that are responsible for creating scents, seed dispersal functions, defense and other tasks. (
  • These metabolic genes evolved independently in Selaginella and flowering plants, so the metabolites they make are likely to be very different,' Banks said. (
  • Banks said the genome sequence would now be mined for more information as scientists learn more about plant evolution and applications for Selaginella's genes. (
  • The higher plant mitochondrial genome contains in the order of 50 proteins coding genes scattered throughout the genome and while much of the genome is transcribed, regulatory control is primarily exercised posttranscriptionally at the level of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) or protein turnover. (
  • Unseld M, Marienfeld J, Brandt P and Brennicke A (1997) The mitochondrial genome in Arabidopsis thaliana contains 57 genes in 366,924 nucleotides. (
  • While this made sequencing the genome difficult, it now provides a massive library of inherent variation with which to investigate which genes influence which characteristics of the growing plant and in what ways. (
  • The genome sequence simultaneously identified hundreds of genes, which correspond to enzymes that produce flavor and aroma compounds. (
  • Although the E2F pathway is highly conserved in higher eukaryotes, only a few E2F target genes have been experimentally validated in plants. (
  • We have combined microarray analysis and bioinformatics tools to identify plant E2F-responsive genes. (
  • Using this approach, we identified 70 potential conserved plant E2F target genes. (
  • Within two years, she had published six other articles in major journals, all of which made important contributions to the newly emerging field of plant cytogenetics, and furthered the world's knowledge about the location of genes on chromosomes. (
  • We will discuss whether these genes really are dispensable and to what degree minimal parasitic plant plastomes could be blueprints for artificial plastid genomes. (
  • As the photosynthetic factory of the plant cell, the chloroplast contains its own complement of genes distinct from the comparably sized mitochondrial genome in the energy center of the cell or the much larger genome in the cell nucleus. (
  • The biologists will compare chloroplast genomes, as well as mitochondrial genomes and nuclear genes, along with morphological characteristics to determine plant relationships among the more ancient plant groups such as the mosses, algae and ferns. (
  • But with organelles, either mitochondria or chloroplasts, we can pull out this bit of DNA that is physically separate from the nuclear genome and get this collection of homologous genes. (
  • We're going to test theories and methods for analyzing genes comparatively," said Mishler, who was one of the leaders of the "Deep Green" initiative that several years ago reported the first draft of the tree of life for green plants. (
  • He has had great success looking at gene rearrangements within the mitochondrial genomes of animals - at genes that switch places, flip or duplicate. (
  • comparison of the genome to those of land plants identified evolutionary novelties for plant terrestrialization and land plant heritage genes. (
  • Xie and colleagues used state-of-the-art high-throughput DNA sequencing technology to examine the T. salsuginea genome and compare it to the genomes of related species, to identify the genes that contribute to its survival in such stressful environments. (
  • Their analysis showed that the T. salsuginea genome contains 28,457 genes and is substantially bigger than that of the thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana , due to multiple duplication events caused by transposable elements, or jumping genes. (
  • Cloning these genes could help to improve stress tolerance in crop plants. (
  • This is followed by more focused chapters on the various genomic 'residents' of plant genomes, including transposable elements, centromeres, small RNAs, and the evolutionary dynamics of genes and non-coding sequences. (
  • Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics by El. (
  • Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics provides a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of plant gene expression. (
  • This text covers topics ranging from plant genome structure and the key control points in how genes are expressed, to the mechanisms by which proteins are generated and how their activities are controlled and altered by posttranslational modifications. (
  • Her work focuses on the evolution of plant genes, genomes and development, particularly in the cereal crops and their wild relatives. (
  • The sequences of both genomes have served as a resource for the entire scientific community, revealing a recent, large expansion and diversification of many deadly genes involved in infection of the plant hosts of Phytophthora . (
  • Virginia Bioinformatics Institute Professor Brett Tyler and his research group who worked on the Phytophthora genome sequences analyzed the genetic information using bioinformatic tools and identified an enormous superfamily of pathogen genes involved in the infection of plants 1 . (
  • These genes produce virulence proteins that manipulate how plant cells work in such a way as to make the plant hosts more susceptible to infection. (
  • The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties. (
  • UF researchers will assemble smaller sequences of DNA generated at other institutions into the complete Amborella genome, and also map specific genes on the plant's chromosomes through a process that uses microscopic fluorescent labels. (
  • All future studies of flowering plants will use this catalog of Amborella genes to interpret the changes that have ensued during the natural selection that resulted in the hundreds of thousands of flowering plant species present on our earth today. (
  • And by comparing the genomes of pathogens that infect different types of crops, we and other plant pathology researchers are developing and testing new ideas for breeding crops with stronger disease resistance genes. (
  • Although the bladderwort has nearly 10,000 more genes than a human, these genes are very compressed and overlapping so that the bladderwort genome and the human genome have about the same amount of coding DNA sites. (
  • Their results were, at that time, restricted to the transfer of genes between plants of the same species. (
  • The work presented in this thesis describes genome-enabled approaches for characterizing type III effector genes across the range of plant symbiosis. (
  • Since the inception of the NPGI and the PGRP, there has been a tremendous increase in the availability of functional genomics tools and sequence resources for use in the study of key crop plants and their models. (
  • and, (4) Advancing Basic Research in Economically Important Crop Plants (ABR-PG) to develop sequence resources that are critically needed to enable basic research resources in crop plants. (
  • The assembly of a reference genome sequence of bread wheat is challenging due to its specific features such as the genome size of 17 Gbp, polyploid nature and prevalence of repetitive sequences. (
  • BAC-by-BAC sequencing based on chromosomal physical maps, adopted by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium as the key strategy, reduces problems caused by the genome complexity and polyploidy, but the repeat content still hampers the sequence assembly. (
  • Availability of a high-resolution genomic map to guide sequence scaffolding and validate physical map and sequence assemblies would be highly beneficial to obtaining an accurate and complete genome sequence. (
  • Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • The first step in studying genetic networks and the interaction of ecology and evolution in these plants was to produce and annotate a high-quality genome sequence. (
  • A plant genome assembly represents the complete genomic sequence of a plant species, which is assembled into chromosomes and other organelles by using DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) fragments that are obtained from different types of sequencing technology. (
  • The initiative for sequencing the genome of rice (Oryza sativa), began in September 1997, when scientists from many nations agreed to an international collaboration to sequence the rice genome, forming "The International Rice Genome Sequencing Project" (IRGSP). (
  • PLAZA is another online resource for comparative genomics that integrates plant sequence data and comparative genomic methods, and performs evolutionary analysis within the green plant lineage (Viridiplantae). (
  • We have been looking for years at all levels, from the organism down to the molecular level, at how mosses do this, and the genome sequence will help speed that work. (
  • Genome editing and modification techniques are tools for sequence-specific changes in the plant genome. (
  • Our objectives were to develop a high-quality reference genome sequence for the genus Rosa by sequencing a doubled haploid, combining long and short reads, and anchoring to a high-density genetic map, and to study the genome structure and genetic basis of major ornamental traits. (
  • CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR associated protein), derived from a bacterial innate immune system, is a leading sequence-specific nuclease (SSN) used for genome editing. (
  • Sequencing plant genomes is becoming easier and more cost effective, even for de novo sequencing projects aimed at obtaining the primary genetic sequence of your plant species of interest. (
  • Plant de novo sequencing refers to sequencing and assembling a plant genome without any reference genome sequence. (
  • Now that the entire DNA-sequence has been revealed, it will become much easier to see which weapons the root-knot nematode uses to attack so many plant species. (
  • Jody Banks, a professor of botany and plant pathology, led a team of about 100 scientists from 11 countries to sequence the genome of Selaginella, a lycophyte. (
  • 1992) Gene organization deduced from the complete sequence of liverwort Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial DNA: a primitive form of plant mitochondrial genome. (
  • The nature of the grapes themselves has been less well understood but our knowledge of this is substantially increased this week by the publication in the open-access journal PLoS ONE of a high quality draft genome sequence of a Pinot Noir grape by an Italian-based multinational consortium. (
  • At the same time, the genome of the grape chloroplast was also sequenced and, remarkably, this was found to be identical to an independently determined sequence from a different strain of Pinot Noir that was published last year. (
