The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Diseases of plants.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).

Comparison of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) nuclear genes in the genomes of Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila pseudoobscura and Anopheles gambiae. (1/863)

BACKGROUND: In eukaryotic cells, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) uses the products of both nuclear and mitochondrial genes to generate cellular ATP. Interspecies comparative analysis of these genes, which appear to be under strong functional constraints, may shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms that act on a set of genes correlated by function and subcellular localization of their products. RESULTS: We have identified and annotated the Drosophila melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura and Anopheles gambiae orthologs of 78 nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation by a comparative analysis of their genomic sequences and organization. We have also identified 47 genes in these three dipteran species each of which shares significant sequence homology with one of the above-mentioned OXPHOS orthologs, and which are likely to have originated by duplication during evolution. Gene structure and intron length are essentially conserved in the three species, although gain or loss of introns is common in A. gambiae. In most tissues of D. melanogaster and A. gambiae the expression level of the duplicate gene is much lower than that of the original gene, and in D. melanogaster at least, its expression is almost always strongly testis-biased, in contrast to the soma-biased expression of the parent gene. CONCLUSIONS: Quickly achieving an expression pattern different from the parent genes may be required for new OXPHOS gene duplicates to be maintained in the genome. This may be a general evolutionary mechanism for originating phenotypic changes that could lead to species differentiation.  (+info)

Quantitative genomics of starvation stress resistance in Drosophila. (2/863)

BACKGROUND: A major challenge of modern biology is to understand the networks of interacting genes regulating complex traits, and the subset of these genes that affect naturally occurring quantitative genetic variation. Previously, we used P-element mutagenesis and quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in Drosophila to identify candidate genes affecting resistance to starvation stress, and variation in resistance to starvation stress between the Oregon-R (Ore) and 2b strains. Here, we tested the efficacy of whole-genome transcriptional profiling for identifying genes affecting starvation stress resistance. RESULTS: We evaluated whole-genome transcript abundance for males and females of Ore, 2b, and four recombinant inbred lines derived from them, under control and starved conditions. There were significant differences in transcript abundance between the sexes for nearly 50% of the genome, while the transcriptional response to starvation stress involved approximately 25% of the genome. Nearly 50% of P-element insertions in 160 genes with altered transcript abundance during starvation stress had mutational effects on starvation tolerance. Approximately 5% of the genome exhibited genetic variation in transcript abundance, which was largely attributable to regulation by unlinked genes. Genes exhibiting variation in transcript abundance among lines did not cluster within starvation resistance QTLs, and none of the candidate genes affecting variation in starvation resistance between Ore and 2b exhibited significant differences in transcript abundance between lines. CONCLUSIONS: Expression profiling is a powerful method for identifying networks of pleiotropic genes regulating complex traits, but the relationship between variation in transcript abundance among lines used to map QTLs and genes affecting variation in quantitative traits is complicated.  (+info)

Genome-wide survey of V-ATPase genes in Drosophila reveals a conserved renal phenotype for lethal alleles. (3/863)

V-ATPases are ubiquitous, vital proton pumps that play a multiplicity of roles in higher organisms. In many epithelia, they are the major energizer of cotransport processes and have been implicated in functions as diverse as fluid secretion and longevity. The first animal knockout of a V-ATPase was identified in Drosophila, and its recessive lethality demonstrated the essential nature of V-ATPases. This article surveys the entire V-ATPase gene family in Drosophila, both experimentally and in silico. Adult expression patterns of most of the genes are shown experimentally for the first time, using in situ hybridization or reporter gene expression, and these results are reconciled with published expression and microarray data. For each subunit, the single gene identified previously by microarray, as upregulated and abundant in tubules, is shown to be similarly abundant in other epithelia in which V-ATPases are known to be important; there thus appears to be a single dominant "plasma membrane" V-ATPase holoenzyme in Drosophila. This provides the most comprehensive view of V-ATPase expression yet in a multicellular organism. The transparent Malpighian tubule phenotype first identified in lethal alleles of vha55, the gene encoding the B-subunit, is shown to be general to those plasma membrane V-ATPase subunits for which lethal alleles are available, and to be caused by failure to accumulate uric acid crystals. These results coincide with the expression view of the gene family, in which 13 of the genes are specialized for epithelial roles, whereas others have spatially or temporally restricted patterns of expression.  (+info)

Molecular distinction between populations of Gonatocerus morrilli, egg parasitoids of the glassy-winged sharpshooter from Texas and California: do cryptic species exist? (4/863)

Two molecular methods were utilized to distinguish geographic populations of Gonatocerus morrilli (Howard) from Texas and California and to test the possibility that this species could exist as a species-complex. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat-Polymerase Chain Reactions (ISSR-PCR) were performed with a 5'-anchored ISSR primer. Twenty-five markers were generated with four populations (40 individuals) of G. morrilli. Twenty-three were polymorphic and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 92%. Most markers could be considered diagnostic since there was no band sharing between the Texas and California populations. Such differences typically are not found unless the populations are reproductively isolated. Exact tests for population differentiation indicated significant differences in marker frequencies among the populations. Comparison of other genetic differentiation estimates, which evaluate the degree of genetic subdivision, demonstrated excellent agreement between GST and theta values, 0.92 and 0.94, respectively, indicating that about 92 to 94% of the variance was distributed among populations. The average genetic divergence (D), as measured by genetic distance, was extremely high (Nei = 0.82 and Reynolds = 2.79). A dendrogram based on Nei's genetic distance separated the Texas and California populations into two clusters, respectively. Amplification of the Internal Transcribed Spacer-1 (ITS-1) region showed no size differences, whereas the ITS-2 DNA fragment varied in size between the two geographic populations. The ITS-2 fragment sizes were about 865 and 1099 base pairs for the California and Texas populations, respectively. The present study using the two molecular methods provides novel data critical to the glassy-winged sharpshooter/Pierce's disease biological control program in California.  (+info)

Patterns of synonymous codon usage in Drosophila melanogaster genes with sex-biased expression. (5/863)

The nonrandom use of synonymous codons (codon bias) is a well-established phenomenon in Drosophila. Recent reports suggest that levels of codon bias differ among genes that are differentially expressed between the sexes, with male-expressed genes showing less codon bias than female-expressed genes. To examine the relationship between sex-biased gene expression and level of codon bias on a genomic scale, we surveyed synonymous codon usage in 7276 D. melanogaster genes that were classified as male-, female-, or non-sex-biased in their expression in microarray experiments. We found that male-biased genes have significantly less codon bias than both female- and non-sex-biased genes. This pattern holds for both germline and somatically expressed genes. Furthermore, we find a significantly negative correlation between level of codon bias and degree of sex-biased expression for male-biased genes. In contrast, female-biased genes do not differ from non-sex-biased genes in their level of codon bias and show a significantly positive correlation between codon bias and degree of sex-biased expression. These observations cannot be explained by differences in chromosomal distribution, mutational processes, recombinational environment, gene length, or absolute expression level among genes of the different expression classes. We propose that the observed codon bias differences result from differences in selection at synonymous and/or linked nonsynonymous sites between genes with male- and female-biased expression.  (+info)

African sequence variation accounts for most of the sequence polymorphism in non-African Drosophila melanogaster. (6/863)

We compared the sequence polymorphism of 12 genomic fragments in six geographically dispersed African populations to one European Drosophila melanogaster population. On the basis of one African and one European population half of these fragments have strongly reduced levels of variability outside of Africa. Despite this striking difference in European variation, we detected no significant difference in African variation between the two fragment classes. The joint analysis of all African populations indicated that all high-frequency European alleles are of African origin. We observed a negative Tajima's D in all African populations, with three populations deviating significantly from neutral equilibrium. Low, but statistically significant, population differentiation was observed among the African populations. Our results imply that the population structure and demographic past of African D. melanogaster populations need to be considered for the inference of footprints of selection in non-African populations.  (+info)

Cross-species comparison of Drosophila male accessory gland protein genes. (7/863)

Drosophila melanogaster males transfer seminal fluid proteins along with sperm during mating. Among these proteins, ACPs (Accessory gland proteins) from the male's accessory gland induce behavioral, physiological, and life span reduction in mated females and mediate sperm storage and utilization. A previous evolutionary EST screen in D. simulans identified partial cDNAs for 57 new candidate ACPs. Here we report the annotation and confirmation of the corresponding Acp genes in D. melanogaster. Of 57 new candidate Acp genes previously reported in D. melanogaster, 34 conform to our more stringent criteria for encoding putative male accessory gland extracellular proteins, thus bringing the total number of ACPs identified to 52 (34 plus 18 previously identified). This comprehensive set of Acp genes allows us to dissect the patterns of evolutionary change in a suite of proteins from a single male-specific reproductive tissue. We used sequence-based analysis to examine codon bias, gene duplications, and levels of divergence (via dN/dS values and ortholog detection) of the 52 D. melanogaster ACPs in D. simulans, D. yakuba, and D. pseudoobscura. We show that 58% of the 52 D. melanogaster Acp genes are detectable in D. pseudoobscura. Sequence comparisons of ACPs shared and not shared between D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura show that there are separate classes undergoing distinctly dissimilar evolutionary dynamics.  (+info)

Polygenic mutation in Drosophila melanogaster: Mapping spontaneous mutations affecting sensory bristle number. (8/863)

Our ability to predict long-term responses to artificial and natural selection, and understand the mechanisms by which naturally occurring variation for quantitative traits is maintained, depends on detailed knowledge of the properties of spontaneous polygenic mutations, including the quantitative trait loci (QTL) at which mutations occur, mutation rates, and mutational effects. These parameters can be estimated by mapping QTL that cause divergence between mutation-accumulation lines that have been established from an inbred base population and selected for high and low trait values. Here, we have utilized quantitative complementation to deficiencies to map QTL at which spontaneous mutations affecting Drosophila abdominal and sternopleural bristle number have occurred in 11 replicate lines during 206 generations of divergent selection. Estimates of the numbers of mutations were consistent with diploid per-character mutation rates for bristle traits of 0.03. The ratio of the per-character mutation rate to total mutation rate (0.023) implies that >2% of the genome could affect just one bristle trait and that there must be extensive pleiotropy for quantitative phenotypes. The estimated mutational effects were not, however, additive and exhibited dependency on genetic background consistent with diminishing epistasis. However, these inferences must be tempered by the potential for epistatic interactions between spontaneous mutations and QTL affecting bristle number on the deficiency-bearing chromosomes, which could lead to overestimates in numbers of QTL and inaccurate inference of gene action.  (+info)

