The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Low-copy (2-50) repetitive DNA elements that are highly homologous and range in size from 1000 to 400,000 base pairs.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Diseases of plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.

Partial mitochondrial genome sequences of Ostrinia nubilalis and Ostrinia furnicalis. (1/793)

Contiguous 14,535 and 14,536 nt near complete mitochondrial genome sequences respectively were obtained for Ostrinia nubilalis and Ostrinia furnicalis. Mitochondrial gene order was identical to that observed from Bombyx. Sequences comparatively showed 186 substitutions (1.3% sequence divergence), 170 CDS substitutions (131 at 3(rd) codon positions), and an excess of transition mutation likely resulting by purifying selection (d(N)/d(S) = omega congruent with 0.15). Overall substitution rates were significantly higher at 4-fold (5.2%) compared to 2-fold degenerate codons (2.6%). These are the 3(rd) and 4(th) lepidopteran mitochondrial genome reference sequences in GenBank and useful for comparative mitochondrial studies.  (+info)

Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for Crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci and Acanthaster brevispinus. (2/793)

BACKGROUND: The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci (L.), has been blamed for coral mortality in a large number of coral reef systems situated in the Indo-Pacific region. Because of its high fecundity and the long duration of the pelagic larval stage, the mechanism of outbreaks may be related to its meta-population dynamics, which should be examined by larval sampling and population genetic analysis. However, A. planci larvae have undistinguished morphological features compared with other asteroid larvae, hence it has been difficult to discriminate A. planci larvae in plankton samples without species-specific markers. Also, no tools are available to reveal the dispersal pathway of A. planci larvae. Therefore the development of highly polymorphic genetic markers has the potential to overcome these difficulties. To obtain genomic information for these purposes, the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genome of A. planci and its putative sibling species, A. brevispinus were determined and their characteristics discussed. RESULTS: The complete mtDNA of A. planci and A. brevispinus are 16,234 bp and 16,254 bp in size, respectively. These values fall within the length variation range reported for other metazoan mitochondrial genomes. They contain 13 proteins, 2 rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes and the putative control region in the same order as the asteroid, Asterina pectinifera. The A + T contents of A. planci and A. brevispinus on their L strands that encode the majority of protein-coding genes are 56.3% and 56.4% respectively and are lower than that of A. pectinifera (61.2%). The percent similarity of nucleotide sequences between A. planci and A. brevispinus is found to be highest in the CO2 and CO3 regions (both 90.6%) and lowest in ND2 gene (84.2%) among the 13 protein-coding genes. In the deduced putative amino acid sequences, CO1 is highly conserved (99.2%), and ATP8 apparently evolves faster any of the other protein-coding gene (85.2%). CONCLUSION: The gene arrangement, base composition, codon usage and tRNA structure of A. planci are similar to those of A. brevispinus. However, there are significant variations between A. planci and A. brevispinus. Complete mtDNA sequences are useful for the study of phylogeny, larval detection and population genetics.  (+info)

A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Asian black bear Sichuan subspecies (Ursus thibetanus mupinensis). (3/793)

We obtained the complete mitochondrial genome of U.thibetanus mupinensis by DNA sequencing based on the PCR fragments of 18 primers we designed. The results indicate that the mtDNA is 16,868 bp in size, encodes 13 protein genes, 22 tRNA genes, and 2 rRNA genes, with an overall H-strand base composition of 31.2% A, 25.4% C, 15.5% G and 27.9% T. The sequence of the control region (CR) located between tRNA-Pro and tRNA-Phe is 1422 bp in size, consists of 8.43% of the whole genome, GC content is 51.9% and has a 6bp tandem repeat and two 10bp tandem repeats identified by using the Tandem Repeats Finder. U. thibetanus mupinensis mitochondrial genome shares high similarity with those of three other Ursidae: U. americanus (91.46%), U. arctos (89.25%) and U. maritimus (87.66%).  (+info)

Conflict between translation initiation and elongation in vertebrate mitochondrial genomes. (4/793)

The strand-biased mutation spectrum in vertebrate mitochondrial genomes results in an AC-rich L-strand and a GT-rich H-strand. Because the L-strand is the sense strand of 12 protein-coding genes out of the 13, the third codon position is overall strongly AC-biased. The wobble site of the anticodon of the 22 mitochondrial tRNAs is either U or G to pair with the most abundant synonymous codon, with only one exception. The wobble site of Met-tRNA is C instead of U, forming the Watson-Crick match with AUG instead of AUA, the latter being much more frequent than the former. This has been attributed to a compromise between translation initiation and elongation; i.e., AUG is not only a methionine codon, but also an initiation codon, and an anticodon matching AUG will increase the initiation rate. However, such an anticodon would impose selection against the use of AUA codons because AUA needs to be wobble-translated. According to this translation conflict hypothesis, AUA should be used relatively less frequently compared to UUA in the UUR codon family. A comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial genomes from a variety of vertebrate species revealed a general deficiency of AUA codons relative to UUA codons. In contrast, urochordate mitochondrial genomes with two tRNA(Met) genes with CAU and UAU anticodons exhibit increased AUA codon usage. Furthermore, six bivalve mitochondrial genomes with both of their tRNA-Met genes with a CAU anticodon have reduced AUA usage relative to three other bivalve mitochondrial genomes with one of their two tRNA-Met genes having a CAU anticodon and the other having a UAU anticodon. We conclude that the translation conflict hypothesis is empirically supported, and our results highlight the fine details of selection in shaping molecular evolution.  (+info)

DNA barcodes provide a quick preview of mitochondrial genome composition. (5/793)

DNA barcodes have achieved prominence as a tool for species-level identifications. Consequently, there is a rapidly growing database of these short sequences from a wide variety of taxa. In this study, we have analyzed the correlation between the nucleotide content of the short DNA barcode sequences and the genomes from which they are derived. Our results show that such short sequences can yield important, and surprisingly accurate, information about the composition of the entire genome. In other words, for unsequenced genomes, the DNA barcodes can provide a quick preview of the whole genome composition.  (+info)

Low mitochondrial variability in birds may indicate Hill-Robertson effects on the W chromosome. (6/793)

Interference among loci subject to selection (the Hill-Robertson effect) may considerably reduce levels of adaptation and variability in genomic regions that lack recombination. Y- or W chromosomes are particularly vulnerable to such effects, since they represent large, non-recombining blocks of genetic material. In birds, the W chromosome and mitochondrial genomes are both maternally transmitted, and hence fail to recombine with each other, whereas in mammals the Y chromosome is paternally transmitted. We show here that mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity is reduced in non-ratite birds compared with mammals. After considering possible confounding factors, such as differences in generation times, mutation rates and demography, we conclude that Hill-Robertson effects associated with the W chromosome provide the most likely explanation for this difference.  (+info)

A challenge to the ancient origin of SIVagm based on African green monkey mitochondrial genomes. (7/793)

While the circumstances surrounding the origin and spread of HIV are becoming clearer, the particulars of the origin of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) are still unknown. Specifically, the age of SIV, whether it is an ancient or recent infection, has not been resolved. Although many instances of cross-species transmission of SIV have been documented, the similarity between the African green monkey (AGM) and SIVagm phylogenies has long been held as suggestive of ancient codivergence between SIVs and their primate hosts. Here, we present well-resolved phylogenies based on full-length AGM mitochondrial genomes and seven previously published SIVagm genomes; these allowed us to perform the first rigorous phylogenetic test to our knowledge of the hypothesis that SIVagm codiverged with the AGMs. Using the Shimodaira-Hasegawa test, we show that the AGM mitochondrial genomes and SIVagm did not evolve along the same topology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the SIVagm topology can be explained by a pattern of west-to-east transmission of the virus across existing AGM geographic ranges. Using a relaxed molecular clock, we also provide a date for the most recent common ancestor of the AGMs at approximately 3 million years ago. This study substantially weakens the theory of ancient SIV infection followed by codivergence with its primate hosts.  (+info)

Whole mitochondrial genome screening in maternally inherited non-syndromic hearing impairment using a microarray resequencing mitochondrial DNA chip. (8/793)

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been implicated in non-syndromic hearing loss either as primary or as predisposing factors. As only a part of the mitochondrial genome is usually explored in deafness, its prevalence is probably under-estimated. Among 1350 families with non-syndromic sensorineural hearing loss collected through a French collaborative network, we selected 29 large families with a clear maternal lineage and screened them for known mtDNA mutations in 12S rRNA, tRNASer(UCN) and tRNALeu(UUR) genes. When no mutation could be identified, a whole mitochondrial genome screening was performed, using a microarray resequencing chip: the MitoChip version 2.0 developed by Affymetrix Inc. Known mtDNA mutations was found in nine of the 29 families, which are described in the article: five with A1555G, two with the T7511C, one with 7472insC and one with A3243G mutation. In the remaining 20 families, the resequencing Mitochip detected 258 mitochondrial homoplasmic variants and 107 potentially heteroplasmic variants. Controls were made by direct sequencing on selected fragments and showed a high sensibility of the MitoChip but a low specificity, especially for heteroplasmic variations. An original analysis on the basis of species conservation, frequency and phylogenetic investigation was performed to select the more probably pathogenic variants. The entire genome analysis allowed us to identify five additional families with a putatively pathogenic mitochondrial variant: T669C, C1537T, G8078A, G12236A and G15077A. These results indicate that the new MitoChip platform is a rapid and valuable tool for identification of new mtDNA mutations in deafness.  (+info)

