PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
The reproductive organs of plants.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Material prepared from plants.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The reproductive cells of plants.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.

A method for estimating nucleotide diversity from AFLP data. (1/4169)

A method for estimating the nucleotide diversity from AFLP data is developed by using the relationship between the number of nucleotide changes and the proportion of shared bands. The estimation equation is based on the assumption that GC-content is 0.5. Computer simulations, however, show that this method gives a reasonably accurate estimate even when GC-content deviates from 0.5, as long as the number of nucleotide changes per site (nucleotide diversity) is small. As an example, the nucleotide diversity of the wild yam, Dioscorea tokoro, was estimated. The estimated nucleotide diversity is 0.0055, which is larger than estimations from nucleotide sequence data for Adh and Pgi.  (+info)

Integration of banana streak badnavirus into the Musa genome: molecular and cytogenetic evidence. (2/4169)

Breeding and tissue culture of certain cultivars of bananas (Musa) have led to high levels of banana streak badnavirus (BSV) infection in progeny from symptomless parents. BSV DNA hybridized to genomic DNA of one such parent, Obino l'Ewai, suggesting integration of viral sequences. Sequencing of clones of Obino l'Ewai genomic DNA revealed an interface between BSV and Musa sequences and a complex BSV integrant. In situ hybridization revealed two different BSV sequence locations in Obino l'Ewai chromosomes and a complex arrangement of BSV and Musa sequences was shown by probing stretched DNA fibers. This is the first report of integrated sequences that possibly lead to a plant pararetrovirus episomal infection by a mechanism differing markedly from animal retroviral systems.  (+info)

Evidence that badnavirus infection in Musa can originate from integrated pararetroviral sequences. (3/4169)

When some virus- and disease-free Musa spp. (banana and plantain) are propagated by tissue culture, the resulting plants develop infections with banana streak badnavirus (BSV), a pararetrovirus. In sharp contrast to the virion DNA recovered from natural infections, the virion DNA from tissue culture-associated infections of different Musa spp. was highly similar if not identical. Although BSV does not employ integration during the infection cycle, BSV DNA was found to be integrated into the Musa genome. While one integration consisted of a partial BSV genome, a second contained more than one complete genome that was almost identical to BSV recovered from tissue culture-derived plants. The arrangement of this integrated BSV DNA suggests that it can yield an infectious episomal genome via homologous recombination. This report documents the first instance of integrated DNA of a nonintegrating virus giving rise to an episomal viral infection and identifies tissue culture as a possible trigger for the infection, raising the question of whether similar activatable viral sequences exist in the genomes of other plants and animals.  (+info)

Evidence for an ancient chromosomal duplication in Arabidopsis thaliana by sequencing and analyzing a 400-kb contig at the APETALA2 locus on chromosome 4. (4/4169)

As part of the European Scientists Sequencing Arabidopsis program, a contiguous region (396607 bp) located on chromosome 4 around the APETALA2 gene was sequenced. Analysis of the sequence and comparison to public databases predicts 103 genes in this area, which represents a gene density of one gene per 3.85 kb. Almost half of the genes show no significant homology to known database entries. In addition, the first 45 kb of the contig, which covers 11 genes, is similar to a region on chromosome 2, as far as coding sequences are concerned. This observation indicates that ancient duplications of large pieces of DNA have occurred in Arabidopsis.  (+info)

atSRp30, one of two SF2/ASF-like proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana, regulates splicing of specific plant genes. (5/4169)

SR proteins are nuclear phosphoproteins with a characteristic Ser/Arg-rich domain and one or two RNA recognition motifs. They are highly conserved in animals and plants and play important roles in spliceosome assembly and alternative splicing regulation. We have now isolated and partially sequenced a plant protein, which crossreacts with antibodies to human SR proteins. The sequence of the corresponding cDNA and genomic clones from Arabidopsis revealed a protein, atSRp30, with strong similarity to the human SR protein SF2/ASF and to atSRp34/SR1, a previously identified SR protein, indicating that plants possess two SF2/ASF-like proteins. atSRp30 expresses alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms that are expressed differentially in various organs and during development. Overexpression of atSRp30 via a strong constitutive promoter resulted in changes in alternative splicing of several endogenous plant genes, including atSRp30 itself. Interestingly, atSRp30 overexpression resulted in a pronounced down-regulation of endogenous mRNA encoding full-length atSRp34/SR1 protein. Transgenic plants overexpressing atSRp30 showed morphological and developmental changes affecting mostly developmental phase transitions. atSRp30- and atSRp34/SR1-promoter-GUS constructs exhibited complementary expression patterns during early seedling development and root formation, with overlapping expression in floral tissues. The results of the structural and expression analyses of both genes suggest that atSRp34/SR1 acts as a general splicing factor, whereas atSRp30 functions as a specific splicing modulator.  (+info)

Stage- and tissue-specific expression of ethylene receptor homolog genes during fruit development in muskmelon. (6/4169)

We isolated two muskmelon (Cucumis melo) cDNA homologs of the Arabidopsis ethylene receptor genes ETR1 and ERS1 and designated them Cm-ETR1 (C. melo ETR1; accession no. AF054806) and Cm-ERS1 (C. melo ERS1; accession no. AF037368), respectively. Northern analysis revealed that the level of Cm-ERS1 mRNA in the pericarp increased in parallel with the increase in fruit size and then markedly decreased at the end of enlargement. In fully enlarged fruit the level of Cm-ERS1 mRNA was low in all tissues, whereas that of Cm-ETR1 mRNA was very high in the seeds and placenta. During ripening Cm-ERS1 mRNA increased slightly in the pericarp of fruit before the marked increase of Cm-ETR1 mRNA paralleled climacteric ethylene production. These results indicate that both Cm-ETR1 and Cm-ERS1 play specific roles not only in ripening but also in the early development of melon fruit and that they have distinct roles in particular fruit tissues at particular developmental stages.  (+info)

Elimination and rearrangement of parental rDNA in the allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum. (7/4169)

Origin and rearrangement of ribosomal DNA repeats in natural allotetraploid Nicotiana tabacum are described. Comparative sequence analysis of the intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of Nicotiana tomentosiformis (the paternal diploid progenitor) and Nicotiana sylvestris (the maternal diploid progenitor) showed species-specific molecular features. These markers allowed us to trace the molecular evolution of parental rDNA in the allopolyploid genome of N. tabacum; at least the majority of tobacco rDNA repeats originated from N. tomentosiformis, which endured reconstruction of subrepeated regions in the IGS. We infer that after hybridization of the parental diploid species, rDNA with a longer IGS, donated by N. tomentosiformis, dominated over the rDNA with a shorter IGS from N. sylvestris; the latter was then eliminated from the allopolyploid genome. Thus, repeated sequences in allopolyploid genomes are targets for molecular rearrangement, demonstrating the dynamic nature of allopolyploid genomes.  (+info)

Incongruence in the diploid B-genome species complex of Glycine (Leguminosae) revisited: histone H3-D alleles versus chloroplast haplotypes. (8/4169)

Variation at the single-copy nuclear locus histone H3-D was surveyed in the diploid B-genome group of Glycine subgenus Glycine (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), which comprises three named Australian species and a number of distinct but as yet not formally recognized taxa. A total of 23 alleles was identified in the 44 accessions surveyed. Only one individual was clearly heterozygous, which is not surprising given the largely autogamous breeding system of subgenus Glycine. Alleles differed by as many as 19 nucleotide substitutions, nearly all in the three introns; length variation was minimal. Phylogenetic analysis identified two shortest allele trees with very little homoplasy, suggesting that recombination has been rare. Both topological and data set incongruence were statistically significant between histone H3-D allele trees and trees inferred from chloroplast DNA haplotypes previously described from these same accessions. Whereas the distribution of H3-D alleles agrees well with morphologically based taxonomic groupings, chloroplast DNA haplotype polymorphisms transgress species boundaries, suggesting that the chloroplast genome is not tracking taxic relationships. Divergences among chloroplast DNA haplotypes involved in such transgressive patterns appear to be more recent than speciation events, suggesting hybridization rather than lineage sorting.  (+info)