Background: The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is one of the most economically important insects in many developing countries owing to its large-scale cultivation for silk production. With the development of genomic and biotechnological tools, B. mori has also become an important bioreactor for production of various recombinant proteins of biomedical interest. In 2004, two genome sequencing projects for B. mori were reported independently by Chinese and Japanese teams; however, the datasets were insufficient for building long genomic scaffolds which are essential for unambiguous annotation of the genome. Now, both the datasets have been merged and assembled through a joint collaboration between the two groups. Description: Integration of the two data sets of silkworm whole-genome-shotgun sequencing by the Japanese and Chinese groups together with newly obtained fosmid- and BAC-end sequences produced the best continuity (~3.7 Mb in N50 scaffold size) among the sequenced insect genomes and provided a high degree
In fruit fly research, chromosomal deletions are indispensable tools for mapping mutations, characterizing alleles and identifying interacting loci. Most widely used deletions were generated by irradiation or chemical mutagenesis. These methods are labor-intensive, generate random breakpoints and re …
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Comparative mapping resource for grasses (plant) +, A publicly accessible legume resource that will integrate genetic and molecular data from multiple legume species and enable cross-species comparisons +, The Honey Bee genome database +, Brassica database + and A browser-based tool for the visual comparison of various maps (sequence, genetic, etc.) from any number of species. The CMap package also includes tools for curating map data. + ...
A browser-based tool for the visual comparison of various maps (sequence, genetic, etc.) from any number of species. The CMap package also includes tools for curating map data. +, Comparative mapping resource for grasses (plant) +, A publicly accessible legume resource that will integrate genetic and molecular data from multiple legume species and enable cross-species comparisons +, The Honey Bee genome database + and Brassica database + ...
A new paper came out in Science this week, Worldwide Human Relationships Inferred from Genome-Wide Patterns of Variation, thats getting some media play. The second-to-last author is L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, and the general combination of means and ends on display in The History and Geography of Human Genes, is all over it. From the introduction:…. ...
Recent analysis of the human and mouse genomes has shown that a substantial proportion of protein coding genes and cis-regulatory elements contain transposable element (TE) sequences, implicating TE domestication as a mechanism for the origin of genetic novelty. To understand the general role of TE domestication in eukaryotic genome evolution, it is important to assess the acquisition of functional TE sequences by host genomes in a variety of different species, and to understand in greater depth the population dynamics of these mutational events. Using an in silico screen for host genes that contain TE sequences, we identified a set of 63 mature chimeric transcripts supported by expressed sequence tag (EST) evidence in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. We found a paucity of chimeric TEs relative to expectations derived from non-chimeric TEs, indicating that the majority (~80%) of TEs that generate chimeric transcripts are deleterious and are not observed in the genome sequence. Using a pooled-PCR
LOCUS DF090445 668521 bp DNA linear CON 26-OCT-2017 DEFINITION Bombyx mori DNA, scaffold: Bm_scaf130, strain: p50T/Dazao. ACCESSION DF090445 BABH01000000 VERSION DF090445.1 DBLINK BioProject:PRJDA20217 BioSample:SAMD00036537 KEYWORDS WGS. SOURCE Bombyx mori (domestic silkworm) ORGANISM Bombyx mori Eukaryota; Metazoa; Ecdysozoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Ditrysia; Bombycoidea; Bombycidae; Bombycinae; Bombyx. REFERENCE 1 (bases 1 to 668521) AUTHORS Mita,K. and Xia,Q. CONSRTM The international silkworm genome sequencing consortium TITLE Direct Submission JOURNAL Submitted (06-SEP-2007) to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases. Contact:Kazuei Mita National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Insect Genome Research Unit; 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan REFERENCE 2 AUTHORS CONSRTM The International Silkworm Genome Consortium TITLE The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori JOURNAL Insect Biochem. Mol. ...
LOCUS DF090416 1310704 bp DNA linear CON 26-OCT-2017 DEFINITION Bombyx mori DNA, scaffold: Bm_scaf101, strain: p50T/Dazao. ACCESSION DF090416 BABH01000000 VERSION DF090416.1 DBLINK BioProject:PRJDA20217 BioSample:SAMD00036537 KEYWORDS WGS. SOURCE Bombyx mori (domestic silkworm) ORGANISM Bombyx mori Eukaryota; Metazoa; Ecdysozoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; Neoptera; Holometabola; Lepidoptera; Glossata; Ditrysia; Bombycoidea; Bombycidae; Bombycinae; Bombyx. REFERENCE 1 (bases 1 to 1310704) AUTHORS Mita,K. and Xia,Q. CONSRTM The international silkworm genome sequencing consortium TITLE Direct Submission JOURNAL Submitted (06-SEP-2007) to the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases. Contact:Kazuei Mita National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Insect Genome Research Unit; 1-2 Owashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan REFERENCE 2 AUTHORS CONSRTM The International Silkworm Genome Consortium TITLE The genome of a lepidopteran model insect, the silkworm Bombyx mori JOURNAL Insect Biochem. Mol. ...
The modENCODE Project will try to identify all of the sequence-based functional elements in the Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster genomes. ...
Western biology professor Graham Thompson claims that he and Peter Oxley of the University of Sydney in Australia have for the first time isolated a region on the honey bee genome that houses the selfish gene controlling sterility in female workers bees… [Editors Note: The research will be published in the July issue of Genetics ...
VectorBase maintains a repository for published and publication-quality microarray and RNA-seq experiments pertaining to invertebrate vector species. Data is processed through a standard normalisation and analysis pipeline, which enables side-by-side comparison of results from a variety of experimental designs. While we check carefully to ensure that the biological interpretations of the published and VectorBase analyses are qualitatively the same, we advise users to refer to the original authors data and protocols if in any doubt. ...
View the Fent te surname, family crest and coat of arms. Discover the Fent te family history for the French Origin. What is the origin of the name Fent te?
Identification of components of the intracellular transport machinery of acylated proteins by a genome-wide RNAi screen [Elektronische Ressource] / presented by Julia Ritzerfeld : IDENTIFICATIO N O F CO M PO NENTS O F TH E INTRACELLU LAR TRANSPO RT M ACH INERY O F ACYLATED PRO TEINS BY A GENO M E‐W IDE RNAI SCREEN DISSERTATIO N submitted to the Combined Faculties for the Natural Sciences and for Mathematics of the Ruperto Caro la University of Heidelberg, Germany for the degree of Doctor of Natural Sciences Julia Ritzerfeld
Citation: Collins, A.M., Caperna, T.J., Williams, V.P., Garrett, W.M., Evans, J.D. 2006.Proteomic analyses of male contributions to honey bee sperm storage and mating. Insect Molecular Biology. 15(5):541-549. Interpretive Summary: The honey bee is an important agricultural insect by pollinating more than 90 crops and providing honey and other commercial products. This work reflects two longstanding goals of bee research: improving the egg-laying lifespan of queens and developing methods for preserving genetic lines that show disease resistance and other desirable traits. The latter goal is helpful for beekeepers in the short term and essential for the exploiting new data from the Honey Bee Genome Project in the long term. Here we search the bee genome for matches to proteins collected from male honey bees and from semen itself. We discuss dozens of such matches and show which ones are likely to be important in sperm survival and the effective fertilization of queens. The results will aid ...
In the December 2017 VectorBase release VectorBase announced the adoption of the new Aedes aegypti AaegL5 genome assembly produced by the Aedes aegypti Genome Working group. We have received a number of communications from the community that indicate people are encountering significant problems when working with the new gene set based on this assembly. The NCBI Aedes aegypti annotation release 101 (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/annotation_euk/Aedes_aegypti/101/) was a new de novo annotation using the Gnomon software (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/annotation_euk/gnomon/), and as such differs significantly from the existing AaegL3 gene set. VectorBase has worked with the NCBI to attempt to map existing stable gene ids between the assemblies, but given the nature of the different assembly and predicted gene models this has not always been possible. Improved contiguation of the AaegL5 assembly has resulted in significant gene model changes at a number of loci as a result of split/merge ...
The honey bee is an excellent model system for studying biological systems including social behavior and gene environment interactions. As a model system, the honey bee is relatively inexpensive when compared to a rodent model, yet still possesses some of the complex attributes such as a social structure and the ability of individuals to learn and communicate with other members of its society. These characteristics make it particularly attractive as a model for studying neurobiology. While possessing these complex attributes, at the same time, the honey bee is a simpler biological model than a higher order animal and as such, offers an increased likelihood for identifying biological molecules or collections of molecules involved in the condition of interest. This can be extremely valuable for dissecting the underlying causes for health and disease when those molecules or collections of molecules have human orthologs. In October of this year, the first draft of the honey bee genome was published ...
April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. A new study suggests that the reason worker bees are such a highly skilled and specialized workforce is that the genes controlling their behavior are re-shuffled frequently, helping evolution build a better bee.. The new research from York University, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), sheds light on how sterile worker bees evolved charismatic and cooperative behaviors. These behaviors include nursing young bees, collecting food for the colony, defending it against intruders, and dancing to communicate the location of profitable flowers to nest mates.. By examining the honey bee genome, the team noticed that the genes associated with worker behavior were found in the area of the genome known to have the highest rate of recombination, which is basically a shuffling of the genetic deck. Biology Professor Amro Zayed says that because of such shuffling, the bees can be strongly varied. For example the ...
The implementation of decisions affecting cell viability and proliferation is dependant on prompt detection of the problem to become addressed, formulation and transmission of the correct group of instructions and fidelity in the execution of orders. nearing mitosis might encounter, presenting the effect of post-translational adjustments (PTMs) on the right and timely working of pathways fixing errors or harm before chromosome segregation. We conclude this article having a perspective on the existing position of mitotic signaling pathway inhibitors 154235-83-3 IC50 and their potential make use of in malignancy therapy. (Mazzarello, 1999). The main occasions characterizing changeover through the cell routine are cell development, where means cells boost their size and the amount of organelles, and duplication of hereditary materials in S-phase. If not really perturbed, upon conclusion of DNA replication cells enter mitosis, a term that originally explained nuclear department (Mazzarello, 1999). ...
Outrageous boar (complicated (MTC) excretion routes is essential to define ways of control bTB in free-ranging populations nevertheless obtainable information is normally scarce. ungulates was performed by Lugton et al. MPC-3100 [15] who discovered excretion by many routes from crimson deer: dental (4/53 oropharyngeal swabs) sinus (1/53 sinus swabs) tracheal (1/53 tracheal swabs) and rectal (1/53 fecal examples). Urinary excretion was investigated however not discovered by these authors also. In experimentally contaminated white-tailed deer (Palmer and collaborators [18] discovered excretion for 113 dpi by dental sinus and fecal routes. Within this same research na?ve deer in touch with the experimentally contaminated pets showed excretion with the dental and sinus routes for 90?times post-contact. In a few studies shedding continues to be inferred predicated on the positioning and structure from the lesions [8 MPC-3100 10 but continues to be cultured in the MPC-3100 feces of calves that just ...
FlyBase is an online database of Drosophila (fruit fly) genes and genomes. The FlyBase API allows users to retrieve Chado XML data for FlyBase objects using either the primary FlyBase ID or current symbol. Searchable objects include genes, alleles, transcripts, proteins, clones, etc. The XML data returned contains most of the data used to create FlyBases web reports, excluding images and gene summary information ...
The identifier 17018967 is not present in the current release of the VectorBase database.. This view requires a gene, transcript or protein identifier in the URL. For example: ...
Cornell researchers have played a major role in an international scientific team that has compared the complete set of genes of 12 closely related fruit fly species. As well has having implications for human health, the analysis paves the way for better understanding the evolution of each species.
Altmetric calculates a score based on the online attention an article receives. Each coloured thread in the circle represents a different type of online attention. The number in the centre is the Altmetric score. Social media and mainstream news media are the main sources that calculate the score. Reference managers such as Mendeley are also tracked but do not contribute to the score. Older articles often score higher because they have had more time to get noticed. To account for this, Altmetric has included the context data for other articles of a similar age. ...
This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, under Contract No. HHSN272201400029C.. Bioinformatics Resource Centers for Infectious Disease: VectorBase , EuPathDB , IRD , PATRIC , ViPR ...
Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are widespread in plants and animals. Although silkworm (Bombyx mori) has a large amount of and a variety of transposable elements, the genome-wide information of the silkworm MITEs is unknown. We used structure-based and homology approaches to search for MITEs in the silkworm genome. We identified 17 MITE families with a total of 5785 members, accounting for ~0.4% of the genome. 7 of 17 MITE families are completely novel based on the nucleotide composition of target site duplication (TSD) and/or terminal inverted repeats (TIR). Silkworm MITEs were widely and nonrandom distributed in the genome. One family named BmMITE-2 might experience a recent burst expansion. Network and diversity analyses for each family revealed different diversification patterns of the silkworm MITEs, reflecting the signatures of genome-shocks that silkworm experienced. Most silkworm MITEs preferentially inserted into or near genes and BmMITE-11 that encodes a germline