We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of the codWshes Arctogadus glacialis and Boreogadus saida (Order Gadiformes, Family Gadidae). The 16,644 bp and 16,745 bp mtDNAs, respectively, contain the same set of 37 structural genes found in all vertebrates analyzed so far. The gene organization is conserved compared to other Gadidae species, but with one notable exception. B. saida contains heteroplasmic rearrangement-mediated duplications that include the origin of light-strand replication and nearby tRNA genes. Examination of the mitochondrial control region of A. glacialis, B. saida, and four additional representative Gadidae genera identiWed a highly variable domain containing tandem repeat motifs in A. glacialis. Mitogenomic phylogeny based on the complete mitochondrial genome sequence, the concatenated protein-coding genes, and the derived protein sequences strongly supports a sister taxa aYliation of A. glacialis and B. saida ...
The complete sequence of the 17,553-nucleotide Xenopus laevis mitochondrial genome has been determined. A comparison of this amphibian mitochondrial genomic sequence with those of the mammalian mitochondrial genomes reveals a similar gene order and compact genomic organization. The encoded genes for 22 tRNAs, two ribosomal RNAs, and 13 proteins (COI, COII, COIII, ATPase 6, cytochrome b, and eight additional unidentified reading frames) in the amphibian mitochondria are highly homologous to their mammalian counterparts. Although the amphibian mitochondrial genome contains a significantly larger displacement loop region than the mammalian mitochondrial genomes, there are several regions of sequence homology near the putative sites for heavy and light strand transcription initiation and heavy strand replication. The unique mitochondrial genetic code observed in the mammalian mitochondrial systems is similar to that of the X. laevis mitochondrial genome because of the presence of only 22 encoded tRNAs and
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
In a landmark study, University of Otago researchers have achieved the feat of sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes for members of what was likely to be one of the first groups of Polynesians to settle New Zealand and have revealed a surprising degree of genetic variation among these pioneering voyagers.
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. Sequencing strategy for the whole mitochondrial genome resulting in high quality sequences.
Animal mitochondrial genomes have provided large and diverse datasets for evolutionary studies. Here, the first two representative mitochondrial genomes from the family Pompilidae (Hymenoptera: Vespoidea) were determined using next-generation sequencing. The sequenced region of these two mitochondrial genomes from the species Auplopus sp. and Agenioideus sp. was 16,746 bp long with an A + T content of 83.12% and 16,596 bp long with an A + T content of 78.64%, respectively. In both species, all of the 37 typical mitochondrial genes were determined. The secondary structure of tRNA genes and rRNA genes were predicted and compared with those of other insects. Atypical trnS1 using abnormal anticodons TCT and lacking D-stem pairings was identified. There were 49 helices belonging to six domains in rrnL and 30 helices belonging to three domains in rrns present. Compared with the ancestral organization, four and two tRNA genes were rearranged in mitochondrial genomes of Auplopus and Agenioideus, respectively.
Comparing complete animal mitochondrial genome sequences is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. Not only are they much more informative than shorter sequences of individual genes for inferring evolutionary relatedness, but these data also provide sets of genome-level characters, such as the relative arrangements of genes, which can be especially powerful. We describe here the protocols commonly used for physically isolating mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), for amplifying these by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or rolling circle amplification (RCA), for cloning, sequencing, assembly, validation, and gene annotation, and for comparing both sequences and gene arrangements. On several topics, we offer general observations based on our experiences with determining and comparing complete mitochondrial DNA sequences.. View Publication. ...
Sequence analysis of organelle genomes has revealed important aspects of plant cell evolution. The scope of this study was to develop an approach for de novo assembly of the carrot mitochondrial genome using next generation sequence data from total genomic DNA. Sequencing data from a carrot 454 whole genome library were used to develop a de novo assembly of the mitochondrial genome. Development of a new bioinformatic tool allowed visualizing contig connections and elucidation of the de novo assembly. Southern hybridization demonstrated recombination across two large repeats. Genome annotation allowed identification of 44 protein coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA. Identification of the plastid genome sequence allowed organelle genome comparison. Mitochondrial intergenic sequence analysis allowed detection of a fragment of DNA specific to the carrot plastid genome. PCR amplification and sequence analysis across different Apiaceae species revealed consistent conservation of this fragment in the
Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for the schistosomes Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma. spindale have been characterized. S. haematobium is the ca
PhD Project - Mitochondrial Genomics: Computational analysis of RNA sequencing data to unravel post-transcriptional processes influencing mitochondrial function at Kings College London, listed on FindAPhD.com
The phylogenetic hypotheses (Figures 2, 3) generated by our whole mitochondrial genome sequences using different models are generally concordant. The relationships among the Neoaves (the ingroup) differ little whether or not the outgroup (Galloanserae) is included (Figures 2, 3). Where the two phylogenies differ is in small changes in the position of the loon, penguins, albatross/petrel, stork/heron, and pelican/frigatebird. In all other respects the inclusion of the Galloanserae does not affect the relationships resolved and thus the basic stability of the tree is observed.. The seven birds in our mitochondrial sequence dataset that represent elements of the Metaves group do not form a monophyletic clade. Ericson and co-workers [7] also failed to obtain the Metaves clade using four nuclear genes, although they could with the inclusion of FGB-int7. No other dataset, molecular nor morphological, has found direct evidence for the division of the Neoaves into Metaves and Coronaves [8, 9, 17]. Nor ...
The purpose of this project is to compare the complexities of different species mitochondrial genome sequences. Using an implementation of Deflate compression algorithm from Java standard library, we were able to compress mitochondrial genomes of nine different species. The complexity of each sequence is estimated as a ratio of the original sequence length to the length of the compressed sequence. In addition, we show how a notion of topological entropy from symbolic dynamics can be used as another complexity measure of nucleotide sequences.
Snakes as a major reptile group display a variety of morphological characteristics pertaining to their diverse behaviours. Despite abundant analyses of morphological characters, molecular studies using mitochondrial and nuclear genes are limited. As a result, the phylogeny of snakes remains controversial. Previous studies on mitochondrial genomes of snakes have demonstrated duplication of the control region and translocation of trnL to be two notable features of the alethinophidian (all serpents except blindsnakes and threadsnakes) mtDNAs. Our purpose is to further investigate the gene organizations, evolution of the snake mitochondrial genome, and phylogenetic relationships among several major snake families. The mitochondrial genomes were sequenced for four taxa representing four different families, and each had a different gene arrangement. Comparative analyses with other snake mitochondrial genomes allowed us to summarize six types of mitochondrial gene arrangement in snakes. Phylogenetic
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The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Delia antiqua and Its Implications in Dipteran Phylogenetics. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The control region in the turtle mitochondrial genome is 1194 bp long, and it is localized between the tRNAPro and tRNAPhe genes (Table 1; ref. 33). Analysis of this control-region sequence permitted the identification of one conserved-sequence block, a putative conserved-sequence block, and three termination-associated sequences (34). Moreover, the presence of six direct repeats localized in tandem at the 3′ end of the control region was also detected (34). Each repeat was composed of a 45-bp sequence followed by a (TA)n microsatellite with a variable number of repeat units (n = 10-11) (34).. The origin of light-strand replication, which in vertebrates is located normally in a cluster of five tRNA genes (WANCY region), was not found in the turtle mitochondrial genome. The same condition has been reported in other reptiles and in the chicken (35-37). It has been suggested that the tRNAs in the WANCY region, which have the potential to fold into a stem-loop secondary structure, might replace ...
A new type of maize mitochondrial genome has been identified in the male fertile (normal) inbred line A188. It has been named NA (N in the A188 nuclear background). In comparison to previously described maize mitochondrial genomes, it is classified as a new type since the genome contains unique DNA sequences and unique sets of repeated sequences, and has a unique organization. This brings the number of the maize mitochondrial genome types to five of which three are the cytoplasmic male steriles cmsT, cmsC and cmsS and of which two are the male fertile types NA (in this report) and NB (the previously characterized normal genome in the B37 nuclear background). ...
The complete sequence of the 16,569-base pair human mitochondrial genome is presented. The genes for the 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II and III, ATPase subunit 6, cytochrome b and eight other predicted protein coding genes have been located. The sequence shows extreme economy in that the genes have none or only a few noncoding bases between them, and in many cases the termination codons are not coded in the DNA but are created post-transcriptionally by polyadenylation of the mRNAs.
The complete sequence mitochondrial genome of Papilio polytes was determined using long PCR and conserved primers walking approaches. The genome was 15,260 bp in length and contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region (CR). The gene composition and order of P. polytes were similar to other lepidopteran species. All protein-coding genes begin with ATG and ATT as initiation codon except COI using CGA. 8 genes (ATP8, ATP6, ND3, ND5, ND4L, ND6, Cytb and ND1) ended with TAA and TAG stop codon, the remaining five genes had incomplete stop codon T. The overall base composition of the genome in descending order was 39.51% A, 11.86% C, 40.75% T and 7.88% G, with a A + T bias of 80.26%. CR is located between the 12S rRNA and tRNA-Met genes and is 439 bp in length, with an AT content of 83.37%.
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The circular mitochondrial genome has three regions - two small hypervariable (HVR) regions and a large coding region. Most of the variation in the mtDNA occurs in the non-coding HVR regions, as this variation does not affect the function of any proteins etc. The mtDNA sequencing available here can sequence just the HVR1 region, both hypervariable regions (HVR1 and HVR2) or the complete mitochondrial genome (HVR1, HVR2 and the coding region). If two individuals have a perfect match at their HVR1 and HVR2 regions, further comparison of the much larger coding region can provide a higher stringency comparison and further resolution. The coding region covers the remainder of the mitochondrial genome and the complete mitochondrial genome is 16,569 base pairs ...
Nuclear recessive mutations at the chloroplast mutator (CHM) locus of Arabidopsis produce a variegated phenotype that is inherited in a non-Mendelian fashion. Molecular analysis of the cytoplasmic genomes of variegated plants from two independent chm mutant lines, using specific chloroplast and mitochondrial probes, showed that the chm mutations reproducibly induce the appearance of specific new restriction fragments in the mitochondrial genome. The presence of these restriction fragments cosegregated with the variegated phenotype in the progeny of crosses between mutant and wild-type plants. Sequence analysis of one of the new restriction fragments found in the variegated plants suggested that it was the product of a rearrangement event involving regions of the mitochondrial genome. Thus, it appears that the CHM locus may encode a protein involved in the control of specific mitochondrial DNA reorganization events.. ...
The widespread occurrence of linear mitochondrial genomes evokes intriguing questions concerning the evolutionary origin and mechanisms leading to the emergence and stabilization of linear DNA genophores. The study of their replication strategies opens a unique possibility of discovering alternative solutions to the end-replication problem and of elucidating how these mechanisms have appeared in evolution. The analysis of linear mitochondrial genomes in organisms belonging to different phylogenetic lines indicates that their evolutionary emergence was accompanied by the generation of various types of terminal structures, the adaptation of existing replication machinery and by the application of different strategies of the telomere replication. This scenario is illustrated by the molecular anatomy and replication of the linear mitochondrial genome in the opportunist yeast pathogen Candida parapsilosis. Recent studies have revealed the existence of extragenomic minicircular molecules derived from ...
Adaptive evolution may preferentially occur at the molecular level and may be expressed as an increased ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions to synonymous substitutions [71]. Our study adds to the growing body of evidence for adaptive evolution in the mitochondrial genome of high-elevation species. Similar to previous studies of major adaptations to high-elevation habitats of different endothermic animals based on genomic data [8, 9, 11], the Glyptosternoid fish lineage exhibits accelerated evolution in the mitochondrial genome relative to other non-Glyptosternoid fish lineages. A consequence of the fact that species living in similar ecological environments can be shaped by convergent evolution to form physiological or morphological similarities [72]. In particular, the specialized Glyptosternoid fishes have higher nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions than the basal species, suggesting the specialized species developed accelerated evolutionary rates in order to adapt to the high-elevation ...
Mitochondria are the fuel power plants of animal cells. The number of mitochondria in a cell varies from tissue to tissue. Some cells have only few mitochondria while the cells that need lots of energy to function may have thousands of mitochondria.
A study reported in the August 8th issue of the journal Cell, a Cell Press publication, reveals the complete mitochondrial genome of a 38,000-year-old Neandertal. The findings open a window into the Neandertals past and helps answer lingering questions about our relationship to them.
Ancient DNA is typically highly degraded with appreciable cytosine deamination, and contamination with present-day DNA often complicates the identification of endogenous molecules. Together, these factors impede accurate assembly of the endogenous ancient mitochondrial genome. We present schmutzi, an iterative approach to jointly estimate present-day human contamination in ancient human DNA datasets and reconstruct the endogenous mitochondrial genome. By using sequence deamination patterns and fragment length distributions, schmutzi accurately reconstructs the endogenous mitochondrial genome sequence even when contamination exceeds 50 %. Given sufficient coverage, schmutzi also produces reliable estimates of contamination across a range of contamination rates. Availability: https://bioinf.eva.mpg.de/schmutzi/ license:GPLv3.
One of the defining features of eukaryotic cells is the presence of membrane-enclosed organelles. Two of these organelles, the mitochondria and chloroplast, are unique in that they contain their own genetic material necessary for proper functioning. These organelle genomes are evolutionary relics of free-living bacteria that entered into a symbiotic relationship with a host cell. Through the process of cellular respiration, mitochondria produce about 90 percent of the chemical energy that a cell needs to survive. The discovery that mutations in the mitochondrial genome can cause a variety of human diseases has increased our interest in this other human genome.. ...
Our team is interested in the mechanisms controlling the maintenance, segregation and repair of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of plants, as well as in the processes of anterograde (nucleus to organelles) and retrograde (organelles to nucleus) regulation of mitochondrial gene expression.. Mitochondria of higher plants have large size genomes with a dynamic structure resulting from recombination events. These recombination mechanisms are necessary for the replication and stoichiometric segregation of the mitochondrial genetic information, but their activities are also responsible for the rapid structural evolution of the plant mtDNA. In addition, the oxidative environment generated by the respiratory chain constantly challenges the maintenance of the mtDNA, requiring efficient DNA repair pathways. We are especially interested in recombination-dependent repair, but also in base excision repair (BER) or nucleotide excision repair (NER). We investigate these processes, and the factors involved, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Investigating the influence of mtDNA and nuclear encoded mitochondrial variants on high intensity interval training outcomes. AU - Harvey, N R. AU - Voisin, S. AU - Lea, R A. AU - Yan, X. AU - Benton, M C. AU - Papadimitriou, I D. AU - Jacques, M. AU - Haupt, L M. AU - Ashton, K J. AU - Eynon, N. AU - Griffiths, L R. PY - 2020/7/6. Y1 - 2020/7/6. N2 - Mitochondria supply intracellular energy requirements during exercise. Specific mitochondrial haplogroups and mitochondrial genetic variants have been associated with athletic performance, and exercise responses. However, these associations were discovered using underpowered, candidate gene approaches, and consequently have not been replicated. Here, we used whole-mitochondrial genome sequencing, in conjunction with high-throughput genotyping arrays, to discover novel genetic variants associated with exercise responses in the Gene SMART (Skeletal Muscle Adaptive Response to Training) cohort (n = 62 completed). We performed a ...