Dear Colleagues, I would like to draw your attention to a Wiki site that describes a summary of a recent workshop entitled: The National Plant Genome Initiative at Ten Years: A Community Workshop This site contains information (agenda, Rapporteurs summaries, session/Q&A notes, list of meeting participants and a meeting summary) related to the recent National Plant Genome Initiative Workshop held at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Conference Center of the National Academies in Irvine California on August 26-28, 2008. The purpose of the meeting was to bring a broad group of stakeholders together to discuss the outcomes of the first ten years of the US National Plant Genome Initiative (NPGI) as well as the challenges and opportunities ahead for the next five to ten years. The NPGI started in 1998 and is managed by the Interagency Working Group on Plant Genomes (IWG-PG). The IWG-PG is currently in the process of developing a new five-year plan using a ...
There has been remarkably little attention to using the high resolution provided by genotyping-by-sequencing (i.e. RADseq and similar methods) datasets for assessing relatedness in wildlife populations. A major hurdle is the genotyping error, especially allelic dropout, often found in this type of dataset that could lead to downward-biased, yet precise, estimates of relatedness. Here we assess the applicability of genotyping-by-sequencing datasets for relatedness inferences given their relatively high genotyping error rates. Individuals of known relatedness were simulated under genotyping error, allelic dropout, and missing data scenarios based on an empirical ddRAD dataset, and their true relatedness was compared to that estimated by seven relatedness estimators. We found that an estimator chosen through such analyses can circumvent the influence of genotyping error, with the estimator of Ritland (1996) shown to be unaffected by allelic dropout and to be the most accurate when there is ...
The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) is a U.S. Federal government multi-stakeholder initiative to develop an infrastructure to accelerate and sustain domestic materials discovery and deployment in the United States. MGI is distinct from Materials Genome, which is a registered trademark of MaterialsGenome, Inc. (a Pennsylvania Corporation). The use of the term Materials Genome Initiative is not intended to serve as an endorsement of or an association with the trademarked term Materials Genome ...
The scientific revolution that started with the human-genome sequencing project, carried out with first-generation sequencing technology, has initiated other sequencing projects, including those for plant species. Different technologies have been developed together with the second- and third-generation sequencing platforms called next-generation sequencing. This review deals with the most relevant second-generation sequencing platforms, advanced analysis tools, and sequenced plant genomes. To date, a number of plant genomes have been sequenced, with many more projected for the near future. Using the new techniques and developed advanced bioinformatics tools, several studies including both plant genomics and transcriptomics were carried out. Likewise, completion of reference genome sequences and high-throughput resequencing projects presented opportunities to better understand the genomic nature of plants and accelerated the process of crop improvement. Modern sequencing and bioinformatics ...
2016 Tinker et al. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and related methods, are based on high-throughput short-read sequencing of genomic complexity reductions followed by discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within sequence tags. This provides a powerful and economical approach to whole-genome genotyping, facilitating applications in genomics, diversity analysis, and molecular breeding. However, due to the complexity of analyzing large data sets, applications of GBS may require substantial time, expertise, and computational resources. Haplotag, the novel GBS software described here, is freely available, and operates with minimal user-investment on widely available computer platforms. Haplotag is unique in fulfilling the following set of criteria: (1) operates without a reference genome; (2) can be used in a polyploid species; (3) provides a discovery mode, and a production mode; (4) discovers polymorphisms based on a model of tag-level haplotypes within sequenced tags; (5) reports ...
2016 Tinker et al. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), and related methods, are based on high-throughput short-read sequencing of genomic complexity reductions followed by discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within sequence tags. This provides a powerful and economical approach to whole-genome genotyping, facilitating applications in genomics, diversity analysis, and molecular breeding. However, due to the complexity of analyzing large data sets, applications of GBS may require substantial time, expertise, and computational resources. Haplotag, the novel GBS software described here, is freely available, and operates with minimal user-investment on widely available computer platforms. Haplotag is unique in fulfilling the following set of criteria: (1) operates without a reference genome; (2) can be used in a polyploid species; (3) provides a discovery mode, and a production mode; (4) discovers polymorphisms based on a model of tag-level haplotypes within sequenced tags; (5) reports ...
Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approaches provide low-cost, high-density genotype information. However, GBS has unique technical considerations, including a substantial amount of missing data and a nonuniform distribution of sequence reads. The goal of this study was to characterize technical variation using this method and to develop methods to optimize read depth to obtain desired marker coverage. To empirically assess the distribution of fragments produced using GBS, ∼8.69 Gb of GBS data were generated on the Zea mays reference inbred B73, utilizing ApeKI for genome reduction and single-end reads between 75 and 81 bp in length. We observed wide variation in sequence coverage across sites. Approximately 76% of potentially observable cut site-adjacent sequence fragments had no sequencing reads whereas a portion had substantially greater read depth than expected, up to 2369 times the expected mean. The methods described in this article facilitate determination of sequencing depth in the ...
Advances in next generation technologies have driven the costs of DNA sequencing down to the point that genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) is now feasible for high diversity, large genome species. Here, we report a procedure for constructing GBS libraries based on reducing genome complexity with restric …
TY - JOUR. T1 - The First Plant Genome Sequence-Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Feldmann, Kenneth A. AU - Goff, Stephen A. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The Arabidopsis thaliana genome was the first plant genome to be sequenced. The substrates for sequencing consisted of a minimum tiling path of BAC, P1, YAC, TAC and cosmid clones, anchored to the genetic map. Using these substrates, 10 contigs were developed from 1569 clones. Annotation at the time the sequence was finished identified 25,498 protein-coding genes. With the continued development of software trained on Arabidopsis genes, along with the availability of large numbers of ESTs and additional plant genome sequences, the number of annotated genes has increased. The final TAIR (TAIR10) genome annotation release contains 27,202 nuclear protein-coding genes, 4827 pseudogenes and transposable element genes and 1359 noncoding RNAs. Gene density (kb/gene) is 4.35, with 5.89 exons/gene, an average exon length of 296. nt and an average intron length of ...
The PGSB plant genomics group focuses on the analysis of plant genomes, using bioinformatic techniques. To store and manage the data, we developed a database, PlantsDB, that aims to provide a data and information resource for individual plant species. In addition PlantsDB provides a platform for integrative and comparative plant genome research. ...
The PGSB plant genomics group focuses on the analysis of plant genomes, using bioinformatic techniques. To store and manage the data, we developed a database, PlantsDB, that aims to provide a data and information resource for individual plant species. In addition PlantsDB provides a platform for integrative and comparative plant genome research. ...
During the last decade, plant biotechnological laboratories have sparked a monumental revolution with the rapid development of next sequencing technologies at affordable prices. Soon, these sequencing technologies and assembling of whole genomes will extend beyond the plant computational biologists and become commonplace within the plant biology disciplines. The current availability of large-scale genomic resources for non-traditional plant model systems (the so-called orphan crops) is enabling the construction of high-density integrated physical and genetic linkage maps with potential applications in plant breeding. The newly available fully sequenced plant genomes represent an incredible opportunity for comparative analyses that may reveal new aspects of genome biology and evolution. The analysis of the expansion and evolution of gene families across species is a common approach to infer biological functions. To date, the extent and role of gene families in plants has only been partially addressed
Diversity in plant genomes remains largely unexplored. The 10,000 Plant Genome Sequencing Project is a landmark effort to catalogue plant genomic variation, representing a major step in understanding the tree of life. The project offers new opportunities to study biological processes and address fundamental research questions.
As reference genome sequences are becoming available/undergoing for several crops, genotyping by sequencing (GBS) seems to be an option. Efforts are underway to offer GBS for Chickpea, Pigeonpea and Sorghum by using MiSeq. These efforts will be extended to other crops also. ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
By Ken G. Dodds, John C. McEwan, Rudiger Brauning, Rayna M. Anderson, Tracey C. van Stijn, Theodor Kristjánsson and Shannon M. Clarke ...
Yale is a founding member of the Genome-Wide RNAi Global Initiative a...The siRNA sequences have blueprints in DNA and are transcribed but no... Participation in this consortium gives us a cutting-edge technology t...The library will be available to the Yale University research communit...Founding members of the Global Initiative have a broad spectrum of bio...,Yale,participates,in,global,human,genome,initiative,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
AtSFP: The SIGnAL Arabidopsis Single Nuclutide Polymorphism (SNP), Deletion, and Single Feature Polymorphism (SFP) Database. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
AtSFP: The SIGnAL Arabidopsis Single Nuclutide Polymorphism (SNP), Deletion, and Single Feature Polymorphism (SFP) Database. Created and developed by Huaming Chen
There is great potential for the genetic improvement of oil palm yield. Traditional progeny tests allow accurate selection but limit the number of individuals evaluated. Genomic selection (GS) could overcome this constraint. We estimated the accuracy of GS prediction of seven oil yield components using A × B hybrid progeny tests with almost 500 crosses for training and 200 crosses for independent validation. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) yielded +5000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the parents of the crosses. The genomic best linear unbiased prediction method gave genomic predictions using the SNPs of the training and validation sets and the phenotypes of the training crosses. The practical impact was illustrated by quantifying the additional bunch production of the crosses selected in the validation experiment if genomic preselection had been applied in the parental populations before progeny tests. We found that prediction accuracies for cross values plateaued at 500 to 2000 SNPs, with
Despite several efforts in the last decade toward development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in peanut, there is still a need for more markers for conducting different genetic and breeding studies. With the effort of the International Peanut Genome Initiative, the availability of reference genome for both the diploid progenitors of cultivated peanut allowed us to identify 135,529 and 199,957 SSRs from the A (Arachis duranensis) and B genomes (Arachis ipaensis), respectively. Genome sequence analysis showed uneven distribution of the SSR motifs across genomes with variation in parameters such as SSR type, repeat number, and SSR length. Using the flanking sequences of identified SSRs, primers were designed for 51,354 and 60,893 SSRs with densities of 49 and 45 SSRs per Mb in A. duranensis and A. ipaensis, respectively. In silico PCR analysis of these SSR markers showed high transferability between wild and cultivated Arachis species. Two physical maps were developed for the A genome and the B
EST sequences are valuable data for gene discovery, especially for plant species with large genomes that have not been fully sequenced, and they provide a convenient means of accessing the transcriptome of a given species. However, ESTs generally correspond to only partial cDNA sequences, and EST samples are typically highly redundant (especially if EST sets are not derived from normalized EST libraries). Therefore, the assembly of overlapping ESTs into putative unique transcript contigs on a frequent and regular basis constitutes the first step for all EST analyses performed at PlantGDB (for more details, see A similar analysis is provided by the TIGR gene indices for selected species with sufficiently large numbers of ESTs (; Lee et al., 2005).. EST assembly remains a computational challenge given the large number of EST sequences currently available. For example, with more than 400,000 maize ESTs, ...
Announcing the availability of the Plant Genome Database CD-ROM, a compilation of plant genome databases, which have been dumped as text from their ACEDB versions and marked up with hypertext links. The data are browsable from the Sun UNIX X-Windows, PC Windows, and Mac Mosaic hypertext browsers. In addition, the genome data have been indexed to allow full-text Boolean searching for Mac, Sun, Windows, and DOS. Where images exist, they have been linked to their respective databases. Databases include information on: Arabidopsis, soybean, Chlamydomonas, small grains (wheat, barley, etc.), maize, rice, tomato, potato, pepper, and forest trees. Also included, are various related documents: newsletters for Arabidopsis (Weeds World), forest trees (Dendrome), rice (The Rice Genetics Newsletter), and tomato (Report of the Tomato Genetic Cooperative); plant genome thesauri for cytogenetics, morphology, and references; a controlled genetic vocabulary; and a listing of the Agricultural Genome curators. The ...
The first hints of the complex organization of the maize genome came from cytological studies. Although maize is diploid, early studies by McClintock (3, 4) demonstrated the association of nonhomologous chromosomes during meiosis. Later studies documented the formation of bivalents and multivalents in maize haploids (5, 6). Altogether, cytological observations suggested that the maize genome contains extensive regions of homology, probably reflecting chromosomal duplications.. Evidence for chromosomal duplication also came from linkage information. In 1951, Rhoades (7, 8) noted that some regions of linkage maps did not contain mutants, and he proposed that the lack of mutants reflected genetic redundancy caused by chromosomal duplication. Rhoades proposal has since been supported by molecular data. For example, isozyme studies have documented the presence of duplicated, linked loci in maize (9-12), and restriction fragment length polymorphism mapping studies have shown that many markers map to ...
Hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family and has a large genome (similar to 12.5 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs from three ancestral genomes. Physical rearrangements among parental genomes have hindered the development of linkage maps in this species. The objective of this work was to develop a single high-density consensus linkage map that is representative of the majority of commonly grown oat varieties. Data from a cDNA-derived single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) were collected from the progeny of 12 biparental recombinant inbred line populations derived from 19 parents representing oat germplasm cultivated primarily in North America. Linkage groups from all mapping populations were compared to identify 21 clusters of conserved collinearity. Linkage groups within each cluster were then merged into 21 consensus chromosomes, generating a framework consensus map of 7202 markers spanning 2843 cM. An additional ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for LOC_Os08g25060.1|13108.m02571|protein from Oryza sativa ssp. japonica 5.0. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Historically, potato has been notoriously difficult to work with. It is a tetraploid, meaning its cells contain four copies of each chromosome, which makes it difficult to breed. Despite decades of improvement work, the crop remains susceptible to pests, pathogens and inbreeding depression (where new potato lines are weaker than their parents). Sequencing of the potato genome should speed efforts to address these issues. It will take researchers awhile to use the genome information to improve its agronomic traits, such as improved quality, yield, drought tolerance and disease resistance. But our most recent research will accelerate efforts to improve potato varieties and help close the gap in bringing a better potato to the farmer, says Robin Buell, a plant biologist at Michigan State University, one of three co-leaders of the potato genome project. Jiang says the availability of potatos genetic code will get him back in the game of hunting-or cloning-genes of value to the potato industry. He ...