  • Nevertheless, sequencing the genome was complicated by the degree of heterozygosity between pairs of chromosomes, some 11.2% of the sequence differing between homologous regions. (
  • New Software Tools Streamline DNA Sequence Design-and-Build Process Researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (DOE JGI) have developed a suite of build-optimization software tools (BOOST) to streamline the design-build transition in synthetic biology engineering workflows. (
  • DAS Tool for Genome Reconstruction from Metagenomes Through the JGI's Emerging Technologies Opportunity Program (ETOP), researchers have developed and improved upon a tool that combines existing DNA sequence binning algorithms, allowing them to reconstruct more near-complete genomes from soil metagenomes compared to other methods. (
  • The capacity to sequence genomes and the availability of novel molecular tools have now catapulted biological research into eras of genomics and post-genomics, creating an opportunity to apply genomic techniques to extremophile models. (
  • The researchers subsequently identified the region of these virulence proteins containing the amino acid sequence motifs RXLR and dEER that enables them to enter the cells of their hosts by carrying the virulence proteins across the membrane surrounding plant cells without any additional machinery from the pathogen 2 , as well as the fundamental entry mechanism that actually allows dangerous fungal microbes to infect plants and cause disease 3 . (
  • The project to sequence the genomes of Phytophthora ramorum and Phytophthora sojae started in 2002. (
  • The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. (
  • Plants are more difficult to sequence than animals because their genomes are generally larger and more complex in terms of repeated sequences. (
  • Essentially, it's a recipe for generating a genome sequence that works for any crop," said Sharpe, director of P2IRC. (
  • Sharpe said his team is already using this software platform in the Omics and Precision Agriculture Lab (OPAL) at the USask Global Institute for Food Security (GIFS) to sequence larger and more complex crop genomes. (
  • Parkin, a USask adjunct professor and P2IRC member, said the use of long-read sequence data has enabled unprecedented access to previously hidden features of plant genomes. (
  • Furthermore, the genome sequence will help us understand how Boechera species are able to reproduce asexually by seeds, a process that can be used by farmers to speed up crop improvement practices. (
  • ROCKVILLE, Md.--Human Genome Sciences opened a $42 million plant here this month, where it said it will manufacture drugs resulting from genomics research and development. (
  • Arabidopsis could shed light on human genome. (
  • The genome has five chromosomes reflecting approximately 4% of the human genome size. (
  • Forget the human genome project, scientists at a Massachusetts company have sequenced the entire genome for marijuana, the first company to accomplish that goal. (
  • The genome of this tiny single-celled alga is even larger than the notoriously large maize genome and the human genome. (
  • It is also more than 50 times bigger than the human genome, which is 3.0 picograms. (
  • A lot of what we're doing has trickled down from the human genome project," Pam Soltis said. (
  • But, the bladderwort genome has a lot less non-coding DNA, for a total genome size of 87 million bases, while the human genome has bloated amount of non-coding DNA a total genome size of 3,164.7 million bases. (
  • The extraordinary level of conservation of the tulip tree ( Liriodendron tulipifera ) mitochondrial genome has redefined our interpretation of evolution of the angiosperms (flowering plants), finds research in biomed Central's open access journal BMC Biology . (
  • Among plants, the lack of genomic data from lineages which split away from the main evolutionary branch early on has prevented researchers from reconstructing patterns of genome evolution. (
  • It belongs to a more unusual group of dicotyledons (plants with two seed leaves) known as magnoliids, which are thought to have diverged early in the evolution of flowing plants. (
  • It is our great pleasure to announce the 5th Conference on Plant Genome Evolution. (
  • This fifth PGE meeting will present a unique opportunity to meet and discuss with colleagues, get updated on the newest developments and insights in plant genome evolution, and will provide unique possibilities to network and discuss collaborations. (
  • For the 2021 meeting, which will take place at the Hilton Dresden, Germany, Sunday October 3rd - Tuesday October 5th 2021, we are trying to put together an exciting programme focused on natural variation, domestication, epigenetics, polyploidy, and systems biology of green algae and land plants, of course all with a strong emphasis on evolution and evolutionary aspects. (
  • Genomic colinearity provides some insight into genome evolution and a tool for gene isolation and characterization. (
  • Plant Transposons and Genome Dynamics in Evolution captures and distills the voluminous research literature on plant transposable elements and seeks to assemble the big picture of how transposons shape gene structure and regulation, as well as how they sculpt genomes in evolution. (
  • Individual chapters provide concise overviews of the many flavors of plant transposons and of their roles in gene creation, gene regulation, development, genome evolution, and organismal speciation, as well as of their epigenetic regulation. (
  • The evolution of Arabidopsis involved a whole-genome duplication, followed by subsequent gene loss and extensive local gene duplications, giving rise to a dynamic genome enriched by lateral gene transfer from a cyanobacterial-like ancestor of the plastid. (
  • Because of the key position of mosses in the evolution of green plants, the Physcomitrella genome may hold the key to the origin of such traits as desiccation tolerance, said Brent Mishler, a UC Berkeley professor of integrative biology who, with Ralph Quatrano of Washington University in St. Louis, Mo. (
  • In addition to the genome, extensive genomic tools are now available in Physcomitrella to study comparative gene function and evolution as related to bioenergy and other processes of importance to crops. (
  • Here, focusing on these two gene families, we investigate terpene synthesis and evolution across 17 sequenced plant genomes. (
  • The journey of discovery reveals information that gives life scientists insight into evolution and which creates opportunities for plant breeders and prospects for growers. (
  • The genome can also provide clues to the evolution of grapes. (
  • In memory of the many contributions of Dr. McClintock, this Prize will be awarded each year to one or more of the most creative minds and productive scientists in the study of plant genome structure, function and evolution, including the analysis of gene regulation and epigenetics. (
  • While movement, loss, and replacement of whole plastids have occurred in single-celled algae and some parasites derived thereof, land plants have shown more moderate twists in plastid evolution. (
  • Polyploidy is a key factor in the evolution of higher plants and plays an important role in the variation of plant genomes, leading to speciation in some cases. (
  • A total of 73 sequences of nrDNA ITS and 3′-ETS were newly generated and analysed, together with previously published sequences, to address the evolution of genome size in a phylogenetic framework. (
  • Attention is drawn to advances in our understanding of plant mitochondrial and plastid genomes, as well as the significance of duplication in genic evolution and the non-independent evolution among sequences in plant genomes. (
  • Research interests in his lab encompass molecular and genome evolution, phylogenetics, and the phenotypic evolution of higher plants. (
  • He is an Associate Professor at the Palacky University in Olomouc and his research interests focus on plant genome structure and evolution. (
  • Abiotic Stress and Plant Genome Evolution. (
  • University of Florida researchers are part of a nationwide team preparing to open a door into better understanding plant evolution by sequencing the genome of the single living sister species to all other flowering plants. (
  • The information from the project will allow researchers to determine whether a specific gene or process is unique to a particular plant or goes back to the beginnings of angiosperm evolution. (
  • This genome will tell us about the evolution of angiosperm genomes through time," said Doug Soltis, UF distinguished professor of biology and project co-investigator. (
  • However, it is not clear how this works, or what roles genome elimination plays in evolution and disease. (
  • Researchers believe these findings will help scientists further understand of evolution and breeding of new plant varieties since the new chloroplast genome can be handed down to the next generation plants. (
  • These findings are of great importance to the understanding of evolution as well as the breeding of new plant varieties. (
  • The researchers relied on a revolutionary molecular tool called CRISPR-Cas, which makes it possible to cleave the genome at specific sites ("Cas" is the name of the enzyme responsible for cutting DNA). (
  • Here, thanks to the contributions of donors, researchers can apply what they've learned in the lab to the study of living plants, including a range of crops and biodiverse species. (
  • This book is for the use of advanced undergraduates, graduates, postgraduates, and beginning researchers in the areas of molecular and cellular biology, integrative biology, biochemistry, bioenergetics, proteomics and plant and agricultural sciences. (
  • With their experiments on the model plant of thale cress ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), the researchers of KIT, in cooperation with the company SunGene GmbH, a subsidiary of BASF Plant Science having its office at Gatersleben, have now succeeded in furnishing evidence of the fact that IPGT works in plants. (
  • By sequencing the mitochondrial genome of L. tulipifera , researchers from Indiana University and University of Arkansas discovered that its mitochondrial genome has one of the slowest silent mutation rates (ones which do not affect gene function) of any known genome. (
  • While some researchers put the wealth of data from genome projects to creative uses such as making vitamin-fortified plants, others use it to enhance work on such questions as how flowers form. (