The mitochondrial genome of yeast ( S. cerevisiae or S. carlsbergensis) appears to be formed by 60-70 genetic units, each one of which is formed by (1) a GC-rich sequence, possibly having a...
Researchers have analyzed the mitochondrial genome of a Neanderthal bone to help resolve timing of gene flow between Neanderthals and modern humans.
Question is ⇒ What is the approximate size (in kb) of the melon mitochondrial genome?, Options are ⇒ (A) 600 kilobase, (B) 1200 kilobase, (C) 2400 kilobase, (D) 3000 kilobase, (E) , Leave your comments or Download question paper.
Brett Kaufmann, PhD Associate Professor, University of Pittsburgh Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology Mitochondrial genome regulation and disease resilience
In the present study, we sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Ectropis oblique using PCR amplification and sequencing methods The entire mitogenome is 15,356bp long, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and A+T rich element. The base composition and gene arrangement are identical to those of other lepidopterans. Of the ...
Lab Reagents Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the antibody immunity flu reagents distributed by Genprice. The Antibody Immunity Flu reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. To purchase these products, for the MSDS, Data Sheet, protocol, storage conditions/temperature or for the concentration, please contact influenza Antibody. Other Antibody products are available in stock. Specificity: Antibody Category: Immunity Group: Flu Flu information ...
Description: A monoclonal antibody from clone C92F3A-5 against Human HSP70. The host species for the production of this antibody is Mouse. The antigen used for immunization is Human HSP70. The antibody is tested and validated for WB, IHC, ICC/IF, ELISA, FCM, FACS, IEM, Bl, AM assays with the following recommended dilutions: WB (1:1000), IHC (1:10000), ICC/IF (1:1000), FACS (1:1000). This MAb for HSP70 is conjugated with PE/ATTO 594 ...
The GiiB-JST mtSNP (mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphism) database provides information related to the functional differences among mitochondrial SNPs. This web site is useful for identification of mtSNPs associated with age-related conditions such as longevity, Parkinsons disease, and Alzheimers disease, as well as those related to energy metabolism such as obesity, thinness, and type-2 diabetes, or to atherosclerosis. The main part of this mtSNP database includes the entire mitochondrial genome sequences of individuals belonging to 7 different groups, with 96 individuals in each group, namely, centenarians, patients with Parkinsons disease, patients with Alzheimers disease, young obese males, young non-obese males, and type-2 diabetes patients with or without severe vascular involvement ...
An exponential growth of science throughout modern history has been frequently boasted by numerous narcissistic accounts of modern humanity. Nonetheless, modern science seems to have overwhelmingly compromised on its original promises by fitting into an industrial scheme. With this concern, molecular phylogeographics with conservational ambitions would look an intact ground for research efforts in a school of biotechnology. The dog (Canis familiaris) as an earliest domestic animal has a history of conflicts over its origins and dispersal. Having those disputes addressed, valuable knowledge could be acquired on the nature and dynamics of domestication, and of human societies particularly of pre-agricultural ages. We employed two most widely-used genealogical markers, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome (NRY), to address dog demography. Through 582 bps of mtDNA Control Region, complemented with whole mitochondrial genomes, it was ...
An exponential growth of science throughout modern history has been frequently boasted by numerous narcissistic accounts of modern humanity. Nonetheless, modern science seems to have overwhelmingly compromised on its original promises by fitting into an industrial scheme. With this concern, molecular phylogeographics with conservational ambitions would look an intact ground for research efforts in a school of biotechnology. The dog (Canis familiaris) as an earliest domestic animal has a history of conflicts over its origins and dispersal. Having those disputes addressed, valuable knowledge could be acquired on the nature and dynamics of domestication, and of human societies particularly of pre-agricultural ages. We employed two most widely-used genealogical markers, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome (NRY), to address dog demography. Through 582 bps of mtDNA Control Region, complemented with whole mitochondrial genomes, it was ...
Sequence data suggest that all extant mitochondria are derived from an ancestor of R. prowazekii as the result of a single endosymbiotic event. The evidence that modern mitochondria result from a single event comes from examination of the most bacteria-like mitochondrial genome, that of the protozoan Reclinomonas americana. Its genome contains 97 genes, of which 62 specify proteins that include all of the protein-coding genes found in all of the sequenced mitochondrial genomes (Figure 18.5). Yet, this genome encodes less than 2% of the protein-coding genes in the bacterium E. coli. It seems unlikely that mitochondrial genomes resulting from several endosymbiotic events could have been independently reduced to the same set of genes found in R. americana ...
Sequence data suggest that all extant mitochondria are derived from an ancestor of R. prowazekii as the result of a single endosymbiotic event. The evidence that modern mitochondria result from a single event comes from examination of the most bacteria-like mitochondrial genome, that of the protozoan Reclinomonas americana. Its genome contains 97 genes, of which 62 specify proteins that include all of the protein-coding genes found in all of the sequenced mitochondrial genomes (Figure 18.5). Yet, this genome encodes less than 2% of the protein-coding genes in the bacterium E. coli. It seems unlikely that mitochondrial genomes resulting from several endosymbiotic events could have been independently reduced to the same set of genes found in R. americana ...
1. Lancioni H, Di Lorenzo P, Cardinali I, Ceccobelli S, Capodiferro MR, Fichera A, Grugni V, Semino O, Ferretti L, Gruppetta A, Attard G, Achilli A, Lasagna E (2016) Survey of uniparental genetic markers in the Maltese Cattle breed reveals a significant founder effect, but does not indicate local domestication. Animal Genetics doi: 10.1111/age.12408. [Epub ahead of print] [IF: 2.210].. 3.Colli L*, Lancioni H*, Cardinali I, Olivier A, Capodiferro MR, Pellecchia M, Rzepus M, Zamani W, Naderi S, Gandini S, Farhad Vahidi SM, Agha S, Randi E, Sardina MT, Portolano B, Rezaei HR, Lymberakis P, Boyer F, Coissac E, Pompanon F, Taberlet P, Ajmone Marsan P and Achilli A (2015) Whole Mitochondrial Genomes Unveil the Impact of Domestication on Goat Matrilineal Variability. BMC Genomics 16(1):1115. doi: 10.1186/s12864-015-2342-2 *These authors contributed equally to this work [IF: 4.041].. 4.Grugni V, Battaglia V, Perego UA, Raveane A, Lancioni H, Olivieri A, Ferretti L, Woodward SR, Pascale JM, Cooke R, ...
Variations in GC content between genomes have been extensively documented. Genomes with comparable GC contents can, however, still differ in the apportionment of the G and C nucleotides between the two DNA strands. This asymmetric strand bias is known as GC skew. Here, we have investigated the impact of differences in nucleotide skew on the amino acid composition of the encoded proteins. We compared orthologous genes between animal mitochondrial genomes that show large differences in GC and AT skews. Specifically, we compared the mitochondrial genomes of mammals, which are characterized by a negative GC skew and a positive AT skew, to those of flatworms, which show the opposite skews for both GC and AT base pairs. We found that the mammalian proteins are highly enriched in amino acids encoded by CA-rich codons (as predicted by their negative GC and positive AT skews), whereas their flatworm orthologs were enriched in amino acids encoded by GT-rich codons (also as predicted from their skews). We ...
Novel Gene Rearrangement and the Full Mitochondrial Genome of Cynoglossusmonopus: Insights into the Envolution of the Household Cynoglossidae (Pleuronectiformes) Cynoglossusmonopus, a small benthic fish, belongs […]. Read More → ...
Novel Gene Rearrangement and the Full Mitochondrial Genome of Cynoglossusmonopus: Insights into the Envolution of the Household Cynoglossidae (Pleuronectiformes) Cynoglossusmonopus, a small benthic fish, belongs […]. Read More → ...
Phy-Mer :: DESCRIPTION Phy-Mer is a novel alignment-free and reference-independent mitochondrial haplogroup classifier. ::DEVELOPER MEEI Bioinformatics Center (MBC) :: SCREENSHOTS N/A :: REQUIREMENTS L
Several regions of the human mitochondrial genome are refractory to cloning in plasmid and bacteriophage DNA vectors. For example, recovery of recombinant M13 clones containing a 462 basepair MboI-Kpn I restriction fragment that spans nucleotide positions 15591 to 16053 of HeLa cell mitochondrial DN …
Supplementary table Species, systematic position and accession number of mitochondrial genome sequences used in the phylogenetic analysis and for gene order comparisons
1958-D 25C MS64 PCGS. PCGS Population (256/1648). NGC Census: (101/1790). Mintage: 78,124,896. Numismedia Wsl. - Available at Internet Coin Auction #131252.
"Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2013-12-24. ... ACSM2B: encoding enzyme Acyl-coenzyme A synthetase ACSM2B, mitochondrial. *ACSM3: encoding enzyme Acyl-coenzyme A synthetase ... This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser). ... a b Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-06-03. ...
"Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928. PMID 15489334.. ... mitochondrial inner membrane. • integral component of mitochondrial inner membrane. Biological process. • deoxynucleotide ... Mitochondrial thiamine pyrophosphate carrier is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC25A19 gene.[5][6][7] ... mitochondrial transport. • thiamine pyrophosphate transport. • thiamine transmembrane transport. • transport. Sources:Amigo / ...
"Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2013-12-24. ... LARS2: leucyl-tRNA synthetase, mitochondrial. *LIMD1: LIM domain-containing protein 1. *LINC00312: Long intergenic non-protein- ... This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser). ... a b c Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-06-03. ...
"Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2013-12-24. ... Mitochondrial DNA, maternally inherited to both sons and daughters, is used in an analogous way to trace the matrilineal line.[ ... This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser). ... a b c Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-06-03. ...
"Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2013-12-24. ... This type of ideogram is generally used in genome browsers (e.g. Ensembl, UCSC Genome Browser). ... a b Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (850 bphs, Assembly GRCh38.p3). Last update 2014-06-03. ... Gilbert F (1997). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome". Genet Test. 1 (3): 225-229. doi:10.1089/ ...
The mitochondrial genome is linear. In May 2010, it was reported that a vaccine to protect cattle against East Coast fever had ... The genome of Theileria microti (aka Babesia microti) has been sequenced and published 2012. It shows that the species does not ... As of 2012[update], the medical community still classified the parasite as Babesia microti though its genome showed it does not ... "Sequencing of the smallest Apicomplexan genome from the human pathogen Babesia microti". Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (18): 9102- ...
Bernt, Matthias; Anke Braband; Bernd Schierwater; Peter Stadler (November 2013). "Genetic aspects of mitochondrial genome ... Some viruses, such as HIV and oncogenetic viruses, incorporate their own DNA into the genome of the host cell. Viral genomes ... "Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA by diverse mechanisms to eliminate paternal mitochondrial DNA". Biochimica et ... Mitochondrial DNA can play a role in the onset of disease in a variety of ways. Point mutations in or alternative gene ...
... inferred from complete mitochondrial genome sequences. Mol Phylogenet Evol.. *^ "77". Organic Evolution. New York: The ...
Stoneking, Mark; Soodyall, Himla (1996). "Human evolution and the mitochondrial genome". Current Opinion in Genetics & ... "Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes Suggest a Single Major Dispersal of Non-Africans and a Late Glacial Population Turnover in ... "Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals". Nature ... a b Based on Schlebusch et al., "Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000 to 260,000 years ...
... the alpha and beta subunits of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein are located adjacent to each other in the human genome ... mitochondrial inner membrane. • mitochondrial envelope. • mitochondrial nucleoid. • extracellular exosome. • mitochondrion. ... This gene encodes the beta subunit of the mitochondrial trifunctional protein, a catalyst of mitochondrial beta-oxidation of ... Trifunctional enzyme subunit beta, mitochondrial (TP-beta) also known as 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, acetyl-CoA acyltransferase, ...
April 1981). "Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome". Nature. 290 (5806): 457-65. Bibcode:1981Natur.290.. ... The MT-TI gene is located on the p arm of the mitochondrial DNA at position 12 and it spans 69 base pairs.[2] The structure of ... Mitochondrially encoded tRNA isoleucine also known as MT-TI is a transfer RNA which in humans is encoded by the mitochondrial ... July 1992). "Mitochondrial tRNA(Ile) mutation in fatal cardiomyopathy". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. ...
If the edited mitochondrial sequence recombines with the mitochondrial genome, mitochondrial splice sites would no longer exist ... Organellar genomes[edit]. Plastomes and mitogenomes[edit]. The human mitochondrial genome has retained genes encoding 2 rRNAs, ... Substantial transfer of genes from the ancestral proto-mitochondrial genome to the nuclear genome likely occurred during early ... The cDNA hypothesis has since been revised as edited mitochondrial cDNAs are unlikely to recombine with the nuclear genome and ...
If the edited mitochondrial sequence recombines with the mitochondrial genome, mitochondrial splice sites would no longer exist ... Organellar genomes[edit]. Plastomes and mitogenomes[edit]. The human mitochondrial genome has retained genes encoding 2 rRNAs, ... The cDNA hypothesis has since been revised as edited mitochondrial cDNAs are unlikely to recombine with the nuclear genome and ... Genome comparisons suggest a close relationship between plastids and cyanobacteria.[61]. *Many genes in the genomes of ...
Ingman M, Kaessmann H, Pääbo S, Gyllensten U (December 2000). "Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans ... Genome projects[edit]. Further information: Category:Human genome projects. Human genome projects are scientific endeavors that ... Ke X, Taylor MS, Cardon LR (April 2008). "Singleton SNPs in the human genome and implications for genome-wide association ... determine or study the structure of the human genome. The Human Genome Project was a landmark genome project. ...
"Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Rousettus leschenaulti". Mitochondrial DNA. 25 (6): 443-444. doi:10.3109/ ... Genome size[edit]. Like all bats, megabats have much smaller genomes than other mammals. A study of 43 megabat species found ... Megabats have even smaller genomes than microbats, with a mean of 2.20 pg compared to 2.58 pg. The authors of the 2009 genome ... LINE1 constitutes 15-20% of the human genome, and is considered the most prevalent LINE elements among mammals.[55] ...
Lang BF, Gray MW, Burger G (1999). "Mitochondrial genome evolution and the origin of eukaryotes". Annual Review of Genetics. 33 ... Bacteria genomes usually encode a few hundred to a few thousand genes. The genes in bacterial genomes are usually a single ... genome-genome hybridisation, as well as sequencing genes that have not undergone extensive lateral gene transfer, such as the ... "Genome Biology. 3 (2): REVIEWS0003. doi:10.1186/gb-2002-3-2-reviews0003. PMC 139013. PMID 11864374.. ...
"Complete mitochondrial genome suggests diapsid affinities of turtles". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 95 (24): 14226-14231. Bibcode: ... Katsu, Y.; Braun, E. L.; Guillette, L. J. Jr.; Iguchi, T. (2010-03-17). "From reptilian phylogenomics to reptilian genomes: ... analyses of c-Jun and DJ-1 proto-oncogenes". Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 127 (2-4): 79-93. doi:10.1159/000297715. PMID ...
The mitochondrial genome of S. coleoptrata has been sequenced. This opened up discussions on the taxonomy and phylogeny of this ... "The mitochondrial genome of the house centipede Scutigera and the monophyly versus paraphyly of myriapods". Molecular Biology ...
"Nuclear and mitochondrial tRNA-lookalikes in the human genome". Frontiers in Genetics. 5: 344. doi:10.3389/fgene.2014.00344. ... International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium) (February 2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome" (PDF) ... Organisms vary in the number of tRNA genes in their genome. For example, the nematode worm C. elegans, a commonly used model ... In the human genome, which, according to January 2013 estimates, has about 20,848 protein coding genes [25] in total, there are ...
"A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome". Genome Biology. 5 (10): R84. doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-10-r84. ... "Mitochondrial thioredoxin-2/peroxiredoxin-3 system functions in parallel with mitochondrial GSH system in protection against ... Thioredoxin, mitochondrial also known as thioredoxin-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TXN2 gene on chromosome 22 ... Involvement in mitochondrial membrane potential and cell death". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (36): 33249-57. doi: ...
The mitochondrial genome of C. velia encodes a single gene - cox1 - and several fragmented rRNA molecules. This mitochondrial ... Mitochondrial Genome Evolution. 63. pp. 127-53. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-394279-1.00006-5. ISBN 978-0-12-394279-1. Flegontov, ... "Mitochondrial Genomes of Photosynthetic Euglenids and Alveolates" (PDF). In Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence (ed.). Advances in ... cytochrome C oxidoreductase By contrast the more ancestral chromerid mitochondrial genome, represented by that of V. ...
"Mitochondrial genome evolution and gynodioecy". In Marechal-Drouard, Laurence (ed.). Mitochondrial genome evolution. Advances ... The female only needs to make slightly more or better seeds than hermaphrodites since the mitochondrial genome is maternally ... Cytoplasmic male sterility genes, usually found in the mitochondrial genome, show up and are established when female fertility ...
"Mitochondrial genome sequences and the phylogeny of cranes (Gruiformes: Gruidae)". Auk. 127 (2): 440-452. doi:10.1525/auk. ...