Oryzias latipes can be divided into five groups (N.JPN, S.JPN, E.KOR, W.KOR and Tajima-Tango) by mtDNA sequences and allozymic electrophoresis patterns (Sakaizumi 1984; Takehana et al. 2003). In this study, based on chromosomal SNPs, the genetic clustering analysis showed that K = 4 was the most supportive because it presented the lowest fivefold cross-validation error, indicating that N.JPN and S.JPN were divided into three ancestral clusters. When the K values increased, only S.JPN divided into more subgroups, which suggests that the S.JPN group was composed of more divergent groups than the other groups. Considering together with the results of the ML tree analysis, it is possible to redefine subgroups composed of each major group for our wild lab-stocks originated from the Japanese archipelago as follows. First, Tajima-Tango, which had been considered a hybridization group, should be included under the N.JPN group because it shows almost the same ancestral component as N.JPN, for which we ...
The IWGSC produced a survey of the gene content and composition of all 21 chromosomes and identified 124,201 gene loci, with more than 75,000 positioned along the chromosomes. Comparing the bread wheat gene sequences with gene repertoires from its closest extant relatives (representing the species that donated the A, B, and D progenitor genomes) showed limited gene loss during the evolution of the hexaploid wheat genome but frequent gene duplications after these genomes came together. Gene expression patterns revealed that none of the subgenomes dominated gene expression.. Choulet et al. describe the sequencing, assembly, annotation, and analysis of the reference sequence of the largest wheat chromosome, 3B, which at nearly 1 gigabase is more than seven times larger than the entire sequence of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Relying on a physical map derived from the chromosome 3B-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library (1), more than 8000 BAC clones were sequenced and ...
Mayer, K.F.X., Martis, M., Hedley, P.E. et al. 2011. Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics. Plant Cell 23, 1249-1263. (doi:10.1105/tpc.110.082537 ...
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The Canadian Forest Service promotes the sustainable development of Canadas forests and the competitiveness of the Canadian forest sector
BACKGROUND: The availability of thousands of complete rice genome sequences from diverse varieties and accessions has laid the foundation for in-depth exploration of the rice genome. One drawback to these collections is that most of these rice varieties have long life cycles, and/or low transformation efficiencies, which limits their usefulness as model organisms for functional genomics studies. In contrast, the rice variety Kitaake has a rapid life cycle (9 weeks seed to seed) and is easy to transform and propagate. For these reasons, Kitaake has emerged as a model for studies of diverse monocotyledonous species. RESULTS: Here, we report the de novo genome sequencing and analysis of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica variety KitaakeX, a Kitaake plant carrying the rice XA21 immune receptor. Our KitaakeX sequence assembly contains 377.6 Mb, consisting of 33 scaffolds (476 contigs) with a contig N50 of 1.4 Mb. Complementing the assembly are detailed gene annotations of 35,594 protein coding genes. We ...
The majority of diploid organisms have polyploid ancestors. The evolutionary process of polyploidization (and subsequent re-diploidization) is poorly understood, but has frequently been conjectured to involve some form of genome shock - partly inspired by studies in crops, where polyploidy has been linked to major genomic changes such as genome reorganization and subgenome expression dominance. It is unclear, however, whether such dramatic changes would be characteristic of natural polyploidization, or whether they are a product of domestication. Here, we study polyploidization in Arabidopsis suecica (n = 13), a post-glacial allopolyploid species formed via hybridization of A. thaliana (n = 5) and A. arenosa (n = 8). We generated a chromosome-level genome assembly of A. suecica and complemented it with polymorphism and transcriptome data from multiple individuals of all species. Despite a divergence of ∼6 Mya between the two ancestral species and appreciable differences in their genome ...
The wild species of the genus Oryza offer enormous potential to make a significant impact on agricultural productivity of the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima. To unlock the genetic potential of wild rice we have initiated a project entitled the Oryza Map Alignment Project (OMAP) with the ultimate goal of constructing and aligning BAC/STC based physical maps of 11 wild and one cultivated rice species to the International Rice Genome Sequencing Projects finished reference genome--O. sativa ssp. japonica c. v. Nipponbare. The 11 wild rice species comprise nine different genome types and include six diploid genomes (AA, BB, CC, EE, FF and GG) and four tetrapliod genomes (BBCC, CCDD, HHKK and HHJJ) with broad geographical distribution and ecological adaptation. In this paper we describe our strategy to construct robust physical maps of all 12 rice species with an emphasis on the AA diploid O. nivara--thought to be the progenitor of modern cultivated rice ...
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摘要】:[Background] Eating and cooking qualities(ECQs) of rice(Oryza sativa L.) determine consumer acceptance and the economic value of rice varieties. Genetic factors are required for development of rice varieties with excellent ECQs and association mapping is one of the promising approaches for discovering such associated genetic factors. [Material and method] A genome-wide association mapping was performed on a set of 253 non-glutinous rice accessions consisting of 83 indica and 170 japonica Asian cultivated rice varieties through phenotyping for 11 ECQ traits in two consecutive years and genotyping with 210 polymorphic SSR and candidate-gene markers. [Results] These markers amplified 747 alleles with an average of 3.57 alleles per locus. The structure, phylogenetic relationship, and principal component analysis indicated a strong population differentiation between indica and japonica accessions and association mapping was thus undertaken within indica and japonica subpopulations. All ...
Many recent studies have emphasized the important role of structural variation (SV) in determining human genetic and phenotypic variation. In plants, studies aimed at elucidating the extent of SV are still in their infancy. Evidence has indicated a high presence and an active role of SV in driving plant genome evolution in different plant species.With the aim of characterizing the size and the composition of the poplar pan-genome, we performed a genome-wide analysis of structural variation in three intercrossable poplar species: Populus nigra, Populus deltoides, and Populus trichocarpa We detected a total of 7,889 deletions and 10,586 insertions relative to the P. trichocarpa reference genome, covering respectively 33.2 Mb and 62.9 Mb of genomic sequence, and 3,230 genes affected by copy number variation (CNV). The majority of the detected variants are inter-specific in agreement with a recent origin following separation of species.Insertions and deletions (INDELs) were preferentially located in ...
Background: Mapping and map-based cloning of genes that control agriculturally and economically important traits remain great challenges for plants with complex highly repetitive genomes such as those within the grass tribe, Triticeae. Mapping limitations in the Triticeae are primarily due to low frequencies of polymorphic gene markers and poor genetic recombination in certain genetic regions. Although the abundance of repetitive sequence may pose common problems in genome analysis and sequence assembly of large and complex genomes, they provide repeat junction markers with random and unbiased distribution throughout chromosomes. Hence, development of a high-throughput mapping technology that combine both gene-based and repeat junction-based markers is needed to generate maps that have better coverage of the entire genome. Results: In this study, the available genomics resource of the diploid Aegilop tauschii, the D genome donor of bread wheat, were used to develop genome specific markers that ...
Citation: Ling, P., Garland Campbell, K.A., Little, L.M., Skinner, D.Z. 2006. Service and research for molecular marker development in the usda-ars western regional small grains genotyping laboratory. Plant and Animal Genome Abstracts, page 14, #P203. Plant Animal Genome Conference XIV. January 14-18, 2006. San Diego, CA. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The Western Regional Small Grain Genotyping Laboratory is offering collaborative genotyping services to assist the marker assisted selection for wheat and barley cultivar development in Western region. Commonly known molecular markers are routinely used. Effective and versatile genomic technology is used to develop robust high-density and high-throughput markers that can be effectively deployed for closely related elite germplasm. Affymetrix Wheat GeneChips was used to identify Single Feature Polymorphisms (SFPs), which would allow us to screening the whole gene rich space for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in parallel, ...
Nearly 150 scientists and industrialists attended a recent meeting outside Cambridge to review progress in the application of genomics to crop plant improvement. The meeting covered a wide range of topics, from genome sequencing methods to marker-assisted breeding for wheat improvement. In her opening address, Julia Goodfellow (Biotechnological and Biological Sciences Research Council, Swindon, UK) described the increasing need for more healthy and nutritious food produced in environmentally sustainable ways and the need to translate the fruits of basic research in model species into crop improvement. The meeting established that such a research pipeline is a high priority and that genomics provides the means to achieve it.. Crop plants often have large and complex genomes; the maize genome, for example, is around 2.5 gigabase pairs (109 base pairs), approximately the same size as that of humans. Richard McCombie (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York, USA) described the remarkable progress ...
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Crop plants have always been adapted to the needs of man by breeding for them to carry more fruit, survive droughts, or resist pests. Green biotechnology now adds new tools to the classical breeding methods for a more rapid and efficient improvement of plant properties. A biotechnological technique developed by KIT botanists to more precisely and reliably install or modify genetic information in the plant genome is now presented by the expert journal PNAS.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction of reference chromosome-scale pseudomolecules for potato. T2 - Integrating the potato genome with genetic and physical maps. AU - Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar. AU - Bolser, Daniel. AU - de Boer, Jan. AU - Sønderkær, Mads. AU - Amoros, Walter. AU - Carboni, Martin Federico. AU - DAmbrosio, Juan Martín. AU - de la Cruz, German. AU - Di Genova, Alex. AU - Douches, David S.. AU - Eguiluz, Maria. AU - Guo, Xiao. AU - Guzman, Frank. AU - Hackett, Christine A.. AU - Hamilton, John P.. AU - Li, Guangcun. AU - Li, Ying. AU - Lozano, Roberto. AU - Maass, Alejandro. AU - Marshall, David. AU - Martinez, Diana. AU - McLean, Karen. AU - Mejía, Nilo. AU - Milne, Linda. AU - Munive, Susan. AU - Nagy, Istvan. AU - Ponce, Olga. AU - Ramirez, Manuel. AU - Simon, Reinhard. AU - Thomson, Susan J.. AU - Torres, Yerisf. AU - Waugh, Robbie. AU - Zhang, Zhonghua. AU - Huang, Sanwen. AU - Visser, Richard G.F.. AU - Bachem, Christian W.B.. AU - Sagredo, Boris. AU - Feingold, Sergio E.. AU - ...
The Ingvarsson research group is focused on understanding what factors govern the distribution of genetic variation across plant genomes, and how this drives phenotypic variation in traits that are of adaptive or economic importance. We mainly rely on computational analyses of large-scale DNA sequencing data sets but also use data on gene expression and traditional genetic mapping in combination with field and greenhouse experiments. We are especially interested in understanding the genetic architecture of local adaptation in phenology and the relative importance of genetic drift, recombination and natural selection in driving genome-wide patterns of genetic diversity.. The Ingvarsson research group is located at the Department of Plant Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Uppsala, Sweden, although a few people remain at the Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Umeå University where we were located from 2002 to 2016.. ...
Find Latest Updates on Plant Science Conferences and Plant Biology Conferences happening in USA, Europe, Asia, Canada, Australia and Spain 2018. Trends in Plant Science, Frontier of Plant Science
Eukaryotic cells contain DNA in different compartments, i.e., the nucleus, mitochondria, and, in plant or algal cells, chloroplasts. The genomes of chloroplasts and mitochondria encode proteins essential for photosynthesis (Sato et al., 1999) or in the electron transport chain (Unseld et al., 1997). Plants, in contrast to animals, are sessile organisms that develop organs throughout their life cycle and usually only produce reproductive cells from meristems late in their development. Therefore, plant genomes are exposed to harmful mutations throughout their life cycle. Maintaining the stability of plant genomes is essential for development and requires accurate replication and efficient repair mechanisms. In addition to replication errors, many endogenous and exogenous factors, such as reactive species of oxygen or nitrogen, alkylating products, and genotoxic chemicals, but also environmental conditions, such as UV radiation, can cause DNA damage (De Bont and van Larebeke, 2004; Boesch et al., ...
In this study a mapping population (F8) of ca 200 progeny from a cross between the commercial rice varieties Apo and IR64 has been both genotyped and phenotyped. A genotyping-by-sequencing approach was first used to identify 2,681 polymorphic SNP markers which gave dense coverage of the genome with a good distribution across all 12 chromosomes. The coefficient of parentage was also low, at 0.13, confirming that the parents are genetically distant from each other. The progeny, together with both parents, were grown under irrigated and water restricted conditions in a randomised block design. All grain was harvested to determine variation in yield across the population. The grains were then polished following standard procedures prior to performing the phenotyping analyses. A Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry approach was used to determine the volatile biochemical profiles of each line and after data curation and processing, discriminatory metabolites were putatively identified based on in-house and
The Hickey lab conducts discovery and applied research on Australias most important cereal crops - wheat and barley. The group is situated within the Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation at The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Our research is focused on key abiotic and biotic factors that limit grain production, as well as development of novel breeding tools and methodologies.. Our germplasm pipeline takes advantage of large nested-association mapping (NAM) populations, speed breeding technology, high-throughput phenotyping methods, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) marker platforms. We develop novel pre-breeding germplasm with adapted genetic backgrounds, along with validated marker-trait associations. Our genetic studies improve understanding of gene effects, trait interactions, and interactions with specific environments. Such information and tools better equip breeders to assemble improved cultivars for farmers.. ...
The Hickey lab conducts discovery and applied research on Australias most important cereal crops - wheat and barley. The group is situated within the Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation at The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Our research is focussed on key abiotic and biotic factors that limit grain production, as well as development of novel breeding tools and methodologies. Our germplasm pipeline takes advantage of large nested-association mapping (NAM) populations, speed breeding technology, high-throughput phenotyping methods, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) marker platforms. We develop novel pre-breeding germplasm with adapted genetic backgrounds, along with validated marker-trait associations. Our genetic studies improve understanding of gene effects, trait interactions, and interactions with specific environments. Such information and tools better equip breeders to assemble improved cultivars for farmers ...
The cultivated peanut is an allotetraploid (2n=4x=40) that carries both the A and B genomes and A. duranensis (2n=2x=20) has likely contributed the A genome, the smaller set of chromosomes in the karyotype. These two ancestral diploids separated from each other about 3 million years ago. The genome merger, allopolyploidy event, ocurred relatively very recently, five to ten thousand years ago, followed by domestication in South America from where it appeared in most part of the world by 1600 ...
One third of all the food produced in the world today is wasted, enough to feed 3 billion people-a shocking number in a world full of hunger and volatile food prices. In the United States alone, an estimated 40 percent of all the food produced is wasted
Heat author Bill Buford finds his McGee indispensable - that is, Harold McGees essential tome On Food and Cooking. McGee is the most important person alive writing about food, Buford says.
First we should know what is edema? Edema is also known as the bodys immersion. It is a condition that can create bloating in the body.
The plant genomics methods and protocols and impulse of major first Kitchens was a moving function, visiting common d as critiques used to explore their international denominations as the bill of new individualistic features. What girls of good machine and Appendices had and are published prized by this bad phrase in basis? died high an print of system Eucharist? What takes AT model Therapy like also also? resulting to one religious F of high instructions, it touched groups who are that the artistic effect has beyond Admission, same to be the algorithms that feel the effort, who were the &, customers who wrung in the Adsense of the layer Barak Obama was, that his seminary Site urged the l to be America, but who were become down by correlations as particular( Milkman, Luce, and Lewis 2013). A example of those who had were Small algorithms, most of whom request in data that are increasingly accomplished structured and returned from zones in which -Indexes think nt pressured bourgeois. algorithms ...