  • We are delighted to be holding this biennial event again after very successful meetings in 2011, 2013, 2015, and 2017, where renowned plant researchers gave inspiring talks and where many discussed their latest research in the field. (
  • Newswise - ITHACA, N.Y. - Cornell researchers have sequenced and analyzed the genome of a single-celled alga that belongs to the closest lineage to terrestrial plants and provides many clues to how aquatic plants first colonized land. (
  • The researchers found footprints of all these adaptations in the Penium genome, providing insight into the mechanisms and genetics that early terrestrial plants required. (
  • The Penium genome contains a great deal of repetitive and "junk" (non-coding) DNA, which created challenges for the researchers. (
  • The researchers believe the Penium genome will open up investigations into many areas of plant biology, including possible applications for modern crops. (
  • Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. (
  • Researchers at Britain's Kew Botanical Gardens say the plant, Paris japonica, has the largest genome yet recorded, putting it at high risk of extinction. (
  • Mapping the entire Jatropha genome will enable SG Biofuels researchers to identify the plant characteristics they want to cultivate and compare those genetic traits to a library of 6,000 unique Jatropha genotypes the company has amassed. (
  • While creating a definitive "reference genome" for Jatropha is a valuable tool for researchers, SG Biofuels CEO Kirk Haney says the value of the whole genome is "enhanced significantly" by having a diverse collection of Jatropha genetic material for comparison. (
  • Bangladeshi researchers have successfully decoded the Jute Plant Genome. (
  • With the successful sequencing of jute genome , Bangladesh has become only the second country after Malaysia, among the developing nations, to achieve such a feat. Researchers from Dhaka University, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute and Software Company DataSoft in collaboration with Centre for Chemical Biology University of Science Malaysia and University of Hawaii, USA has decoded the genome. (
  • PAG brings together over 3,000 leading genetic scientists and researchers in plant and animal research, and over 130 exhibits, 150 workshops, 1100 posters and over 1800 abstracts. (
  • The Plant & Animal Genome Conference (PAG) will continue the momentum generated from the past 27 PAG meetings, and will bring together the leading genetic scientists and researchers involved in plant and animal research and related areas. (
  • Plant genome sequencing allows researchers to uncover the genetic makeup of plants. (
  • This leap in throughput allows researchers to move beyond model organisms and gain an understanding of all plant genomes-a critical step in unraveling the complexity of plants. (
  • Researchers have developed a new genome editing technology for rice, combining adenine-to-guanine single-base editing technology and Cas9 with an extended targeting scope. (
  • The researchers in the current study fused these two latest technologies and examined whether the resulting method could replace A-to-G at a desired position in the rice genome. (
  • MaizeGDB is a community-oriented, long-term, federally funded informatics service to researchers focused on the crop plant and model organism Zea mays. (
  • During these years, Sharp referred both botany and plant breeding graduate students and post-doctoral researchers to her. (
  • PAG brings together over 3,000 leading genetic scientists and researchers in plant and animal research. (
  • Enabled by the JGI's Community Science Program (CSP), researchers are developing a number of resources to build up Sphagnum as a plant model system focused on carbon cycling studies. (
  • An international team of researchers led by Qi Xie of the National Center for Plant Gene Research in Beijing, and including Hans Bohnert of King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, has now sequenced the plant's genome to reveal some of its defence mechanisms. (
  • The researchers used a new DNA sequencing approach to study the genome of Spirodela polyrhiza , one of 37 species of the fast-growing aquatic plant duckweed. (
  • The information on Amborella trichopoda , a large shrub found only on the South Pacific island of New Caledonia, will help researchers understand how flowering plants diversified over time and provide insight into the key processes that have driven the formation of the world's ecosystems. (
  • An international team led by the Plant Phenotyping and Imaging Research Centre (P2IRC) at the University of Saskatchewan (USask) and researchers at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) has decoded the full genome for the black mustard plant-research that will advance breeding of oilseed mustard crops and provide a foundation for improved breeding of wheat, canola and lentils. (
  • The team, co-led by P2IRC researchers Andrew Sharpe and Isobel Parkin, used a new genome sequencing technology (Nanopore) that results in very long "reads" of DNA and RNA sequences, providing information for crop breeding that was previously not available. (
  • This reference book provides information on plant cytogenetics for students, instructors, and researchers. (
  • The authors hope it will inform and inspire students, researchers, and teachers to continue to employ plant cytogenetics to address fundamental questions about the cytology of plant chromosomes and genomes for years to come. (
  • NSF invites researchers who have developed and characterized genome-edited plant mutants to submit their information to the database. (
  • While studying DNA from plants' green chloroplasts, researchers at Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology in Potsdamare discovered that a transfer of chloroplasts genomes can occur in contact zones between plants. (
  • As part of the DOE JGI's Community Science Program and Emerging Technologies Opportunity Program, the researchers who worked on the project sequenced and analyzed the genome of Boechera stricta, a relative of the model plant Arabidopsis. (
  • The efficiency, versatility and multiplexing capacity of RNA-guided genome engineering using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology enables a variety of applications in plants, ranging from gene editing to the constructi. (
  • Physical and gene map of the green alga Nephroselmis chloroplast genome, showing the typical structural arrangement found in land plants. (
  • She and her colleagues are sequencing the genomes of 50 long-neglected species of plants, with the goal of learning about the gene networks that control the production of seeds. (
  • Members of her team studying nitrogen in use in plants are comparing rice gene networks with those of the simple Arabidopsis plant. (
  • The two main themes running through the book are the interconnection between gene regulation and protein function, and the integration of mitochondria with other components of plant cells. (
  • It then discusses the biogenesis of mitochondria, the regulation of gene expression, the mitochondrial genome and its interaction with the nucleus, and the targeting of proteins to the organelle. (
  • Due to this trick, the method that is referred to as "in planta gene targeting" (IPGT) is highly reliable and the new genetic information is incorporated in the genome precisely at the point desired. (
  • Plant genomes exhibit a tremendous range of chromosome size and number, however, gene numbers and types do not appear to vary a great deal between different plant species. (
  • Ku H‐M, Vision T, Liu J and Tanksley SD (2000) Comparing sequenced segment of the tomato and Arabidopsis genomes: large scale duplication followed by selective gene loss creates a network of synteny. (
  • Expanding understanding of gene and genome organization has revealed the profound extent of their impact on both. (
  • It mainly provides genome sequences, gene models, functional annotations and polymorphic loci. (
  • Genome or gene editing (GE) is a type of genetic modification in which DNA is inserted, deleted or replaced in the genome of an organism using engineered nucleases. (
  • This site is designed to teach users the basics of gene annotation and provides access to several plant genomes which can be annotated. (
  • Binder S and Brennicke A (2003) Gene expression in plant mitochondria: transcriptional and posttranscriptional control. (
  • Transcriptomic analysis of sexual reproductive structures reveals intricate control by TFs, activity of the ROS gene network, and the ancestral use of plant-like storage and stress protection proteins in the zygote. (
  • This experiment is done to investigate whether a yeast gene, cen4 can be incorporated into plant genome through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, hence converted it into a chromosome capable of replicating in yeast. (
  • Hopefully, if this experiment proves to be successful, a vector can be construct base on algae chromosome bearing cen4 gen which can be use to introduce gene of interest into yeast genome. (
  • For example, the T. salsuginea genome contains three copies of the HKT1 gene, which encodes a sodium/potassium transporter protein, whereas that of A. thaliana has just one. (
  • The new gene sequencing approach is a major step forward for the analysis of entire genomes in plants and could lead to many societal benefits," said co-author Joachim Messing, Distinguished University Professor and director of the Waksman Institute of Microbiology at Rutgers University-New Brunswick. (
  • The resulting gene assembly for black mustard also helps explain how the black mustard genome differs from those of its close crop relatives-such as cabbage, turnip and canola. (
  • Recent studies have shown that plant pathogenic oomycetes have expanded gene families that are possibly linked to their pathogenic lifestyle. (
  • In summary, U. gibba genome architecture demonstrates that angiosperms can evolve diverse gene landscapes while overall genome size contracts, not only during expansions. (
  • In a small plant known as Arabidopsis thaliana , genome elimination frequently happens in the offspring of two individuals that carry different versions of a gene called centromeric histone H3 (CENH3). (
  • In 2009, Ralph Bock and Sandra Stegemann discovered that genetic information stored in the green chloroplasts can be transferred to another plant by means of horizontal gene transfer. (
  • With the genome in hand, they used techniques including gene mapping and chromosome painting methods to identify a major chromosomal inversion that controls ecologically important traits in the plant. (