In addition to the whole nuclear genome resources above, full mitochondrial genome sequences have been available for channel ... "Complete sequence and characterization of the channel catfish mitochondrial genome". DNA Sequence. 14 (4): 265-77. doi:10.1080/ ... The channel catfish is one of only a handful of ostariophysan freshwater fish species whose genomes have been sequenced. The ... channel catfish reference genome sequence was generated alongside genomic sequence data for other scaled and unscaled fish ...
"The mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus)". Genome Res. 19 (2): 213-20. February 2009 ... The following is a phylogenetic tree based on mitochondrial genome sequences:[5] .mw-parser-output table.clade{border-spacing:0 ...
Wei, Lei; Wu, Xiaobing; Jiang, Zhigang (2008). "The complete mitochondrial genome structure of snow leopard Panthera uncia". ... There is also evidence of distinct markers for the mitochondrial genome for Felidae.[8][9] ... "Genome Research. 26 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1101/gr.186668.114. PMC 4691742. PMID 26518481.. ... "Phylogenomic evidence for ancient hybridization in the genomes of living cats (Felidae)". ...
"Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Rousettus leschenaulti". Mitochondrial DNA. 25 (6): 443-444. doi:10.3109/ ... Megabats have even smaller genomes than microbats, with a mean weight of 2.20 pg compared to 2.58 pg. It was speculated that ... A 2009 study of 43 megabat species found that their genomes ranged from 1.86 picograms (pg, 978 Mbp per pg) in the straw- ... LINE1 constitutes 15-20% of the human genome and is considered the most prevalent long interspersed nuclear element among ...
"The complete mitochondrial genome ofSolea ovata(Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae)". Mitochondrial DNA. 25 (6): 454-455. doi:10.3109/ ...
"Complete mitochondrial genome of Hemisalanx brachyrostralis (Osteichthyes: Salangidae)". Mitochondrial DNA. 27 (2): 836-7. doi: ...
"Mitochondrial genome variation in eastern Asia and the peopling of Japan". Genome Research. 14 (10A): 1832-50. doi:10.1101/gr. ... "Mitochondrial genome variation and evolutionary history of Australian and New Guinean aborigines". Genome Research. 13 (7): ... MT-ND3 is a gene of the mitochondrial genome coding for the NADH dehydrogenase 3 (ND3) protein. The ND3 protein is a subunit of ... Ingman M, Kaessmann H, Pääbo S, Gyllensten U (December 2000). "Mitochondrial genome variation and the origin of modern humans ...
Mitochondrial DNA and human history. The Human Genome. 2003-10-09 [2006-09-19]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-07) (英语).. ... 大多數的基因是存在細胞核中,但是細胞中一個稱為粒線體的胞器,也擁有自己的基因組。粒線體基因組在粒線體疾病(mitochondrial disease)中具有一定的重要性。而且這些基因也可以用來研究人類的演化,舉例而言,若分析人
... s are differentiated in their mitochondrial DNA between North American and Eurasian populations,[17] but the nuclear ... The genome of Anas platyrhynchos was sequenced in 2013.[6] ... Mitochondrial DNA data for the D-loop sequence suggests that ... "Global lack of flyway structure in a cosmopolitan bird revealed by a genome wide survey of single nucleotide polymorphisms". ... "Mitochondrial gene trees and the evolutionary relationship of Mallard and Black Ducks" (PDF). Evolution. 44 (4): 1109-1119. ...
A few chloroplast genes found new homes in the mitochondrial genome-most became nonfunctional pseudogenes, though a few tRNA ... Over time, many parts of the chloroplast genome were transferred to the nuclear genome of the host,[4][7][26] a process called ... Many of the chloroplast's protein complexes consist of subunits from both the chloroplast genome and the host's nuclear genome ... "Genome Biology and Evolution. 10 (10): 2669-2571. doi:10.1093/gbe/evy189. PMC 6166771. PMID 30165616.. ...
Both the structures and editing sites are conserved in the coleoid genome and the mutation rates for the sites are severely ... inferred from three mitochondrial and six nuclear loci: a comparison of alignment, implied alignment and analysis methods". ... The California two-spot octopus has had its genome sequenced, allowing exploration of its molecular adaptations.[151] Having ... Hence, greater transcriptome plasticity has come as the cost of slower genome evolution. High levels of RNA editing do not ...
Human genome. J. *J1 (Y-DNA). M. *Meselson-Stahl experiment. *Mitochondrial DNA ...
A study of the maternal mitochondrial DNA of the black-backed jackal could find no evidence of genotypes from the most likely ... Wayne, R. & Ostrander, Elaine A. (1999). "Origin, genetic diversity, and genome structure of the domestic dog". BioEssays. 21 ( ... analysis of control region haplotypes of the mitochondrial DNA and sex chromosomes from Mexican wolves, a critically endangered ... "Large sequence divergence among mitochondrial DNA genotypes within populations of eastern African black-backed jackals" (PDF) ...
... about Alpha-1 from AlphaNet Human SERPINA1 genome location and SERPINA1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ... Perlmutter DH (December 2002). "Liver injury in alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency: an aggregated protein induces mitochondrial ...
"A novel mitochondrial septin-like protein, ARTS, mediates apoptosis dependent on its P-loop motif". Nature Cell Biology. 2 (12 ... "Genome Research. 14 (7): 1315-23. PMC 442147. . PMID 15231747. doi:10.1101/gr.2122004. ...
"Complete mitochondrial genome suggests diapsid affinities of turtles". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 95 ... As of 2013, three turtle genomes have been sequenced.[33] The results place turtles as a sister clade to the archosaurs, the ... Katsu, Y.; Braun, E.L.; Guillette, L.J. Jr.; Iguchi, T. (2010-03-17). "From reptilian phylogenomics to reptilian genomes: ... analyses of c-Jun and DJ-1 proto-oncogenes". Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 127 (2-4): 79-93. doi:10.1159/000297715. PMID ...
mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • condensed chromosome. • ... "Genome Res. 19 (1): 92-105. doi:10.1101/gr.082701.108. PMC 2612969 . PMID 18955434.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( ...
"Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds" (PDF). Science. 346 (6215): 1320-1331. doi ... "Phylogeny of eagles, Old World vultures, and other Accipitridae based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA" (PDF). Molecular ...
500000-599999: Mitochondrial loci or phenotypes. *600000 and above: Autosomal loci or phenotypes (entries created after May 15 ... is maintained by Johns Hopkins University with financial support from the National Human Genome Research Institute.[5][6] ...
"Genome-wide patterns of population structure and admixture in West Africans and African Americans". Proceedings of the ... "The trans-Saharan slave trade - clues from interpolation analyses and high-resolution characterization of mitochondrial DNA ...
mitochondrial matrix. • pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Biological process. • metabolism. • tricarboxylic acid cycle. • ... "Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121-7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928. PMID 15489334.. ... 2001). "The sequence of the human genome". Science. 291 (5507): 1304-51. doi:10.1126/science.1058040. PMID 11181995.. ... 2001). "Activation and mitochondrial translocation of protein kinase Cdelta are necessary for insulin stimulation of pyruvate ...
... genome - genotypic assay - germinal centers - giardiasis - globulins - glycoprotein - gonorrhea - gp120 (gp120) - gp160 (gp160 ... mitochondrial toxicity - molecule - molluscum contagiosum - monocyte - mononeuritis multiplex (MM) - monovalent vaccine - ...
Zhang, P. et al. (2003) The complete mitochondrial genome of a relic salamander, Ranodon sibiricus (Amphibia: Caudata) and ...
Gibb, G. C.; Kardailsky, O.; Kimball, R. T.; Braun, E. L. & Penny, D. (2007). "Mitochondrial genomes and avian phylogeny: ...
Thus it appears that superoxide dismutase plays a substantial role in preserving genome integrity during aging in S. cerevisiae ... In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, deficiency of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase SOD2 accelerates chronological ... Borgstahl GE, Parge HE, Hickey MJ, Beyer WF, Hallewell RA, Tainer JA (Oct 1992). "The structure of human mitochondrial ... Ogata T, Senoo T, Kawano S, Ikeda S (January 2016). "Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase deficiency accelerates chronological ...
"Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome". Nature 290 (5806): 457-465. Bibcode:1981Natur.290..457A. doi: ... International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (October 2004). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome". ... "Tandem chimerism as a means to increase protein complexity in the human genome". Genome Research 16 (1): 37-44. doi:10.1101/gr. ... "The Human Genome Project Timeline". Retrieved 13 September 2006. *↑ Avery, OT; MacLeod, CM; McCarty, M (1944). "Studies on the ...
Proving a relationship based on comparison of the mitochondrial genome is much easier than that based on the nuclear genome. ... However, testing the mitochondrial genome can prove only if two individuals are related by common descent through maternal ... the mitochondria in the cells also have their own genetic material termed the mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA comes only ... This genetic material is known as the nuclear genome of the individual, because it is found in the nucleus. ...
The maternal mitochondrial DNA sequences of the Inuit dogs were classified as haplotype A31 that indicates a common female ... Skoglund, P.; Ersmark, E.; Palkopoulou, E.; Dalén, L. (2015). "Ancient Wolf Genome Reveals an Early Divergence of Domestic Dog ... "Genome Sequencing Highlights the Dynamic Early History of Dogs". PLoS Genetics. 10 (1): e1004016. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen. ...
The complete mitochondrial genome of the Formosan black bear (Ursus thibetanus formosanus).. ...
Dang CV, Li F, Lee LA (2007). "Could MYC induction of mitochondrial biogenesis be linked to ROS production and genomic ... "N-Myc regulates a widespread euchromatic program in the human genome partially independent of its role as a classical ...
A. mellifera, the most common domesticated[15] species, was the third insect to have its genome mapped. It seems to have ... inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data"". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 40 (1): 315. doi:10.1016/j. ... inferred from nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence data". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 37 (1): 25-35. doi:10.1016/j ...
From Genome-wide Association Mapping to Genome Sequencing". The Neuroscientist. 21 (6): 599-615. doi:10.1177/1073858414555404. ...
... Jim Cummins cummins at possum.murdoch.edu.au Wed Oct 6 03:33:05 EST 1993 *Previous message: axenic ...
The turtle mitochondrial genome contains at least 12 of the 13 large ORFs found in other vertebrate mitochondrial genomes ( ... The African Side-Necked-Turtle Mitochondrial Genome Shows Several Unusual Features.. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. ... The organization of the turtle mitochondrial genome conforms to the consensus vertebrate mitochondrial gene order (Table 1). ... Complete mitochondrial genome suggests diapsid affinities of turtles Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
Unlike nuclear genome mutations, in the analysis of mitochondrial genomes, there occurs not the determination of homo- and ... Mitochondrial Genome Mutations Associated with Myocardial Infarction. Margarita A. Sazonova,1,2 Anastasia I. Ryzhkova,1 Vasily ... They contained the investigated regions of 11 mitochondrial genome mutations (m.5178C,A, m.3336T,C, m.652delG, m.12315G,A, m. ... Therefore, as a pathological variant of the mitochondrial genome mutation m.5178C,A, in our articles, we name it a "mutation" ...
Figure 3 : Analysis of 90 ancient Egyptian mitochondrial genomes.. From: Ancient Egyptian mummy genomes suggest an increase of ... Vertical bars indicate the ages of the analysed 90 mitochondrial genomes (three samples with genome-wide data highlighted in ... a) Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup frequencies of three ancient and two modern-day populations, (b) Principal Component Analysis ...
Figure 1: Mitochondrial genomes assembled from whole-exome sequence data generated from peripheral blood of a human individual ... Mitochondrial genomes gleaned from human whole-exome sequencing. *Ernesto Picardi1. ,2. & ... Picardi, E., Pesole, G. Mitochondrial genomes gleaned from human whole-exome sequencing. Nat Methods 9, 523-524 (2012) doi: ... Biodiversity lost: The phylogenetic relationships of a complete mitochondrial DNA genome sequenced from the extinct wolf ...
The pseudo-mitochondrial genome influences mistakes in heteroplasmy interpretation.. Parr RL1, Maki J, Reguly B, Dakubo GD, ... The pseudo-mitochondrial genome assembled from consensus numt sequences.The distribution of numt clones across the rCRS reveals ... Further, the entire mitochondrial genome was represented by multiple copies of paralogous nuclear sequences. ... This paper is the first to fully sequence 46 paralogous nuclear DNA fragments that represent the entire mitochondrial genome. ...
By sequencing the mitochondrial genome of L. tulipifera, researchers from Indiana University and University of Arkansas ... Mitochondrial Genome Of Ancestral Flowering Plant Revealed By Tulip Tree. by editor ... The extraordinary level of conservation of the tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) mitochondrial genome has redefined our ... This beautiful molecular fossil has a remarkably slow mutation rate meaning that its mitochondrial genome has remained ...
Genome structure and gene content in protist mitochondrial DNAs.. Gray MW1, Lang BF, Cedergren R, Golding GB, Lemieux C, ... Comparative analysis of protist mtDNAs is providing a new perspective on mtDNA evolution: how the original mitochondrial genome ... Although the collection of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes is expanding rapidly, only recently has a ... proto-mitochondrial genome. Some of these ancestral features are also shared with plant mtDNA, although the latter have ...
University of Otago researchers have achieved the feat of sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes for members of what was ... Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of ancient New Zealanders. University of Otago. Journal. Proceedings of the National ... Possibly, it may have been missed due to most previous work only focusing on a small portion of the mitochondrial genome rather ... In a landmark study, University of Otago researchers have achieved the feat of sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes for ...
The complete 94,192 bp sequence of the mitochondrial genome from race s of Podospora anserina is presented (1 kb=103base pairs ... The complete 94,192 bp sequence of the mitochondrial genome from race s of Podospora anserina is presented (1 kb=103 base pairs ... Podospora mitochondrial DNA Introns Excision Amplification plasmids This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Except for the lack of ATPase 9, the Podospora genome contains the same genes as its fungal counterprts, N. crassa and A. ...
Boussau, B., Brown, J. M. and Fujita, M. K. (2011), NONADAPTIVE EVOLUTION OF MITOCHONDRIAL GENOME SIZE. Evolution, 65: 2706- ... Population size and genome size in fishes: a closer look. Genome 51:309-313. *CrossRef, ... Phylogeny, recombination, and mechanisms of stepwise mitochondrial genome reorganization in mantellid frogs from Madagascar. ... The consequences of genetic drift for bacterial genome complexity. Genome Res. 19:1450-1454. *CrossRef, ...
... *Download PDF Copy ... In addition to the 61 tRNAs that are found in the human nuclear genome, 22 more tRNAs are encoded in the genome of the cellular ... the sequences of mitochondrial tRNAs suggesting unexpected new links between the human nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, links ... It has been known for many years that each of these 61 tRNAs has multiple copies spread throughout the genome that is found in ...
The mitochondrial genome of yeast ( S. cerevisiae or S. carlsbergensis) appears to be formed by 60-70 genetic units, each one ... Recombination in this genome appears to underlie a number of important phenomena. The organization of the mitochondrial genome ... The mitochondrial genome of yeast (S. cerevisiae orS. carlsbergensis) appears to be formed by 60-70 genetic units, each one of ... Bernardi, G., Prunell, A., Fonty, G., Kopecka, H., Strauss, F. (1976). In: The Genetic Function of Mito chondrial DNA. Saccone ...
... Anna M. Czarnecka1 and Ewa Bartnik2,3 ... Mitochondrial DNA mutations and polymorphisms have been the focus of intensive investigations for well over a decade in an ... Initial interest in mutations occurring in mitochondrial DNA of cancer cells diminished when most were found to be the same ... However, increasingly correlations are being found between various mitochondrial haplogroups and susceptibility to cancer or ...
... geneticists use a set of fully sequenced fruit-fly genomes. But little is known about the variation in the mitochondrial genome ... Now, EPFL scientists have created a high-resolution map of mitochondrial DNA variants in the fruit fly, connecting ... IMAGE: The Drosophila mitochondrial genome (circle) with genes in dark green and dots/lines depicting genetic variants. The ... His team re-sequenced mitochondrial genomes of 169 DGRP fruit-fly lines, which allowed them to identify 231 gene variants. They ...
... giving rise to nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin, or NUMTs) is an ongoing process that shapes nuclear genomes. In ... Integration of mitochondrial DNA fragments into nuclear chromosomes ( ... Continued colonization of the human genome by mitochondrial DNA PLoS Biol. 2004 Sep;2(9):E273. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio. ... Integration of mitochondrial DNA fragments into nuclear chromosomes (giving rise to nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial ...
... while much of the genome is transcribed, regulatory control is primarily exercised posttranscriptionally at the level of the ... The higher plant mitochondrial genome contains inthe order of 50 proteins coding genes scattered throughout the genome and ... The higher plant mitochondrial genome contains in the order of 50 proteins coding genes scattered throughout the genome and ... Coordination of nuclear and mitochondrial genome expression during mitochondrial biogenesis in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell 17: ...
mtDB - Human Mitochondrial Genome Database Max Ingman, Molecular Anthropology, Section of Medical Genetics, Departmen of ... Mitochondrial Mutations, MITOMAP D.C.Wallace and Consortium Emory Univ. Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. ...
Screening for the ancient polar bear mitochondrial genome reveals low integration of mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) in bears ... Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear. Charlotte Lindqvist, Stephan C. ... Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments ... Correction for Lindqvist et al., Complete mitochondrial genome of a Pleistocene jawbone unveils the origin of polar bear ...