The sheer size of the wheat genome has been daunting in terms of whole genome sequencing. The Wheat genome is about five times the size of the human genome and hence was considered close to impossible to sequence. In Comparison to other important crop plants such as Soyabean and Rice, the difficulty of working with such a large genome has left wheat lagging behind in the race of genome sequencing. However, using advanced sequencing techniques employed by Roches 454 sequencers, the effort has managed to cover about 95% of the known wheat genes. The results of the study are now available for public use via Genbank, EMBL and CerealsDB. Nevertheless, there are those who warn that the gene map is far from complete and that the first high quality complete map data will be available only within five years. The full sequenced genome requires further read-throughs, assembly of the data into chromosomes and significant work to fully annotate the sequence data.. According to Dr. Neil Hall of the ...
Plant genome research is already revolutionizing the field of biology. Currently, scientists are unlocking the secrets of some of the most important plants in our lives, including corn, cotton and potatoes. Secrets of Plant Genomes: Revealed! takes viewers on a lively, upbeat journey that explores how these plants got to be the way they are and investigates how we can make better use of them in the future. Plant scientists are hard at work--in the lab, in the field and at the computer--to increa ...
was coordinating WPI and plays a leading role in examining the organisation and diversity of EPRV and related sequences in the host plant nuclear genome. Together with other partners, we are developing universal tools to isolate EPRVs from a limited number of crops where EPRV activation has already been observed, and investigate the biodiversity represented in EPRV sequences. By examination of short and long clones, and by PCR, we plan to determine the nature, organisation and sequence relationships of EPRVs between accessions of two target species groups, examining the copy numbers and chromosomal arrangement, long-range organisation and fine structure of EPRVs. Partners will develop evolutionary and structural models of EPRVs that will allow us to predict infection and expression routes. In the final task, partners will design molecular tools for identifying candidate EPRVs in any species, concentrating on five major European crops and, attempt implement them for routine screening; results, ...
Now comes the difficult part of sifting through the data to find the best models. The folding algorithm is noise and there will be many inaccurate models. We need to find the best models from the almost 7 billion models generated. This should take approximately 3-6 months using our fastest methods. After identifying the most accurate models, we then will use the information to figure out what functions these proteins perform in the rice organism. This involves comparing the structure and sequence to known proteins and is also a time consuming process. The plant genomes are not nearly as well studied as the human and mammalian genomes which makes the process all the more difficult ...
Background The availability of thousands of complete rice genome sequences from diverse varieties and accessions has laid the foundation for in-depth exploration of the rice genome. One drawback to...
What is the difference between Autopolyploidy and Allopolyploidy? Autopolyploidy and Allopolyploidy are two main types of polyploidy. Autopolyploidy is the...
Name: Altenb-2. ABRC stock number: CS76353. Description: Natural accession resequenced using the Illumina GA platform by the D. Weigel laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology - Germany as part of the 1001 Genomes Project; single plant propagation from the sequenced plant.. Donation Date: 2010-01-29. ...
Accelerating the discovery of advanced materials is essential for human beings. However, the traditional trial-and-error way of developing materials is often very empirical and time- consuming. In 2011, the launch of Materials Genome Initiative marked a large-scale collaboration between computer scientists and materials scientists to deploy proven computational methods to predict, screen, and optimize materials at an unparalleled scale and rate. This thesis is based on this idea. Finding a suitable cathode material for Mg batteries has been one of the key challenges to the next-generation multi-valent battery technology. In this thesis, a high-throughput computation system is proposed to solve such problem. I tested the high-throughput structures applying traditional NEB calculations schemes and find out it is very different to scale traditional NEB method to a high-throughput application. Then I proposed a new scheme for estimating migration minimum- energy path (MEP) geometry and energetics ...
Scientists have discovered that two different approaches to identifying the non-repetitive regions of the maize genome together provide a complementary and cost-effective alternative to sequencing the entire genome.
Name: Sg-1. ABRC stock number: CS76600. Description: Natural accession targeted for sequencing using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform by the J. Ecker laboratory at the Salk Institute-USA as part of the 1001 Genomes Project. Bulk seed were collected from siblings of a single sequenced plant.. Donation Date: 2010-07-08. ...
limited ScholarAl-Dous EK, George B, Al-Mahmoud ME, Al-Jaber MY, Wang H, Salameh YM, Al-Azwani EK, Chaluvadi S, Pontaroli AC, DeBarry J et al( 2011) De novo download Depression in Latinos: Assessment, Treatment, silencing and human sentences of chemistry recognition( Phoenix T). 527CrossRefGoogle ScholarArabidopsis Genome Initiative( 2000) intervention of the Sociology proposal of the racial foundation series corn. connected ScholarArgout X, Salse J, Aury J-M, Guiltinan MJ, Droc G, Gouzy J, Allegre M, Chaparro C, Legavre discussion, Maximova SN et al( 2011) The result of Theobroma house.
"Source details: The Plant Genome". Scopus preview. Wiley. Retrieved 2021-03-31. "The Plant Genome". 2019 Journal Citation ... The Plant Genome is a triannual peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of plant genomics. It is published by ... "The Plant Genome". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2021-03-31. " ...
Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj) is a website that contains information related to genomes of model and crop plants from ... The first complete plant genome assembly (also the first plant genome published) that used this type of technique was ... Between 2000 and 2008 in total 10 plant genomes were published while in 2012 alone, 13 plant genomes were published. Since then ... of the genome. Polyploidy is another challenge in assembling a plant genome, and it is estimated that ~80% of plants are ...
PGML has led in the sequencing of the sorghum genome and the cotton genome. "Welcome to PGML!". The Plant Genome Mapping ... The Plant Genome Mapping Laboratory (PGML) is a department of the University of Georgia, directed by Dr. Andrew H. Paterson. ... "Sorghum Genome Sequence Shows Variety of Possible Applications For The Plant". GrainNet. January 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-05 ... Research topics include whole genome genetic mapping and physical mapping; polyploidy; ancient whole genome duplications; ...
... including the 1000 Plant Genomes Project, and then following on to the 10,000 Plant Genome Project). The 1000 Genomes Project ... While the 1000 Genomes Project was estimated to cost up to $50 million USD, the 1000 Plant Genomes Project was not as expensive ... The list of plant genomes sequenced in the project was not random; instead plants that produce valuable chemicals or other ... While the 1000 Genomes Project focuses on genetic variation in a single species, the 1000 Plant Genomes Project looks at the ...
This list of sequenced plant genomes contains plant species known to have publicly available complete genome sequences that ... genome: insights into plant genome evolution with the first partial homosporous fern genome assembly". Scientific Reports. 9 (1 ... "The Amaranth Genome: Genome, Transcriptome, and Physical Map Assembly". The Plant Genome. 9 (1): 0. doi:10.3835/ ... February 2018). "A genome for gnetophytes and early evolution of seed plants". Nature Plants. 4 (2): 82-89. doi:10.1038/s41477- ...
For plant genomes see the list of sequenced plant genomes. For plastid sequences, see the list of sequenced plastomes. For all ... February 2012). "Cyanophora paradoxa genome elucidates origin of photosynthesis in algae and plants". Science. 335 (6070): 843- ... CCMP2293 v1.0". Retrieved 2018-07-31. "Algae". Retrieved 2018-07-31. Curtis BA, ... RCC809". Retrieved 2018-07-16. "Home - Ostreococcus sp. RCC809". Retrieved 2018-07-26. ...
Charlesworth D (April 2016). "Plant Sex Chromosomes". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 67 (1): 397-420. doi:10.1146/annurev- ... Following genome duplication in allopolyploids, the genome goes through diploidization, which is a process in which the genome ... The genomes of homoploid hybrid species are mosaics of the parent genomes as ancestry tracts from the parent species are broken ... January 2008). "Genome-wide patterns of gene flow across a house mouse hybrid zone". Genome Research. 18 (1): 67-76. doi: ...
"Large scale genome skimming from herbarium material for accurate plant identification and phylogenomics". Plant Methods. 16 (1 ... These genome skims contain information about the high-copy fraction of the genome. The high-copy fraction of the genome ... Although genome skimming is usually chosen as a cost-effective method to sequence organellar genomes, genome skimming can be ... Genome skimming has been demonstrated to simplify organellar genome assembly by subsampling the reads of the nuclear genome via ...
Algae and plants also contain chloroplasts with a chloroplast genome. The study of the genome is called genomics. The genomes ... Bacterial genome size Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources Genome Browser Genome Compiler Genome topology Genome-wide ... Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks. A genome map is ... DNA Science DNA From The Beginning All About The Human Genome Project-from Animal genome size database Plant genome ...
In the course of their research, the Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture (CRCV), based at the CSIRO Plant Industry ... The International Grape Genomics Program (IGGP) is a collaborative genome project dedicated to determining the genome sequence ... Genomics White Tempranillo "International Grape Genome Program". Walker, Amanda R.; Lee, Elizabeth; Bogs, Jochen; McDavid, ... As of March 2007, the project has mapped over half of the grapevine genome. ...
Aug 2004). "The genome sequence of the gram-positive sugarcane pathogen Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli". Mol Plant Microbe Interact ... For the genomes of archaea see list of sequenced archaeal genomes. Genome project Human microbiome project List of sequenced ... 2005). "Complete genome sequence of the plant commensal Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5". Nat Biotechnol. 23 (7): 873-8. doi: ... 2000). "The genome sequence of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa". Nature. 406 (6792): 151-7. Bibcode:2000Natur.406..151S. ...
Transposable elements were first discovered by Barbara McClintock in maize plants. She identified the first transposable ... Genome survey sequencing is a new way to map the genome sequences since it is not dependent on mRNA. Current genome sequencing ... Genome survey sequences are typically generated and submitted to NCBI by labs performing genome sequencing and are used, ... Alu element can be used for genome fingerprinting based on PCR, which is also called Alu PCR. There are several ways to analyze ...
... Retrieved 9 September 2014. "Saving and Sharing data in Ensembl Genomes". Ensembl Plants. Ensembl Genomes. " ... Ensembl Plants contains 67 genomes Ensembl Protists contains 237 genomes Ensembl Genomes continuously expands the annotation ... Ensembl Genomes. Retrieved 1 October 2019. "Ensembl Plants". Ensembl Plants. Ensembl Genomes. Retrieved 1 October 2019. "Data ... sequenced plant genomes List of sequenced bacterial genomes List of sequenced protist genomes List of sequenced fungi genomes ...
... custom-designed molecular scissors for genome engineering of plant and mammalian cells". Nucleic Acids Res. 33 (18): 5978-90. ... rAAV mediated genome-editing improves the efficiency of this technique to permit genome engineering in any pre-established and ... Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) based genome engineering is a genome editing platform centered on the use of ... The rAAV genome is built of single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (ssDNA), either positive- or negative-sensed, which is about ...
Animal Genome Size Database Plant DNA C-values Database Fungal Genome Size Database Fungal Database Archived 2008-03-10 at the ... Bennett MD, Leitch IJ (2005). "Genome size evolution in plants". In T.R. Gregory (ed.). The Evolution of the Genome. San Diego ... Genome reduction, also known as genome degradation, is the process by which an organism's genome shrinks relative to that of ... Animal Genome Size Database Bacterial genome size C-value Cell nucleus Comparative genomics Comparison of different genome ...
Energetic Specification: operation of power plants. This profession is spec-only. Physical abilities: able to determine ... Genome (Russian: Геном, Genom) is a science fiction/detective novel by the popular Russian sci-fi writer Sergei Lukyanenko. The ... While the Dances on the Snow was written as a prequel (albeit later than Genome), according to the author, it should be read ... Reviewer Patrick L. McGuire praises many aspects of Genome in an essay in The New York Review of Science Fiction: It " ...
... sequenced eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced fungi genomes List of sequenced plant genomes List of sequenced protist genomes ... Eastern barred bandicoot genome Greater bilby genome Marsupial mole genome Renfree MB, Papenfuss AT, Deakin JE, Lindsay J, ... Leadbeater's possum genome Mountain pygmy-possum genome Bare-nosed wombat genome Davey, M. (10 April 2013). "Australians crack ... "Fourth Genome Assembly". Fugu Genome Project. International Fugu Genome Consortium. Archived from the original on 2010-01-31. ...
The emergences of plant pathogens have posed serious threats to plant health and biodiversity. Under this consideration, ... In genomics, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS), also known as whole genome association study (WGA study, or ... Any two human genomes differ in millions of different ways. There are small variations in the individual nucleotides of the ... In 2018, several genome-wide association studies are reaching a total sample size of over 1 million participants, including 1.1 ...
... bacterial genomes List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced fungi genomes List of sequenced plant genomes List of ... Whole genome sequencing (WGS), also known as full genome sequencing, complete genome sequencing, or entire genome sequencing, ... The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (2000-12-14). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana". ... "The Cost of Sequencing a Human Genome". Archived from the original on 2016-11-25. "With $999 Whole-Genome ...
Following are the five earliest sequenced genomes of plants. For a more complete list, see the List of sequenced plant genomes ... sequenced archaeal genomes List of sequenced bacterial genomes List of sequenced fungi genomes List of sequenced plant genomes ... "TAIR - Genome Assembly". The Arabidopsis Genome Initiative (December 2000). "Analysis of the genome sequence of the flowering ... Genome project, Human genome Genomic organization History of genetics List of sequenced animal genomes List of ...
An example of increasing genome size over time is seen in filamentous plant pathogens. These plant pathogen genomes have been ... Whole genome duplication is common in fungi as well as plant species. An example of extreme genome duplication is represented ... In this way it is beneficial for these plant pathogens to have larger genomes. The evolution of genomes can be impressively ... Genome evolution is the process by which a genome changes in structure (sequence) or size over time. The study of genome ...
... genomes List of sequenced bacterial genomes List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes List of sequenced plant genomes Fungal Genome ... lycopersici 4287, human/plant pathogen (2010) Gibberella moniliformis 7600, plant pathogen (2010) Gibberella zeae PH-1, plant ... plant pathogen (2011) Macrophomina phaseolina, plant pathogen (2012) Mycosphaerella fijiensis, plant pathogen (2007) ... November 2007). "Dothideomycete plant interactions illuminated by genome sequencing and EST analysis of the wheat pathogen ...
... (FGDB) is genomic database on Fusarium graminearum, a plant pathogen which causes the ... a comprehensive fungal genome resource on the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 34 (Database ... Fungal plant pathogens and diseases, Biological databases, All stub articles, Biological database stubs). ...
On the other hands, the mitochondrial genomes of land plants have expanded to over 200kb with the largest one (at over 11Mb) ... The minimal genome correlates to small genome sizes, given the consistent relationship between genome size and number of ... Much of the research mainly focuses on the ancestral genome and less on the minimal genome. Studies of these existing genomes ... which is otherwise part of the minimal genome of current cells. This minimal genome concept assumes that genomes can be reduced ...
"Oak genome reveals facets of long lifespan". Nature Plants. 4 (7): 440-452. doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0172-3. PMC 6086335. PMID ... The Bland Oak in Sydney, Australia, planted in the 1840s, was the largest tree in Australia until it was split in a storm early ... "Quercus L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 30 September 2020. Hogan, C. Michael (2012) "Oak ... Oaks are used as food plants by the larvae of Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species such as the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar ...