Description: There is extraordinary diversity in sexual dimorphism (SD) among animals, but little is known about its epigenetic basis. To study the epigenetic architecture of SD in a haplodiploid system, we performed RNA-seq and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing of adult females and males from two closely related parasitoid wasps, Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti. More than 75% of expressed genes displayed significantly sex-biased expression. As a consequence, expression profiles are more similar between species within each sex than between sexes within each species. Furthermore, extremely male- and female-biased genes are enriched for totally different functional categories: male-biased genes for key enzymes in sexpheromone synthesis and female-biased genes for genes involved in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Remarkably, just 70 highly expressed, extremely male-biased genes account for 10% of all transcripts in adult males. Unlike expression profiles, DNA methylomes are ...
Drosophila Melanogaster, the common fruit fly, is a model organism which has been extensively used in entymological research. It is one of the most studied organisms in biological research, particularly in genetics and developmental biology. When its not being used for scientific research, D. melanogaster is a common pest in homes, restaurants, and anywhere else that serves food. They are not to be confused with Tephritidae flys (also known as fruit flys). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drosophila_melanogaster
article{50605226-e997-44cc-9a6a-b33098df66a3, abstract = {,p,Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon families, evolves more slowly, and is more similar to vertebrates for circadian rhythm, RNA interference and DNA methylation genes, among others. Furthermore, A. mellifera has fewer genes for innate immunity, detoxification enzymes, cuticle-forming proteins and gustatory receptors, more genes for odorant receptors, and novel genes for nectar and pollen utilization, consistent with its ecology and social organization. Compared to Drosophila, genes in early developmental pathways differ in Apis, whereas similarities exist for functions that differ markedly, such as sex determination, brain function and behaviour. Population genetics suggests a novel African origin ...
FlyBase comprises a series of electronic documents and information processing software, the reference copy of which currently resides at the Internet address ,ftp://ftp.flybase.org/,. This publication may be copied for non-commercial, scientific uses by individuals or organizations (including for-profit organizations). FlyBase is freely distributed to the scientific community on the understanding that it will not be used for commercial gain by any organization. Any commercial use of this publication, or any parts thereof, is expressly prohibited without permission in writing from the FlyBase consortium. Certain portions of FlyBase are copyrighted separately. This notice does not invalidate any prior copyright pertaining to portions of FlyBase. Warranty FlyBase and the Genetics Society of America make no warranty of any kind with respect to the subject matter included herein. FlyBase and the Genetics Society of America specifically disclaim all warranties, expressed, implied or otherwise, ...
FlyBase comprises a series of electronic documents and information processing software, the reference copy of which currently resides at the Internet address ,ftp://ftp.flybase.org/,. This publication may be copied for non-commercial, scientific uses by individuals or organizations (including for-profit organizations). FlyBase is freely distributed to the scientific community on the understanding that it will not be used for commercial gain by any organization. Any commercial use of this publication, or any parts thereof, is expressly prohibited without permission in writing from the FlyBase consortium. Certain portions of FlyBase are copyrighted separately. This notice does not invalidate any prior copyright pertaining to portions of FlyBase. Warranty FlyBase and the Genetics Society of America make no warranty of any kind with respect to the subject matter included herein. FlyBase and the Genetics Society of America specifically disclaim all warranties, expressed, implied or otherwise, ...
Metastasis is the leading cause of death for cancer patients. Consequently it is imperative that we improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie progression of tumour growth towards malignancy. Advances in genome characterisation technologies have been very successful in identifying commonly mutated or misregulated genes in a variety of human cancers. A major challenge however is the translation of these findings to new biological insight due to the difficulty in evaluating whether these candidate genes drive tumour progression. Using the genetic amenability of Drosophila melanogaster we generated tumours with specific genotypes in the living animal and carried out a detailed systematic loss-of-function analysis to identify numerous conserved genes that enhance or suppress epithelial tumour progression. This enabled the discovery of functional cooperative regulators of invasion and the establishment of a network of conserved invasion suppressors.. RNAi line: 41021 (X ...
Metastasis is the leading cause of death for cancer patients. Consequently it is imperative that we improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie progression of tumour growth towards malignancy. Advances in genome characterisation technologies have been very successful in identifying commonly mutated or misregulated genes in a variety of human cancers. A major challenge however is the translation of these findings to new biological insight due to the difficulty in evaluating whether these candidate genes drive tumour progression. Using the genetic amenability of Drosophila melanogaster we generated tumours with specific genotypes in the living animal and carried out a detailed systematic loss-of-function analysis to identify numerous conserved genes that enhance or suppress epithelial tumour progression. This enabled the discovery of functional cooperative regulators of invasion and the establishment of a network of conserved invasion suppressors. RNAi line: 10279R-2 (X) ...
The goals of the Drosophila Genome Center are to finish the sequence of the euchromatic genome of Drosophila melanogaster to high quality and to generate and maintain biological annotations of this sequence. In addition to genomic sequencing, the BDGP is 1) producing gene disruptions using P element-mediated mutagenesis on a scale unprecedented in metazoans; 2) characterizing the sequence and expression of cDNAs; and 3) developing informatics tools that support the experimental process, identify features of DNA sequence, and allow us to present up-to-date information about the annotated sequence to the research community. [Information of the supplier ...
In this study, we have used an automated image analysis pipeline to screen through images from a high-content, genome-wide RNAi screen for genes whose activity is rate-limiting for the growth of Drosophila cells in culture. In doing so, we identified a number of known and novel genes regulating cell size. Interestingly, this screen identified a novel role for autocrine signaling through Pvfs and the receptor tyrosine kinase Pvr in the control of the autonomous growth of Drosophila cells in culture. Previous studies have suggested roles for Pvf/Pvr signaling in the control of cell migration [23, 27, 30], morphogenesis [25, 26, 31], cell viability [22] and proliferation [28, 29]. However, to our knowledge this is the first clear example of this pathway controlling cell size. This reduction in the size of Pvr RNAi cells was accompanied by a reduction in cell proliferation, as revealed by reduced cell numbers in the absence of significant apoptosis (data not shown), and by a delay in the passage of ...
The mir-2 microRNA family includes the microRNA genes mir-2 and mir-13 (MIPF0000049). Mir-2 is widespread in invertebrates, and it is the largest family of microRNAs in the model species Drosophila melanogaster. MicroRNAs from this family are produced from the 3 arm of the precursor hairpin. Leaman et al. showed that the miR-2 family regulates cell survival by translational repression of proapoptotic factors. Based on computational prediction of targets, a role in neural development and maintenance has been suggested. The mir-2 family is specific to protostomes. There are 8 mir-2-related loci in Drosophila melanogaster: mir-2a-1, mir-2a-2, mir-2b-1, mir-2b-2, mir-2c, mir-13a, mir-13b-1 and mir-13b-2. Most other insect genomes host five mir-2 loci although the number varies in other invertebrates. Mir-13 subfamily emerged from mir-2 sequences before the insect radiation. Although mir-11 and mir-6 have similar sequences to mir-2 microRNAs, they are not evolutionarily related, and therefore should ...
Vector biology, population genetics. My overall research interest is in the population genetics of insect vectors of human and animal diseases. I have developed a program that pursues knowledge that may be applied to the control of vectorborne diseases but at the same time addresses critical issues in basic evolutionary genetics. My work has transitioned from classical population genetics to a more contemporary population genomics approach. Whereas the earlier work was based on analyses using genic markers, such as microsatellite DNA and single nucleotide polymorphisms, our current work applies next generation sequencing to study individual insect genomes, allowing us to explore problems with far greater depth and to address questions that were intractable just a few years ago. In parallel with our increasing use of genomics I have established a program in bioinformatics which is essential for both the management and analysis of the large body of data we are generating using next generation ...
WHAT a wonderful time to be a biologist! This month we celebrate the publication of the complete genomic sequences of 10 species of Drosophila to complement those of Drosophila melanogaster (Adams et al. 2000) and D. pseudoobscura (Richards et al. 2005). A 13th genome, that of D. mauritiana, has been sequenced in part, but the data have yet to be analyzed (L. Hillier, Washington University, personal communication). This achievement is marked by the publication of two community articles in Nature in November 2007 (Drosophila 12 Genomes Consortium 2007; Stark et al. 2007) and nearly 50 articles in other journals, including Genetics. Rather than attempt to summarize these articles (in effect this is done by the community publications), here I will attempt to draw some more general biological and sociological lessons learned from the sequencing of these genomes.. What are the deep biological questions that large-scale sequencing should seek to answer, in particular large-scale sequencing of ...
Background Apoptosis, one of many types of programmed cell loss of life, is conducted and regulated with a organic proteins network. vertebrate, nematode, and insect genomes, got multiple paralogs in the cnidarian-bilaterian ancestor. Different people of the ancestral Apaf-1 family members resulted in the extant protein in nematodes/pests and in deuterostomes, detailing significant functional differences between proteins that until had been thought to be orthologous today. Similarly, 173220-07-0 IC50 the advancement from the Bcl-2 and caspase proteins families appears 173220-07-0 IC50 amazingly complicated and evidently included significant gene reduction in nematodes and pests and expansions in deuterostomes. Bottom line The rising picture from the evolution from the apoptosis network is certainly among a succession of lineage-specific expansions and loss, which combined with limited amount of apoptotic proteins families, led to apparent commonalities between systems in different ...
Read more about Genomic boost to protect Assams muga silkworm on Business Standard. A snapshot of the muga silkworm genome decoded by Indian scientists offers vital clues for imparting disease-resistance to help conserve the economically important insect which spins the distinctive golden yellow fabric synonymous with Assam.
...WEST LAFAYETTE Ind. - Wheats genetic resistance to Hessian flies has...The Purdue and USDA research team developed a method to test toxins fr... For years people have tried to develop a bioassay but that hadnt h...Shukle said the 33 genes known to give wheat resistance to Hessian fly...,Wheat,cant,stop,Hessian,flies,,so,scientists,find,reinforcements,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Locale, Genomes and Genes, Scientific Experts, Publications, Species, Research Topics about Experts and Doctors on drosophila melanogaster in New York, United States
A genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells identified 41 genes capable of specifically modifying Aβ secretion without affecting general secretion or viability. As expected, the four γ-secretase complex components showed the most potent Aβ-lowering effects upon knockdown, with ,10% Aβ remaining. This validated the RNAi screen because it demonstrated that the approach could robustly identify relevant Aβ-modulator genes in an unbiased screen. There was a large difference in the magnitude of phenotype between these four genes and the other genes identified, suggesting that no other essential γ-secretase complex protein exists as expected (Edbauer et al., 2003), but rather proteins that serve a modulatory role in Aβ generation. Indeed, another high-throughput RNAi screen found a potent modulator of BACE1 activity but did not describe the identification of any γ-secretase modulators (Majercak et al., 2006). Knockdown of pigeon, the Drosophila homolog of the recently identified GSAP ...
Evolutionarily conserved functional domains of non-coding RNAon chromosome X (roX1 ) have been identified in eight Drosophilaspecies in a prior study.
HI I have a fast file of dm6 which is correctly formatted to be used as a reference taken from the current history by most tools. This might be useful in this manner if you are not an administrator of your galaxy instance.. If you are an administrator you can make available to tools from the drop down menus.. You can get the dataset dm6_iso_all from the following shared history. https://usegalaxy.org/u/guy1/h/share-dm6-ref ...
If you have a disability and are having trouble accessing information on this website or need materials in an alternate format, contact [email protected] for assistance.. ...
If you have a disability and are having trouble accessing information on this website or need materials in an alternate format, contact [email protected] for assistance.. ...
Francioli, L. C.; Polak, P. P.; Koren, A.; Menelaou, A.; Chun, S.; Renkens, I.; Genome of the Netherlands, C.; van Duijn, C. M.; Swertz, M.; Wijmenga, C. et al.; van Ommen, G.; Slagboom, P. E.; Boomsma, D. I.; Ye, K.; Guryev, V.; Arndt, P. F.; Kloosterman, W. P.; de Bakker, P. I.; Sunyaev, S. R.: Genome-wide patterns and properties of de novo mutations in humans. Nature Genetics 47 (7), pp. 822 - 826 (2015 ...
Chemosensory systems play key roles in the survival and reproductive success of insects. Insect chemoreception is mediated by two large and diverse gene superfamilies, chemoreceptors and odorant binding proteins (OBPs). OBPs are believed to transport hydrophobic odorants from the environment to the olfactory receptors. We identified a family of OBP-like genes in the silkworm genome and characterized their expression using oligonucleotide microarrays. A total of forty-four OBP genes were annotated, a number comparable to the 57 OBPs known from Anopheles gambiae and 51 from Drosophila melanogaster. As seen in other fully sequenced insect genomes, most silkworm OBP genes are present in large clusters. We defined six subfamilies of OBPs, each of which shows lineage-specific expansion and diversification. EST data and OBP expression profiles from multiple larvae tissues of day three fifth instars demonstrated that many OBPs are expressed in chemosensory-specific tissues although some OBPs are expressed
FlyBase update October 20, 1993 - new P1 clone and P element lists G. M. Rubin and the Drosophila Genome Center have made updated lists of P1 clones and new lists of P element lines available to FlyBase. The lists can be accessed either through the FlyBase Gopher server or by anonymous ftp from the Flybase server (fly.bio.indiana.edu). There are now 2038 P1 clones available from designated distributing laboratories and 508 P element insertion lines available from the Bloomington Drosophila Stock Center. The lists are available in comma-separated value (csv) file form, which can be used by many spreadsheet and database programs, as well as in formatted tables files sorted in order of polytene chromosome band location and files used to support gopher searches by polytene location or clone or P element name. There are three documentation files. P1.doc describes the P1 clone list files, and Pelement.doc describes the P element files. LBL.doc provides information on how the P1 clones and P element ...