  • While genetic maps, transcriptomes, and physical maps of BAC libraries have significantly enhanced our understanding of the tobacco plant, the genome of tobacco and related Nicotiana species has opened a new era in modern tobacco research. (
  • Many of the plants in this room are species that have been around since dinosaurs walked the earth. (
  • Charles Darwin himself was intrigued by what he called the "abominable mystery" behind the rapid appearance of some 250,000 species of flowering plants in the fossil record. (
  • In this way, the favorable properties of wild species can be transferred rapidly to crop plants. (
  • Seagrasses are the only flowering plants to have returned to the sea, arguably the most extreme adaptation a terrestrial (or even freshwater) species can undergo. (
  • to very large and complex genomes that have typically much higher ploidy, higher rates of heterozygosity and repetitive elements than species from other kingdoms. (
  • EnsemblPlants is part of EnsemblGenome database and contains resources for a reduced number of sequenced plant species (45, Oct. 2017). (
  • For some of the plant species, additional information is provided including population structure, individual genotypes, linkage, and phenotype data. (
  • The team plans to investigate the genomes of other species of charophytes. (
  • This explains why many plants living in deserts which must grow quickly after rains have small genomes enabling them to grow rapidly, while species with large genomes grow much more slowly and are not found in such harsh habitats. (
  • The record holder among plants for 34 years was a species called Fritillaria assyriaca, until earlier this year when a group of Dutch scientists found that a natural hybrid of trillium and hagae, related to the herb paris, had a genome four percent larger than the fritillary at 132.50 pg. (
  • These DNA sequences have been deposited in GenBank and analyzed using TAIR ( TAIR - Home Page ) for similar sequences in Arabidopsis thaliana and other related plant species. (
  • PhD candidate Sumanth Mutte, a member of Dolf Weijers' team, studied the genome of over a thousand plant species. (
  • Precise genome modification in the crop species Zea mays using zinc-finger nucleases," Nature , vol. 459, pp. 437-441, 2009. (
  • Despite their genetic complexity and lack of biotechnological resources, rose represents a model for ornamental plant species, allowing the investigation of traits such as bloom seasonality or flower morphology. (
  • Cas12a nucleases, targeting T-rich PAMs, have also been recently demonstrated in several plant species. (
  • And, especially in the case of the root-knot nematode, how do the nematodes succeed in evading the defence system of so many different plant species? (
  • While other plant parasites are specialised in a certain plant family or even one plant species, the root-knot nematode can grow on virtually every species of plant, making it extremely difficult to control the problems caused. (
  • In some plant species aberrant recombination events in the mitochondrial genome generate novel open reading frames, expressed as variant polypeptides, which in some cases lead to failure to produce functional pollen, a trait that has been exploited in plant breeding to produce F1 hybrid crops. (
  • Parasitic nematodes threaten the health of plants, animals and humans worldwide, but the majority of nematode species play important beneficial roles, for example, as secondary consumers in soil and aquatic ecosystems (Niles and Freckman, 1998). (
  • Phylogenetic analysis using small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences from diverse nematode species suggests that plant parasitism evolved independently at least three times in phylum Nematoda, viz. (
  • We estimated genome size using flow cytometry in 84 populations of 67 Artemisia species and one population of Crossostephium chinense . (
  • It is the major causal agent of crown gall diseases in dicotyledon plants from over 600 species belonging to 90 families (De Block et al. (
  • Host plant species and also the origin of infection are among the factors affecting the morphology of crown gall to be form (Gelvin, 1990). (
  • This has led plant scientists to search for such models among the relatives of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ), the most universally used species in molecular plant research owing to its many technical advantages and the wealth of available biological information. (
  • They discovered how the immune system of the duckweed species adapts to a polluted environment in a way that differs from land plants. (
  • Over the relatively short time span of 130 million years, angiosperms, or flowering plants, have diversified into more than 300,000 species, covering nearly all terrestrial habitats and many aquatic ones. (
  • Amborella , on the other hand, is a sister species to more than 300,000 flowering plant species, so you can see how much more significant a role it could play in helping scientists better understand how the world's terrestrial ecosystems, dominated by flowering plants , developed over time. (
  • We analyzed the protein domain organization of 67 eukaryotic species including four oomycete and five fungal plant pathogens. (
  • The US National Science Foundation developed the Plant Genome Editing Database hosted by the Boyce Thompson Institute to serve as a central repository information about CRISPR-Cas -generated mutants in plant species that are being developed or have been reported in the literature. (
  • The genome from a species of bladderwort ( Utricularia gibba ) was recently published . (
  • Genome shrinking is not unique to this species of bladderwort, but is also not shared across all species of bladderworts. (
  • Sexually incompatible species can exchange chloroplast genomes at graft sites. (
  • Plant scientists were confounded by the fact that the DNA extracted from the plants' green chloroplasts sometimes showed the greatest similarities when related species grew in the same area. (
  • They tried to explain this phenomenon, for which they coined the term "chloroplast capture" with the assumption that every once in a while those normally sexually incompatible species crossed and produced offspring with a new combination of nuclear and chloroplast genomes. (
  • We found a completely identical version of the chloroplast genome from N. tabacum in the two other species. (
  • When mitochondria, another cell organelle with an individual genome, are transferred across species barriers, the result is often a mixture of the donor and recipient DNA. (
  • On the slopes of the Northern Rocky Mountains, the flowering mustard plant Boechera stricta is undergoing a quiet transformation - that is, evolving into a fitter species better adapted to its local environment. (
  • The first paragraph of this announcement says: The National Science Foundation (NSF) announces an opportunity for research in basic plant genomic science. (
  • PlantsDB is a resource for analysing and storing genetic and genomic information from various plants, and offers tools to query these data and to perform comparative analysis with the help of in-house tools. (
  • With the Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), genomes sequencing has been democratized over the last decades with the detection of genomic alterations, thus replacing Sanger sequencing. (
  • Food security depends on an acceleration in plant breeding, which could be threatened by private companies restricting access to genomic information, Dr Warthmann said. (
  • So far, less attention was paid to this issue in the plant breeding genomic selection literature. (
  • Barkman TJ, McNeal JR, Lim SH, Coat G, Croom HB, Young ND, Depamphilis CW (2007) Mitochondrial DNA suggests at least 11 origins of parasitism in angiosperms and reveals genomic chimerism in parasitic plants. (
  • Building Sphagnum Genomic Resources Sphagnum's impact on global carbon cycling and climate is estimated to be larger than any other single plant genus. (
  • His research group employs a diverse set of genomic technologies and approaches to explore the manner in which genomes change over evolutionary time, as well as the relationship between these events and morphological change. (
  • Furthermore, in contrast to recent publications that highlight a crucial functional role of non-coding DNA in complex organisms such as animals 24 , the necessary genomic context required to make a flowering plant may not require substantial hidden regulators in the non-coding 'dark matter' of the genome. (
  • Shattered chromosomes are formed from the genome of the haploid inducer, consistent with genomic catastrophes affecting a single, laggard chromosome compartmentalized within a micronucleus. (
  • Some of the genetic rearrangements documented in the experiments were passed on to subsequent generations of plants, which suggests that these genomic changes can be stable enough to be inherited. (
  • The genomic rearrangements observed in the Arabidopsis plants are similar to those seen in patients with cancer and other genetic diseases. (
  • Data produced by plant genomics should be usable, accessible, integrated across scales and of high impact across biology. (
  • Genome-scale plant research to address fundamental questions in biology, including processes of economic and/or societal importance. (
  • This is a big advantage compared to conventional methods that work for certain plants only and produce a lot of rejects," explains Professor Holger Puchta, who holds the Chair for Molecular Biology and Biochemistry of Plants at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. (
  • This volume is essential reading for anyone working in plant genetics, epigenetics, or evolutionary biology. (
  • An international consortium of 35 labs led by University of Groningen Professor of Marine Biology Jeanine Olsen published the genome of the seagrass Zostera marina in the scientific journal Nature on 27 January. (
  • The availability of the Physcomitrella genome is expected to create important new opportunities for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant cell wall synthesis and assembly," according to Chris Somerville, UC Berkeley professor of plant and microbial biology and Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI), a partnership between UC Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and the global energy company BP. (
  • We knew almost nothing about the genomes of the immediate ancestors of land plants," said senior author Jocelyn Rose , professor of plant biology in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. (
  • We found out that the genome is huge," said Zhangjun Fei , professor of bioinformatics at Boyce Thompson Institute and an adjunct associate professor in the Plant Pathology and Plant-Microbe Biology Section. (