The 366,924 nucleotides code for 57 identified genes, which cover only 10% of the genome. Introns in these genes add about 8%, ... affording access to the first of its three genomes. ... We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial ... The mitochondrial genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains 57 genes in 366,924 nucleotides Nat Genet. 1997 Jan;15(1):57-61. doi ... the mosaic structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial genome features many aspects of size-relaxed nuclear genomes. ...
Researchers have analyzed the mitochondrial genome of a Neanderthal bone to help resolve timing of gene flow between ... New Neanderthal Mitochondrial Genome Suggests Earlier Encounter With Modern Human Lineage. Jul 05, 2017 ... Home » Tools & Technology » Sequencing » New Neanderthal Mitochondrial Genome Suggests Earlier Encounter With Modern Human ... NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Analysis of a newly sequenced Neanderthal mitochondrial genome indicates that Neanderthals and ancestors ...
A novel mitochondrial genome organization for the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.. R J Hoffmann, J L Boore and W M Brown ... A novel mitochondrial genome organization for the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.. R J Hoffmann, J L Boore and W M Brown ... A novel mitochondrial genome organization for the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis.. R J Hoffmann, J L Boore and W M Brown ... A novel mitochondrial genome organization for the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
In comparison to previously described maize mitochondrial genomes, it is classified as a new type since the genome contains ... A second type of normal maize mitochondrial genome: an evolutionary link. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... A new type of maize mitochondrial genome has been identified in the male fertile (normal) inbred line A188. It has been named ... A second type of normal maize mitochondrial genome: an evolutionary link.. C M Fauron and M Casper ...
Mitochondrial genome organization, gene content, genetic code. The linear mitochondrial genome of Ochromonas danica is 41.035 ... The O. danica mitochondrial genome contains genes for the most commonly mtDNA-encoded proteins (nad1,2,3,4,4L,5,6, cob, cox1,2, ... The mitochondrial translation code in O. danica is the standard genetic code, as is also the case in its relatives, ... Fungal mtDNAs (FMGP)* , Other complete mtDNAs , Gene names , Mitochondrial Genomics ]. ...
... For the discussion of catfish systematics. Post here to draw our attention to new ... The complete mitochondrial genome sequence has provided a new insight into the taxonomic classification, and a more complex ... the complete mitochondrial genome of the Loricariidae fish Ancistrus temmincki was firstly characterized in the present study. ... The first determination and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Ancistrus temmincki (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), ...
Manipulating the Metazoan Mitochondrial Genome with Targeted Restriction Enzymes. By Hong Xu, Steven Z. DeLuca, Patrick H. ... Manipulating the Metazoan Mitochondrial Genome with Targeted Restriction Enzymes. By Hong Xu, Steven Z. DeLuca, Patrick H. ... Manipulating the Metazoan Mitochondrial Genome with Targeted Restriction Enzymes Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... High copy number and random segregation confound genetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome. We developed an efficient ...
However, for a detailed comparative study of different phylogenetic branches more plant mitochondrial genomes should be ... However, for a detailed comparative study of different phylogenetic branches more plant mitochondrial genomes should be ... more than to any sequenced plant mitochondrial genome), and 35% of this homology ranging from a few dozen to 12,806 bp are ... faba circular mitochondrial master chromosome of cultivar Broad Windsor was estimated as 588,000bp with a genome complexity of ...
Using a single test, Genome Sequencing (GS) can effectively identify variants in both genomes, but it has not yet been ... In this article, we report three patients with mitochondrial disease molecularly diagnosed through GS performed on DNA ... Mitochondrial diseases can be caused by pathogenic variants in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes that often lead to ... universally used as a first-line approach to diagnosing mitochondrial diseases due to related costs and challenges in data ...
Prkdc participates in mitochondrial genome maintenance and prevents Adriamycin-induced nephropathy in mice. ... Prkdc participates in mitochondrial genome maintenance and prevents Adriamycin-induced nephropathy in mice. ... Mutations to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and reductions in mtDNA copy number have been identified as contributors to ADR-induced ... in the development of ADR toxicity and identify Prkdc as a MDDS modifier gene and a component of the mitochondrial genome ...
... establishment of protein localization to mitochondrial membrane involved in mitochondrial fission (ortholog); hematopoietic ... stem cell homeostasis (ortholog); ASSOCIATED WITH COVID-19 (ortholog); obesity (ortholog); FOUND IN mitochondrial outer ... mitochondrial carrier homolog 2. Orthologs:. Homo sapiens (human) : MTCH2 (mitochondrial carrier 2) HGNC Alliance Mus musculus ... MTCH2 (mitochondrial carrier 2). NCBI. Ortholog. Mus musculus (house mouse):. Mtch2 (mitochondrial carrier 2). Transitive ...
  • Although the collection of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes is expanding rapidly, only recently has a phylogenetically broad representation of mtDNA sequences from protists (mostly unicellular eukaryotes) become available. (nih.gov)
  • This review surveys the 23 complete protist mtDNA sequences that have been determined to date, commenting on such aspects as mitochondrial genome structure, gene content, ribosomal RNA, introns, transfer RNAs and the genetic code and phylogenetic implications. (nih.gov)
  • We also illustrate the utility of a comparative genomics approach to gene identification by providing evidence that orfB in plant and protist mtDNAs is the homolog of atp8 , the gene in animal and fungal mtDNA that encodes subunit 8 of the F0portion of mitochondrial ATP synthase. (nih.gov)
  • Comparative analysis of protist mtDNAs is providing a new perspective on mtDNA evolution: how the original mitochondrial genome was organized, what genes it contained, and in what ways it must have changed in different eukaryotic phyla. (nih.gov)
  • Study director Professor Lisa Matisoo-Smith explains that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is only inherited through the mother's side and can be used to trace maternal lineages and provide insights into ancient origins and migration routes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mytilus mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains 37 genes, all of which are transcribed from the same DNA strand. (genetics.org)
  • In addition to standard mitochondrial genes, O. danica mtDNA codes for a number of proteins whose genes are not found in the more derived animal or fungal mtDNAs, but instead are rather typical of protist mtDNAs. (umontreal.ca)
  • We developed an efficient selection for heritable mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) mutations in Drosophila , thereby enhancing a metazoan model for study of mitochondrial genetics and mutations causing human mitochondrial disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • This article presents sequencing data and comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the legume Vicia faba . (frontiersin.org)
  • Computational analysis revealed in total about 45% of V. faba mtDNA sequence being homologous to the Medicago truncatula nuclear genome (more than to any sequenced plant mitochondrial genome), and 35% of this homology ranging from a few dozen to 12,806 bp are located on chromosome 1. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mutations to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and reductions in mtDNA copy number have been identified as contributors to ADR-induced injury. (jci.org)
  • To determine whether Prkdc participates in mtDNA regulation, we tested its genetic interaction with Mpv17, which encodes a mitochondrial protein mutated in human mtDNA depletion syndromes (MDDSs). (jci.org)
  • These findings implicate mtDNA damage in the development of ADR toxicity and identify Prkdc as a MDDS modifier gene and a component of the mitochondrial genome maintenance pathway. (jci.org)
  • These genomes are made of a single, circular DNA molecule denoted mtDNA in mitochondrion and ctDNA in chloroplast . (jrank.org)
  • These data have allowed the determination of a phylogenetic tree for mtDNA genomes, and this tree and every genome has been found to be consistent with the Out of Africa theory. (jogg.info)
  • This initial sequence forms the basis of the Cambridge Reference Sequence ( CRS , consider sequence being interchangeable with genome ), against which it is usual to compare all other human mtDNA genomes. (jogg.info)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been extensively used in the study of interspecies phylogenies and intraspecies population genetics. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In this study, the complete sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) was determined, and the phylogenetic relationships between the Tibetan Mastiff and other species of Canidae were analyzed using the coyote ( Canis latrans ) as an outgroup. (cambridge.org)
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of the Tibetan Mastiff mtDNA was 16 710 bp, and included 22 tRNA genes, 2S rRNA gene, 13 protein-coding genes and one non-coding region (D-loop region), which is similar to other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. (cambridge.org)
  • Mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) are subjected to selection acting on cellular as well as organelle levels. (aps.org)
  • In tandem, we developed a stochastic model that includes the essential features of mitochondrial biology that provides a null model for expected mtDNA variation. (aps.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations contribute to the pathology of a number of age-related disorders, including Parkinson disease [A. Bender et al. (caltech.edu)
  • In order to provide new insight into the etiology and natural history of mtDNA mutations, we have developed an assay that can detect mitochondrial mutations in a variety of tissues and experimental settings [M. Vermulst et al. (caltech.edu)
  • Unlike nuclear genome, mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is rather small and simply structured. (plos.org)
  • rho 0 HeLa cells entirely lacking mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial transfection techniques were used to examine intermitochondrial interactions between mitochondria with and without mtDNA, and also between those with wild-type (wt) and mutant-type mtDNA in living human cells. (rupress.org)
  • Although intraspecific variation in the nuclear DNA is well-established, the evolutionary rate of C. albicans mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and its effect on its fitness and virulence is not clear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a type of DNA located outside the nucleus in the liquid portion of the cell (cytoplasm) and inside cellular organelles called mitochondria. (asu.edu)
  • Mitochondria are found in all complex or eukaryotic cells, including plant, animal, fungi, and single celled protists, which contain their own mtDNA genome . (asu.edu)
  • As the mitochondrial genome is associated with the process of aging in many species and bivalves are known to possess a peculiar mechanism of mitochondrial genome inheritance including doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI), we aimed to assess the genomic variability of the A. islandica mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). (awi.de)
  • Current research suggests that damage and variation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contribute to the molecular pathogenesis of FRDA. (curefa.org)
  • We sought to establish the extent of the mutation burden across the mitochondrial genome in FRDA cells and investigate the molecular mechanisms connecting FXN downregulation and the acquisition of mtDNA damage. (curefa.org)
  • Although most cancer cells harbor somatic mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the question of whether such mutations contribute to the promotion of carcinomas remains unsolved. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we used trans -mitochondrial hybrids (cybrids) containing a common HeLa nucleus and mtDNA of interest to compare the role of mtDNA against the common nuclear background. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We constructed cybrids with or without a homoplasmic pathogenic point mutation at nucleotide position 8,993 or 9,176 in the mtDNA ATP synthase subunit 6 gene ( MTATP6 ) derived from patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To complement the mtDNA mutations, we transfected a wild-type nuclear version of MTATP , whose codons were converted to the universal genetic codes containing a mitochondrial target sequence, into the nucleus of cybrids carrying mutant MTATP6 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The high frequency of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations and the rapid proliferation of cancer cells with no physiologic advantage may account for the accumulation of somatic neutral mutations in mtDNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Cybrids were generated by repopulating HeLa cells devoid of mtDNA with mtDNA derived from enucleated cells of patients harboring heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations in the mitochondrial ATP synthase subunit 6 ( MTATP6 ) associated with neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (16) or maternally inherited Leigh syndrome (17) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background: Although posttranscriptional modification of mitochondrial (mt) transcripts plays key roles in completion of the coding information and in the expression of mtDNA-encoded genes, there is little experimental evidence on the polyadenylation status and the location of mt gene poly(A) sites for non-human mammals. (cornell.edu)
  • Colorectal adenocarcinomas are characterized by abnormal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number and genomic instability, but a molecular interaction between mitochondrial and nuclear genome remains unknown. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that inactivation of YME1L1 results in increased transfer of mtDNA in the nuclear genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identify YME1L1 as the first NUMT suppressor gene in human and demonstrate that inactivation of YME1L1 induces migration of mtDNA to the nuclear genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Natural transfer of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the nuclear genomes of eukaryotic cells is a well-established and evolutionarily ongoing process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of this organism and its closely related species Pneumocystis carinii and Pneumocystis murina by a combination of sequencing technologies. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been one of the most extensively studied molecules in ecological, evolutionary and clinical genetics. (g3journal.org)
  • Since mtDNA proteins physically interact with nuclear proteins to provide the mitochondrial machinery for aerobic ATP production, among other cell functions, co-variation of the respective genes is predicted to affect organismal fitness. (g3journal.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) content is depleted in many cancers. (garvan.org.au)
  • Rather, the change in mtDNA content is highly variable, mirroring known prostate cancer genome heterogeneity. (garvan.org.au)
  • Recent research has demonstrated that these technologies have the potential to recover complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles from even extensively damaged and degraded evidentiary specimens. (umd.edu)
  • Yet before MPS can be used for this purpose in regular forensic practice, population reference databases for the entire mitochondrial genome (mtGenome) - developed to the extremely high standards mandated in forensics - must be available to enable the haplotype frequency estimates that are used to assess the strength of mtDNA evidence. (umd.edu)
  • We revisit the contentious relationships within Ursidae by analyzing complete mt genome sequences and evaluating the performance of both entire mt genomes and constituent mtDNA genes in recovering a phylogeny of extremely recent speciation events. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has become one of the most popular genetic markers [ 3 , 4 ] due to its small size and stable organization, its simple inheritance pattern (maternal without apparent DNA recombination), high copy number, and elevated mutation rate compared to single-copy nuclear DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitogenomics has been developed to increase the resolution of mtDNA markers by including the complete mitochondrial genome sequence in the analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A RECA1 KO strain exhibits defects in growth and mitochondrial morphology, and results in lower rate of the recovery of damaged mtDNA [ 4 , 6 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here we investigate the preservation of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in archaeological dental calculus and its potential for full mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) reconstruction in maternal lineage ancestry analysis. (uzh.ch)
  • Moreover, evidence from both complete mitochondrial rRNA genes supports a sister-group relationship of turtles to Archosauria to the exclusion of Lepidosauria (tuatara, snakes, and lizards). (pnas.org)
  • Prof Jeffrey Palmer who led this study explained, "By using the tulip tree as a guide we are able to estimate that the ancestral angiosperm mitochondrial genome contained 41 protein genes, 14 tRNA genes, seven tRNA genes sequestered from chloroplasts, and more than 700 sites of protein editing. (redorbit.com)
  • Except for the lack of ATPase 9, the Podospora genome contains the same genes as its fungal counterprts, N. crassa and A. nidulans . (springer.com)
  • The Drosophila mitochondrial genome (circle) with genes in dark green and dots/lines depicting genetic variants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies have hinted that variation in mitochondrial genes is associated with diseases like obesity, type-2 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and schizophrenia. (eurekalert.org)
  • The problem is that, unlike "regular" genes in nuclear genomes, we actually know very little about how variation in mitochondrial genes relates to variation in phenotypes. (eurekalert.org)