Looking for Hessian fly? Find out information about Hessian fly. European gall gnat gnat, common name for any one of a number of small, fragile-looking two-winged flies of the suborder Nematocera, order Diptera, which... Explanation of Hessian fly
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short regulatory RNAs that inhibit target genes by complementary binding in 3 untranslated regions (3 UTRs). They are one of the most abundant classes of regulators, targeting a large fraction of all genes, making their comprehensive study a requirement for understanding regulation and development. Here we use 12 Drosophila genomes to define structural and evolutionary signatures of miRNA hairpins, which we use for their de novo discovery. We predict ,41 novel miRNA genes, which encompass many unique families, and 28 of which are validated experimentally. We also define signals for the precise start position of mature miRNAs, which suggest corrections of previously known miRNAs, often leading to drastic changes in their predicted target spectrum. We show that miRNA discovery power scales with the number and divergence of species compared, suggesting that such approaches can be successful in human as dozens of mammalian genomes become available. Interestingly, for some ...
Bordensteins team studied Nasonia parasitic wasps, which are about the size of a sesame seed, and they serve as one of the best models to dissect and characterize the evolution of insect genomes.
The analyses presented here indicate that ubc-25 acts as a negative regulator of steady-state CYE-1 expression, but it is not known whether this regulation is achieved through direct ubiquitinylation of CYE-1 by UBC-25. It is likely that UBC-25 ubiquitinylates a range of targets to regulate a variety of processes. In fact, ubc-25 was previously recognized for roles not directly related to the cell cycle, such as promoting a Ras-mediated cell-fate decision (Rocheleau et al. 2008) and maintaining neuromuscular homeostasis (Schulze et al. 2003). It would be interesting to determine whether the putative interaction partner, C30H7.2, acts with UBC-25 in these alternative processes. Our genetic analyses provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms that may explain the relatively mild loss of function phenotypes observed when individual components are inactivated. First, other genes within a family may provide redundant activity. For example, 22 ubc genes are encoded in the C. elegans genome and we ...
Since being recognized as a new Panamanian species about 15 years ago, much has been learned about the biology of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior, but the genetic basis of their farming lifestyle remained largely unknown. In this report, an international team of researchers has sequenced the genome of A. echinatior, and by comparison to other ant and insect genomes, identified genomic clues to the evolution of fungus farming behavior.. The authors noted that one of the most interesting findings in the genome of this leaf-cutting ant was that there are more genes in two particularly noteworthy gene families. Based on their function in other organisms, we expect them to be involved in mating system adaptations and symbiotic food processing with the fungus, said Dr. Sanne Nygaard of the Copenhagen Centre for Social Evolution, co-lead author of the study.. Nygaard explained that these findings are especially fascinating because known evolutionary changes in the reproductive biology and ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for FBpp0113084 from Drosophila melanogaster FlyBase 5.12. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for FBpp0070431 from Drosophila melanogaster FlyBase 5.12. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Ancient DNA makes it possible to observe natural selection directly by analysing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report a genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest ancient DNA data set yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians …
Adult cDNALarval cDNA Developmentally- Regulated Gene Expression The Fly Genome 3 autosomal pairs (2,3,4) Sex chromosomes XX, XY 165Mb 14,000 genes 50% have a human homolog 61% of human disease genes have a fly counterpart
FlyBase is a long-term informatics resource that provides the scientific community with core genetic and genomic information on the major biomedical genetic mod...
I am a [http://www.vectorbase.org VectorBase] Developer in the [[kafatos:Kafatos/Christophides Lab,Kafatos/Christophides Lab]] at [http://www.imperial.ac.uk/ Imperial College], ...
The sequencing and comparison of 12 fruit fly genomes -- the result of a massive collaboration of hundreds of scientists from more than 100 institutions in 16 countries -- has thrust forward researchers understanding of fruit flies, a popular animal model in science. But even human genome biologists may want to take note: The project also has revealed considerable flaws in the way they identify genes.
1.0 1.1 Spradling, AC et al. (1999) The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project gene disruption project: Single P-element insertions mutating 25% of vital Drosophila genes. Genetics 153 135-77 PubMed GONUTS page ...
Summary of modENCODE Temporal Expression Profile: Temporal profile ranges from a peak of high expression to a trough of very low expression ...
"Genome News Network. Retrieved 2009-04-29.. *^ Zhang, Y; Cheng, C; Li, J; Yang, S; Wang, Y; Li, Z; Chen, J; Lou, Q (2015). " ... Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 41 (6): 370-7. doi:10.1016/j.ibmb.2011.02.005. hdl:2115/45607. PMID 21396446.. ... "J Insect Sci. 10 (118): 1-11. doi:10.1673/031.010.11801. PMC 3016996. PMID 20874599.. ... "Genome Biology. 8 (11): R243. doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-11-r243. PMC 2258203. PMID 18021405.. ...
Webb, B. A. (1998). Polydnavirus biology, genome structure, and evolution. In Miller, L.K., Ball, L.A., Eds. The Insect Viruses ... The full genome of the virus is integrated into the genome of the wasp and the virus only replicates in a particular part of ... the genome of each virus is integrated into the host wasp genome ... Genome Sequence of a Polydnavirus: Insights into Symbiotic ... A polydnavirus /pɒˈlɪdnəvaɪərəs/ (PDV) is a member of the family Polydnaviridae of insect viruses. There are currently 53 ...
Marco, A; Hui, JH; Ronshaugen, M; Griffiths-Jones, S (2010). "Functional shifts in insect microRNA evolution". Genome Biol Evol ... Most other insect genomes host five mir-2 loci although the number varies in other invertebrates. Mir-13 subfamily emerged from ... Mir-2 microRNAs are organized in a large cluster in most insects. This cluster has typically 5 members of the mir-2 family plus ... The number of mir-2 sequences differs among invertebrate lineages although they remain tightly clustered in the genome. A ...
... and for having its genome sequenced by the Human Genome Sequencing Center as part of the i5K project. They are mainly ... Among these is Copidosoma floridanum, known for having the largest recorded brood of any parasitoidal insect, at 3,055 ... "i5K: Copidosoma floridanum". Human Genome Sequencing Center. Baylor College of Medicine. Retrieved 3 September 2013. CS1 maint ... Book of Insect Records. University of Florida. Retrieved 3 September 2013. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Strand, ...
... the wasp's genome is being sequenced by the Human Genome Sequencing Center as part of the i5K project, which aims to sequence ... In C. floridanum, the process takes place in the following manner: the host insect lays two eggs in the eggs of moths, usually ... It has the largest recorded brood of any parasitoidal insect, at 3,055 individuals. The life cycle begins when a female ... Zimmer, Carl (14 August 2007). "Lessons From an Insect's Life Cycle: Extreme Sibling Rivalry". NYTimes.com. The New York Times ...
"Tiny genomes and endoreduplication in Strepsiptera". Insect Molecular Biology. 13 (6): 581-585. doi:10.1111/j.0962-1075.2004. ... Caenocholax fenyesi is a species of twisted-winged parasitic insects in the order Strepsiptera and family Myrmecolacidae. It ... Because males and females parasitize different insects, their respective habitats depend on host preferences and the ... International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology. 27: 21-26. doi:10.1016/S0020-7322(97)00030-5.CS1 maint: multiple ...
2017). "Genomes of the Hymenoptera". Current Opinion in Insect Science. 25: 65-75. doi:10.1016/j.cois.2017.11.008. PMC 5993429 ... 2014). "Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution". Science. 346 (6210): 763. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Special Issue on the Silkworm Genome. 38 (12): 1111-20. doi:10.1016/j.ibmb.2008.06. ... Zerknüllt has been found to undergo a number of gene duplications in certain insect lineages. For example, in the beetle ... Zerknüllt (zen, German for "crumpled") is a gene in the Antennapedia complex of Drosophila (fruit flies) and other insects, ... Zerknüllt codes for a homeoprotein regulates aspects of early embryogenesis in insects. Unlike the canonical Hox genes which ...
In addition to these, human cells have many hundreds of copies of the mitochondrial genome. Sequencing of the human genome has ... Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 30 (3): 253-8. doi:10.1016/S0965-1748(99)00125-3. PMID 10732993. Mendell JE, ... based on the Sanger Institute's human genome information in the Vertebrate Genome Annotation (VEGA) database. Number of genes ... as the Human Genome Project goals called for determination of only the euchromatic portion of the genome. Telomeres, ...
Here the adult insects emerge. They live for three or four days, and there may be as many as eight generations of midge in the ... Genome. 43 (2): 322-332. doi:10.1139/g99-119. PMID 10791821. Nair, Suresh; et al. "Plant Biology". International Centre for ... When the adult insects emerge, the gall withers away and the shoot dies. The plant may respond by producing more tillers, but ... It is a major insect pest of rice. The damage to the crop is done by the larvae which form galls commonly known as "silver ...
Jürgen Gadau; Jennifer Fewell; Edward O. Wilson (2009). Organization of Insect Societies: From Genome to Sociocomplexity. ... Ring T Cardé; Vincent H Resh (16 April 2012). A World of Insects: The Harvard University Press Reader. Harvard University Press ... Insects and other arthropods attempting to escape from E. burchellii are flushed into the attending flocks, and a number of ... Since numerous insects and other small prey can escape the swarm, the frequent raids of the ants do not desecrate an area's ...
... and has the smallest known genome of any insect. The small genome, of 99 million base pairs, is thought to be adaptive to ... "Antarctic midge has smallest insect genome". BBC. Retrieved 14 January 2018. Sinclair, B. (1999). "Insect cold tolerance: How ... Freeze tolerance within insects is argued to be on a continuum, with some insect species exhibiting partial (e.g., Tipula ... Freeze avoiding insects can survive extended periods of time at sub-freezing temperatures in a supercooled state, but die at ...
... as well as its only insect. It also has the smallest known insect genome as of 2014, with only 99 million base pairs of ... "Antarctic midge has smallest insect genome". BBC. 2014-08-12. Retrieved 2014-08-12. Lee, R. E.; Elnitsky, M. A.; Rinehart, J. P ... These compounds help the insect survive freezing by reducing the amount of ice that forms within the body. They also stabilize ... It can survive freezing, but though local air temperatures may reach as low as −40 °C, this insect cannot survive temperatures ...
Marco A, Hui JH, Ronshaugen M, Griffiths-Jones S (2010). "Functional shifts in insect microRNA evolution". Genome Biology and ... "Systematic discovery and characterization of fly microRNAs using 12 Drosophila genomes". Genome Research. 17 (12): 1865-79. doi ... A fourth miR-10 gene (mir-10d) is found elsewhere in the genome, at a location homologous to the pufferfish HoxDd cluster. A ... The mir-10 gene is located near to the HoxB1a and HoxB3a genes within the zebrafish genome, Hox-1 and Hox-3 paralogues located ...
They are one of the largest insects in the world, with a body length measuring up to 73 mm. Their size is an example of island ... Males have 21 chromosomes, females 22 but their genome is relatively large, measuring 8.5Gbp for males and 11Gbp for females. ... Both insects are facing in opposite directions during this position, however this doesn't last long and after about an hour ... Deinacrida fallai or the Poor Knights giant wētā is a species of insect in the family Anostostomatidae. It is endemic to the ...
The genome has been completely sequenced and is 5845 nucleotides long. It is transmitted by mechanical inoculation, contact ... between plants and sometimes by seed (6% in Trifolium pratense). No insect vector is known. Its major host is clover (Trifolium ... Retrieved 2009-01-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) "White clover mosaic virus, complete genome - Nucleotide - NCBI ...
The genome has been completely sequenced and is 7015 nucleotides long. No insect vector is known. This virus is transmitted by ... "Clover yellow mosaic virus, complete genome". 2018-08-13. Retrieved 14 January 2009. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) " ...
This constitutes the first genome of a hemimetabolous insect to have been published. The pea aphid genome and other of its ... The pea aphid genome presents high levels of gene duplication compared to other insect genomes, such as Drosophila, with the ... pisum genome has undergone more unique genomic changes compared to other insects of the order Hemiptera. The aphid genome is ... Unlike other related insects, the A. pisum genome is missing genes necessary for the urea cycle. the purine salvage pathway, ...
... genome database. *Insects in literature (ant, bee, wasp). *Worker policing. References[edit]. *^ Ronquist, Fredrik ... Rasnitsyn, A.P. (1988). "An outline of evolution of hymenopterous insects (order Vespida)". Oriental Insects. 22: 115-145. doi: ... Rasnitsyn, A.P.; Quicke, D.L.J. (2002). History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 242-254. ISBN 978-1-4020-0026-3. . ... Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M.S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0. .. ...
This allows them to control insect populations. Ascoviridae can have up to 180 genes in its genome. The replication of this ... The genome has been found to be up to 560 kilobases in length. Up to 50% of the DNA can be represented by guanine or cytosine. ... The genome is estimated to code for 476 open reading frames. The viron is rod shaped with a length of 1,100 nm long and 500 nm ... Within the genome, DNA repair enzymes can be found. These are used when the DNA is harmed such as when it is exposed to ...
Because the entire genome of the platypus has yet to be completely sequenced (including one of the X chromosomes), there is ... The ZZ/ZW sex system is used by most birds, as well as some reptiles and insects. In this system the Z is the larger chromosome ... Grützner, F; Graves, JA (December 2004). "A platypus' eye view of the mammalian genome". Current Opinion in Genetics & ... Melamed, E; Arnold, AP (2007). "Regional differences in dosage compensation on the chicken Z chromosome". Genome Biology. 8 (9 ...
In addition, these insect symbionts have similar patterns of genome evolution to those found in true organelles: genome ... Genome sequencing reveals that obligate bacterial endosymbionts of insects have among the smallest of known bacterial genomes ... In some insect groups, these endosymbionts live in specialized insect cells called bacteriocytes (also called mycetocytes), and ... As with endosymbiosis in other insects, the symbiosis is obligate in that neither the bacteria nor the insect is viable without ...