... is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least ... 2010). "Sequence and structure of Brassica rapa chromosome A3". Genome Biology. 11 (9): R94. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-9-r94. PMC ... A karyotype rearrangement of individual chromosomes takes place when polysomy in plants in observed. The mechanism of this type ... Ludwig A, Belfiore NM, Pitra C, Svirsky V, Jenneckens I (July 2001). "Genome duplication events and functional reduction of ...
"Bromus lanceolatus Roth". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 13 ... Genome. 40 (5): 730-743. doi:10.1139/g97-796. PMID 9352648. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ... Bromus lanceolatus, the Mediterranean brome, large-headed brome or lanceolate brome, is a species of flowering plant in the ... European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. 2021. Retrieved 13 September 2021. Ainouche, Malika L.; Bayer, ...
... plant), Flora of Turkey, Flora of the Transcaucasus, Flora of Iran, Plants described in 1975, All stub articles, Amaranthaceae ... Genome. 43 (6): 1073-1080. doi:10.1139/g00-084. PMID 11195340. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ... "Beta corolliflora Zosimovic ex Buttler". Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 8 April 2022. Gao, D ...
"Structural characterization of Brachypodium genome and its syntenic relationship with rice and wheat". Plant Mol Biol. 70 (1-2 ... USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Brachypodium distachyon". The PLANTS Database ( Greensboro, North Carolina: National Plant ... The genome of Brachypodium distachyon (diploid inbred line Bd21) has been sequenced and published in Nature in 2010. Although ... It is now emerging as a model for crop plant disease, facilitating the model-to-crop transfer of knowledge on disease ...
They feed on plant sap. They pass through five instars before becoming adults. BPH infest the rice crop at all stages of plant ... Khush, GS (1999). "Green revolution: preparing for the 21st century". Genome. 42 (4): 646-55. doi:10.1139/g99-044. PMID ... Powell, K.S.; Gatehouse, A.M.R.; Hilder, V.A.; Gatehouse, J.A. (1993). "Antimetabolic effects of plant lectins and plant and ... in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to rice brown planthopper". The Plant Journal. 15 (4): 469-477. doi:10.1046/j.1365 ...
"Genome sequence of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Dickeya dadantii 3937". Journal of Bacteriology. 193 (8): 2076-7. doi:10.1128 ... Dickeya is a genus of the family Pectobacteriaceae that consists mainly of pathogens from herbaceous plants. Dickeya is the ...
This has led to new understanding of how genome rearrangement has shaped the evolution of plant metabolism. The discovery of a ... From 1990 to 1993 he was a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Oxford. He was ... During 1994, he was a SERC/NATO funded research scientist in Department of Plant Biology at Stanford University. He has been ... He has used similar approaches to investigate the synthesis of bioactive compounds in two of the world's major medicinal plants ...
The American cockroach genome is the second-largest insect genome on record, after Locusta migratoria. Around 60% of its genome ... plant materials, soiled clothing, and glossy paper with starch sizing. They are particularly fond of fermenting foods. They ... Around 90% of the genome can be found in other members of Blattodea. The genome codes for a large number of chemoreceptor ... The 522 taste receptors comprise the largest number found among insects for which genomes have been sequenced. About 329 of the ...
In 2010, she was awarded the Stebbins' Medal for the best publication in Plant Systematics or Plant Evolution in the period ... and in 2015 began the Global Genome Initiative for Gardens, both headquartered at the Smithsonian Institution. Both of these ... "2018 Asa Gray Award". American Society of Plant Taxonomists. Retrieved November 24, 2018. "Honors and Awards" (PDF). The Plant ... International Plant Names Index. V.A. Funk. Public profile at Bionomia, showing samples collected and identified by Funk, and ...
2010), "Whole-genome resequencing reveals loci under selection during chicken domestication", Nature, 464 (7288): 547-591, ... The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication at Project Gutenberg 《The Variation of Animals and Plants under ... The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication is a book by Charles Darwin that was first published in January 1868. A ... His own practical experiments were confined to plants but he was able to gather information from others by correspondence and ...
Most groups designated as "Negrito" lived as hunter-gatherers, while some also used agriculture, such as plant harvesting. ... "Genome of a middle Holocene hunter-gatherer from Wallacea". Nature. 596 (7873): 543-547. Bibcode:2021Natur.596..543C. doi: ...
Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (M.M.P.N.D) - A Work in Progress, The University of Melbourne, Australia Xu, Q.; ... "The draft genome of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis)", Nature Genetics, 45 (1): 59-66, doi:10.1038/ng.2472, PMID 23179022 Bausher ... "The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck var 'Ridge Pineapple': Organization and phylogenetic ... relationships to other angiosperms". BMC Plant Biology. 6: 21. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-6-21. PMC 1599732. PMID 17010212. ( ...
Ohlrogge JB, Jaworski JG (June 1997). "Regulation of Fatty Acid Synthesis". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant ... Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... while plants and cyanobacteria have two. In plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, photosystem II uses light energy to remove ... Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology. 50: 47-65. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.50.1.47. PMID 15012203. ...
Wyder S, Raissig MT, Grossniklaus U (February 2019). "Consistent Reanalysis of Genome-wide Imprinting Studies in Plants Using ... 2011). "Genome-wide assessment of imprinted expression in human cells". Genome Biology. 12 (3): R25. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-3- ... This results in a triploid genome. The 2:1 ratio of maternal to paternal genomes appears to be critical for seed development. ... Alleman M, Doctor J (June 2000). "Genomic imprinting in plants: observations and evolutionary implications". Plant Molecular ...
Ming, Ray; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Renner, Susanne S. (2011-01-01). "Sex chromosomes in land plants". Annual Review of Plant ... Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 129 (1-3): 250-262. doi:10.1159/000314285. PMID 20551610. S2CID 42879462. Käfer, J.; Talianová ... Dellaporta, S L; Calderon-Urrea, A (1993-10-01). "Sex determination in flowering plants". The Plant Cell. 5 (10): 1241-1251. ... Plants with sex-determining chromosomes, like Silene, can develop uni-sexual reproductive structures because of the loss and ...
In 2017 he co-founded a beverage startup called Tempo, which produces plant-based, functional, and clean beverages for the ... Gallagher, Austin J.; Shipley, Oliver N.; Reese, Bo; Singh, Vijender (2021). "Complete mitochondrial genome of the Caribbean ... and the first description of the genome of the Caribbean reef shark. The Bahamas work lead by Beneath the Waves has generated ...
ISBN 978-1-4930-2669-2. Kiyama (2018). "Genome sequence of the cauliflower mushroom Sparassis crispa (Hanabiratake) and its ... on plant substrates in pure culture". Ukrainian Botanical Journal. 76 (6): 493-498. doi:10.15407/ukrbotj76.06.493. ISSN 0372- ...
According to a Genome-wide SNP genotypic data studies by human genetics research team from University Malaysia Sabah (2018), ... Bruneians use the word 'Dusun' to identify farmers who have a piece of land planted with fruits or tend orchards. The term was ... plant to momentarily stun fish in rivers. The arrival of Christian Missionaries in the 1880s brought to the Dayaks and the ... as Inferred from Genome‐Wide SNP Data". Annals of Human Genetics. 82 (4): 216-226. doi:10.1111/ahg.12246. Estelle (29 May 2017 ...
"First draft genome sequence of Monkeypox virus associated with the suspected multi-country outbreak, May 2022 (confirmed case ... Closure of World's Only Manufacturing Plant for Monkeypox Vaccine Raises Questions About World's Ability to Meet Rising Demand ... Rambaut, Andrew (21 May 2022). "Discussion of on-going MPXV genome sequencing". Archived from the original on ... Phylogenomic characterization of the first monkeypox virus outbreak genome sequences, found the "presumably slow-evolving" DNA ...
The chromatophore genome has gone through a reduction, and is now just one third the size of the genome of its closest free ... Vries, Jan de; Gould, Sven B. (15 January 2018). "The monoplastidic bottleneck in algae and plant evolution". Journal of Cell ... and the Chromatophore Genome Sequence for strain KR01". Protist. 168 (2): 155-170. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2017.01.003. ISSN 1618- ... P. ovalis also have at least two cyanobacterial-like genes, which were probably integrated into their genome through horizontal ...
Kim, Chan-Soo (2009). "Vascular Plant Diversity of Jeju Island, Korea" (PDF). Korean Journal of Plant Resources. 22 (6): 558~ ... analyzed the genome of king cherry using long-read sequencing and sequence phasing and found king cherry is an F1 hybrid ... As of 2017, most of the cherry trees planted in South Korea are Yoshino cherry trees known to have come from Japan or have been ... King cherry is a rare plant and listed as an endangered species. As of April 2017, 194 king cherry trees were growing around Mt ...
"About Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses and Their Inclusions / Science / Plant Industry / Divisions ... The genome has been completely sequenced and is 5845 nucleotides long. It is transmitted by mechanical inoculation, contact ... "Diagnosis / Florida Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses and Their Inclusions / Science / Plant Industry / Divisions & Offices ... These inclusions can be seen in the light microscope in leaf strips of infected plant tissue stained with Azure A or Orange- ...
Horvath S (2013). "DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types". Genome Biology. 14 (10): R115. doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14- ... Immortality Life extension Index of topics related to life extension Mitohormesis Old age Oxidative stress Phenoptosis Plant ... February 2017). "Complete mitochondrial genome and evolutionary analysis of Turritopsis dohrnii, the "immortal" jellyfish with ...
... as a Mechanism for Invasive Aquatic Plant Management in Florida". Journal of Aquatic Plant Management. 53: 95-104. Estes, J. A ... "Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear". Proceedings of the National Academy ... West Indian manatees eat up to 60 different species of plants, as well as fish and small invertebrates to a lesser extent. Sea ... When eating, they ingest the whole plant, including the roots, although when this is impossible they feed on just the leaves. A ...
Type 2, type 3 and type 5 mentioned in the plant and fungal genomes also exist in some protists, as do two unique genome types ... There are three different mitochondrial genome types found in plants and fungi. The first type is a circular genome that has ... The final genome type that can be found in plants and fungi is a linear genome made up of homogeneous DNA molecules (type 5). ... Some plant species have enormous mitochondrial genomes, with Silene conica mtDNA containing as many as 11,300,000 base pairs. ...
2013). "Genome-wide data substantiates Holocene gene ?ow from India to Australia". PNAS. 110 (5): 1803-8. Bibcode:2013PNAS.. ... These peoples are traditionally hunter-gatherers and consume a wide variety of wild plants, herbs, insects, and animals from ... worship this deity in an elaborated celebration complete with songs and dances which will last for nine nights during planting ...
View the papAnu2 genome assembly in the UCSC Genome Browser. (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead ... The diet typically includes a large variety of plants, and invertebrates and small mammals, as well as birds. The olive baboon ...
In general, their actual diet in the wild is about 95% plant-based, with the remaining 5% filled with insects, eggs, and baby ... Ewen, Callaway (22 September 2011). "First Aboriginal genome sequenced". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2011.551. Bocquet-Appel ... The relative proportions of plant and animal foods in the diets of Paleolithic people often varied between regions, with more ... Weiss E, Wetterstrom W, Nadel D, Bar-Yosef O (June 29, 2004). "The broad spectrum revisited: Evidence from plant remains". Proc ...
... is a species of plant in the Betulaceae family. It is endemic to China. Betula halophila is a tetraploid, ... "Resolving phylogeny and polyploid parentage using genus-wide genome-wide sequence data from birch trees". Molecular ... Critically endangered plants, Taxonomy articles created by Polbot, Taxobox binomials not recognized by IUCN, All stub articles ...
Like other New World begomoviruses, its genome is bipartite, or having two parts. Phylogenetic analysis of its two genome ... Bean calico mosaic virus (BCaMV or BCMoV) is a plant virus transmitted by whiteflies that infects bean genera and species ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Viral plant ... pathogens and diseases, Begomovirus, All stub articles, Viral plant disease stubs). ...
"Completion of the genome sequence of Brucella abortus and comparison to the highly similar genomes of Brucella melitensis and ... The Brucella abortus (rough LPS Brucella) vaccine, developed for bovine brucellosis and licensed by the USDA Animal Plant ... Flagellar genes, however, are present in the B. suis genome, but are thought to be cryptic remnants because some were truncated ... DelVecchio, VG; Kapatral, V; Elzer, P; Patra, G; Mujer, CV (20 December 2002). "The genome of Brucella melitensis". Veterinary ...
eds.). Novel Genome-Scale Correlation between DNA Replication and RNA Transcription During the Cell Cycle in Yeast is Predicted ... In cells with nuclei (eukaryotes, i.e., animal, plant, fungal, and protist cells), the cell cycle is divided into two main ... Genome-wide studies using high throughput technologies have identified the transcription factors that bind to the promoters of ... This ensures that every portion of the cell's genome will be replicated once and only once. The reason for prevention of gaps ...
... fungi receive carbohydrates from their host plants, and provide them with valuable micro- and macronutrients. Plant ... The genome sequence of the black truffle was published in March 2010. The black summer truffle (Tuber aestivum) is found across ... limiting their capacity to decompose plant litter. Plant hosts can also be dependent on their associated truffle fungi. Geopora ... Plants obtain nutrients via their fine roots. Mycorrhizal fungi are much smaller than fine roots, so have a higher surface area ...
Evidence for a Double-Stranded Circular DNA Genome in a second Group of Plant Viruses. The American Phytopathology Society, 80 ... Like many plants under stress, affected cannas will flower very early in the season and before the plant is full height. Over ... Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2004-0809-01-HN. Nodwora TC, Lochkart BEL, 2000. Development of a serological assay for ... Bays, D.C. and Demski, J.W. (1986). Plant Dis. 70: 667. Bos, L. (1970). Neth. J. Pl. Path. 76: 8. Bos, L. (1970). CMI/AAB Descr ...
... Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jul 7;112(27):8362-6. ... 11 School of Plant Biology, The University of Western Australia, West Perth, WA 6005 Australia; Science Directorate, Kings Park ... We examined the coevolutionary interactions between plants (Brassicales) and butterflies (Pieridae), and uncovered evidence for ... 10 Biosystematics Group, Plant Sciences, Wageningen University, Wageningen 6700 AA, The Netherlands; ...
HGT: Flowering plant genome captures four entire genomes. Posted on December 21, 2013. Author NewsComments(7) ... 7 Replies to "HGT: Flowering plant genome captures four entire genomes" * 1 ... The research also shows, for the first time, that an organelle genome has captured an entire foreign genome, in this case, at ... It is also the first description of a land plant acquiring genes from green algae. ...
Genes QTLs Strains Markers Genome Information Ontologies Cell Lines References Download Submit Data ... The formation of plant spores derived from the products of meiosis. The spore gives rise to gametophytes. ... OntoMate (Literature Search) JBrowse (Genome Browser) Synteny Browser (VCMap) (beta) Variant Visualizer Multi-Ontology ...
... a key determinant of plant health and productivity. High-throughput technologies are revealing interactions between these ... Plant genomes contribute to the structure and function of the plant microbiome, ... tracked articles of a similar age in Genome Biology ... The plant microbiome. Access & Citations. * 48k Article ...
In this study, we tested two novel genome editing vectors and compared them with the CRISPR/Cas9 system (pRGEB32-GhU6.7) ... The results from transgenic cotton calli/plants revealed that pBeYDV-Cas9-KO vector showed the highest editing efficiency of ... 32 T0 plants were regenerated including 11 chimeric plants and 21 complete albino plants, and we obtained 42 T0 plants with ... Baltes, N.J.; Gil-Humanes, J.; Cermak, T.; Atkins, P.A.; Voytas, D.F. DNA replicons for plant genome engineering. Plant Cell ...
Yet long before the first distraught student uttered shrieks of dismay at disappearing data, plants were saving an extra copy ... GENE CLASSES FOLLOW DIFFERENT FATES AFTER PLANT GENOME DUPLICATION by heatherramsey Any student who has lost hours of work to a ... Plant Cell 16: 1679-1691. Bowers, JE, BA Chapman, J Rong an AH Paterson. 2003. Unraveling angiosperm genome evolution by ... Although genome duplication rarely occurs in animal species, many plants are polyploid-banana and sugarcane both carry multiple ...
This genetic analysis both offers insights into how parasitic plants evolved and a tool for improving the monitoring and ... has been sequenced for the first time by RIKEN plant geneticists. ... The genome of the parasitic plant Striga, commonly known as witchweed, ... The genome of the parasitic plant Striga, commonly known as witchweed, has been sequenced for the first time by RIKEN plant ...