  • In a joint statement issued this morning by the two companies, Wendy Jozsi, director of synthetic biology at Life Technologies , says, "There is significant opportunity to use advanced molecular techniques in the optimization of plant-based biofuels, especially Jatropha, for increased yields and a faster development cycle. (
  • Dr Norman Warthmann, a plant geneticist at the ANU Research School of Biology , has lodged a submission with the UN, which is currently considering issues to include in its 2015 Global Sustainable Development Report. (
  • Targeted transcriptional repression using a chimeric TALE-SRDX repressor protein," Plant Molecular Biology , vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 311-321, 2012. (
  • Knoop V and Brennicke A (2002) Molecular Biology of the plant mitochondrion. (
  • Suslton and Coulson provided much of the fundamental biological and genetic data to interpret the biology of the emerging genome (Pennisi, 1998). (
  • This award is in recognition of his contributions to the understanding of evolutionary biology and plant immune system diversity. (
  • The chloroplast genome can be more informative in some ways than the complete nuclear genome, and easier to analyze than plant mitochondrial DNA," said Brent Mishler, professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley, and director of the Jepson and University Herbaria. (
  • The whole nuclear genome is enormous and it's very difficult technically to get the same portions of a genome out from a lot of different organisms," said co-PI Jeffrey L. Boore, a scientist at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, head of the evolutionary genomics laboratory at JGI and an adjunct associate professor of integrative biology at UC Berkeley. (
  • Written by a highly respected team of specialists in plant biology with extensive experience in teaching at undergraduate and graduate level, this textbook will be invaluable for students and instructors alike. (
  • It is also an invaluable starting point for professionals entering the field of plant biology. (
  • His research focuses on plant systems biology. (
  • In the current issue of Genome Biology , Ali et al. (
  • Genome editing is a revolutionary technology in molecular biology. (
  • We are looking for an engaged researcher, preferably with previous Postdoc experience and strong expertise in plant molecular and/or synthetic biology. (
  • The applicants should hold a PhD degree in synthetic biology, plant biology, biochemistry, molecular biology, biotechnology or a similar field. (
  • The University of Potsdam hosts leading groups in the field of plant molecular biology. (
  • The Department of Molecular Biology (headed by Prof. Dr. Bernd Mueller-Roeber) focuses on plant transcription factors involved in abiotic stress responses, the control of plant development by environmental stress, and synthetic biology. (
  • This is followed by a discussion of the contributions that mutations, involving mitochondrial proteins, have made to our understanding of the way the organelle interacts with the rest of the plant cell, and the new field of proteomics and the discovery of new functions. (
  • A detailed anaysis of cytoplasmic male sterility in the french bean that focuses on the mitochondrial genome is described. (
  • This beautiful 'molecular fossil' has a remarkably slow mutation rate meaning that its mitochondrial genome has remained largely unchanged since the dinosaurs were roaming the earth. (
  • Evolutionary studies make used of mitochondrial (powerhouse) genomes to identify maternal lineages, for example the human mitochondrial Eve. (
  • Gagliardi D, Perrin R, Marechal‐Drouard L, Grienenberger J‐M and Leaver CJ (2001) Plant mitochondrial polyadenylated mRNAs are degraded by a 3′ to 5′ exoribonuclease activity which proceeds unimpeded by stable secondary structures. (
  • Giegé P, Sweetlove LJ, Cognat V and Leaver CJ (2005) Coordination of nuclear and mitochondrial genome expression during mitochondrial biogenesis in Arabidopsis. (
  • Knoop V (2004) The mitochondrial DNA of land plants: peculiarities in phylogenetic perspective. (
  • Brennicke, Axel, and Leaver, Christopher J(Jan 2007) Mitochondrial Genome Organization and Expression in Plants. (
  • Only about 15 green plant chloroplast genomes have been sequenced, and even fewer mitochondrial genomes - about 10 - so our project will be a big step forward. (
  • To characterize the onset of ZGA at the whole-genome level, it is necessary to determine the transcriptome profiles of both gametes and to identify de novo-generated transcripts from the zygotic genome. (
  • concluded that the bladderwort genome, like many plants, experienced duplications of its whole genome. (
  • Especially encouraged are proposals that provide strong and novel training opportunities integral to the research plan and particularly across disciplines that include, but are not limited to, plant physiology, quantitative genetics, biochemistry, bioinformatics and engineering. (
  • Targeted genome engineering has been described as a "game-changing technology" for fields as diverse as human genetics and plant biotechnology. (
  • The history of selecting plants with improved genetics has provided steady improvements including increased yields while using fewer resources and greater resistance to disease and pests. (
  • Gale MD and Devos KM (1998) Plant comparative genetics after ten years. (
  • This meeting will be held as an EMBO workshop, co-organized by the National Academy of Scientists Leopoldina, the Society of Plant Breeding (GPZ), and the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK). (
  • She majored in cytology with Lester W. Sharp in the Department of Botany, and minored in genetics and zoology with Allan C. Fraser and Hugh D. Reed in the Departments of Plant Breeding and Zoology, respectively. (
  • The Barbara McClintock Prize for Plant Genetics and Genome Studies has been created to memorialize the unequalled contributions of Dr. McClintock through providing recognition to the most outstanding plant geneticists of the present era. (
  • Dr Joseph Chappell joined the faculty at the University of Kentucky in 1985, where he has developed an internationally recognized research program pioneering the molecular genetics and biochemistry of natural products in plants.Dr Elizabeth Kellogg is a Member of the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in St. Louis, Missouri, and was formerly the E. Desmond Lee and Family Professor of Botanical Studies at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. (
  • This plant shares a common ancestor with the first flowering plants, which places it in a unique evolutionary position," said Pam Soltis, project co-investigator and distinguished professor and curator of molecular systematics and evolutionary genetics at UF's Florida Museum. (
  • The book provides a unique combination of historical and modern subject matter, revealing the central role of plant cytogenetics in plant genetics and genomics as currently practiced. (
  • The genome was sequenced and annotated by the Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (AGI). (
  • Due to their complexity, the plants' genome sequences can't be assembled back into chromosomes using only short reads provided by next-generation- sequencing technologies (NGS), and therefore most plant genome assemblies available that used NGS alone are highly fragmented, contain large numbers of contigs, and genome regions are not finished. (
  • Highly repetitive sequences, often larger than 10kbp, are the main challenge in plants. (
  • Most of the chromosomal sequences are produced by the activity of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the plant genomes. (
  • A plant scientist from The Australian National University (ANU) has called for the United Nations to guarantee free and open access to plant DNA sequences to enable scientists to continue work to sustainably intensify world food production. (
  • Although many of these sequences are partial and uncharacterized, this marks the beginning of a major step in unraveling of the hitherto unknown jute genome. (
  • The CRISPR locus is characterized by direct repeats of varying sizes (21-48 bp), separated by non-repetitive spacer sequences of defined sizes (26-72 bp), in bacterial and archaeal genomes (Jansen et al. (
  • Genome engineering promises to advance basic plant research by linking DNA sequences to biological function. (
  • Boore said, however, that comparing DNA sequences directly may not be the best method, because the same mutation could show up more than once, throwing into doubt any conclusions about plants being from the same lineage. (
  • But the greatest impact by far has stemmed from the extensive knowledge of oomycete virulence proteins that has originated from the genome sequences. (
  • 2006) Phytophthora genome sequences uncover evolutionary origins and mechanisms of pathogenesis. (
  • Using high-throughput sequencing technology, draft genome sequences were generated for the plant pathogen, Xanthomonas hortorum pv. (
  • Analyses of the draft genome sequences and publicly available finished sequences contributed insights into mechanisms of host-association and to increasing the inventory of type III effector sequences as well as developing methods directly applicable for agriculture. (
  • A dotted arrow in the centre of the figure shows a duplicated segment of the rice genome that is found on chromosomes 11 and 12. (
  • The modern sugarcane varieties are derived from interspecific hybridization between Saccharum officinarum and Saccharum spontaneum , resulting in highly polyploid and aneuploid plants with chromosomes ranging from 80 to 120. (
  • We produced a doubled haploid rose line ('HapOB') from Rosa chinensis 'Old Blush' and generated a rose genome assembly anchored to seven pseudo-chromosomes (512 Mb with N50 of 3.4 Mb and 564 contigs). (
  • Scientists also discovered that Selaginella is the only known plant not to have experienced a polyploidy event, in which it creates one or more extra sets of chromosomes. (
  • The genome of the grape is spread over 19 pairs of chromosomes and is around 504.6 megabases in length. (
  • Whether this was true for grapes had been controversial but this study clearly shows that ten of the 19 chromosomes resulted from a duplication that occurred shortly after the lineage of grapes diverged from that of the model plants Arabidopsis and poplar. (
  • The team also uncovered the first direct evidence of functional centromeres, structures on chromosomes essential for plant fertility, and detected other previously hard to identify regions of the genome. (
  • 3. Plant B Chromosomes-what makes them different? (