Wernegreen, J.J. (2002). "Genome evolution in bacterial endosymbionts of insects". Nature Reviews Genetics. 3 (11): 850-861. ... The decrease in genome size is due to loss of protein coding genes and not due to lessening of inter-genic regions or open ... There is a drastic reduction in its genome size, as many genes are lost during the process of metabolism, and DNA repair and ... In some taxa of plants and insects the relationship has become dependent,[58] where the plant species can only be pollinated by ...
Genome Biology, 14:207. · Hunt, K. & Chittka, L. (2015). Merging of Long-Term Memories in an Insect. Current Biology, 25:741- ... Briscoe, A. & Chittka, L. (2001). The evolution of colour vision in insects. Annual Review of Entomology, 46: 471-510. · ... "Uncovering the intelligence of insects, an interview with Lars Chittka". news.mongabay.com. 2010-06-29. Retrieved 2016-11-17. " ... Chittka, L., Thomson, J.D. Waser, N.M (1999). Flower constancy, insect psychology, and plant evolution. Naturwissenschaften, 86 ...
Genome-Wide Sampling of Insect Populations". Annual Review of Entomology. 46: 441-469. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.46.1.441. PMID ... compared the whole genome sequence of multiple lines of Drosophila simulans to the assembly of D. melanogaster and D. yakuba. ... This will allow the researcher to remove these loci to study genome wide effects or to focus on these loci if they are of ... Population genomics studies genome-wide effects to improve our understanding of microevolution so that we may learn the ...
Gadau, Jürgen; Fewell, Jennifer; Wilson, Edward O. (2009). Organization of Insect Societies: From Genome to Sociocomplexity. ... In many social insect communities, sex is determined through haplodiploidy. Haploid male drones develop from unfertilized eggs ... Worker policing has been suggested as a form of coercion to promote the evolution of altruistic behavior in eusocial insect ... Worker policing has evolved convergently in several social insect species. The following cases are examples: One of the first ...
The genomes of both the malaria parasite and the main mosquito species that transmits it to humans have been sequenced, lifting ... Knowing the mosquito genome may help researchers identify genes involved in the insectss ability to host the parasites or to ... Knowing the mosquito genome may help researchers identify genes involved in the insectss ability to host the parasites or to ... Genome sequencing raises malaria hope. By Kenneth Nwogbo. [ENTEBBE] There is hope for millions of Africans afflicted by malaria ...
... more sustainable ways of controlling the worlds worst agricultural insect pest - the moth, Helicoverpa armigera. ... the project will help establish us as leaders in organising major insect genome projects." ... "The sequencing of the genome will greatly facilitate this research by improving the power, cost effectiveness and insights from ... more sustainable ways of controlling the worlds worst agricultural insect pest - the moth, Helicoverpa armigera. ...
Creating a Buzz About Insect Genomes. By Gene E. Robinson, Kevin J. Hackett, Mary Purcell-Miramontes, Susan J. Brown, Jay D. ... Creating a Buzz About Insect Genomes. By Gene E. Robinson, Kevin J. Hackett, Mary Purcell-Miramontes, Susan J. Brown, Jay D. ... 5Arthropod Genomics Consortium and European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 ... Arthropod Genomics Consortium and European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SD ...
Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect. Natsuko Kondo, Naruo Nikoh, Nobuyuki ... Winding paths to simplicity: genome evolution in facultative insect symbionts. Wen-Sui Lo, Ya-Yi Huang, Chih-Horng Kuo, Erh-Min ... Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect ... Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect ...
We discuss how the two genome-scale transcriptomic tools can be applied for studying such pathways and suggest that proteomics ... The release of the Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella genomes, the accumulation of EST sequences for several Lepidopteran ... This review presents current knowledge on the interaction dynamics of the baculovirus-insect system‚ which is relatively well ... While complete genomic sequences are available for over 58 baculovirus species, little insect genomic information is known. ...
... the desert locust genome is the largest insect genome sequenced to date and over 2.8 times larger than the human genome. ... Decoding gigantic insect genome could help tackle devastating locust crises * Leicester experts help local businesses face ... Decoding gigantic insect genome could help tackle devastating locust crises 19 November 2020. ... "The desert locust genome provides key information that could be a complete game-changer for the developing world, and a huge ...
Scientists in the Broad community are sequencing and analyzing the genomes of a wide range of insects and microorganisms to ... and insect vectors are both key model systems for genomics and important organisms for clinical medicine. ... Scientists in the Broad community are sequencing and analyzing the genomes of a wide range of insects and microorganisms to ... Genome Center for Infectious Diseases. The Broad Institutes Genomic Center for Infectious Diseases (GCID) was established in ...
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
... whole genome shotgun sequencing ... Onthophagus taurus breed undomesticated insect, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. gi ... Onthophagus taurus breed undomesticated insect, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. GenBank: JHOM00000000.2 ... This entry is the master record for a whole genome shotgun sequencing project and contains no sequence data. ...
Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera.. Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium. ... Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon ... Evolutionary relationships of Apis mellifera, other insects and related arthropods for which the genome sequence has been ... Patchy indicates other orthologues that are present in at least one insect and one vertebrate genome. Homology indicates ...
The HzNV-2 genome was found to code for three ORFs that had significant sequence homology to cellular genes which are not ... Several putative ORFs that share homology with the baculovirus core genes were identified in the viral genome. However, HzNV-2 ... was determined to have a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 231,621 bp coding for an estimated 113 open reading frames ( ... ORFs). HzNV-2 is most closely related to the nudiviruses, a sister group of the insect baculoviruses. ...
Differential Genome Evolution Between Companion Symbionts in an Insect-Bacterial Symbiosis. Gordon M. Bennett, John P. ... Differential Genome Evolution Between Companion Symbionts in an Insect-Bacterial Symbiosis. Gordon M. Bennett, John P. ... Differential Genome Evolution Between Companion Symbionts in an Insect-Bacterial Symbiosis. Gordon M. Bennett, John P. ... Differential Genome Evolution Between Companion Symbionts in an Insect-Bacterial Symbiosis Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
... is a genome informatics resource for insects of the order Hymenoptera, which includes bees, ants and wasps. HGD provides genome ... The Hymenoptera Genome Database (HGD; http://hymenopteragenome.org) ... Honeybee Genome Sequencing Consortium (2006) Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera. ... is a genome informatics resource for insects of the order Hymenoptera, which includes bees, ants and wasps. HGD provides genome ...
As a starting point to genome sequencing, we report a new estimation of the genome size of the B. tabaci B biotype or Middle ... These phloem-feeding insects can colonize over 1000 species of plants worldwide and inflict severe economic losses to crops, ... K-mer analysis using these sequences revealed that the genome size of the whitefly was ~682.3 Mb. In addition, the flow ... Considering the congruency between both estimation methods, we predict the haploid genome size of B. tabaci MEAM1 to be ~680- ...
... but genome methylation patterns appear surprisingly diverse in insects. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) represents a ... DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic modification of animal genomes, ... Whole-Genome Bisulfite Sequencing for the Methylation Analysis of Insect Genomes. In: Brown S., Pfrender M. (eds) Insect ... but genome methylation patterns appear surprisingly diverse in insects. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) represents a ...
Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon ... Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon ... Compared with other sequenced insect genomes, the A. mellifera genome has high A+T and CpG contents, lacks major transposon ... Insect/genetics, Genome, Insect/genetics, Genomics, Immunity/genetics, Male, Molecular Sequence Data, Phylogeny, Physical ...
... and the insect host for the three xylem-feeding insects (Fig. 1a to c). Consistent with their small genomes, the bacterial ... The Cost of Metabolic Interactions in Symbioses between Insects and Bacteria with Reduced Genomes. Nana Y. D. Ankrah, Bessem ... Molecular dissection of nutrient exchange at the insect-microbial interface. Curr Opin Insect Sci 4:23-28. doi:10.1016/j.cois. ... The generality of the relationships between symbiont genome size and metabolic traits identified in these xylem-feeding insects ...
cvDNAs bear homology to defective viral genomes (DVGs), and DVGs serve as templates for vDNA and cvDNA synthesis. Accordingly, ... Dicer-2 functions like a pattern recognition receptor for DVGs to modulate antiviral immunity in insects. ... The RNAi pathway confers antiviral immunity in insects. Virus-specific siRNA responses are amplified via the reverse ... Keywords : Dicer-2 RNA virus RNAi arbovirus persistence insect defective viral genomes circular viral DNA ...
Stick Insect Genomes Reveal Natural Selections Role in Parallel Speciation Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Stick Insect Genomes Reveal Natural Selections Role in Parallel Speciation. By Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Aaron ... Stick Insect Genomes Reveal Natural Selections Role in Parallel Speciation. By Víctor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Aaron ... Parallel speciation in insects shows both convergent and divergent selection after one generation. ...
... insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. Here, we report the genome sequence of ... Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human ... The latter have been widely used as insect biocontrol agents. Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional ... Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps/Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens ...
... of Genome sequence and comparative analysis of clavicipitaceous insect-pathogenic fungus Aschersonia badia with Metarhizium spp ... Additional file 6: of Genome sequence and comparative analysis of clavicipitaceous insect-pathogenic fungus Aschersonia badia ...
Genome Shotgun sequences and 600 recently sequenced transcriptomes to build the tree of life for selected Australian insect ... CSIRO Insect Collection Postgraduate scholarship Use CSIROs collection resources in combination with DNA barcodes, Whole ... groups, exploring genomes for functional genes within this evolutionary context. ... Are shifts in insect biology correlated with major changes in genomes, e.g., changes from host specialists to generalists with ...
Nucleotide conservation at 5′- and 3-′ termini among non-autonomous Hel-2 Helitrons from insect and insect virus genomes. ... evidence presented here may be the initial annotation of real-time HTT between insect and insect viral genomes. Although the ... Highly similar Hel-2 copies were predicted in the genomes of insects and associated viruses, which along with a previous ... For instance, the HTT of DNA transposons between the genomes of animal hosts and their parasitic insects was recently detected ...
At present, there are dozens of fully sequenced insect genomes that cover a range of habitats, social behavior and morphologies ... We propose that the expansion of TNAP families in Hymenoptera potentially contributes to the accelerated genome dynamics that ... In view of such diverse collection of genomes, revealing evolutionary trends and charting functional relationships of proteins ... We analyzed the relatedness of 17 complete proteomes representative of proteomes from insects including louse, bee, beetle, ...
Some insects also exhibit a systemic RNAi response. However, Drosophila, the leading insect model organism, does not show a ... Thus, insects may use an alternative mechanism for the systemic RNAi response. Understanding this process would assist with ... We have identified the core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in systemic RNAi, from the Tribolium genome. Both ... These results suggest that insect sid-1-like genes have a different function than dsRNA uptake. Moreover, Tribolium lacks ...
... a Wolbachia genome was recovered during a genome sequencing of D. coccus (Campana et al. 2015). The reported wCoc1 genome was ... Genomes of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii wDacA and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis wDacB from the Cochineal Insect Dactylopius ... Genomes of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii wDacA and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis wDacB from the Cochineal Insect Dactylopius ... Genomes of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii wDacA and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis wDacB from the Cochineal Insect Dactylopius ...
... in the genome of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus (HycuNPV) and suggested that hycu-hr6 was the largest baculovirus ... These results indicate that hycu-hr6 is a versatile and superior promoter enhancer in several insect cell lines and favor the ... hycu-hr6, A large homologous region of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus genome, as a powerful and versatile enhancer ... We previously identified a large homologous region (hr), hycu-hr6, in the genome of the Hyphantria cunea nucleopolyhedrovirus ( ...
... has been surprisingly lost on multiple occasions during insect evolution. ... Insect genomes analysis challenges universality of essential cell division proteins. Study upends dogma about CenH3 ... They found that all holocentric insects appeared to be missing CenH3 while all monocentric insects (i.e., containing X-shaped ... "To find that insect species have replaced the very foundation of centromere definition was quite surprising. It presents a ...
First-Draft Genome Sequence of Tiger Mosquito Determined, Insect Transmits Dengue Fever and Chikungunya Fever, and Other Deadly ... mostly due to the large size of the Aedes albopictus genome compared to other insects that spread diseases to people. ... The Pathogens and Global Health article provides a first look into the genetics of a most dangerous and invasive insect and the ... The article is titled "A Draft Genome Sequence of an Invasive Mosquito: an Italian Aedes albopictus." Major global upheavals ...
Toft, C., Williams, T.A., Fares, M.A, Genome-Wide Functional Divergence after the Symbiosis of Proteobacteria with Insects ... Genome-Wide Functional Divergence after the Symbiosis of Proteobacteria with Insects Unraveled through a Novel Computational ... Here, we develop a simple method to screen genomes for evidence of functional divergence between two species clusters, and we ... Two of the main modifications, loss of genes redundant for endosymbiotic bacteria or the host and bacterial genome streamlining ...
  • The Australian Minister for Innovation, Industry, Science and Research, Senator the Hon Kim Carr, said - at the BIO 2008 International Convention in San Diego, California - that the team was expected to sequence the moth's genome in about four months. (scienceblog.com)
  • Until now, a major stumbling block has been the lack of the desert locust genome sequence that holds the answer to what makes a grasshopper a locust. (le.ac.uk)
  • This entry is the master record for a whole genome shotgun sequencing project and contains no sequence data. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the genome sequence of the honeybee Apis mellifera, a key model for social behaviour and essential to global ecology through pollination. (nih.gov)
  • Ca . Sulcia" exhibits much greater genome stability and slower sequence evolution, although the mechanisms underlying these differences are poorly understood. (asm.org)