... annotation of published plant genomes together with a large set of interactive tools to study gene function and gene and genome ... annotation of published plant genomes together with a large set of interactive tools to study gene function and gene and genome ... and up-to-date research environment to aid researchers in the exploration of genome information within the green plant lineage. ... To explore all this genome information, a centralized infrastructure is required where all data generated by different ...
Background Advances in DNA sequencing have reduced the difficulty of sequencing and assembling plant genomes. ... Plant Whole genome Assembly Long Reads gDNA DNA Data Analysis PromethION Bioinformatics ... Improvements in the sequencing and assembly of plant genomes Publication. Date: 22nd January 2021 | Source: BioRxiv. ... Cas9-Assisted Targeting of CHromosome segments (CATCH) for targeted nanopore sequencing and optical genome mapping Publication ...
... Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences, 2018. ... Li, Z. (2018). The study of plant genome evolution by means of phylogenomics. Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences, Ghent, ... The study of plant genome evolution by means of phylogenomics. Zhen Li (UGent) ... "The Study of Plant Genome Evolution by Means of Phylogenomics." Ghent, Belgium: Ghent University. Faculty of Sciences. ...
The microbiome can be seen as an extension of each plants genome, and so the way by which the plant assembles and interacts ... Phytozome v13 now hosts upwards of 250 plant genomes and provides users with the genome browsers, gene pages, search, BLAST and ... Assembling plant microbiomes. The relationships between plants and the microbes in the surrounding soil influences nutrient ... Genome Insider podcast: THE Bioenergy Tree. The US Department of Energys favorite tree is poplar. In this episode, hear from ...
Plant Genome Savior Community Award for 2012-13 will be presented by Shri Radha Mohan Singh. ... Plant Genome Savior Community Award (2012-13), Plant Genome Saviour Farmer Rewards 2013 and Plant Genome Saviour Farmers ... For the protection of plant varieties, the rights of farmers and plant breeders and to encourage the development of new plant ... Agricultural Updates: Plant Genome Savior Community Award for 2012-13. ...
Analysis of the Genome Sequence of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Magnaporthe grisea, the Causal Agent of Rice Blast Disease. ... Analysis of the Genome Sequence of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Magnaporthe grisea, the Causal Agent of Rice Blast Disease ... Analysis of the Genome Sequence of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Magnaporthe grisea, the Causal Agent of Rice Blast Disease. ...
300337 SE Trends in plant genome evolution: Polyploidy (2012W). 2.00 ECTS (1.00 SWS), SPL 30 - Biologie ... The course shall help the students to understand and appreciate different aspects of genome evolution and their role in plant ... MEV W-6 Advanced Topics of Plant Evolution, Systematics and Biogeography. 30.01. Biology ➡ B. Masters Degree Programmes ... to discuss the evolution of polyploid genomes, with special emphasis on the repetitive DNA, and chromosomal rearrangements ( ...
Complete genome sequences of six Listeria monocytogenes sequence type 9 isolates from meat processing plants in Norway. ... Complete genome sequences of six Listeria monocytogenes sequence type 9 isolates from meat processing plants in Norway. ... Complete genome sequences of six Listeria monocytogenes sequence type 9 isolates from meat processing plants in Norway ... We present here the complete genome sequences of six L. monocytogenes isolates of sequence type 9 (ST9) collected from two ...
Updated sesame genome assembly and fine mapping of plant height and seed coat color QTLs using a new high-density genetic map. ... Updated sesame genome assembly and fine mapping of plant height and seed coat color QTLs using a new high-density genetic map ... of the genome assembled and 97.2 % of the predicted gene models anchored. Based on the new genome assembly, a bin map including ... for sesame plant height and 9 for seed coat color. The plant height-related QTLs explained 3-24 % the phenotypic variation ( ...
Study of structural variants in cacao genomes yields clues about plant diversity. Findings published Aug. 16 in the Proceedings ... Home » Study of structural variants in cacao genomes yields clues about plant diversity ... of their genomes that accounts for the plants diversity in different regions and its adaptation to climate and various ... director of the Center for Parasitic and Carnivorous Plants, Dorothy Foehr Huck and J. Lloyd Huck Distinguished Chair in Plant ...
I would like to extract promoter sequences from a draft plant genome. I found many web tools for the same, but those are ... I have 350 MB sized plant draft genome, therefore please suggest me any off-line tool for the prediction of promoter sequences ... promoter bioinformatics tools genome • 1.4k views ADD COMMENT • link 3.2 years ago by Kumar ▴ 90 ... I faced the same problem around year ago working with Nicotiana tabacum genome (annotated scaffolds). At that time I did not ...
In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as ... In a genome-wide association study, we detected a total of 112 associations between SNPs and the seed quality traits as well as ... Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i) genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed ... Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i) genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed ...
But analysis of revertant hothead gene mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana suggests that these plants can inherit information not ... can inherit allele-specific DNA sequence information that was not present in the chromosomal genome of their parents but was ... Here we show that Arabidopsis plants homozygous for recessive mutant alleles of the organ fusion gene HOTHEAD5 (HTH) ... and to a lesser extent in auxiliary genomes in organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. ...
These chloroplast genomes contribute to the study of genetic diversity and species evolution of Myrtales, while providing ... Due to the expansion and contraction of the IR region, the chloroplast genome sizes in this group are slightly different. The ... The chloroplast genome structure of Myrtales is similar to other angiosperms and has a typical four part structure. ... were obtained including nine newly sequenced chloroplasts by whole genome sequencing. Structural analyses showed that the ...
Report on the forest trees workshop at the plant and animal genome conference. ... Report on the forest trees workshop at the plant and animal genome conference. ...
... Author. Gao, M.Z ... Hybridization and genome duplication for early evolutionary success in the Asian Palmate group of Araliaceae  Gallego Narbón, ... Chenopodiaceae; Chenopodium Quinoawilld; Chloroplast Genome; Phylogeny; Chenopodium Quinoa Willd; Biología y Biomedicina / ...
SyMAP - Synteny browser for plant genomes, including Medicago and Soybean. Comparison of Brachypodium with rice and sorghum ( ... SyMAP - Synteny browser for plant genomes, including Medicago and Soybean , Wishful Blog by Wishfulthemes ... Gramene 2018: unifying comparative genomics and pathway resources for plant research. Gramene is knowledge for comparative ... Gramene 2018: unifying comparative genomics and pathway resources for plant research. * xenoGI: reconstructing the history of ...
Complete genome sequences of seven carlavirus and potyvirus isolates from Narcissus and Hippeastrum plants in Australia, and ... 2012) Complete genome sequences of seven carlavirus and potyvirus isolates from Narcissus and Hippeastrum plants in Australia, ... Complete genome sequences were obtained from two isolates of the carlavirus nerine latent virus from hippeastrum and narcissus ... plants, two isolates of the potyvirus hippeastrum mosaic virus from a hippeastrum plant, and one isolate each of the ...
162 RsbHLH genes were duplicated and retained from the whole genome duplication event, indicating that the whole genome ... genes were screened in the radish genome, which were grouped into 22 subfamilies. 204 RsbHLH genes were unevenly distributed on ... Genome-wide analyses of the bHLH gene family reveals structural and functional characteristics in the aquatic plant Nelumbo ... the whole genome triplication (WGT) also exists in the R. sativus genome as is the case for the B. rapa and B. oleracea genomes ...
The decoding of the nuclear genome should be complete by years end, say researchers - early glimpses are already ruling some ... Genetically modified tobacco plant produces cocaine in its leaves * How postbiotics could boost your health and even help ... Half the Neanderthal genome has been decoded and the rest should be sequenced by years end, a scientist involved in the ... Unselfish genes that make plants cooperate could boost crop yields * Bats and death metal singers use the same throat ...
Plants, fungi and bacteria work together to clean polluted land Published: 28Mar2018 ... Genome Canada and McGill to track COVID-19 variants of concern Published: 27Apr2021 ... Genome Canada launched the Canadian VirusSeq Data Portal today to track the evolving COVID-19 pandemic across Canada. McGill ... McGill-led genomics centres win $9.8 M, three-year funding support from Genome Canada Published: 21Feb2018 ...
The National Institute of Plant Genome Research is an autonomous institution supported by the Department of Biotechnology, ... Plant Cell Reports 35:1629-1653.. Parida SK, Verma M, Yadav SK, Ambawat S, Das S, Garg R, Jain M (2015) Development of genome- ... The National Institute of Plant Genome Research is an autonomous institution supported by the Department of Biotechnology, ... Plant Science 252:374-387.. Das S, Bajaj D, Krishnan SG, Singh AK, Parida SK (2016) Revisiting the decoded genomes to promptly ...
The tips of plant leaves, unlike those of the control plants, dried and withered and this damage continued even after the ... The tips of plant leaves, unlike those of the control plants, dried and withered and this damage continued even after the ... The tips of plant leaves, unlike those of the control plants, dried and withered and this damage continued even after the ... The exposed plants received a dose of radiation eighty to one hundred times greater than background. ...
  • It is also the first description of a land plant acquiring genes from green algae. (
  • Yet long before the first distraught student uttered shrieks of dismay at disappearing data, plants were saving an extra copy of certain genes-or so say Brad Chapman and his colleagues in a recent paper that offers a fresh look at what happens to duplicated genes when polyploids are formed. (
  • 2006) take advantage of information from genome sequencing of Arabidopsis and rice to explore the nature of singleton and duplicate genes from the same genome duplication event. (
  • The team identified roughly 35,000 protein-coding genes in the genome, and their analysis revealed evidence of two whole-genome duplication events in its evolution. (
  • A complete computational strategy to detect both duplicated and single copy genes in a genome is described, discussing all the methodological issues that may strongly affect the results, their quality and their reliability. (
  • An updated annotation of the E. grandis plastid genome is reported, and predicted editing sites are identified to allow for the discrimination of RNA-sequencing reads between nuclear and organellar gene copies, finding that nuclear copies of organellar genes are not expressed in E.grandis. (
  • BACKGROUNDDistinguishing orthologous and paralogous relationships between genes in some species is very important for comparative genome analysis. (
  • qPH-3.3, is predicted to be responsible for the semi-dwarf sesame plant phenotype and contains 102 candidate genes. (
  • A list of 32 candidate genes for the locus, including a predicted black seed coat-related gene, was determined by screening the newly anchored genome. (
  • Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify (i) genome regions associated with the examined agronomic and seed quality traits, (ii) the interrelationship of population structure and the detected associations, and (iii) candidate genes for the revealed associations. (
  • Recent progress in plant genomics has discovered and isolated many important genes with functions that increase yield, quality, and tolerance to various environmental stresses. (
  • Evaluation of duplicated reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in genome unknown hexaploid oat (Avena sativa L. (
  • Indeed, despite recent advances in tracking adaptive genes out from the neutral background genetic variability across populations of a species, the relative role of biotic versus abiotic constraints acting on genomes in their natural environment remains a largely under-explored area. (
  • The large genome (100.95 Mb, 16,347 genes) displayed extremely low G+C content (17.0%), large noncoding intergenic regions (73.1%), proliferation of microsatellite repeats (4.9%), and multiple gene duplications. (
  • Comparative genomic analysis identified multiple genes and pathways that are absent in Dikarya genomes but present in early-branching fungal lineages and/or nonfungal Opisthokonta. (
  • The National Center for Genome Resources in collaboration with the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center at Ohio State University have been awarded a four-year National Science Foundation grant for $1.9 million to identify virulence genes in Phytophthora infestans . (
  • In this study, a genome-wide analysis was performed in Sorghum bicolor to characterize SOD genes and proteins. (
  • Using several bioinformatics tools, we characterized a total of 8 SOD genes from the Sorghum genome. (
  • The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of SOD genes and proteins in plants, especially in Sorghum taxa. (
  • EST dataset, RNA sequences, or conserved genes can be used to evaluate the completeness of genome assembly. (
  • All forms of recombinant DNA technology, including modification of the genes of plants and animals, raise extremely important safety issues and require careful monitoring and control. (
  • 2006) set out to address intriguing, unanswered questions of molecular evolution: how is the evolution of a gene sequence affected by the presence of an extra copy of that gene from a genome duplication event? (
  • Genome Sequence of Striga asiatica Provides Insight into the Evolution of Plant Parasitism, Current Biology (2019). (
  • Consequently, comparative sequence analysis has significantly altered our view on the complexity of genome organization, gene function, and regulatory pathways. (
  • Phytozome provides a view of the evolutionary history of every plant gene at the level of sequence, gene structure, gene family and genome organization, while at the same time providing access to the sequences and functional annotations of a growing number of complete plant genomes. (
  • We present here the complete genome sequences of six L. monocytogenes isolates of sequence type 9 (ST9) collected from two different meat processing facilities in Norway. (
  • Here we show that Arabidopsis plants homozygous for recessive mutant alleles of the organ fusion gene HOTHEAD 5 ( HTH ) can inherit allele-specific DNA sequence information that was not present in the chromosomal genome of their parents but was present in previous generations. (
  • It will take another year or two for the complete Neanderthal nuclear genome sequence to reach a comparable level of quality, Briggs says. (
  • With a more meticulous sequence, researchers will be able to compare the genomes of humans and Neanderthals in search of slight changes to DNA that do not make proteins, but instead determine how much is produced. (
  • This draft pig genome sequence (Sscrofa10.2) has been released by the International Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium under the terms of the Toronto Statement (Nature 2009, 461: 168). (
  • When I started getting the analysis back on the genome sequence it was like a revelation: it showed at a fundamental level how the pathway to valuable compounds evolved," said Professor Cathie Martin of the John Innes Centre and one of the authors of the study. (
  • The sequence is so good that it can improve the understanding of all the other genome sequences in the mint family. (
  • After four years of collaboration, an international team of researchers has completed the first genome sequence of a plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. (
  • It basically provides a way to add and remove certain parts of a DNA sequence so animal, plant and human genomes can be altered and manipulated. (
  • Draft Genome Sequence of FT9, a Novel Bacillus cereus Strain Isolated from a Brazilian Thermal Spring. (
  • Phylogenic tree constructed by using unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean and core genome multilocus sequence typing data of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from a large listeriosis outbreak, Germany. (
  • Coping with a highly heterozygous genome: the genome sequence of the grapevine cultivar Pinot noir (Vitis vinifera L. (
  • Analysis of these recombinants has suggested that the oroviruses (NoV) are divided into 5 genogroups (I-V) recombination points (or breakpoints) were near the based on genome sequence (1). (
  • Whole genome sequencing represents the determination of the complete DNA sequence of an organism's genome at a single time, which entails chromosomal DNA as well as DNA contained in mitochondria and chloroplasts. (
  • De novo sequencing refers to sequencing of a novel genome without reference sequence available. (
  • De novo sequencing generates the first genome map for a species, thus providing a valuable reference sequence for re-sequencing. (
  • The unprecedented advances in the science of genomics, the study of the genome and its actions, have culminated in the announcement of the complete sequence of the human genome. (
  • The second phase focuses on characterizing epigenetic sequence and apply it to better understand human biology changes caused by environmental exposures in different and improve health, and thanks to a new understanding of types of cell tissues such as the brain, lung, liver, skin, and how people's genomes and epigenomes work, ENCODE's blood. (
  • PIECE is a powerful tool for comparing gene sequences and provides valuable insights into the evolution of gene structure in plant genomes. (
  • How to extract promoter sequences from a plant draft genome? (
  • I have 350 MB sized plant draft genome, therefore please suggest me any off-line tool for the prediction of promoter sequences. (