  • The findings can be incorporated into future genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to gain more detailed information about how variation in genes - nuclear and mitochondrial, and their interactions - affect various traits and diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • The higher plant mitochondrial genome contains in the order of 50 proteins coding genes scattered throughout the genome and while much of the genome is transcribed, regulatory control is primarily exercised posttranscriptionally at the level of the ribonucleic acid (RNA) or protein turnover. (els.net)
  • Forde BG and Leaver CJ (1980) Nuclear and cytoplasmic genes controlling synthesis of variant mitochondrial polypeptides in male‐sterile maize. (els.net)
  • Unseld M, Marienfeld J, Brandt P and Brennicke A (1997) The mitochondrial genome in Arabidopsis thaliana contains 57 genes in 366,924 nucleotides. (els.net)
  • The 366,924 nucleotides code for 57 identified genes, which cover only 10% of the genome. (nih.gov)
  • Introns in these genes add about 8%, open reading frames larger than 100 amino acids represent 10% of the genome, duplications account for 7%, remnants of retrotransposons of nuclear origin contribute 4% and integrated plastid sequences amount to 1%-leaving 60% of the genome unaccounted for. (nih.gov)
  • The sequence of 13.9 kilobases (kb) of the 17.1-kb mitochondrial genome of Mytilus edulis has been determined, and the arrangement of all genes has been deduced. (genetics.org)
  • Six tRNA genes were highly homologous to chloroplast genome sequences. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to the 52 conservative genes, 114 unique open reading frames (ORFs) were found, 36 without significant homology to any known proteins and 29 with homology to the Medicago truncatula nuclear genome and to other plant mitochondrial ORFs, 49 ORFs were not homologous to M. truncatula but possessed sequences with significant homology to other plant mitochondrial or nuclear ORFs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mitochondrial diseases can be caused by pathogenic variants in nuclear or mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes that often lead to multisystemic symptoms and can have any mode of inheritance. (mdpi.com)
  • Nuclear genes, however, encode the majority of mitochondrial proteins which are synthesized in the cytosol and then targeted to the mitochondrion. (jrank.org)
  • The mammalian mitochondrial genome is extremely compact with many overlapping genes and no introns. (jrank.org)
  • This genome codes for 13 essential genes of biochemical pathways (e.g., oxidative phosphorylation), two rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. (jrank.org)
  • The human mitochondrial genome coding region contains genes for 13 enzymes, two RNA ribosome components ( rRNAs ) and 22 different transfer RNAs ( tRNAs ), and some small regions concerned with the replication of the mitochondria. (jogg.info)
  • We also annotated the genome, i.e., identified all the genes, and recently published a paper reporting this whole mitochondrial genome (also known as mitogenome) sequence - see reference below. (saveourseas.com)
  • Human mitochondrial genomes are notoriously prone to mutation, which is why so many genetic disorders - from diabetes mellitus to mitochondrial myopathy - are linked to malfunctioning genes in this organelle. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers tested several plant genes they thought might be responsible for mitochondrial genomic stability. (eurekalert.org)
  • This genome is 13 608 bp in length and encodes 12 protein-coding genes (but lacks the atp8 ), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, corresponding to the gene complement found thus far in other flatworm mitochondrial (mt) DNAs. (cambridge.org)
  • Neighbor-joining and maximum-parsimony trees of Canids constructed using 12 mitochondrial protein-coding genes showed that as the coyotes and Tibetan wolves clustered together, so too did the gray wolves and domestic dogs, suggesting that the Tibetan Mastiff originated from the gray wolf as did other domestic dogs. (cambridge.org)
  • The mitochondrial genome of S. sthenum is 16,944 bp long and includes a 1,884 bp long inverted repeat region containing the complete sequences of nad3, rrnS, and nine tRNA genes. (uio.no)
  • The mitochondrial genome of M. lignano lacks duplicated genes, however, tandem repeats were detected in a non-coding region. (uio.no)
  • Mitochondrial gene order is poorly conserved in flatworms, only a single pair of adjacent ribosomal or protein-coding genes - nad4l-nad4 - was found in S. sthenum and M. lignano that also occurs in other published flatworm mitochondrial genomes. (uio.no)
  • SherbakovAbstractThe evolution of tRNA genes in mitochondrial (mt) genomes is a complex process that includes duplications, degenerations, and transpositions, as well as a specific process of identity change through mutations in the anticodon (tRNA gene remolding or tRNA gene recruitment). (medworm.com)
  • Seventeen cases of tRNA gene duplications were detected in the mt genomes of amphipods, and ten of them were tRNA genes that underwent remolding. (medworm.com)
  • The majority of remolded tRNA genes (seven out of ten cases) were found in the mt genomes of endemic amphipod species from Lake Baikal. (medworm.com)
  • The possible reasons for the unusual abundance of additional tRNA genes in the mt genomes of Baikalian amphipods are discussed.The amphipod-specific tRNA models developed for MiTFi refine existing predictions of tRNA genes in amphipods and reveal additional case. (medworm.com)
  • Results showed that the complete mt genome of M . salmi was 13722 bp containing 12 protein-coding genes (cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6 and cytb), 22 transfer RNA genes, and 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS). (degruyter.com)
  • To uncover the relationship between variation in genes and phenotypic diversity, geneticists use a set of fully sequenced fruit-fly genomes. (myscience.ch)
  • Now, EPFL scientists have created a high-resolution map of mitochondrial DNA variants in the fruit fly, connecting mitochondrial genes to metabolic traits and diseases. (myscience.ch)
  • Mitochondrial pathologies also present uniquely complex evolutionary and genetic features as a result of their origin within organelles derived from ancient symbionts and the strictly maternal inheritance pattern followed by an important subset of the relevant genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of the relative mRNA transcript abundance of genes encoding nuclear and mitochondrially encoded proteins revealed that there was no coordination of expression of the two genomes at the transcript level. (plantcell.org)
  • The organellar genomes now encode a limited number of proteins that are mainly components of the electron transport chain complexes and the transcriptional and translational machinery necessary to express these genes. (plantcell.org)
  • The genome consists of two contigs with lengths of 8,603 bp and 6,984 bp, respectively, and it includes 13 complete protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 21 tRNA genes. (ucsd.edu)
  • In this study we analyzed the whole sequences of eight mitochondrial genomes from maize and teosintes in order to comprehend the events that led to their structural features, i.e. the order of genes, tRNAs, rRNAs, ORFs, pseudogenes and non-coding sequences shared by all mitogenomes and duplicate occurrences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Both mitochondrial genomes contain a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and an A+T-rich region in the same order as those of the other analysed caeliferan species, but different from those of the ensiferan species by the rearrangement of trnD and trnK . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mitochondrial genomes of both G. marmoratus and O. asiaticus harbor the typical 37 genes and an A+T-rich region, exhibiting similar characters to those of other grasshopper species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • however, their organelle genomes are small and fragmented and contain fewer genes than those of other eukaryotes. (awi.de)
  • Results We developed an automated annotation tool for nematode mitochondrial genome sequences that characterizes individual genes in addition to pseudogenic and intergenic regions. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The automated annotation tool utilizes the ClustalW multiple sequence alignment program to produce gene alignments of input genomic sequence versus literature C. elegans mitochondrial genes. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The complete circular mt genome sequence for A. perfoliata is 14,459 bp in size, and includes 12 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Platyhelminthe mt genomes comprise 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal and 22 transfer RNA genes [ 15 ], but lack the atp8 gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genome is 15,367 bp in length and includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a control region. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Previous analyses with a single mitochondrial (mt) gene or a small number of mt genes either provide weak support or a large unresolved polytomy for ursids. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is generally encoded by mitochondrial genes, which interact with nuclear fertility restorer genes. (cas.cz)
  • Posttranscriptional processes, e.g RNA editing shall be evaluated in evolutionary and co-evolutionary studies of mitochondrial genes, because they may change protein composition despite the sequence identity of the respective genes. (cas.cz)
  • Consequently, crucial and interesting features of organelle chromosomes are going undescribed, which could ultimately lead to a poor understanding and even a misrepresentation of these genomes and the genes they express. (separationsnow.com)
  • Plant plastid and mitochondrial genomes are compact (generally approximately 100-500 kb in size), but they contain essential genes. (prolekare.cz)
  • The organelle genomes have become compact due to the endosymbiotic transfer of ancestral bacterial genes into the nucleus throughout evolution [ 1 ]. (prolekare.cz)
  • Genes once needed to support life as a free-living organism were lost or transferred to the nuclear genome of the host eukaryote. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the reasons why mitochondrial genes would benefit from being located in the nuclear genome is reduction in the accumulation of deleterious mutations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Loss and pseudogenes of mitochondrial protein-coding genes in selected gymnosperms, angiosperms and fern species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evolutionary studies make used of mitochondrial (powerhouse) genomes to identify maternal lineages, for example the human mitochondrial Eve. (redorbit.com)
  • Among plants, the lack of genomic data from lineages which split away from the main evolutionary branch early on has prevented researchers from reconstructing patterns of genome evolution. (redorbit.com)
  • A second type of normal maize mitochondrial genome: an evolutionary link. (genetics.org)
  • That impressive coverage allowed them to sort out those differences between the Neandertal and human genomes resulting from damage to the degraded DNA extracted from ancient bone versus true evolutionary changes. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Seeking to understand why human mitochondrial genomes mess up so much, Colorado State University biologist Dan Sloan thinks we have a lot to learn from our very distant evolutionary cousins - plants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Then, with sponges as an outgroup, we investigated the evolutionary history of mitochondrial genomes of 47 bilaterian phyla and emphasised the peculiar case of chaetognaths. (plos.org)
  • Because it is assumed that nuclear genomes underwent similar evolutionary processes, it has been proposed that comparative analysis of mtDNAs could shed a new light on the mechanisms and selective forces driving whole-genome evolution in genomic data that are more tractable [ 2 ]. (plos.org)
  • Besides the primary sequence information which has been proven valuable for evolutionary studies [ 1 , 3 - 5 ], the mitochondrial (mt) gene order is also a reliable marker for phylogenetic inferences at many taxonomic levels for several reasons [ 4 , 6 - 8 ]. (plos.org)
  • Results: We have sequenced and performed extensive evolutionary analyses on the mitochondrial genome of the scaly-tailed flying squirrel Anomalurus sp. (harvard.edu)
  • However, deficient representation of a broad range of lineages restricts the evolutionary utility of the mt genome in the Hymenoptera. (edu.au)
  • In this context, the acquisition of whole sequence data for several mitogenomes found in a species opens new venues toward a better understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of this peculiar genome, especially when focusing on its high structural rearrangement rate and the origin of duplicated fragments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The phylogram resulting from phylogenetic analysis provided preliminary insights into the evolutionary relationships among several Caenorhabditis species' mitochondrial genomes. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In general, the mitochondrial gene order is rather stable and gene rearrangements are rare evolutionary events. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The availability of this R. osculus mitochondrial genome - the first complete mitogenome within the lineage of Rhinichthys riffle daces - provides a foundation for resolving evolutionary relationships among morphologically differentiated populations of R. osculus . (calpoly.edu)
  • ABSTRACT Heteroplasmy is the presence of multiple genotypes in an individual and is commonly associated with mitochondria where thousands of copies of the genome can be present in a single organelle. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Abstract Motivation Relatively little is known about the evolution of mitochondrial genomes between Caenorhabditis species despite decades of research. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The rate is even slower for magnolia trees, taking 130,000 years for the same amount of mitochondrial genomic change. (redorbit.com)
  • Here, we address both topics using newly generated mitochondrial genomes, obtained by direct sequencing and capture-based enrichment of genomic libraries, for a group of individuals buried under a cluster of neighboring houses from the classical layer of the site's occupation. (eupedia.com)
  • We sequenced the genome (~100 Mb) of Amoebophrya ceratii to investigate the early evolution of genomic characters in dinoflagellates. (awi.de)
  • A phylogenetic analysis was conducted by using RAxML 7.2.6 to create a maximum-likelihood tree with bootstrap analysis for 84 mitochondrial genomic sequences representing 23 Caenorhabditis species and 1 outgroup. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Transcription of atp1 is influenced by both genomic configuration and nuclear background in the highly rearranged mitochondrial genomes of Silene vulgaris. (cas.cz)
  • In the lab of Dr Mahmood Shivji at the Save Our Seas Foundation Shark Research Center at Nova Southeastern University in Florida, I worked under the guidance of the researchers in the lab to sequence the full mitochondrial genome to possibly answer more questions about the species' history. (saveourseas.com)
  • Here, we report the sequencing of the full mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of R. osculus from a male fish collected from the Amargosa River Canyon in eastern California, USA. (calpoly.edu)
  • In the present study, we have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of the hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius , and included it in phylogenetic analyses together with 15 other placental mammals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In some plant species aberrant recombination events in the mitochondrial genome generate novel open reading frames, expressed as variant polypeptides, which in some cases lead to failure to produce functional pollen, a trait that has been exploited in plant breeding to produce F1 hybrid crops. (els.net)
  • We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA in the model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana, affording access to the first of its three genomes. (nih.gov)
  • The complete mitochondrial genome sequence has provided a new insight into the taxonomic classification, and a more complex picture of the species diversity within the family of Loricariidae. (planetcatfish.com)
  • Mitochondrial genomes vary in size, among species , by up to one order of magnitude. (jrank.org)
  • As we compare the mitochondrial DNA of different shark species, we can find their similarities and how they interact, or how long ago they diverged into species. (saveourseas.com)
  • Mitochondrial heteroplasmy has been reported in a wide range of species including insects [fruit flies: (Solignac et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These approaches have led us to an unexpected result: for some organelles and taxa, the genome structure and HCE set, despite themselves containing relatively little information, still adequately resolve the evolution of species. (mdpi.com)
  • A subsequent search detected atp8 in all mitochondrial genomes of polyclad flatworms published to date, although the gene wasn't previously annotated in these species. (uio.no)
  • Results: Poly(A)-enriched RNA-Seq reads collected for two wild-caught bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) were mapped to the complete mitochondrial genome of that species. (cornell.edu)
  • Sequencing and characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of three Pneumocystis species provide new insights into divergence between human and rodent Pneumocystis. (broadinstitute.org)
  • In plant mitochondrial genomes, at the species level, gene shuffling and duplicate occurrence are such that no clear phylogeny has ever been identified, when considering genome structure variation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study sequenced and annotated the complete mt genome of Anoplocephala perfoliata (Anoplocephalidae), and investigated its phylogenetic relationships with other species from the families Hymenolepididae, Dipylidiidae and Taeniidae of the order Cyclophyllidea using the amino acid sequences of the 12 proteins in their mt genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of four specimens each of Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus ), Pacific halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis ) and Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides ), and assessed the nucleotide variability within and between species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • About 100 variable positions were identified within the four specimens in each halibut species, with the control regions as the most variable parts of the genomes (10 times that of the mitochondrial ribosomal DNA). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sequencing of genus-specific mitochondrial PCR products could be used for species determination. (uib.no)