  • Xi Y, Li W (2009) BSMAP: whole genome bisulfite sequence MAPping program. (springer.com)
  • As part of CSIRO's Environomics Future Science Platform , the ANIC has started to generate low coverage whole genome sequence data for selected groups for the purpose of species identification and discovery. (edu.au)
  • This dramatic sequence and structural conservation among Helitrons in the genomes of divergent insect species was surmised by some to be a consequence of a rapid burst in transposition within and among genomes that has been facilitated by HTT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additional file 6: of Genome sequence and comparative analysis of clavicipitaceous insect-pathogenic fungus Aschersonia badia with Metarhizium spp. (figshare.com)
  • On September 14, 2015, Pathogens and Global Health journal published online, in an open-access article, details of the first-draft genome sequence of Aedes albopictus, commonly known as the tiger mosquito and responsible for transmitting several deadly diseases to humans, such as dengue fever and chikungunya fever, both carried by viruses, potentially offering hope to millions around the world. (bioquicknews.com)
  • The article is titled "A Draft Genome Sequence of an Invasive Mosquito: an Italian Aedes albopictus. (bioquicknews.com)
  • Here we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of the east Asia watermelon cultivar 97103 (2 n = 2× = 22) containing 23,440 predicted protein-coding genes. (nature.com)
  • Here we report a high-quality genome sequence of an east Asia watermelon cultivar, 97103 (2 n = 2× = 22), and resequencing of 20 watermelon accessions spanning the genetic diversity of C. lanatus . (nature.com)
  • We generated a total of 46.18 Gb of high-quality genomic sequence using Illumina sequencing technology ( Supplementary Table 1 ), representing 108.6-fold coverage of the entire watermelon genome, which has an estimated genome size of ∼ 425 Mb on the basis of our 17-mer depth distribution analysis of the sequenced reads ( Supplementary Fig. 1 ) and an earlier flow cytometry analysis 9 . (nature.com)
  • The ability to quickly sequence the human genome in the future may have significant impacts on medicine. (wikibooks.org)
  • With its genome sequence and subsequent RNAi analyses, researchers have examined the genes that give long legs to daddy longlegs, New Scientist says. (genomeweb.com)
  • A total of 874 BAC contigs containing 5067 clones (22% of the library) were constructed by PCR-based screening with sequence-tagged sites (STSs) derived from whole-genome shotgun (WGS) sequences. (genetics.org)
  • have been performed, and our knowledge of silkworm genes and genome sequence has dramatically increased. (genetics.org)
  • We will be using the latest sequencing technologies at the Ramaciotti Centre for Genomics to sequence a brand new genome of an Australian organism. (google.com)
  • Which genome would you sequence next? (google.com)
  • This volume focuses on the latest methods used to sequence, assemble, and analyze insect genomes. (springer.com)
  • bioinformatics analysis of epigenetic modifications, high-throughput scanning of insect genomes (TEEseq) for the presence of endosymbionts, and leveraging genome sequence information to design RNAi strategies. (springer.com)
  • In contrast to protein-coding regions that are relatively easy to identify (e.g. by looking for open-reading frames), other functional elements such as transcriptional and translational regulatory regions may be short and lacking a clear sequence motif that would allow them to be detected in a single genome. (phdposition.com)
  • A recent collaborative study of the Tauber (Leicester) and Ott (Warwick) research teams, we compared the genome sequence of insect species and searched for highly conserved sequences as more important sequence elements are more likely to be conserved over time than less important sequence elements, leaving behind a 'footprint' of functionality. (phdposition.com)
  • The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Penaeus monodon: Are malacostracan crustaceans more closely related to insects than to branchiopods? (mendeley.com)
  • The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the giant tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon (Arthropoda, Crustacea, Malacostraca), is presented. (mendeley.com)
  • The overall AT composition is lower than that observed in the known insect mitochondrial genomes, but higher than that observed in the other two crustaceans for which complete mitochondrial sequence is available. (mendeley.com)
  • Furthermore, in contrast to data from the nuclear gene EF1alpha, the first complete sequence of a malacostracan mitochondrial genome supports the possibility that Malacostraca are more closely related to Insecta than to Branchiopoda. (mendeley.com)
  • As the genomes of many new creatures rapidly fill the public DNA sequence databases, the problems for the grand evolutionary story are becoming overwhelming. (icr.org)
  • Scipio is a tool based on the alignment program BLAT to determine the precise gene structure given a protein sequence and a genome sequence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the post-genome era, sequence data is the entry point for many studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Institute made the largest single contribution*** to the gold-standard sequence of the first human genome, which was published in 2003. (eurekalert.org)
  • 100× depth) Illumina genome sequence of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior, a model species for symbiosis and reproductive conflict studies. (nih.gov)
  • The complete genome sequence was determined for the Foshan strain, an established laboratory colony derived from wild mosquitoes from southeastern China, a region within the historical range of the origin of the species. (nih.gov)
  • The Beijing Genomics Institute (BGI) in Shenzhen, China, is also playing a major role in the project by leading the effort to sequence 10,000 plant genomes. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The Global Ant Genomes Alliance aims to sequence approximately 200 ant genomes. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Similarly, the USDA is launching an effort to sequence 100 genomes of agriculturally important insects and mites. (ucdavis.edu)
  • When the Human Genome Project began 25 years ago, we could not imagine how the DNA sequence produced back then would transform research into human health and disease today," said Sir Jim Smith, director of science at the Wellcome Sanger Institute. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The characterization of transcriptional start sites of 14 genes encoded by the extremely AT-rich genome of " Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus" revealed a high degree of conservation with the RpoD promoter consensus sequence of the free-living relative Escherichia coli . (asm.org)
  • Moreover, by bioinformatic analysis based on the E. coli consensus sequence, we identified four genes in the " Ca . Blochmannia floridanus" genome with putative RpoH-dependent heat shock promoters. (asm.org)
  • The mission of the VGP is to sequence and assemble high quality, nearly error-free, and complete genomes of all 66,000 vertebrate species on Earth. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Microorganisms (including fungi, bacteria, and viruses) and insect vectors are both key model systems for genomics and important organisms for clinical medicine. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Genomics: how to make a social insect. (nih.gov)
  • In: Brown S, Pfrender ME (eds) Insect genomics, methods in molecular biology, vol XXX. (springer.com)
  • Cutting-edge and thorough, Insect Genomics: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for graduate students, postdocs, and novice research scientists who are interested in learning more about this developing field. (springer.com)
  • Setup a bioinformatics platform dedicated to insect pest genomics using open-source software. (irisa.fr)
  • Since the landmark completion of the human genome, the Sanger Institute has become a globally recognised leader in the field of genomics. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Institute is partnering with PacBio and other leaders in the technology sector, 10x Genomics and Illumina, to create the most comprehensive view of these genomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • While complete genomic sequences are available for over 58 baculovirus species, little insect genomic information is known. (mdpi.com)
  • The release of the Bombyx mori and Plutella xylostella genomes, the accumulation of EST sequences for several Lepidopteran species, and especially the availability of two genome-scale analysis tools, namely oligonucleotide microarrays and next generation sequencing (NGS), have facilitated expression studies to generate a rich picture of insect gene responses to baculovirus infections. (mdpi.com)
  • K-mer analysis using these sequences revealed that the genome size of the whitefly was ~682.3 Mb. (mdpi.com)
  • Use CSIRO's collection resources in combination with DNA barcodes, Whole Genome Shotgun sequences and 600 recently sequenced transcriptomes to build the tree of life for selected Australian insect groups, exploring genomes for functional genes within this evolutionary context. (edu.au)
  • A metagenome analysis recovered the genome sequences of Candidatus Wolbachia bourtzisii w DacA (supergroup A) and Candidatus Wolbachia pipientis w DacB (supergroup B). Genome read coverage, as well as 16S rRNA clone sequencing, revealed that w DacB was more abundant than w DacA. (g3journal.org)
  • Recognizing that these 'railroad track' chromosomes had also been observed in other insects like aphids, lice, earwigs and dragonflies, Drinnenberg and her colleagues searched through both available genome sequences as well as generated comprehensive lists of gene repertoires by sequencing live insects collected from the wild with the help of entomologist Dakota deYoung from the University of Washington. (fredhutch.org)
  • Compared to other insects, this "extremely economic" genome contains fewer repetitive genetic sequences that don't code for proteins (known as "junk DNA"), as well as shorter stretches of DNA called introns, which separate the genome's coding regions. (upriser.com)
  • This list of sequenced animal genomes contains animal species for which complete genome sequences have been assembled, annotated and published. (wikipedia.org)
  • Substantially complete draft genomes are included, but not partial genome sequences or organelle-only sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mediated by the presence of several repeated sequences, there are many possible genome arrangements, and different subgenomic sequences might coexist within the same population. (nature.com)
  • Knowledge of genome sequences is indispensable for basic biological research and crop improvement. (nature.com)
  • So far about 92.3% of the genome has been sequenced, but its difficult to determine due to non-coding sequences of DNA or "junk" DNA. (wikibooks.org)
  • However, basic genome research on this insect is still far behind compared with other model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster , and assignment of fundamental information such as genome sequences, ESTs, BAC contigs, mutant phenotypes, and chromosomal locations on detailed linkage maps is an urgent priority. (genetics.org)
  • We showed that codominant and conserved markers could be established by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis of PCR products amplified from single-copy genes and unique genome sequences differing at the nucleotide level without the need for additional manipulation ( Y asukochi 1999 ). (genetics.org)
  • Even in cases when there are many sequencing errors, or when incomplete genome assemblies lead to hits that stretch across multiple target sequences, it very often provides the user with the correct determination of intron-exon borders and splice sites, showing an improved prediction accuracy compared to BLAT and Exonerate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a comparison of different insect species and their respective methylation levels, there was a clear relationship between cell turn over and DNA methylation, but not between genome size or the number of repetitive sequences and DNA methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • IMPORTANCE In obligate animal-bacterial symbioses, bacteria experience extreme patterns of genome evolution, including massive gene loss and rapid evolution. (asm.org)
  • To understand whether genome evolution impacts symbiont types equally and whether lineages follow the same evolutionary path, we sequenced the genomes of two coresident symbiotic bacteria from a plant sap-feeding insect and compared them to the symbionts from a related host species. (asm.org)
  • Bewick AJ, Vogel KJ, Moore AJ, Schmitz RJ (2017) Evolution of DNA methylation across insects. (springer.com)
  • The movement of mobile elements among species by horizontal transposon transfer (HTT) influences the evolution of genomes through the modification of structure and function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further sampling is required to determine the putative role of HTT in insect genome evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps / Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Challenging this assumption, scientists from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center have found that one of the foundational proteins in cell division, previously shown to be essential in organisms as diverse as yeast, flies and humans, has been surprisingly lost on multiple occasions during insect evolution. (fredhutch.org)
  • Scientists study the unusual genome evolution of the bacteria that live within a genus of cicadas. (the-scientist.com)
  • Our comprehensive genomic and transcriptome analyses provide insights into the structure and evolution of the watermelon genome, the genetic diversity and structure of watermelon populations and the molecular mechanisms of important biological processes such as fruit quality and phloem-based vascular signaling. (nature.com)
  • This also allows one to analyze the chromosomal structure, the effects of evolution upon the genome, and protein structures and functions. (wikibooks.org)
  • Students and staff of BABS3291 Genes, Genomes and Evolution, will be the first scientists in the world to analyse the data. (google.com)
  • Ancestral gene duplication enabled the evolution of multifunctional cellulases in stick insects (Phasmatodea), Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2016). (phys.org)
  • Hence, across distant relatives the evolution of insect seasonality appears to involve unique genetic switches that direct organisms into distinct phases of the diapause pathway through wholesale restructuring of conserved gene regulatory networks. (biologists.org)
  • This 20 credit module aims to provide an overview of insect biology, developmental processes, and evolution. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Laboratory classes will give you hands-on experience with key techniques used to study model insect systems and to analyse molecular genetic data to better understand the processes that govern the evolution of insect diversity. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • The PNAS study authors attributed it to 'convergent evolution,' a term suggesting that the identical genetic substitutions occurred separately 'at least four times' in insect groups over the course of 300 million years. (icr.org)
  • 2012. Community-wide convergent evolution in insect adaptation to toxic cardenolides by substitutions in the Na,K-ATPase. (icr.org)
  • Genome Biology and Evolution. (usda.gov)
  • Dr Julia Wilson, Associate Director of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, said: "Through sequencing these 25 genomes, scientists will gain a better understanding of UK species, how they arrived here, their evolution, and how different species are adapting to a changing environment. (eurekalert.org)
  • The application of new technologies such as whole-genome sequencing, analysis of transcriptome and proteome to major insect pest to agriculture has allowed great progress in understanding the life style, reproduction, evolution and nuisance to crops caused by insect pests such as aphids, planthoppers, and whiteflies. (springer.com)