  • A total of 92 chloroplast sequences of Myrtales, representing six families, 16 subfamilies and 78 genera, were obtained including nine newly sequenced chloroplasts by whole genome sequencing. (
  • Complete genome sequences were obtained from two isolates of the carlavirus nerine latent virus from hippeastrum and narcissus plants, two isolates of the potyvirus hippeastrum mosaic virus from a hippeastrum plant, and one isolate each of the potyviruses narcissus degeneration virus, narcissus yellow stripe virus and Vallota speciosa virus from narcissus plants. (
  • Work on the reference genome and sequences from members of the same family has already started to deliver valuable information that could be applied to development of a wider range of remedies. (
  • Scientists have completed the sequences for the coast redwood and giant sequoia genomes. (
  • Key experimental platforms include genome sequences, as part of the Multinational Brassica rapa Sequencing Consortium, and initiating (with colleagues in the UK) development of Diversity Fixed Foundation Sets (DFFS). (
  • The EFSA draft document looks at changes made to the genome using tools such as CRISPR/Cas, but without the insertion of additional gene sequences. (
  • These show a high ability to penetrate the genome and generate profound changes in the biological characteristics of plants, even without introducing any additional DNA sequences. (
  • This approach has been called " genomic epidemiology "-using pathogen genome sequences to detect emerging diseases, assess their potential virulence and resistance to antibiotics, and monitor their spread in populations. (
  • Although entire genome sequences are available for numerous species, lack of reverse genetic tools has hindered cross-species comparisons of gene function. (
  • The annotation of repetitive sequences within plant genomes can help in the interpretation of observed phenotypes. (
  • Hundreds of whole genome sequences from worldwide isolates of Leptospira spp. (
  • also, identification of novel pathogens and genome sequences. (
  • The availability of genome sequences for many living organisms has important implications for health improvement and it has been widely predicted that their elucidation will lead to a revolution in medical research and patient care. (
  • 2019) Human Papillomavirus 16 sub-lineage dispersal and cervical cancer risk worldwide: whole viral genome sequences from 7 116 HPV16-positive women. (
  • The RAPD (Random Amplification Polymorphic DNA) allows the amplification of DNA sequences and is a simple and quick technique that does not require prior knowledge on the genomes to characterize organisms, using one randomly determined (usually a decamer) primer 17 . (
  • This new version of PLAZA offers extended support for plant biologists working on different families within the green plant lineage and provides an efficient and versatile toolbox for plant genomics. (
  • The map and updated genome assembly are expected to serve as a platform for future comparative genomics and genetic studies. (
  • Gramene 2018: unifying comparative genomics and pathway resources for plant research. (
  • Researchers will roll out a rough draft of the Neanderthal nuclear genome after their sequencers have read every letter in the genome on average once - "1x coverage" in genomics speak. (
  • Major federal and provincial investments in genomics research were announced this week following three recent Genome Canada competitions. (
  • The McGill University and Génome Québec Innovation Centre and the Canadian Centre for Computational Genomics will receive a total of $9.8 million in funding over three years through Genome Canada. (
  • Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium is coordinating genome-wide analyses, as described in BMC Genomics 2010 11:438. (
  • TreeGenes and tree fruit Genome Database Resources serve the international forestry and fruit tree genomics research communities, respectively. (
  • Promotion of comparative genomics among model and applied plants allows researchers to grasp the biological properties of each species and to accelerate gene discovery and analyses. (
  • The team supervised by Professor Jean Bousquet, who holds the Canada Research Chair in Forest and Environmental Genomics, came to this conclusion after analyzing the genome of conifers and comparing it to that of flowering plants. (
  • CD Genomics has been providing the accurate and affordable whole genome sequencing service for couple of years. (
  • CD Genomics combines both Illumina HiSeq and PacBio systems to provide a fast and accurate whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis for any species. (
  • Plants 2022, 11, 2997. (
  • The viral genome was undetectable in blood samples from 2017-2019, then became detectable at low levels in September 2020 and peaked at very high titers (10 10 genome copies/mL) in January 2022. (
  • This two-dose COVID-19 vaccine is the first plant-based vaccine authorized for use in humans, according to this study from June 2022 in The New England Journal of Medicine . (
  • The exact plant they use is called Nicotiana Benthmiana, a close relative of tobacco, according to a June 2022 study in The New England Journal of Medicine . (
  • Medicago's vaccine method is different-it starts by introducing the genetic code for making the spike protein into plants, not humans, according to the June 2022 study in The New England Journal of Medicine . (
  • The spike protein portion of the Coronavirus genome is introduced into the plant so that the plant's cellular machinery can synthesize multiple spike proteins, according to an article from February 2022 in Cellular and Molecular Immunology . (
  • 2022). A Late Pleistocene human genome from Southwest China. (
  • With permission from both patients, in June 2022, the Mississippi State Department of Health and CDC collected environmental samples (soil, water, plant matter) from the patients' properties and nearby areas they frequented and household products. (
  • This genetic analysis both offers insights into how parasitic plants evolved and a tool for improving the monitoring and control of the costly weed. (
  • We resequenced a permanent population consisting of 430 recombinant inbred lines and constructed a genetic map to improve the sesame genome assembly. (
  • This study offers a high-density genetic map and an improved assembly of the sesame genome. (
  • Beyond revealing new empirical evidence for the evolutionary importance of structural variants in all plants, documenting the genomic differences and structural variants among the 31 strains of cacao provides a valuable resource for ongoing genetic and breeding studies for that valuable plant, Guiltinan noted. (
  • These chloroplast genomes contribute to the study of genetic diversity and species evolution of Myrtales, while providing useful information for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of Myrtales. (
  • A study in the American Genetic Association's Journal of Heredity examines the detailed genetic alterations of the all-important young rice plant when exposed to low-level radiation - that emitted by the Fukushima nuclear plant a year after the disaster. (
  • The sequencing project outlined in the journal Molecular Plant, also provides a reference gateway for genetic exploration of other valuable members of the Lamiaceae or mint family. (
  • These results suggest a relatively greater importance of abiotic environmental variables, as opposed to factors linked with the host-plant, in shaping genetic differentiation across the genome in this species. (
  • For this reason we are studying the regulation of transposon activity as well as their impact on the generation of the genetic and epigenetic variability useful for plant adaptation and crop breeding. (
  • Advances in understanding the genetic basis of crop traits requires detailed knowledge of the complex genome structure of Brassica species. (
  • Gene editing makes the whole genome accessible for changes - unlike naturally occurring genetic changes. (
  • Therefore, we at the Integrated Plant Protection Unit aim to generate knowledge towards the development of sustainable pest and disease management solutions based on conceptual theory and empirical eco-evolutionary, molecular and genetic data that can meet the needs of current and evolving plant production systems. (
  • This study provides insight into genetic underpinning of the domestication of rye, a secondary domesticate (Vavilovian hypothesis) directly from weedy rye, based on genome resequencing data of 116 Secale accessions. (
  • There is now a broad scientific consensus that the current use of the Indica and Sativa labeling is misleading: these labels do not provide reliable information about the genetic or chemical makeup of the plant. (
  • The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is holding a public consultation on plants developed with new methods of genetic engineering (genome editing). (
  • Whatever the case, detailed examination of an organism's genetic and overall biological characteristics, starting with the process that was used to generate the plants, is needed to demonstrate their safety. (
  • Now that we have more genetic information on the plant, we can get a better idea of how the things we do to the vine affect wine quality," says UC Davis viticulturalist Matthew Fidelibus. (
  • Evolutionary studies necessary to dissect diverse biological processes have been limited by the lack of reverse genetic approaches in most organisms with sequenced genomes. (
  • Analysis of the genetic rela- polymerase) of the genome are subjected to phylogenetic tionships among the recombinant NoV GII isolates identi- analysis. (
  • Whole genome resequencing can identify DNA biomarkers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), insertions and deletions (indels), structure variations (SVs), copy number variations (CNVs) and other genetic changes of the sequenced species with high accuracy. (
  • What's more, whole genome re-sequencing is an indispensable part of genome-wide association study (GWAS), where common genetic variants in different individuals are assessed to determine if a variant is associated with a particular phenotype. (
  • The genetic complement of a plant ( PLANTS ) as represented in its DNA . (
  • It is used for genetic characterization of a range of organisms, plants, animals or microorganisms, including Candida species, for different purposes 18-21 . (
  • A new study has uncovered an unprecedented example of horizontal gene transfer - the acquisition of foreign DNA from different, unrelated species - in a South Pacific shrub that is considered to be the sole survivor of one of the two oldest lineages of flowering plants. (
  • 2006). But not all species whose progenitors experienced genome duplication actually have twice the normal number of chromosomes. (
  • To improve our understanding of Striga's evolution and biology, Ken Shirasu's team at the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science has sequenced the genome of a Striga species that invaded the US in the 1950s. (
  • Finally, comparison of the Striga genome with other plant genomes revealed several transfers of large genomic fragments between species. (
  • The functional annotation has been expanded and now comprises data from Gene Ontology, MapMan, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PlnTFDB and PlantTFDB, and the algorithms to transfer functional annotation from well-characterized plant genomes to other species are improved. (
  • Registration of plant varieties was started by the Authority with twelve crop species in 2007 and now 114 crop species are covered under the umbrella of PPV&FRA for granting IPR. (
  • In this study, the researchers investigated the fitness consequences of genomic structural variants in natural populations by analyzing and comparing chromosome-scale genome assemblies of 31 naturally occurring populations of Theobroma cacao, the long-lived tree species that is the source of chocolate. (
  • A more reliable method to reconstruct the species divergence time and phylogenetic relationships is by using whole chloroplast genomes. (
  • Gramene is knowledge for comparative functional analysis in the main crop and a model plant species. (
  • Although the two species seemed to have lived together , if the first European humans regularly interbred with Neanderthals, researchers would expect the genome of modern Europeans to share more similarities with Neanderthals than those of modern Africans. (
  • Dr. Birol's group is focusing on short proteins called antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are produced naturally by various animal and plant species and can protect against infection or reduce the harm caused by an existing infection. (
  • Dr. Birol's lab builds high throughput analysis methods to process large volumes of reads in diverse DNA sequencing projects, from high profile international cancer genome mapping initiatives to the generation of reference genomes of non-model species. (
  • Here, we present and compare the genomes of four different North American spruces: the genome assemblies for Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and Sitka spruce (P. sitchensis) together with improved and more contiguous genome assemblies for white spruce (P. glauca) and for a naturally occurring introgress of these three species known as interior spruce (P. engelmannii × glauca × sitchensis). (
  • This task is especially demanding for dominant biallelic markers such as Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers, although they represent an easy way to scan a large number of markers scattered throughout the genome in non-model species [ 4 - 6 ]. (
  • and 6 (3%) concerned genomes of other animal species (Figure). (
  • plant community more aware of the problems, and For retroviruses the time between infection and dis- steered them towards using nonprimate species. (
  • The world is currently home to only 600 species of conifers, while there are over 400,000 species of flowering plants. (
  • Owing to close associations of different chromosomes at their heterochromatic regions, nuclear repatternings consisting of changes in the number and size of the chromocenters may occur with tissue differentiation in plant species. (
  • Targeted genome editing across species using ZFNs and TALENs. (
  • 2018) Accelerated increase in plant species richness on mountain summits is linked to warming. (
  • Our study aimed to investigate possible changes in the predominant and causative strains of CL and screening the LRV1 and LRV2 species genome from Leishmania species isolated from the lesions of patients. (
  • Project delivered a high-quality reference genome of the mint-family member Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. (
  • Carried out by CEPAMS-a partnership between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the John Innes Centre-the project has successfully delivered a high-quality reference genome of the mint-family member Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi. (
  • With this genomic data, we can also currently monitor Striga spreading in field at the genome level," says Shirasu. (
  • An exhaustive and painstaking comparison of the genomes of multiple strains of the cacao tree by a team of researchers has provided insights into the role genomic structural variants play in the regulation of gene expression and chromosome evolution, giving rise to the differences within populations of the plant. (
  • Molecular geneticists have known for about a decade that genomic structural variants can play important roles in the adaptation and speciation of both plants and animals, but their overall influence on the fitness of plant populations is poorly understood. (
  • What genomic studies are CDC public health scientists doing-and which genomes are they writing about? (
  • Genomes are found at all three corners of the epidemiologic triangle: human or animal hosts are engaged in genomic contests with pathogens of all kinds, played out in an environment teeming with the genomes of other people, animals, plants, and microbes. (
  • The 2020 Nobel Prize for chemistry has been awarded to Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna "for the development of a method for genome editing. (
  • A set of core gene families within the green plant lineage are proposed that will be instrumental to assess the gene space of draft or newly sequenced plant genomes during the assembly or annotation phase, based on phylogenetic profiling. (
  • Our group has actively participated in the sequencing and annotation of the Arabidopsis , Physcomitrella patens , melon and almond genomes and is working on the study of crop genome evolution using resequencing data from crop varieties. (
  • In findings published Aug. 16 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the researchers reported that most structural variants are deleterious and thus constrain adaptation of the cacao plant. (
  • However, the fragmentary state of the DNA sample - from bones recovered in Croatia - means that the first draft will offer only a tantalizing glimpse of the genome to researchers who hope to better understand Neanderthal biology and human evolution. (
  • Although, the researchers are working with DNA from just one individual, his two genome copies will differ in some places. (
  • Working in collaboration with the Society for Radioecology, the researchers took two week old plants and exposed them to the environment with more than 100 times the natural background level. (
  • Plant Genomes Online is a free, 24-hour, virtual conference that aims to bring together plant genome researchers across the globe. (
  • Researchers at both institutions will study the plant pathogen's host interactions with potato and tomato and non-host interactions with tobacco. (
  • Researchers at PLOS Biology have examined the coevolution of endogenous parvoviral elements and animal genomes to gain insight into using the viruses as gene therapy vectors. (
  • But now that the grape genome has been sequenced by French researchers, the mysteries of grape behavior, including locating their immune systems, may be solved. (
  • In fact, when it comes to immunization, "plant-based" simply means researchers recruited plants to produce part of the vaccine, Brian Ward, MD , Medical Officer at Medicago, said. (
  • A study published by Université Laval researchers and their colleagues from the Canadian Forest Service reveals that the genome of conifers such as spruce, pine, and fir has remained very much the same for over 100 million years. (