  • In plants and animals, DNA is arranged into structures called chromosomes. (
  • Sometimes the process of genome elimination is disrupted, which leads to individuals that have incomplete genomes or chromosomes that carry big rearrangements of the DNA, as if they had been shattered and put back together incorrectly. (
  • These 'shattered' chromosomes were always formed from chromosomes that came from the parent plant with a mutant form of CENH3. (
  • The genome of plants can vary in their structure and complexity from small genomes like green algae (15 Mbp). (
  • We still find them in the plants of today, but they originate from green algae and probably had a different function at first. (
  • Among the questions Mishler, Boore and their colleagues want to answer are, how many times has land been colonized from the sea by green algae, where did plants acquire the adaptations essential to life on land, and how many times did multicellular plants evolve? (
  • Tools, resources and technology breakthroughs that further enable functional plant genomics. (
  • This book describes the history of tobacco genomics, from its "discovery" by Europeans to next-generation omics approaches in plant science. (
  • The Plant Genome is a triannual peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of plant genomics. (
  • Gramene is an online web database resource for plant comparative genomics and pathway analysis based on Ensembl technology. (
  • But Medicinal Genomics founder Kevin McKernan says he estimates the size of the C. sativa genome to be about 400 million bases - roughly three times the genome of that other weed, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • Editor's note, 8/27/10: I've been reminded that San Diego-based Synthetic Genomics, which is developing algae-based biofuels technology, among other things, announced they had sequenced the Jatropha genome in May, 2009. (
  • These dramatic improvements in sequencing technology are changing the way plant scientist look at genomics and are paving the way for the next wave of remarkable agriculture discoveries. (
  • In this timely new 2-volume treatise, experts from around the world have banded together to produce a first-of-its-kind synopsis of the exciting and fast moving field of plant evolutionary genomics. (
  • A majority of genome research funding goes to the biomedical industry, and much of the technology used in plant genomics comes from that. (
  • The sequencing of the moss genome was reported today (Thursday, Dec. 13) in Science magazine's rapid online publication Science Express by an international team of scientists led by the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, Calif. It will be printed in Science in January 2008. (
  • The work, which was funded by the National Science Foundation, the United States Department of Agriculture's National Research Initiative, and the Department of Energy, was carried out by an international team of scientists led by the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute. (
  • Deep in the evolutionary history of plant life on earth, about a billion years ago, they came across the protein fragments that were already related to the plant hormone at that time. (
  • The most conspicuous evolutionary adaptations of nematodes for plant parasitism include the development of a protrusible feeding spear (called a stylet) (FIGURE 2) and major morphological and physiological modifications of the esophagus (Hussey and Williamson, 1998). (
  • The group plans to test various ways of comparing genomes to elicit evolutionary relationships. (
  • Finally, Volume I provides an introduction to the vibrant new frontier of plant epigenomics, describing the current state of our knowledge and the evolutionary implications of the epigenomic landscape. (
  • Since 1993 she has been at the Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, where her work is focused on understanding the evolutionary significance of the immense diversity of plant genomes (e.g. size, number, organization and composition). (
  • Both evolutionary biologists and plant pathologists have shown strong interest in our paper," Tyler explained. (
  • Pam Soltis said about 10 flowering plant genomes have been completely sequenced and none comes close to Amborella in terms of its place near the base of the evolutionary tree. (
  • The platypus genome has been sequenced for mammals because it occupies the first branch of the mammal evolutionary lineage and is a reference genome for all other mammals. (
  • A new opportunity, Advancing Basic Research in Economically Important Crop Plants (ABR-PG) , will be available in FY 2014. (
  • This collection includes both invited reviews and unsolicited research covering all aspects of genome editing technologies as applied to plant research (both for crop plants and model organisms). (
  • Significantly, these dramatic changes took place over a single generation, establishing CRISPR-Cas as a highly efficient tool for precise breeding of crop plants. (
  • Crop plants have always been adapted to the needs of man by breeding for them to carry more fruit, survive droughts, or resist pests. (
  • The Zostera marina genome is an exceptional resource that supports a wide range of research themes, from the adaptation of marine ecosystems under climate warming and its role in carbon burial to unravelling the mechanisms of salinity tolerance that may further inform the assisted breeding of crop plants. (
  • Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj) is a website that contains information related to genomes of model and crop plants from databases. (
  • CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. (
  • The CRISPR/Cas system has surpassed the existing GE tools like ZFNs and TALENs through its simplicity, cost-effectiveness and efficient nature and the era of GE has soared high which is evident with increasing reports of genome editing in crop plants. (
  • This is fundamental not only to answering basic research questions but also to designing the next-generation of crop plants. (
  • Many plant genomes, especially those of crop plants, have been produced by at least one duplication of a smaller ancestral genome. (
  • These insect-transmitted viruses can cause destructive diseases in crop plants and have been described as a curse to food security. (
  • Advances in genome analysis, including DNA amplification (DAF and RAPD) markers, RFLPs, and microsatellites are reviewed by accomplished scientists, many of whom are the developers of the technique. (
  • This letter is to call your attention to an opportunity that will support research collaboration between US scientists and scientists in developing countries as part of ongoing or new Plant Genome Research Program awards. (
  • More than 2000 plant scientists dug in here from 24 June to 1 July for two back-to-back meetings: the 9th International Conference on Arabidopsis Research and the annual meeting of the American Society of Plant Physiologists. (
  • In order to shift from water to land - a transition that still puzzles scientists - plants had to protect themselves from drying out and from ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and they had to develop structures to support themselves without the buoyancy provided by water. (
  • LONDON (Reuters) - When it comes to genomes, size matters - and British scientists say a rare and striking plant native to Japan is in a perilous position. (
  • The vast range of genome size - the amount of DNA - in plants and animals has long fascinated and puzzled scientists. (
  • According to Kew's scientists, this had been widely thought to be around maximum size a genome could reach until the recent discovery of the 152.23 pg Paris japonica genome. (
  • For most of the last 40 years, scientists thought the smallest genomes belonged to bacteria of the Mycoplasma genus. (
  • Many scientists are interested in studying these small-genome organisms for practical reasons. (
  • In their publication, the scientists show that root-knot nematodes have an enormous cocktail of enzymes degrading plant cell walls. (
  • Many of the proteins suppressing the plant defence system that were identified by the Wageningen scientists in potato cyst nematodes appear to be completely absent in root-knot nematodes. (
  • In China, scientists have sequencing the genome of the tea plant, Camellia sinensis, which is more complex than a coffee plant genome, to better understand the origins of the tea as well as how it is so rich in caffeine, antioxidants, and flavor . (
  • Sequencing of the spikemoss genome is expected to give scientists a better understanding of how plants of all kinds evolved over the past 500 million years and could open new doors for the identification of new pharmaceuticals. (
  • A group of scientists from China and Rutgers University in New Jersey, US has discovered how aquatic plants cope with water pollution, which could help boost their use in wastewater treatment, biofuels and antibiotics, among other applications. (
  • While scientists are fascinated with the unlimited possibilities provided by directed and controlled changes in DNA in eukaryotes and have eagerly adopted such tools for their own experiments, an understanding of the intellectual property (IP) implications involved in bringing genome editing-derived products to market is often lacking. (
  • As plant scientists unravel the geno. (
  • As plant scientists unravel the genomes of plant pathogens comparison. (
  • As plant scientists unravel the genomes of plant pathogens, comparisons can be made of the different and not-so-different invasion strategies for the organisms that threaten crops. (
  • One of these articles reports the sequencing of the genome of the pathogen that causes powdery mildew by an international group that included McDowell and other Virginia Tech scientists ( ). (
  • Now, scientists around Ralph Bock from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology in Potsdam discovered that a transfer of entire chloroplasts, or at least their genomes, can occur in contact zones between plants. (
  • We express our disappointment with regard to the ruling of the European Court of Justice (ECJ), which classifies plants obtained by new breeding techniques (NBTs), such as CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing, as genetically modified organisms (GMO) that are subject to extensive pre-market risk evaluations. (
  • Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9), the first well-characterized endonuclease from Class 2 Type II-A CRISPR system, has been widely used for genome editing in various organisms, including plants. (