  • Evolution requires the opposite-flexible genomes. (icr.org)
  • 2018. Trade-off between Transcriptome Plasticity and Genome Evolution in Cephalopods . (icr.org)
  • The UC Davis Genome Center is currently the administrative home for the EBP, led by Harris Lewin, a distinguished professor of evolution and ecology at UC Davis and chair of the EBP Working Group. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Sequencing all known eukaryotic genomes will revolutionize the understanding of biology and evolution, bolster efforts to conserve, help protect and restore biodiversity, and in return create new benefits for society and human welfare. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Our lab investigates the ecology, evolution and genetics of insect-virus interactions to advance our basic understanding of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmission by mosquitoes. (pasteur.fr)
  • Scientists in the Broad community are sequencing and analyzing the genomes of a wide range of insects and microorganisms to understand their genetic regulation, population variation, and specialized genomic mechanisms. (broadinstitute.org)
  • The sequencing of the genome will greatly facilitate this research by improving the power, cost effectiveness and insights from the genetic work on this species and its American cousin H. zea," University of Melbourne Associate Professor Philip Batterham said. (scienceblog.com)
  • A 'game changing' study deciphering the genetic material of the desert locust by researchers at the University of Leicester, could help combat the crop-ravaging behaviour of the notorious insect pest which currently exacerbates a hunger crisis across many developing countries. (le.ac.uk)
  • While locust swarms are infamous for the great damage they inflict to agriculture, their genetic material ('genome') is famed amongst researchers for its enormous size. (le.ac.uk)
  • This variation is largely representative of genetic capacity for function because the great majority of bacterial genomes are gene dense, with protein-coding regions accounting for 85 to 90% of the genome. (asm.org)
  • This week we unravel the secrets of DNA as Darren Grafham discusses the importance of sequencing genomes and how the Human Genome Project has improved medicine, Mike Majerus reveals why we look different from worms despite sharing genetic information, Anna Lacey interviews BBC producer Mike Salisbury about the new David Attenborough series, Life in the Undergrowth, and Kitchen Science goes back to school for a live DNA extraction experiment. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • This diversity of adult insect brain morphology has been extensively described while the genetic mechanisms of brain development are studied predominantly in Drosophila melanogaster . (springer.com)
  • Craig Venter of Celera may have only just discovered that genetic determinism cannot deliver the goods after he's sequenced the human genome. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • But many of us knew that genetic determinism had died with the revelations of the fluid genome, if not before [1]. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • We document here the presence of s2m, a highly conserved, mobile genetic element with unknown function, in both the SARS-CoV-2 genome and a large number of insect genomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Most research on the genetic basis of traits and adaptation has focused on individual genes and small mutations," says Gompert, associate professor in USU's Department of Biology and the USU Ecology Center "But in this paper, we uncover a greater role for large mutations and structural rearrangements of the genome that effectively 'lock up' suites of genes in groups. (animalhealthmedia.com)
  • By making use of the more simple genetic makeup of insect model systems, we studied whether CRLF3 is a neuroprotective Epo receptor in animals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Kronforst and colleagues compared the full genetic blueprints, or genomes, of 89 monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus , and nine others from four nonmigratory families related to them, most notably South America's southern monarch butterfly . (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Finally, you will gain knowledge in applying cutting-edge genetic manipulation technologies in insect research. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • A genome is an organism's complete set of genetic instructions written in DNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • These first analyses of the A. echinatior genome indicate that considerable genetic changes are likely to have accompanied the transition from hunter-gathering to agricultural food production 50 million years ago, and the transition from single to multiple queen mating 10 million years ago. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the Vertebrate Genomes Project, chaired by Erich Jarvis of Rockefeller University, released the genomes of 14 species, including bat and fish species, the Canadian lynx and kakapo, with the ultimate aim of sequencing the genetic code of all 66,000 extant vertebrates. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The integration of Helitrons in plant genomes are believed to involve the transposase, RPA-TPase, which shares homology to the largest subunit of the replication protein A (RPA70). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Even with recent achievements, however, plant genomes present obstacles that can make it difficult to execute large-scale population and phylogenetic studies on next-generation sequencing platforms. (usda.gov)
  • The Pathogens and Global Health article provides a first look into the genetics of a most dangerous and invasive insect and the possibility of developing ways to prevent the spread of the dengue and chikungunya fevers that infect millions of people annually. (bioquicknews.com)
  • In this perspective paper, we present a novel developmental genetics approach to studying the development of homologous brain centers in different insect species. (springer.com)
  • I was researcher and university lecturer of genetics throughout the mid-1970s to the early1980s when new discoveries on the fluid genome made headlines every week. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Express a thorough conceptual knowledge of much of the core material presented in the module, and have a competent and detailed ability to critically evaluate the principles of insect development and evolutionary genetics. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • The student should be able to express a basic conceptual knowledge of the majority of the core material presented in the module, and be able to appreciate the complexity of insect behaviours at multiple levels, from genetics through to ecology. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Able to evaluate basic principles of insect development and evolutionary genetics, but lacking critical details and the ability to synthesize across different studies. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • Explain the key models and techniques used to study insect biology and population genetics, including the importance of in-the-field collections and experiments. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • To find some answers, scientists dug deep into the genetics and biochemistry of 18 different kinds of insects that all live on cardenolide-producing plants. (icr.org)
  • The high-quality genomes will open the door for scientists to use this information, and researchers could discover how UK species are responding to environmental pressures, and what secrets they hold in their genetics that enables them to flourish, or flounder. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Vertebrate Genomes Project - Two of the 15 released genomes, a bat and a fish, have been sequenced and assembled at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) in Dresden. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics and in particular its bioinformatics researchers at the Center for Systems Biology Dresden (CSBD) is involved in the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the initial Phase I genomes of the VGP project with a focus on bats and fish. (scitechdaily.com)
  • At more than 8.8 billion base pairs of DNA (8.8 'giga-bases'), the desert locust genome is the largest insect genome sequenced to date and over 2.8 times larger than the human genome. (le.ac.uk)
  • Just for comparison, the human genome has 3.2 billion base pairs, while the bacterium Carsonella ruddii has 159,662 base pairs. (upriser.com)
  • A famous example is the human genome through the Human Genome Project. (wikibooks.org)
  • The human genome project was an international scientific research effort to fully map out the human genome. (wikibooks.org)
  • The Sanger Institute was founded in 1993 by Professor Sir John Sulston as part of the Human Genome Project. (eurekalert.org)
  • By comparison, the Human Genome Project today would cost $5 billion, accounting for inflation. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Zemach A, McDaniel IE, Silva P, Zilberman D (2010) Genome-wide evolutionary analysis of eukaryotic DNA methylation. (springer.com)
  • In view of such diverse collection of genomes, revealing evolutionary trends and charting functional relationships of proteins remain challenging. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It rather represents a genome fusion between a beta and a gammaproteobacterium, followed by massive rearrangements and loss of redundant genes, leading to an unprecedented evolutionary collage. (nature.com)
  • Obligate mutualistic association with endosymbiotic bacteria (primary or P-endosymbionts) is considered a key factor for the evolutionary success of insects. (nature.com)
  • Sequencing genomes allow scientists to identify homologous proteins and establish evolutionary relationships. (wikibooks.org)
  • Most importantly, the enzyme functions matched the evolutionary relationships between the insects. (phys.org)
  • You will develop an appreciation of key mechanisms that integrate neurobiology and evolutionary processes that underly insect speciation and adaptation. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • You will also develop a quantitative understanding of the evolutionary processes governing insect biodiversity. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • We compare this genome with three previously sequenced genomes of ants from different subfamilies and focus our analyses on aspects of the genome likely to be associated with known evolutionary changes. (nih.gov)
  • Portions of integrated flavivirus-like genomes support a shared evolutionary history of association of these viruses with their vector. (nih.gov)
  • The most persuasive evidence for selection of small genome size comes from studies of free-living bacteria with large effective population size in low-nutrient environments ( 4 , 8 ), but the possibility that small genome size may also be adaptive for insect endosymbionts has been raised ( 5 , 9 - 11 ). (asm.org)
  • For such communication to take place, endosymbionts' genomes have suffered dramatic modifications and reconfigurations of proteins' functions. (tcd.ie)
  • Many insects rely on bacterial endosymbionts to obtain nutrients that are scarce in their highly specialized diets. (nature.com)
  • In some symbiotic systems, two or more co-primary endosymbionts complement each other to fulfill the consortium metabolic needs, leading to even more reduced genomes. (nature.com)
  • HGD provides genome browsers with manual annotation tools (JBrowse/Apollo), BLAST, bulk data download, and a data mining warehouse (HymenopteraMine). (springer.com)
  • RRE requires local installation and local copies of the desired genome and annotation files. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The web application of RRE only hosts a small number of eukaryotic genomes and annotation data only from NCBI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our laboratory coordinated the annotation of the recently sequenced genome of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta . (k-state.edu)
  • The study began with their interest in the unusual chromosomal architecture of some insect lineages, in which centromeres are organized along the entire length of chromosomes akin to 'railroad tracks' (referred to as 'holocentric' chromosomes) instead of the canonical X-shape. (fredhutch.org)
  • They found that all holocentric insects appeared to be missing CenH3 while all monocentric insects (i.e., containing X-shaped chromosomes) including flies, bees, beetles, cockroaches, stick insects and mayflies still possessed CenH3. (fredhutch.org)
  • It thus appeared that transitions from monocentric to holocentric chromosomes in insects rendered CenH3 non-essential, ultimately leading to its loss in species of insects that comprise 16% of named biodiversity. (fredhutch.org)
  • It identifies intron-exon borders and splice sites and is able to cope with sequencing errors and genes spanning several contigs in genomes that have not yet been assembled to supercontigs or chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Obligate symbioses with bacteria allow insects to feed on otherwise unsuitable diets. (asm.org)
  • Some symbionts have extremely reduced genomes and have lost many genes considered to be essential in other bacteria. (asm.org)
  • We conclude that while symbiotic bacteria evolve toward tiny genomes, this process is shaped by different selection intensities that may reflect the different ages and metabolic roles of symbiont types. (asm.org)
  • Some of the bacteria with the tiniest genomes are intracellular bacterial symbionts in insects, and this trait is attributed largely to genomic decay arising from the vertical transmission of very small numbers of bacterial cells from the mother insect to her offspring ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Runaway genome reduction of these bacteria is countered by selection for metabolic function, specifically the synthesis of nutrients required by the insect host, and selection for reduced maintenance costs can also contribute to genome reduction ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • The strict endo- cellular symbiotic bacteria of insects are beautiful examples of the metabolic coupling between organisms belonging to different kingdoms, a eukaryote and a prokaryote. (tcd.ie)
  • Two of the main modifications, loss of genes redundant for endosymbiotic bacteria or the host and bacterial genome streamlining, have been extensively studied. (tcd.ie)
  • Beyond animal species, infectious diseases and bacteria also feature prominently on the list of reference genomes, from salmonella and MRSA to chlamydia and malaria. (eurekalert.org)
  • With only 705 kb, the genome of " Candidatus Blochmannia floridanus," the endosymbiont of Camponotus floridanus , is about six times smaller than that of the free-living relative Escherichia coli and it has an AT content of 74%, characteristic of endosymbiotic bacteria ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • In other obligate cell-associated or intracellular bacteria exhibiting an extremely high AT content and reduced genomes such as pathogenic Mycoplasma pneumoniae or symbiotic " Candidatus Carsonella ruddii," interesting genomic features were observed. (asm.org)
  • The members of the genus Wolbachia are rickettsial endosymbitic bacteria belonging to the α- Proteobacteria , whose infections are prevalent among arthropods, including over 60 per cent of insects and some filarial nematodes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Scientists from CSIRO and the University of Melbourne in Australia, and the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, are on the brink of a discovery which will facilitate the development of new, safe, more sustainable ways of controlling the world's worst agricultural insect pest - the moth, Helicoverpa armigera. (scienceblog.com)
  • Understanding this process would assist with rendering other insects amenable to systemic RNAi, and may influence pest control approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists have sequenced the genome of the Hessian Fly, a major wheat pest, in order to try and reduce its impact on. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • In biology, the idea is that once we know the genome of a pest species, we can come up with a magic bullet or smarter bullet to defeat it," says Smith. (abc.net.au)