  • Mitochondrial genomes of this species vary in DNA sequence, gene order and gene content. (cas.cz)
  • This issue is addressed by sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes of H. molitrix and H. nobilis, comparing their mitogenome organization, structure and sequence similarity, and conducting a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of cyprinid species. (usgs.gov)
  • The atp1 gene is flanked by very variable regions, as deduced from four completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes of this species. (cas.cz)
  • Methods: We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 57 individuals from across the distribution of the species. (soton.ac.uk)
  • Hi, I've numerous sequences which are not found in the reference genome of my species. (biostars.org)
  • In a landmark study, University of Otago researchers have achieved the feat of sequencing complete mitochondrial genomes for members of what was likely to be one of the first groups of Polynesians to settle New Zealand and have revealed a surprising degree of genetic variation among these pioneering voyagers. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers discovered that the four genomes shared two unique genetic markers found in modern Maori while also featuring several previously unidentified Polynesian genetic markers. (eurekalert.org)
  • Did genetic drift drive increases in genome complexity? (wiley.com)
  • To confidently connect variation within a gene or genome (what biologists call "genotypes") and variation in traits ("phenotypes"), scientists ideally need standardized genetic tools. (eurekalert.org)
  • So far, DGRP studies have mostly focused on genetic variants in the nucleus because of low mitochondrial DNA coverage," says Deplancke. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mitochondrial haplotypes affect metabolic phenotypes in the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel. (eurekalert.org)
  • We thus propose a mutagenic phenomenon that may be responsible for a variety of genetic diseases in humans and suggest that genetic or environmental factors that increase the frequency of chromosome breaks provide the impetus for the continued colonization of the human genome by mitochondrial DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Although it is undisputed from analyses of mitochondrial (mt) DNA that polar bears constitute a lineage within the genetic diversity of brown bears, timing estimates of their divergence have differed considerably. (pnas.org)
  • The mitochondrial translation code in O. danica is the standard genetic code, as is also the case in its relatives, Chrysodidymus synuroideus and Phytophthora infestans . (umontreal.ca)
  • High copy number and random segregation confound genetic analysis of the mitochondrial genome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Nuclear genetic disorders of mitochondrial DNA gene expression 16. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Because of the relative simplicity of the mitochondrial genome, genetic manipulation has advanced considerably. (jrank.org)
  • A mitochondrial genome is the full genetic material of the mitochondria, the organelle which creates energy for cells to function. (saveourseas.com)
  • Since it is from the mitochondria, the genome is relatively small, consisting of about 16,000 base pairs of the maternal DNA, meaning it is a great genetic tracking tool for the genetic similarities and characteristics from mother to offspring. (saveourseas.com)
  • In comparison to nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA has a higher mutation rate making it easier for researchers to determine the genetic relationships of individuals and populations. (saveourseas.com)
  • The complete mitochondrial genome provides a wealth of genetic markers which could be useful for identifying different life-cycle stages and for investigating their population genetics, ecology and epidemiology. (cambridge.org)
  • As with the studies on genetic diversity and mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosome analysis of humanity's history fully concurs with predictions made by RTB's model for humanity's origin. (evolutionnews.org)
  • The microarray interrogates all 16,500 bases of the human mitochondrial genome with only three polymerase chain reactions (PCR), providing scientists with the efficient method for detecting variants associated with genetic disease, forensics, population studies or stem cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Using the array in our studies of complex mitochondrial disease, we've discovered five known pathogenic mutations and more than 70 previously unknown genetic variations in patients, which allow us to explain the pathology in about 25 percent of the patients. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Human and plant genomes harbor a large number of Numts , some of which have high similarity to mitochondrial fragments and thus may have been inadvertently included in population genetic and phylogenetic studies using mitochondrial DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Asexually propagated genomes tend to build up their genetic load quicker than sexually propagated genomes, a principle known in population genetics as Muller's ratchet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 1988 the first human neurodegenerative diseases associated with mutations in the mitochondrial genome were described. (portlandpress.com)
  • Here we report a nearly complete mitochondrial genome of H. gigas, the world deepest mitogenome. (ucsd.edu)
  • 1992) Gene organization deduced from the complete sequence of liverwort Marchantia polymorpha mitochondrial DNA: a primitive form of plant mitochondrial genome. (els.net)
  • The smallest plant mitochondrial genome is around 100 kb, which make it very difficult to isolate in intact form. (jrank.org)
  • In addition to the 61 tRNAs that are found in the human nuclear genome, 22 more tRNAs are encoded in the genome of the cellular organelle known as the mitochondrion: the mitochondrion, originally a bacterium itself, uses these 22 tRNAs to make proteins out of the just-over-a-dozen mRNAs that are encoded in its genome. (news-medical.net)
  • The yeast mitochondrial genome is much larger, but codes for only eight proteins. (jrank.org)
  • The mitochondrial products synthesized by this genome, both RNAs and proteins, are similar to those produced by the mammalian mitochondria. (jrank.org)
  • These genomes usually encode for 50-100 proteins as well as rRNAs and t RNAs. (jrank.org)
  • Of the 13 proteins encoded in the mitochondrial DNA, they found that one, known as subunit 2 of cytochrome c oxidase of the mitochondrial electron transport chain or COX2, had experienced a surprising number of amino acid substitutions in humans since the separation from Neandertals. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Using a database of all identifiable proteins that contribute to the structure and/or biosynthesis of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) mitochondria, we have generated a library of protein profiles [ 1 ] that enables us to identify homologs in a wide range of genomes, including human. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mitochondrial proteins are an attractive subset of the cellular proteome to analyze because they perform a number of correlated functions and interact extensively with one another. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate the levels at which the expression of nuclear and mitochondrially encoded proteins is coordinated, we established an Arabidopsis thaliana cell culture system to modulate mitochondrial biogenesis in response to sugar starvation and refeeding. (plantcell.org)
  • Therefore, there is a requirement for coordinated expression of organellar and nuclear genomes to ensure correct assembly of complexes that contain proteins encoded in each genome. (plantcell.org)
  • This is particularly important in the biogenesis of the multisubunit inner mitochondrial membrane complexes responsible for electron transport and ATP synthesis and for the mitochondrial ribosome, which is composed of proteins encoded in both mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. (plantcell.org)
  • Instead, all mitochondrial proteins appear to be lost or encoded in the A. ceratii nucleus. (awi.de)
  • Here we report the cloning and sequencing of numts loci, amplified from human tissue and rho-zero (rho0) cells (control) with primers known to amplify the mitochondrial genome. (nih.gov)
  • By sequencing the mitochondrial genome of L. tulipifera , researchers from Indiana University and University of Arkansas discovered that its mitochondrial genome has one of the slowest silent mutation rates (ones which do not affect gene function) of any known genome. (redorbit.com)
  • Until the advent of next generation sequencing techniques, the highly degraded state of DNA in human remains of this age has not allowed such genomes to be sequenced," she says. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using next-generation sequencing technology, we have generated a complete, high-quality mt genome from a stratigraphically validated 130,000- to 110,000-year-old polar bear jawbone. (pnas.org)
  • When Will Whole Genome Sequencing Go Mainstream? (wn.com)
  • The blood test, called whole-genome sequencing, yields a Human Genome Project's worth of information about an individual person. (wn.com)
  • Stephen Quake discusses rapid DNA sequencing and treating medical patients based on their genomes. (wn.com)
  • The complete sequencing and mapping of several mammalian mitochondrial genomes show extensive similarity in organization. (jrank.org)
  • Technically, the Neandertal mitochondrial genome presented in the new study is a useful forerunner for the sequencing of the complete Neandertal nuclear genome, the researchers said, a feat that their team already has well underway. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Despite this, cloning and sequencing of a portion of the open reading frames of the nad2, nad4, and col mitochondrial loci in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 1896) revealed abnormally high levels of heteroplasmy at all loci with as many as 24 haplotypes in a single individual and the dominant haplotype accounting for as little as 43.9% of the total sequences. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Illumina sequencing of muscle and testes from a single individual using multiple different DNA-based amplification methods as well as cDN A amplification confirmed heteroplasmic circular mitochondrial DNA templates with portions of the reads containing unmapped highly repetitive regions at specific sequence positions in both tissue types. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We addressed this by sequencing the mitochondrial genomes of the two small-bodied (about 1 mm in length) free-living flatworms Stenostomum sthenum and Macrostomum lignano as the first representatives of the earliest branching flatworm taxa Catenulida and Macrostomorpha respectively. (uio.no)
  • Is the Subject Area "Genome sequencing" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Advances in sequencing and improved methods for the extraction of ancient DNA (aDNA) have enabled the study of ancient genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Affymetrix MitoChip v2.0, which uses a sequencing-by-genotyping technology, allows potentially accurate and high-throughput sequencing of the entire human mitochondrial genome to be completed in a cost-effective fashion. (jefferson.edu)
  • All results were compared to those obtained by at least one other mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis method, including Sanger sequencing, denaturing HPLC-based heteroduplex analysis, and/or the Illumina Genome Analyzer II next generation sequencing platform. (jefferson.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Affymetrix MitoChip v2.0 analysis using our optimized MitoChip Filtering Protocol (MFP) bioinformatics pipeline now offers the high sensitivity and accuracy needed for reliable, high-throughput and cost-efficient whole mitochondrial genome sequencing. (jefferson.edu)
  • This approach provides a viable alternative of potential utility for both clinical diagnostic and research applications to traditional Sanger and other emerging sequencing technologies for whole mitochondrial genome analysis. (jefferson.edu)
  • The complete mitochondrial genome of the European blackfly, Simulium variegatum Meigen, 1818 was sequenced using a combined Illumina and Sanger sequencing approach. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Sequencing of the 220 bp mitochondrial PCR products was performed. (uib.no)
  • Today, DNA sequencing technologies epitomize the slogan 'faster, easier, cheaper and more', and in many ways, sequencing an entire genome has become routine, even for the smallest laboratory groups. (separationsnow.com)
  • But accurately characterizing an organelle genome and the information it encodes can require much more than DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses. (separationsnow.com)
  • The release of a preliminary version of the chicken ( Gallus gallus ) genome by the Genome Sequencing Center at Washington University, St. Louis provided an opportunity to search this first avian genome for the frequency and characteristics of Numts relative to those in human and plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Could someone suggest any tools that work well for mitochondrial cnv detection using whole-genome sequencing data? (biostars.org)
  • How to separate plastid, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes from whole genome sequencing data for plants? (biostars.org)
  • My dear nerd community, We are sequencing many genomes of non-model plants today. (biostars.org)
  • Hi, Dear Community, Could we use whole genome sequencing (WGS) data to detect / identify mitoch. (biostars.org)
  • hi all, My data is two samples: tumor and normal ,exome and whole genome sequencing data. (biostars.org)
  • Hello, Has anyone used XHMM for CNV detection in whole-genome sequencing data? (biostars.org)
  • Dear all, given a whole-genome-sequencing data, and considering tumo-germline pairs, which algo. (biostars.org)
  • How to compare coverage eveness of two whole genome sequencing runs of the same sample? (biostars.org)
  • In particular, analyses of mitochondrial genome sequences from domestic dogs and yaks have yielded higher ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions in the domesticated lineages than in their wild relatives. (datadryad.org)
  • The replication and the mode of inheritance of organelle genomes are distinct from the nuclear genomes. (jrank.org)
  • Organelle genomes can be surprisingly complex and can exhibit convoluted and unconventional modes of gene expression. (separationsnow.com)
  • Recombination in this genome appears to underlie a number of important phenomena. (springer.com)
  • These genomes contain short homologous sequences that may undergo recombination thus generating small circular molecules that coexist with the intact ctDNA. (jrank.org)
  • Investigating how recombination might modify gene order during the evolution has become a routine part of mitochondrial genome analysis. (plos.org)
  • Conclusions Frequent homologous recombination events that are widespread in plant mitochondrial genomes may change chromosomal configurations and also the control of gene transcription including CMS gene expression. (cas.cz)
  • We get sequence data from the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mitochondrial Array about ten times faster than we do with conventional methods," said Bert Smeets, Ph.D., associate professor of Genetics at Maastricht University . (technologynetworks.com)
  • Although mt genome data provide useful molecular markers for population genetics and phylogenetic studies, there are some families in the cestode order Cyclophyllidea for which mtDNAs are still unavailable to date. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This beautiful 'molecular fossil' has a remarkably slow mutation rate meaning that its mitochondrial genome has remained largely unchanged since the dinosaurs were roaming the earth. (redorbit.com)
  • Mitochondrial DNA point mutation diseases 15. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Like us, plants maintain a separate mitochondrial genome, but unlike us, plant mitochondrial genomes have some of the slowest known mutation rates of any living thing - about one mutation at each DNA position in a billion years. (eurekalert.org)
  • Understanding how some systems have been able to maintain these really accurate, low mutation rates, sets up the opportunity for understanding the flip side of the coin - how it is that humans suffer such high mitochondrial mutation rates," said Sloan, associate professor in the Department of Biology. (eurekalert.org)
  • In order to obtain some insight into the cellular mechanisms of neurodegeneration, we examined cultured fibroblasts from patients with the MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) syndrome, which is most frequently caused by a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNA for leucine. (portlandpress.com)
  • Indeed, plant mitochondrial genomes feature a larger size, a lower mutation rate and more rearrangements than their animal counterparts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Molecular analysis of the cytoplasmic genomes of variegated plants from two independent chm mutant lines, using specific chloroplast and mitochondrial probes, showed that the chm mutations reproducibly induce the appearance of specific new restriction fragments in the mitochondrial genome. (plantcell.org)
  • Submit Letters of Intent for FICUS JGI-EMSL Call Letters of Intent (LOI) for collaborative research applications with the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) are being accepted until March 18, 2020 at 11:00 PM (PDT). (doe.gov)
  • This study determined the first mt genome for the family Anoplocephalidae, providing rich sources for selecting useful molecular markers for ecological and phylogenetic studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results are important because they imply that changes to selection or population size operating over a short timescale can cause significant changes to the patterns of mitochondrial molecular evolution. (datadryad.org)
  • We test whether domesticated mammals and birds have consistently different patterns of molecular evolution than their wild relatives for 16 phylogenetically independent comparisons of mitochondrial genome sequences. (datadryad.org)
  • This pilot work showed that the use of formal logic in a hypothetico-deductive background such as phylogeny (where experimental testing of hypotheses is impossible) is very promising to explore mitochondrial gene order in deuterostomes and should be applied to many other bilaterian clades. (plos.org)
  • Mao, Meng, Mitochondrial genomes and their utility for the recovery of phylogeny in the Hymenoptera, Doctor of Philosophy thesis, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wollongong, 2014. (edu.au)
  • Therefore, this PhD research was focussed on increasing our understanding of mt genomes of the Hymenoptera and their utility for the recovery of the higher-level phylogeny by extending the taxonomic range of available mt genome sequences. (edu.au)