  • 1998). Other comparisons of bacterial, yeast, nematode, plant, mouse and human genomes will reveal unique and surprising aspects of the genetic make-up of organisms. (
  • Barbrook AC, Howe CJ, Purton S (2006) Why are plastid genomes retained in non-photosynthetic organisms? (
  • Both chloroplasts and mitochondria originated more than a billion years ago, when bacteria colonized early single-celled organisms, establishing a symbiotic relationship that has allowed plant cells to get energy from sunlight and both plant and animal cells to produce energy efficiently. (
  • Sebastien Duplessis of Nancy University, Champenoux, France, and his colleagues describe the genome of the organisms that cause stem rust of wheat and barley, leaf rust of poplar in an article* in the same issue of PNAS in which McDowell's Commentary appears. (
  • Insights into the architecture of ancestral chloroplast genomes. (
  • Berkeley - As biologists try to tease out the finer details of the green plant family tree, one key may lie in the cellular organelle - the chloroplast - that makes green plants green. (
  • The new chloroplast genome can even be handed down to the next generation and, thereby, give a plant new traits. (
  • Due to the nature of the experiment, it would have to be cells from N. benthamiana or N. glauca that acquired chloroplasts, or the chloroplast genome, from N. tabacum. (
  • The exciting field of genome editing is rapidly advancing and precise genome editing techniques have already become an important tool for both fundamental research and plant biotechnology. (
  • The efficiency of multiplex editing in plants by the RNA-guided Cas9 system is limited by efficient introduction of its components into the genome and by their activity. (
  • Prof. Levy's achievement, for which a patent application has been registered, demonstrates how CRISPR-Cas can drive non-random "chromosome editing" in order to achieve specific results in plants. (
  • Pétition · Immediate Review of the ECJ Ruling on Plant Genome Editing. (
  • Secondly, and perhaps even more importantly, there is no higher risk of unintended consequences induced by genome editing than with older, less precise breeding strategies. (
  • The EU statement that genome editing will lead to modifications "at a rate out of all proportion to those resulting from the application of conventional methods of mutagenesis" is also wrong. (
  • In fact, conventional mutagenesis induces genetic modifications at a rate that is orders of magnitude higher than genome editing. (
  • Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were the key tools used for genome editing applications. (
  • This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. (
  • Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review. (
  • The advent of genome editing has evoked enthusiasm but also controversy, creating regulatory and governance challenges worldwide. (
  • In this scenario, this Research Topic aims at collecting articles on the latest advancements and future targets of genome editing, as well as contributions addressing the regulatory, social and socioeconomic aspects, the ethics, risk assessment, management, and biosafety researches. (
  • J. F. Li, J. E. Norville, and J. Aach, "Multiplex and homologous recombination-mediated genome editing in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana using guide RNA and Cas9," Nature Biotechnolog , vol. 31, no. 8, pp. 688-691, 2013. (
  • Optimization of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to modify abiotic stress responses in plants," Scientific Reports , vol. 6, Article ID 26685, 2016. (
  • Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) and base editors are fundamental tools in plant genome editing. (
  • Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9), recognizing an NGG protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), is a widely used nuclease for genome editing in living cells. (
  • Furthermore, multiple Cas9 and Cas12a engineered variants and orthologs, with different PAM recognition sites, editing efficiencies and fidelity, have been explored in plants. (
  • Alternatively, genome editing can be achieved by base editors without introducing DSBs. (
  • So far, several base editors have been applied in plants to introduce C-to-T or A-to-G transitions, but they are still undergoing improvement in editing window size, targeting scope, off-target effects in DNA and RNA, product purity and overall activity. (
  • Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/ CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) is a powerful genome editing tool. (
  • van der Merwe JA, Takenaka M, Neuwirt J, Verbitskiy D and Brennicke A (2006) RNA editing sites in plant mitochondria can share cis‐elements. (
  • therefore knowledge about IP of the various genome editing methods is relevant. (
  • Therefore, when designing scientific work that could lead to a product, it is worthwhile to consider the different methods used for genome editing not only for their scientific merits but also for their compatibility with a speedy and reliable launch into the desired market. (
  • Scrutinizing different information sources and establishing a level of information that is sufficient to unambiguously conclude on the application of genome editing in the plant breeding process can support the identification of genome-edited products by complementing the results of analytical detection. (
  • The BMBF-funded ENTIRE (Enabling technologies for RNP-mediated genome editing) project aims at the development of novel strategies for the CRISPR/Cas-mediated editing of plant genomes through transgene-free ribonucleoprotein (RNP) delivery strategies. (
  • The Joint Genome Institute of the U.S. Department of Energy sequenced the genome. (
  • 2 U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA 94598, USA. (
  • Polyploidy is another challenge in assembling a plant genome, and it is estimated that ~80% of plants are polyploids. (
  • Now, Weizmann Institute plant scientist Prof. Avraham Levy and his team have achieved proof-of-concept for a CRISPR-based technique that enables precise customization of a plant's genetic make-up in a single generation. (
  • He is a pioneer in the study of something called DNA double-strand break repair - a natural process in which the plant cell's genetic machinery fixes damage occurring in both strands of the DNA double helix. (
  • A biotechnological technique developed by KIT botanists to more precisely and reliably install or modify genetic information in the plant genome is now presented by the expert journal PNAS. (
  • 1996) Toward a unified genetic map of higher plants, transcending the monocot-dicot divergence. (
  • Here we take a systematic approach toward dissecting genetic components of plant specialized metabolism. (
  • Recent advances in genome engineering provide newfound control over a plant's genetic material. (
  • This description of the grape genome presents an opportunity to direct genetic improvement or disease resistance," says Brian Dilkes. (
  • The molecular-genetic cues that regulate plant embryo pattern formation are the subject of intense scrutiny at present. (
  • They tested for QTLs-regions of the genome where the DNA codes for genetic traits-in Boechera stricta's chromosomal inversion. (
  • CRISPR-Cas gives us the means to choose the best from both parents, for example, combining the high-yield characteristics of the 'dad' plant with the high disease resistance of the 'mom', using just a handful of plants. (
  • Generation of targeted mutant rice using a CRISPR-Cpf1 system," Plant Biotechnology Journal , vol. 14, pp. 1-5, 2016. (
  • Development of broad virus resistance in non-transgenic cucumber using CRISPR/Cas9 technology," Molecular Plant Pathology , vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1140-1153, 2016. (
  • CRISPR/Cas has recently been transferred to plants to make them resistant to geminiviruses, a damaging family of DNA viruses. (
  • 1 ] report on a new strategy towards improving plant resistance to geminiviruses using the bacterial CRISPR/Cas system. (
  • 8 ] have demonstrated portability of the CRISPR/Cas system to plants to confer enhanced resistance to geminiviruses. (
  • Though some algae of the charophyte group are branched and look like early land plants, molecular data reveals that the common ancestor had a simpler filament-like shape. (
  • The genome of a hardy plant reveals the secrets of survival in stressful conditions. (
  • This program is a continuation of the Plant Genome Research Program (PGRP) that began in FY 1998 as part of the National Plant Genome Initiative (NPGI). (
  • This program represents the initial NSF component of an anticipated National Plant Genome Research Initiative. (
  • WASHINGTON--The US Congress has agreed to increase funding for the controversial new Plant Genome Initiative by $40 million in fiscal 1998, which began October 1. (
  • A detailed account of the prospects and priorities of public plant genome research is available in the most current National Plant Genome Initiative Progress Report (2008) . (
  • The purpose of the meeting was to bring a broad group of stakeholders together to discuss the outcomes of the first ten years of the US National Plant Genome Initiative (NPGI) as well as the challenges and opportunities ahead for the next five to ten years. (
  • They successfully induced such A-to-G base substitutions in the rice genome . (
  • They ended up extracting a clean set of DNA from purified nuclei and integrating many kinds of DNA sequencing techniques and assembly programs to cover the entire genome. (
  • The entire genome was sequenced since January, when the two San Diego-area companies said they had formed a strategic alliance. (
  • The performance of the three models was assessed on three different data sets: a diversity panel of rice ( Oryza sativa ), a maize ( Zea mays L.) half-sib panel, and a wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) data set that originated from plant breeding programs. (
  • The grape, therefore, has a relatively small genome for a crop plant, similar to that of rice or poplar trees and much smaller than that of wheat or maize. (
  • Here, using maize ( Zea mays ) as a model plant system, we determined the timing of zygote development and generated RNA-seq transcriptome profiles of gametes, zygotes, and apical and basal daughter cells. (
  • In this study, we established methods to manually isolate living male and female gametes, zygotes at different stages, and their daughter cells using maize ( Zea mays ) as a model flowering plant. (
  • Plant Genome Analysis presents outstanding analyses of technologies, as well as explanations of molecular technology as it pertains to agriculture. (