  • Researchers compared the genome macrostructure for 157 gene families present both in conifers and flowering plants. (
  • We also don't know nearly as much about the complex and enormous genomes of trees, compared to lab favorites such as fruit flies and the mustard plant, Arabidopsis. (
  • The Arabidopsis thaliana-Pseudomonas syringae model pathosystem is one of the most widely used systems to understand the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis and plant innate immunity. (
  • Arabidopsis model system has been especially crucial in investigation of the plant defense mechanisms and signaling pathways underlying pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI), effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and systemic acquired resistance [ 5 - 7 ]. (
  • The plant pattern recognition receptors, including FLAGELLIN-SENSING2 (FLS2), play an important role for FLS2-mediated PTI in the Arabidopsis-Pst DC3000 interactions. (
  • The research, which has implications for plant genetics in general, would not have been possible before powerful computers made the high-resolution sequencing of genomes possible, affordable and relatively fast, according to team member Mark Guiltinan, J. Franklin Styer Professor of Horticultural Botany and professor of plant molecular biology in Penn State's College of Agricultural Sciences. (
  • Highly complex interactions among roots, fungi and bacteria underlie the ability of some trees to clean polluted land, according to a novel study by bioinformatics and plant-biology experts from. (
  • The Bioinformatics Technology Lab at Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre at BC Cancer is a computational biology research group. (
  • The general phase courses Plant Physiology and Animal Physiology will emphasize integrative themes and basic concepts that are central to the biology of both life forms (e.g. communication within and between different organisms, signals between cells and organs, symbiosis, cooperation and plant-animal interactions). (
  • Even as the techniques of molecular biology have advanced, humans have not yet released a genetically engineered plant that is intended to spread and persist in an unmanaged environment. (
  • Brigg's team is also developing methods to buff up their coverage of specific areas of the genome to answer pointed questions about Neanderthal genetics with more certainty than a 1x genome can provide. (
  • Track data hubs are collections of external tracks that can be added to the UCSC Genome Browser. (
  • The focus is on pathogen genomes, applying advances in molecular and bioinformatics methods first developed for human genome research. (
  • Although Pucciniales (Rust fungi) are tiny - often appearing as just discolorations on leaves - they have some of the largest fungal genomes, with a complicated and fascinating life cycle, and are an important plant pathogen. (
  • Terrestrial plants face serious abiotic stresses (e.g. drought, salinity, alkalinity, cold, pathogen responses and diseases), these are the predominant cause of decreased crop yields [ 1 ]. (
  • Enteric pathogen-plant interactions influencing transcriptomic and metabolomic profile of plant. (
  • Several inoculation methods have been used to study plant-pathogen interactions in this model system. (
  • We are located at Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre, Echelon Technology Platform. (
  • Large deletions and rearrangements of the plant's genome, which can involve thousands of base units of DNA, have been observed following CRISPR gene editing. (
  • The advisors are calling for the creation of a new government body that will devise strategies for national biodefense, particularly against synthetic DNA, gene regulation, genome-editing and genome-targeting technologies like CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), and gene delivery. (
  • Frenchwoman Emmanuelle Charpentier and American Jennifer A. Doudna developed a method known as CRISPR/Cas9 that can be used to change the DNA of animals, plants and microorganisms with extremely high precision. (
  • Tools such as CRISPR/Cas have to be considered to be 'biotechnological mutagens' that, in contrast to chemical or physical mutagens, directly interact with the biological mechanisms on the level of the genome. (
  • Whether this will still hold true after the discoveries that the Human Genome Project and CRISPR gene editing will make possible is not known. (
  • That's partly because accurate population-level identification of structural variants requires analysis of multiple high-quality genome assemblies, which are not widely available. (
  • We develop novel algorithms, data structures and genome analysis software and offer a complete and scalable solution for de novo genome assembly . (
  • Spruces harbor very large genomes with high repetitiveness, hampering their comparative analysis. (
  • Analysis of the lignocellulolytic machinery in the C1A genome revealed an extremely rich repertoire, with evidence of horizontal gene acquisition from multiple bacterial lineages. (
  • Outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes in South Africa, 2017-2018: laboratory activities and experiences associated with whole-genome sequencing analysis of isolates. (
  • The genome includes 3 fied through database searches and phylogenetic analysis. (
  • This method adopts K-mer analysis to estimate genome size, repetition, and heterozygosis mathematically. (
  • careful consideration of all available plant protection methods and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of populations of harmful organisms and keep the use of plant protection products and other forms of intervention to levels that are economically and ecologically justified and reduce or minimise risks to human health and the environment. (
  • Therefore, risks associated with the release, cultivation and the consumption of these plants need to be fully investigated in each case before any conclusions on the safety of the new organisms can be drawn. (
  • When the same team sequenced the far shorter mitochondrial genome , they decoded each letter an average of 35 times from different samples - enough to ferret out contamination and changes that happen as DNA strands crumble over the years. (
  • The chloroplast genome structure of Myrtales is similar to other angiosperms and has a typical four part structure. (
  • Due to the expansion and contraction of the IR region, the chloroplast genome sizes in this group are slightly different. (
  • The variation of noncoding regions of the chloroplast genome is larger than those of coding regions. (
  • Complete chloroplast genome of the grain Chenopodium quinoa Willd. (
  • The genome of an anaerobic fungal isolate, Orpinomyces sp. (
  • Orthonome - a new pipeline for predicting high quality orthologue gene sets applicable to complete and draft genomes. (
  • Study key roles in driving plant responses against pathogens and/or for adaptation to difficult environments. (
  • We combine both Illumina (short reads) and PacBio (long reads) platforms to achieve whole genome de novo assemblies and re-sequencing for viruses, microbes , plants, animals and humans . (
  • Whole genome sequencing provides a powerful tool for both de novo sequencing and re-sequencing. (
  • The genomes of different populations of cacao trees are 99.9% identical, but it's the structural variants in that one-tenth of 1% of their genomes that accounts for the plant's diversity in different regions and its adaptation to climate and various diseases," he said. (
  • STOCKHOLM - Two scientists have won the Nobel Prize in chemistry for developing a method of genome editing likened to "molecular scissors" that offer the promise of one day curing inherited diseases and even cancer. (
  • Two critical pieces of evidence are needed to incriminate these viruses as causing cancer in humans: 1) laboratory demonstration of ALSV integrated within the human genome, and 2) epidemiologic evidence of excess cancer occurrence in human exposed to these viruses. (
  • The bioinformatics tools we build find applications in cancer research, and are the foundation of our genome research program. (
  • A Powerful Technique to Study Microbes, Now Easier In JGI's Genome Insider podcast: LLNL biologist Jennifer Pett-Ridge collaborated with JGI scientists through the Emerging Technologies Opportunity Program to semi-automate experiments that measure microbial activity in soil. (
  • Scientists are identifying the genome-wide changes that have evolved among this group of wild plants which may have led to the development of their parasitic ability. (
  • Until recently, only the simplest genomes were available to public health scientists and even those were generally known only by their fingerprints. (
  • They also provided empirical support for a theoretical prediction that structural variants result in the suppression of gene recombination, making it less likely the plants can adapt to stressors. (
  • Genome-wide association study identifies variants screening. (
  • The study of plant genome evolution b. (
  • This is the first report of a sesame semi-dwarf locus and provides an interesting opportunity for a plant architecture study of the sesame. (
  • This study makes an association between structural variation and the ability of a plant to adapt to a local environment. (
  • As a result of this study, we know that structural variation is important to the survival of the plant, to the evolution of the plant and especially to the adaptation of the plant to local conditions. (
  • The main objective of our group is to increase our knowledge on the structure of plant genomes and study how these genomes evolve. (
  • A new study published October 14 in Nature Plants re-analyzed nearly 300 samples of cannabis, and found surprising results. (
  • This study also indicated a potential beneficial role of repetitive elements in the human genome. (
  • The published materials that will be discussed during this course will focus mostly on incidence and mechanisms leading to polyploidisation as well as on important processes operating on the level of gene, chromosome and genome in different time points after polyploidisation. (
  • Whole genome sequencing did not predict antibiotic resistance in 16 of 18 isolates analyzed (nine ill people and seven guinea pigs). (
  • Our revolutionary sequencing technologies combine the completeness of long reads with the accuracy of short reads to provide the most comprehensive view of genomes, transcriptomes, and epigenomes. (
  • The research also shows, for the first time, that an organelle genome has captured an entire foreign genome, in this case, at least four of them. (
  • Identifying adaptive divergence among populations at specific loci from genome scans is an active and challenging research area (see [ 3 ] for a review). (
  • More papers have been published on unintended outcomes and risks of gene editing in medical research on human and animal cells and laboratory animals, compared with plants. (
  • An international research team is attempting to save billions of dollars in crop losses around the world by combatting witchweed and other parasitic plants through the use of gene sequencing and transfer. (
  • The said research is part of the Parasitic Plant Genome Project, funded by the National Science Foundation. (
  • This project was made possible thanks to the financial support of Genome Canada, Génome Québec, Natural Resources Canada, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. (
  • They are Nano-Materials and Bio-Materials, Genome/Phenome Research, Complex/Intelligent Systems, and Photon Science and Technology. (
  • The report details the latest advances in genome research and explains how the knowledge so created could lead to medical advances against many diseases, including those endemic in poor countries. (
  • By supporting research in Precision Environmental chemicals, metals, pesticides and herbicides, air pollutants, and Health, the National Institute of Environmental Health biologically derived toxins (hazardous substances made from Sciences (NIEHS) plans to identify those who are plants, animals, and microorganisms). (
  • Genome databases are essential resources for experimental and computational biologists. (
  • Understanding the role of plants in selecting lineages of fungi using secondary metabolites, how the communities are assembled, and what interactions take place. (
  • detected in nine segregating populations of elite rapeseed inbreds several QTL for diverse traits, including flowering time, plant height, protein content, oil content, glucosinolate content, and grain yield. (
  • Genome scans on experimentally evolved populations reveal candidate regions for adaptation to plant resistance in the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida. (
  • Half the Neanderthal genome has been decoded and the rest should be sequenced by year's end, a scientist involved in the project told a human evolution conference last week. (
  • But deeper insights - the kind that now flow routinely from animal and individual human genomes - will have to wait for more data. (
  • See how the University of Washington used HiFi sequencing to uncover a key finding about ALS and the human genome. (
  • Moreover, the problems found with human and animal gene editing are increasingly being confirmed in plant gene editing. (
  • The studies listed below are on human and animal cells, laboratory animals, livestock animals, and plants. (
  • Human exposure to these viruses occur occupationally (workers in poultry slaughtering/processing plants and poultry farms, egg candlers, veterinarians, cooks, laboratory workers, etc. (
  • During this talk, I will tell two such stories: 1) Structural variations in the human genome originate from different mechanisms related to DNA repair, replication, and retro-transposition. (
  • Analyses were performed to understand how chromatin organization and/or epigenome affects origin of structural variations in human genome. (
  • Toxic substances to understand and analyze the such as heavy metals--for example, arsenic and nickel-- human genome. (
  • Oat ( Avena sativa L.), a hexaploid crop with unknown genome, has valuable nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses. (
  • Oat ( Avena sativa L.) is an allohexaploid (2n = 6 × = 42) cereal crop with estimated 13 Gb genome [ 1 ]. (
  • This work should allow us to better understand how genome variability is generated and how this variability correlates with phenotypic variability in traits that have been selected by humans during crop domestication and breeding. (
  • To disentangle the respective roles of host-plant versus abiotic environmental variables acting on the genome of an oligophagous insect, we performed a genome scan using 83 unlinked AFLP markers on larvae of the large pine weevil collected on two host-plants (pine and spruce) in four forestry regions across Europe. (
  • Investigation of the Influence of PGPR on plant metabolome under abiotic stresses. (
  • Due to its great aesthetic value, there is a need to protect these plants from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. (
  • A polyploid is the result of genome duplication (Bowers et al. (
  • This course offers the students the possibility to get acquainted with modern literature and recent views on types, rate and mechanisms of polyploid formation as well as genome restructuring accompanying and following polyploidisation. (
  • strain C1A reveals the unique evolutionary history of a remarkable plant biomass degrader. (
  • To explore all this genome information, a centralized infrastructure is required where all data generated by different sequencing initiatives is integrated and combined with advanced methods for data mining. (
  • A More Intuitive Phytozome Interface Phytozome v13 now hosts upwards of 250 plant genomes and provides users with the genome browsers, gene pages, search, BLAST and BioMart data warehouse interfaces they have come to rely on, with a more intuitive interface. (
  • The genomes were assembled using Illumina and Nanopore sequencing data. (
  • Their genomes have been sequenced, and that represents a huge amount of work and data. (
  • Genome Canada launched the Canadian VirusSeq Data Portal today to track the evolving COVID-19 pandemic across Canada. (
  • Often, both types of databases contain a mixture of data from genome projects and supporting studies from the broader scientific community. (
  • We combine the data from HiSeq, PacBio, and Sanger sequencing to ensure the accuracy of genome assembly in hyper repetitive and heterozygous regions. (
  • When these biotechnological mutagens are used, natural mechanisms of gene regulation maybe circumvented and the genome is made available for changes to a much greater extent than ever before. (
  • And although most other Neanderthal skeletons have yielded far too little DNA to provide a complete genome, technological advances and new samples could make another Neanderthal genome soon possible. (
  • More significantly, they found evidence that the Striga genome evolved in three phases, as suggested by theories of parasitic plant evolution. (
  • The course shall help the students to understand and appreciate different aspects of genome evolution and their role in plant evolution by providing in depth modern view of polyploidy in plants. (
  • The student will also understand how the functioning of plants and/or animals is adapted to the environment by the process evolution. (
  • Although gradual changes in trait complexity appear to have been facilitated by allelic turnover, key innovations are associated with gene and genome duplications. (
  • Much of the newly exported rice derives from Sukagawa, some 60 kilometres from Fukushima power plant. (
  • After viewing the PSA plant, the Minister and Dr Ahmed Al-Mandhari paid a visit to the National Public Health Reference Laboratory (NPHRL) in Mogadishu, where the Regional Director saw just how far Somalia had come with respect to laboratory testing and the newly developed capacity for genome sequencing. (
  • The results indicated that sativa- and indica-labeled samples were "genetically indistinct" on a genome-wide scale. (
  • In addition, there are specific risks associated with genetically engineered plants if persisting and propagating in the environment. (
  • The learning trajectory Physiology and Adaptation aims to develop the student's skills and knowledge of plant and animal physiological processes and to relate these to the functioning of the entire organism. (
  • The evolutionary success of phytophagous insects could result from their adaptation to different host-plants. (