  • The first mt genome phylogeny of the Apocrita with a complete representation of superfamilies (excluding Mymmaromatoidea) was reconstructed. (edu.au)
  • This mitochondrial genome-based phylogeny provides strong evidence that the spectacled bear diverged first, while within the genus Ursus , the sloth bear is the sister taxon of all the other five ursines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Identification of base composition bias and utilization of the combined data of whole mitochondrial genome sequences has allowed recovery of a strongly supported phylogeny that is upheld when using multiple alternative outgroups for the Ursidae, a mammalian family that underwent a rapid radiation since the mid- to late Pliocene. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although the whole mitochondrial DNA sequence based phylogeny is robust, it remains in conflict with phylogenetic relationships suggested by analysis of limited nuclear-encoded data, a situation that will require gathering more nuclear DNA sequence information. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Therefore, this study provide a good evidence that these mutagens may act with mitochondrial genomes directly or indirectly and alter nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial genomes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The researchers carried out a comprehensive study connecting variation in mitochondrial DNA with various traits in DGRP fruit-fly lines. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this study, we wanted to investigate the impact of mitochondrial DNA variation on traits in these fly lines. (eurekalert.org)
  • There is important mitochondrial haplotype-specific metabolic variation in the DGRP," conclude the authors. (eurekalert.org)
  • The robust Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mitochondrial Resequencing Array 2.0 provides a complete picture of variation in the mitochondrial genome, while significantly reducing the time, labor and cost involved in sample preparation," said Greg Yap, vice president of DNA Products at Affymetrix. (technologynetworks.com)
  • But little is known about the variation in the mitochondrial genome, for which mutations are linked to an array of diseases. (myscience.ch)
  • Gene order variation in animal mitochondrial genomes is often described as being due to translocation and inversion events, but tandem duplication followed by loss has also been proposed as an alternative process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of different sized tandem repeats in the A+T-rich region leads to size variation between their mitochondrial genomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • An extraordinary variation in mitochondrial DNA sequence exists in angiosperm Silene vulgaris. (cas.cz)
  • The highly rearranged mitochondrial genomes with a variation in gene flanking regions make Silene vulgaris an excellent model for the study of mitochondrial gene expression in plants. (cas.cz)
  • Copy Number Variation Tools For Illumina Hiseq Paired End Data (Whole Genome)? (biostars.org)
  • Sequence analysis of one of the new restriction fragments found in the variegated plants suggested that it was the product of a rearrangement event involving regions of the mitochondrial genome. (plantcell.org)
  • Because fewer Numts were detected in the chicken nuclear genome, they do not represent all regions of the mitochondrial genome and are not widespread in all chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complete 94,192 bp sequence of the mitochondrial genome from race s of Podospora anserina is presented (1 kb=10 3 base pairs). (springer.com)
  • Affymetrix Inc. has announced the launch of the GeneChip ® Human Mitochondrial Resequencing Array 2.0, enabling researchers to analyze the entire sequence of the mitochondrial genome in a single 48 hour experiment. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Most of the newly identified loci resemble the sequences of mitochondrial tRNAs suggesting unexpected new links between the human nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, links that are not currently understood. (news-medical.net)
  • It has been known for many years that each of these 61 tRNAs has multiple copies spread throughout the genome that is found in the human nucleus. (news-medical.net)
  • But, how many tRNAs are actually encoded by the human genome and could be potentially involved in amino acid translation and other processes? (news-medical.net)
  • The team searched the 3 billion base pairs of the human genome for DNA sequences that resembled the 530 known nuclear and mitochondrial tRNAs. (news-medical.net)
  • Rather unexpectedly, the team found that most of these new loci resembled some of the 22 mitochondrial tRNAs. (news-medical.net)
  • Different pattern of codon recognition by mammalian mitochondrial tRNAs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, we measured the fixation rate of NUMTs in the human genome. (nih.gov)
  • The organization of the mitochondrial genome of yeast and these recombinational events are discussed in relationship with the organization and evolution of the nuclear genome of eukaryotes. (springer.com)
  • Brennicke, Axel, and Leaver, Christopher J(Jan 2007) Mitochondrial Genome Organization and Expression in Plants. (els.net)
  • A novel mitochondrial genome organization for the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. (genetics.org)
  • In comparison to previously described maize mitochondrial genomes, it is classified as a new type since the genome contains unique DNA sequences and unique sets of repeated sequences, and has a unique organization. (genetics.org)
  • Nucleotide sequence and gene organization of sea urchin mitochondrial DNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sequence and gene organization of the chicken mitochondrial genome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Post, Rory J. . 2016 Sequence and organization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the blackfly Simulium variegatum (Diptera: Simuliidae). (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Their experiments, described in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , could lend insight into why animal mitochondrial genomes tend to mutate, possibly leading to breakthrough therapies to prevent such mutations. (eurekalert.org)
  • This study suggests more similarity than usually reported between plant and animal mitochondrial genomes in their mode of evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we draw attention to this relevant organelle and its potential role in C. albicans pathogenicity and provide preliminary evidence, for the first time, for methylation of the yeast mitochondrial genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • This paper is the first to fully sequence 46 paralogous nuclear DNA fragments that represent the entire mitochondrial genome. (nih.gov)
  • Further, the entire mitochondrial genome was represented by multiple copies of paralogous nuclear sequences. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first complete, wet-lab characterization of numts that represent the entire mitochondrial genome. (nih.gov)
  • The tube anemone Isarachnanthus nocturnus is only 15 cm long but has the largest mitochondrial genome of any animal sequenced to date, with 80,923 base pairs. (wn.com)
  • The whole-genome approach is helping us to understand this disease at a level of detail never before possible. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Whole-genome sequence data were obtained for colon adenocarcinoma and rectum adenocarcinoma patients participating in The Cancer Genome Atlas, via the Cancer Genomics Hub, using the GeneTorrent file acquisition tool. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Is it possible to extract mitochondrial genome sequence from whole genome sequence data available. (biostars.org)
  • Hi BioStars, I need to visualize the genome sequence (mitochondrial and whole genome). (biostars.org)
  • I have illumina HiSeq paired end data (whole genome). (biostars.org)
  • Expanding Virophage Diversity Virophages are small viruses with double-stranded DNA genomes that co-infect eukaryotic cells along with giant viruses. (doe.gov)
  • The number of Numts in chicken is low compared to those in human and plant genomes, and is within the range found for most sequenced eukaryotic genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Characterization of the two mitochondrial genomes has enriched our knowledge on mitochondrial genomes of Orthoptera. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using amphipod-specific tRNA models for annotation, we show that tRNA duplications are more common in the mt genomes of amphipods than what was revealed by previous annotations. (medworm.com)
  • Using PCR primers that can amplify tRNA-Lys region of mice mitochondrial genomes, we determined a good condition to obtain a single band even in the silver-stained PHAST gel. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The Drosophila mitochondrial genome (circle). (myscience.ch)
  • The extraordinary level of conservation of the tulip tree ( Liriodendron tulipifera ) mitochondrial genome has redefined our interpretation of evolution of the angiosperms (flowering plants), finds research in biomed Central's open access journal BMC Biology . (redorbit.com)
  • 2010 . A role for nonadaptive processes in plant genome size evolution? (wiley.com)
  • Initial interest in mutations occurring in mitochondrial DNA of cancer cells diminished when most were found to be the same mutations which occurred during the evolution of human mitochondrial haplogroups. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to fully comprehend the evolution and kinship of fishes in the family of Loricariidae, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Loricariidae fish Ancistrus temmincki was firstly characterized in the present study. (planetcatfish.com)
  • A team of researchers has carried out a detailed study of the genomes of ruminants, giving new insight into their evolution and success. (wn.com)
  • It is now 20 years since Rebecca Cann , Mark Stoneking and Allan Wilson ( Cann , 1987) presented their famous article Mitochondrial DNA and human evolution and wrote, We infer from the tree of minimum length that Africa is the likely source of the human mitochondrial gene pool. (jogg.info)
  • Models of evolution of the genome structure and HCEs initially faced considerable algorithmic challenges, which gave rise to (often unnatural) constraints on these models, even for conceptually simple tasks such as the calculation of distance between two structures or the identification of UCEs. (mdpi.com)
  • We also used the HCE identification to search for promoters and regulatory elements that characterize the functional evolution of the genome. (mdpi.com)
  • Gershgorin RA, Gorbunov KY, Zverkov OA, Rubanov LI, Seliverstov AV, Lyubetsky VA. Highly Conserved Elements and Chromosome Structure Evolution in Mitochondrial Genomes in Ciliates. (mdpi.com)
  • Animal mitochondrial DNA: structure and evolution. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In Microbiome, JGI researchers provided a global analysis of the diversity, distribution, and evolution of virophages - and in doing so, increased the number of known high quality virophage genome sequences 10-fold through computational approaches. (doe.gov)
  • Despite their monophyletic origin, animal and plant mitochondrial genomes have been described as exhibiting different modes of evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evolution of mitochondrial gene order in Annelida. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genome Biology and Evolution 6(1): 161-169. (datadryad.org)
  • In this study, our aim is to test whether the impact on mitochondrial genome evolution is a general feature of domestication, or whether it is specific to particular examples. (datadryad.org)
  • Our results suggest that, while some domesticated lineages may have undergone changes to selective regime or effective population size that could have affected mitochondrial evolution, it is not possible to generalise these patterns over all domesticated mammals and birds. (datadryad.org)
  • The purpose of this method is to 1) use mitochondrial gene order of current taxa as datasets 2) calculate rearrangements between all mitochondrial gene orders and 3) reconstruct phylogenetic relationships according to these calculated rearrangements within a tree under the assumption of maximum parsimony. (plos.org)
  • The impact of mitochondrial DNA mutations on a wide variety of human diseases has made it increasingly important to understand the mechanisms that drive mitochondrial mutagenesis. (caltech.edu)
  • However, we are still largely ignorant of the mechanisms that lead to the coordination of expression of nuclear and organellar genomes in individual cells and tissues. (plantcell.org)
  • Integration of mitochondrial DNA fragments into nuclear chromosomes (giving rise to nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin, or NUMTs) is an ongoing process that shapes nuclear genomes. (nih.gov)
  • From sequence analysis of the genome of Homo sapiens, followed by sampling humans from different ethnic backgrounds, and chimpanzees, we have identified 27 NUMTs that are specific to humans and must have colonized human chromosomes in the last 4-6 million years. (nih.gov)
  • After all, they have their own genome --- a set of DNA-containing chromosomes - completely separate from the genome of the cell's nucleus. (eurekalert.org)
  • PCR-RFLP studies of the chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA polymorphism revealed that these plants had Erianthus type cytoplasmic genomes rather than the expected maternal Saccharum type. (springer.com)
  • The diploid androgenesis with paternal transmission of chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes along with the nuclear genome of E. arundinaceus in backcross progeny of Saccharum × Erianthus intergeneric hybrids is the first report in angiosperms. (springer.com)
  • Nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes (numts) are a potential source of contamination during mitochondrial DNA PCR amplification. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, the common perception that mitochondrial template "swamps" numts loci precluding detectable amplification, depends on the region of the mitochondrial genome targeted by the PCR reaction and the number of pseudogene loci that may co-amplify. (nih.gov)
  • Using amplification targets presented in multiple copies, such as rRNA 18S, or mitochondrial targets with an even higher copy number, might increase sensitivity. (uib.no)
  • Methods: The sensitivity and specificity of two newly designed Plasmodium genus-specific single-round amplification PCR programmes, based on previously published primers targeting 18S and mitochondrial genome, were compared with a widely used nested 18S PCR. (uib.no)
  • Demesure B, Sodzi N, Petit R (1995) A set of universal primers for amplification of polymorphic non-coding regions of mitochondrial and chloroplst DNA in plants. (springer.com)
  • For chicken, PCR amplifications of fragments of about 1.5 kilobases are highly likely to represent true mitochondrial amplification. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The pseudo-mitochondrial genome influences mistakes in heteroplasmy interpretation. (nih.gov)
  • Extensive heteroplasmy and evidence for fragmentation in the Callinectes sapidus mitochondrial genome. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • S.v. Extensive heteroplasmy and evidence for fragmentation in the Callinectes sapidus mitochondrial genome. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • These are generalizations, however, and the assumption of homoplasmy can sometimes be false when a cell or individual possesses multiple mitochondrial genotypes giving rise to heteroplasmy. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This can confound population studies because mitochondrial heteroplasmy effectively creates a subpopulation of organelles within each individual of the organismal population. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Mitochondrial DNA has been detected in the nuclear genome of eukaryotes as pseudogenes, or Numts . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Giegé P, Sweetlove LJ, Cognat V and Leaver CJ (2005) Coordination of nuclear and mitochondrial genome expression during mitochondrial biogenesis in Arabidopsis. (els.net)
  • With the significant contribution of duplications, imported foreign DNA and the extensive background of apparently functionless sequences, the mosaic structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial genome features many aspects of size-relaxed nuclear genomes. (nih.gov)
  • They found that disrupting the MSH1 gene in a common plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, led to massive increases in frequency of point mutations and changes to the mitochondrial DNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • Mutations at the Arabidopsis CHM locus promote rearrangements of the mitochondrial genome. (plantcell.org)
  • The present study was designed to determine and analyze the mt genomes of Metastrongylus salmi ( M . salmi ), and reveal the phylogenetic relationships of this parasite using mt DNA sequences. (degruyter.com)
  • The mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence is becoming a powerful tool for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships. (edu.au)
  • Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences are widely used to understand phylogenetic relationships among parasites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analyses on mt genome sequences of the four families of cestodes provide novel insights into their phylogenetic relationships. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mitochondrion of all eukaryotes and the chloroplasts of plant cells are the only organelles that have their distinct genomes. (jrank.org)
  • Animal cells have a genome of approximately 16 kb (kilobases, 1,000 bases) and represent the smallest mitochondrial genomes in eukaryotes. (jrank.org)
  • The model flatworm M. lignano has the smallest known mitochondrial genome among free-living flatworms, with a length of 14,193 bp. (uio.no)
  • The complete mitochondrial genomes of G. marmoratus and O. asiaticus are 15,924 bp and 16,259 bp in size, respectively, with O. asiaticus being the largest among all known mitochondrial genomes in Orthoptera. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • PCR-SSCP analysis of mitochondrial genome obtained from mice skeletal muscles showed that the number of bands on the SSCP gel were inceased and varied, compared with ones from the untreated skeletal muscle. (nii.ac.jp)
  • She conducts her research in the field of cellular biochemistry with particular interest for the role of mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA in the metabolic and hypoxic adaptation during the different stages of tumor progression using cybrid and in vivo models. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Human mitochondria and mitochondrial genome function as a single dynamic cellular unit. (rupress.org)