  • Our analyses shed light on the roots of terpene biosynthesis and diversification in plants. (
  • Phylogenomic analyses demonstrated signal confl ict between genomes. (
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (
  • The analyses enabled us to link domain content to biological processes such as host-pathogen interaction, nutrient uptake, or suppression and elicitation of plant immune responses. (
  • It's the essential nutrient that limits plants' growth-so crops that use it most efficiently are a boon to farmers, producing a high yield without much fertilizer. (
  • One of the champions among plant parasites, a miniscule worm which penetrates the roots of numerous crops, has finally been forced to reveal some of its secrets. (
  • Their research shows that the root-knot nematode has a large number of enzymes which are deployed to 'attack' plants - probably the reason why the nematodes can attack so many different crops. (
  • This work provides a new model for building other genome assemblies for crops such as wheat, canola and lentils. (
  • TALEN-mediated targeted mutagenesis produces a large variety of heritable mutations in rice," Plant Biotechnology Journal , vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 186-194, 2016. (
  • We detected 246 expanded domains in fungal and oomycete plant pathogens. (
  • This secretion system is a specialized apparatus for the injection of type III effector proteins directly into host cells, which in the case of plant pathogens, are collectively necessary to modulate host defense. (
  • The type III secretion system is not a mechanism exclusive to pathogens, however, as many strains of commensal Pseudomonas fluorescens and mutualistic rhizobia demonstrably require a type III secretion system to interact with their host plants. (
  • Using labels to deal with consumer attitudes concerning genome edited plants and products thereof. (
  • This has resulted in a large number of different proteins being given a role to play in the plant. (
  • Even though Cas proteins exhibit polymorphism within genomes, they are all known to have the ability to interact with nucleic acids. (
  • Small ID and Peeters N (2000) The PPR motif - a TPR‐related motif prevalent in plant organellar proteins. (
  • While questions remain, such as whether effector proteins contribute to alteration of cell structure and metabolism in the host plant, "It's important to know your enemies and the genomes of these devastating parasites have provided some important insights into the strategies that they use to sabotage the plant's immune responses," said McDowell. (
  • We now have exciting insights into the last common ancestor of algae and land plants," Rose said, "and that allows plant biologists to infer the origins of land plant molecular pathways, developmental systems and biological processes, and to place them in the context of land colonization in ways that have not previously been possible. (
  • Our findings provide important insights into gamete and zygote activity in plants, and our RNA-seq transcriptome profiles represent a comprehensive, unique RNA-seq data set that can be used by the research community. (
  • Insights into salt tolerance from the genome of Thellungiella salsuginea. (
  • Ahlert D, Ruf S, Bock R (2003) Plastid protein synthesis is required for plant development in tobacco. (
  • Barrett CF, Davis JI (2012) The plastid genome of the mycoheterotrophic Corallorhiza striata (Orchidaceae) is in the relatively early stages of degradation. (
  • The first complete plant genome assembly, that of Arabidopsis thaliana, was finished in 2000, being the third multicellular eukaryotic genome published after C. elegans and D. melanogaster. (
  • Recently, the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (FIGURES 1,3-6) became the first animal and more importantly, the first multicellular organism, to have the sequencing of its genome essentially completed ( C. elegans Consortium, Science 282:2011-2045, 1998). (
  • The precise manipulation of plant genomes relies on the induction of DNA double-strand breaks by site-specific nucleases to initiate DNA repair reactions that are either based on non-homologous end joining (NH. (
  • So-called homologous recombination repairs the genome when the genome strands in the cell break. (
  • In general, for sequencing and assembling large and complex genomes like plants, different strategies are used, based on the technologies available at that time when the project started. (
  • Conclusions: The Hyb-Seq approach enables targeted sequencing of thousands of low-copy nuclear exons and fl anking regions, as well as genome skimming of high-copy repeats and organellar genomes, to effi ciently produce genome-scale data sets for phylogenomics. (
  • What is de novo plant sequencing? (
  • Powered by Ion semiconductor sequencing, the Ion Personal Genome Machine™ (PGM™) System and the Ion Proton™ System deliver the fastest run times at the most affordable price of any next-generation sequencers. (
  • The Ion Proton™ Sequencer is the first benchtop next-generation sequencer to offer fast, affordable genome and exome sequencing in plants. (
  • In Volume I of 'Plant Genome Diversity', an update is provided on what we have learned from plant genome sequencing projects. (
  • Schmutz is also the co-director of the HudsonAlpha Genome Sequencing Center. (
  • Using an appropriate enzyme, i.e. molecular scissors, we first make a cut at the right point in the genome and then supply the necessary patch to repair this cut," says Friedrich Fauser from Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, who is the first author of the PNAS publication. (
  • McDowell's comparison of three research articles about the defensive strategies of fungi and oomycetes (fungus-like microbes) that cause plant disease appears as an invited Commentary in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) early edition published online the week of May 16. (
  • The goals of the program are to support research on the structure, organization and function of plant genomes, and to accelerate the acquisition and utilization of new knowledge and innovative technologies that will aid in developing a more complete elucidation of basic biological processes in plants. (
  • Some people may wonder what the consequences are of such a large genome and whether it really matters if one organism has more DNA than another," said Ilia Leitch, a researcher at Kew's Jodrell Laboratory. (
  • The knock-on effect of this is that it can take longer for an organism with a larger genome to complete its life cycle than one with a small genome," she said. (
  • M. genitaliumis still considered to have the smallest genome of a free-living organism - unlike Tremblaya, it can be grown in the lab. (
  • The genome of an individual organism contains all the instructions needed to build and maintain that individual. (
  • 2000) Extensive duplication and reshuffling in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. (
  • The Novel Methods for Generating Physical Frameworks for Plant Genomes (GPF-PG) will not be available in FY 2014. (
  • This result was achieved using only a few plants - compared to the several thousand required to introduce desired traits into the plant genome by conventional, random methods - and in a single generation. (
  • Green biotechnology now adds new tools to the classical breeding methods for a more rapid and efficient improvement of plant properties. (
  • However, these methods have received little attention in plant breeding where population structure can have different forms. (
  • His main research interests are genome size and the cytometric methods used to estimate it, chromosome banding, cytogenetics and karyosystematics. (
  • In addition, chapters are included on several methods in plant cytogenetics, informatics, and even laboratory exercises for aspiring or practiced instructors. (
  • This breadth of coverage, together with the inclusion of methods and instruction, is intended to convey a deep and useful appreciation for plant cytogenetics. (
  • Cas9 usually causes deletions and insertion mutations in genome. (
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  • Plant Physiology 155 (2011)2. (
  • The Department has a close collaboration with the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology located at the nearby Science Campus Golm. (
  • Between 2000 and 2008 in total 10 plant genomes were published while in 2012 alone, 13 plant genomes were published. (
  • One of the claims to fame of mosses is the ability to dry up completely and come back to life again," said Mishler, who is director of the University and Jepson Herbaria, two collections of pressed plants housed together along with research labs, libraries and archives at UC Berkeley. (
  • This includes the 'modern' flowering plants that split off 320 million years ago and which now have a highly complex auxin system: older seed plant types such as conifers, and spore plants such as ferns and the earlier mosses, which are over half a billion years old. (
  • Postdoctoral researcher Hirotaka Kato subsequently verified the findings by performing 'experimental genome archaeology' with plants from the three different eras: algae, mosses and ferns. (
  • Data from the already sequenced genomes have not yet been analyzed comparatively," said Mishler, who specializes in the study of mosses and other bryophytes. (
  • The NPGI started in 1998 and is managed by the Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomes (IWG-PG). (
  • Malus) has convenient traits, such as a small nuclear genome (135Mbp) and a short generation time (8 weeks from seed to seed). (
  • The smallest genome so far reported is in a parasite of humans and other mammals called Encephalitozoon intestinalis, which has just 0.0023 picograms of DNA. (
  • For example, authorized chemical and radiation mutagenesis induce hundreds of random, uncharacterized mutations, any of which could lead to increased production of naturally toxic substances by the plant. (
  • The Plant Genome Research Program (PGRP) supports genome-scale research that addresses challenging questions of biological, societal and economic importance. (
  • PGRP encourages the development of innovative tools, technologies and resources that empower a broad plant research community to answer scientific questions on a genome-wide scale. (
  • A description of the National Science Foundation Plant Genome Research Program (PGRP) is available at the PGRP home page . (
  • He spent most of his research career at the Institute of Experimental Botany in Olomouc, Czech Republic, where he established the Laboratory of Molecular Cytogenetics and Cytometry and pioneered the use of DNA flow cytometry in plants. (