  • In this Book experts in the field present their recent discoveries and discuss novel means to increase the different kinds of resistances of plants to efficiently limit the effects of pest, to understand and disturb the hormonal regulation of embryogenesis, molting, metamorphosis and reproduction, to determine the function of insect genes in diverse processes such as metabolism, interaction with plants, virus transmission, development, and adaptation to a changing environment. (springer.com)
  • Area-wide integrated pest management programmes using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as a component have been successful against a number of pest flies or Diptera such as the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax, various species of tephritidae fruit flies and against tsetse flies (Glossinidae). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, insects develop resistance to the insecticides very quickly and insecticides are causing damage not only to the pest insect but also to beneficial insects, such as predators and parasitoids of the pest insect, pollinators, and to harmless fauna. (wur.nl)
  • In the morning, visitors enjoyed a guided tour around the field research facility including the pathogen quarantine fields, insect pest trial area, the low nutrient field, and the main rotation fields for irrigated trials. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Some medical and hygienic pest insects, such as tsetse flies and mosquitoes, which vector devastating human pathogens, often also carry Wolbachia infections. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this context, Wolbachia infections in pest insects are potentially of practical utility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • HymenopteraMine facilitates cross-species data mining based on orthology and supports meta-analyses by tracking identifiers across gene sets and genome assemblies. (springer.com)
  • Chen W, Hasegawa DK, Arumuganathan K, Simmons AM, Wintermantel WM, Fei Z, Ling K-S. Estimation of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Genome Size Based on k-mer and Flow Cytometric Analyses. (mdpi.com)
  • Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
  • However, Drosophila , the leading insect model organism, does not show a robust systemic RNAi response, necessitating another model system to study the molecular mechanism of systemic RNAi in insects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we examined the enhancement activity of hycu-hr6 against two promoters from constitutive baculovirus immediate early genes, the HycuNPV ie1 (hycu-ie1) and the Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid (M) NPV ie2 (op-ie2), and against a promoter from the inducible Drosophila heat shock protein 70 gene (hsp70) in five lepidopteran (BmN-4, Ld652Y, Sf9, SpIm, and TN368) and one dipteran (S2) insect cell lines. (ovid.com)
  • For example, 3D reconstructions of several insect brains revealed that the mushroom bodies of bees required for learning and memory have a large volume as compared to Drosophila and Tribolium (Brandt et al. (springer.com)
  • RNAi knockdown) in Drosophila or other insect model system. (phdposition.com)
  • It still is a matter of discussion what the specific role of DNA methylation in insects is, as some insects such as Drosophila melanogaster just have traces of DNA methylation in their genome and in general insect genomes are much less methylated compared to mammalian genomes (0.034% vs. 7.6% in Mus musculus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Editorial Board of Canadian Journal of Zoology 2000-present, Subject Editor (Systematics and Biogeography) For BMC Zoology, 2016-present, Associate Editor for Insect Conservation and Diversity, 2010-2016, Editor for the same journal 2016-present, Editorial Board Acta Entomologia Chilena 2000-present (journal currently inactive), Subject Editor for Apoidea for Zootaxa, 2005- 2008. (yorku.ca)
  • As a starting point to genome sequencing, we report a new estimation of the genome size of the B. tabaci B biotype or Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) population. (mdpi.com)
  • Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) represents a sensitive and robust method for the characterization of genome-wide methylation patterns at single-base resolution. (springer.com)
  • In comparison to whole-genome sequencing, WGBS has additional caveats that require particular attention and are highlighted in this chapter. (springer.com)
  • Lister R, Ecker JR (2009) Finding the fifth base: genome-wide sequencing of cytosine methylation. (springer.com)
  • With the maturation of sequencing technologies, we now have a large number of completely sequenced genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • What we found by sequencing the genome of ' Ca. Tremblaya phenacola' PPER, single endosymbiont of Phenacoccus peruvianus, goes beyond a HGT phenomenon. (nature.com)
  • From single-cell analysis to whole-genome sequencing, this year's best new products shine on many levels. (the-scientist.com)
  • We selected the Chinese elite watermelon inbred line 97103 for genome sequencing. (nature.com)
  • For this study, Terry Brown, a professor at Manchester, and his colleagues turned to next-generation sequencing to try to detect DNA in preserved insects, arguing that such an approach would be less swayed by modern contaminants. (genomeweb.com)
  • BABS researchers are involved in sequencing the genomes of a number of iconic Australian species. (google.com)
  • To commemorate the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute turning 25 in 2018, the Institute and its collaborators* are sequencing 25 new genomes. (eurekalert.org)
  • This project has been made possible by PacBio® long-read sequencing technology, which generates high-quality genomes for assembly. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Wellcome Sanger Institute brings decades of experience in genome sequencing and biology to help build the global capacity necessary to produce high-quality genomes at scale. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The project builds on recent achievements of sequencing sets of species' genomes for the first time. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Recently, multilocus genotyping and even whole genome sequencing-based technologies have been adopted in ambitious comparative biology studies. (duhnnae.com)
  • For demonstration, we classified 26 species of insects using GP and 18S rDNA-sequencing approaches. (duhnnae.com)
  • To conduct the VGP, the umbrella G10K organization, from which the project arose, has convened over 150 experts from academia, industry, and government, from 12 countries, to develop high-resolution sequencing methods that both reduce costs and eliminate the errors that plague current reference genomes. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The Dresden scientists are part of the DRESDEN-concept Genome Center (DCGC) and have special expertise in using various long-read sequencing and long-range scaffolding technologies. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Insights into social insects from the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera. (nih.gov)
  • Apis mellifera 's genome and proteome provide a glimpse of the first Hymenoptera social insect [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Honeybee (or honey bee ) is any member of the flying insect genus Apis of the tribe Apini, all of which are highly social bees and produce and store liquefied sugar (" honey ") to some degree, and construct colonial nests out of wax secreted by the workers in the colony. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Baculovirus-insect cell technologies are applied in the production of complex proteins, veterinary and human vaccines, gene delivery vectors‚ and biopesticides. (mdpi.com)
  • Comparison of the enhancement efficiency of hycu-hr6 with that of Autographa californica MNPV (AcMNPV) hr5, an enhancer commonly used to improve the activity of AcMNPV ie1 promoter in many insect expression vectors, established that hycu-hr6 was a more efficient enhancer. (ovid.com)
  • These results indicate that hycu-hr6 is a versatile and superior promoter enhancer in several insect cell lines and favor the incorporation of hycu-hr6 into insect expression vectors to maximize promoter activity. (ovid.com)
  • You will be part of a collaborative team at CSIRO and ANU ( Research School of Biology ) and have access to our lab infrastructure, supercomputers, collection and molecular data, which will include unpublished low coverage whole genome shotgun (WGS) data for several thousand species, unpublished transcriptomes of 600 species and published data (e.g. 1,000 transcriptomes of 1KITE ). (edu.au)
  • These phloem-feeding insects can colonize over 1000 species of plants worldwide and inflict severe economic losses to crops, mainly through the transmission of pathogenic viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Highly similar Hel-2 copies were predicted in the genomes of insects and associated viruses, which along with a previous documented case of real-time virus-insect cell line transposition suggests that this Helitron has likely propagated by HTT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A polydnavirus / p ɒ ˈ l ɪ d n ə v aɪər ə s / ( PDV ) is a member of the family Polydnaviridae of insect viruses . (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects causee tremendous dammages to agricultural crops due to their feeding habits and because they transmit many viruses. (springer.com)
  • Many crops suffer from insects, which may take the form of direct damage by feeding but more often the transmission of viruses by the insects causes the real damage. (wur.nl)
  • Many more important reference genomes have already been sequenced - from the mouse and zebrafish genomes to the pig, gorilla, mosquito and many others. (eurekalert.org)
  • The genome comprises 1,967 Mb, the largest mosquito genome sequenced to date, and its size results principally from an abundance of repetitive DNA classes. (nih.gov)
  • At present, there are dozens of fully sequenced insect genomes that cover a range of habitats, social behavior and morphologies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, the number of fully sequenced genomes from insects has grown rapidly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Six bat genomes will be released in the near future, and another 25 species are being prepared to study aging, immunity, and vocal-learning in collaboration with the Bat1K consortium, which includes partners Sonja Vernes from the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics in the Netherlands and Emma Teeling of the University College Dublin, UK. (scitechdaily.com)
  • The International Vertebrate Genomes Project (VGP) has officially launched and released 15 new reference genomes representing all five vertebrate classes - mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. (scitechdaily.com)
  • México's Campus Juriquilla of the Autonomous University of Querétaro, University of Notre Dame and the University of Nevada-Reno, discuss findings from an investigation of seven species of North American stick insects (Timema). (animalhealthmedia.com)
  • The stick insects used in the study are flightless and plant-feeding. (animalhealthmedia.com)
  • The scientists discovered that stick insects (Phasmatodea) produce cellulases that can handle several types of cell wall polymers equally. (phys.org)
  • These abilities held in all families of stick insects, present in the Vietnamese Medauroidea extradentata (Family Phasmatidae), the Madagascan Sipyloidea sipylus (Diapheromeridae), and the Peruvian Peruphasma schultei (Peruphasmatidae). (phys.org)
  • Next the researchers are testing other insects related to the stick insects, to see if they have multifunctional cellulases too. (phys.org)
  • There is a big community in Germany of people with stick insects as pets," says Shelomi, "and they report them nibbling on sticks, moss, bark, and even Styrofoam and electric cables… but leaves are still their main food. (phys.org)
  • Nevertheless, the list of olfactory genes generated in our study provides a useful tool for future studies on olfaction in Timema and other stick insects. (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic modification of animal genomes, but genome methylation patterns appear surprisingly diverse in insects. (springer.com)
  • Factors like large genome. (usda.gov)
  • This species has a large genome with significant population-based size variation. (nih.gov)
  • The large genome repertory may contribute to the adaptability and success of Ae. (nih.gov)
  • Are shifts in insect biology correlated with major changes in genomes, e.g., changes from host specialists to generalists with the expansion of gene families? (edu.au)
  • Insect Molecular Biology, 23: 579-586. (wiley.com)
  • The module will allow you to apply modern biology techniques to more fully understand insect diversity, morphology, and links between genes, morphology, and behaviour. (bangor.ac.uk)
  • The desert locust genome provides key information that could be a complete game-changer for the developing world, and a huge economic step forward for countries struggling to feed their populations. (le.ac.uk)
  • Sommer and Streit 2011 ), and have different effects in their hosts ranging from parasitism to mutualism with spatial and temporal spread of infections in some insect populations ( Vavre and Charlat 2012 ). (g3journal.org)
  • The team, which included Nizar Haddad, director of the bee research department at the National Center for Agricultural Research and Extension in Jordan, sequenced the genomes of 140 honeybees from 14 populations spread around the world. (natureasia.com)
  • This constrains studies of how olfaction contributes to adaptive divergence between stick insect populations and species. (frontiersin.org)
  • Some particularly long-running assessments showed that declines in the past 30 years occurred after periods when the relevant insect populations increased . (livescience.com)
  • Many insect populations are known to naturally fluctuate, sometimes dramatically . (livescience.com)
  • Exhaustive PCR surveys revealed that 31 and 30 of 214 Wolbachia genes examined were detected from the two insect populations, respectively. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The project proved enormously challenging, mostly due to the large size of the Aedes albopictus genome compared to other insects that spread diseases to people. (bioquicknews.com)
  • Eukaryotic RepHels show strong homology with Rep domain-containing proteins encoded by ssDNA geminiviruses such that they are presumed to have been acquired by HTT [ 6 ], and mediate RCR of autonomous as well as non-autonomous Helitron elements in the same genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A test of functional divergence supports a strong relationship between the endosymbiosis and the functional shifts of proteins involved in the metabolic communication with the insect host. (tcd.ie)
  • For example, signaling proteins and protein-processing enzymes are all discovered through the help of yeast genome. (wikibooks.org)
  • Genomes are circular and segmented, composed of multiple segments of double-stranded, superhelical DNA packaged in capsid proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • To test what these enzymes were capable of, the genes were expressed in a stable insect cell line, and the activities of the isolated proteins tested against different plant cell wall polymers. (phys.org)
  • Here, we study the repertoire of olfactory proteins in the stick insect Timema cristinae . (frontiersin.org)
  • My laboratory is investigating proteins present in the hemolymph (blood) of insects, with special interest in the proteins' functions in the insect immune system. (k-state.edu)
  • We also investigate the biochemistry of cuticle proteins and their roles in determining mechanical properties of insect exoskeletons. (k-state.edu)
  • To follow promising leads, you will also generate your own genome and transcriptome data as needed. (edu.au)
  • Put another way, this study revealed "an unanticipated genome rigidity required to maintain the extensive transcriptome recoding [RNA editing]. (icr.org)
  • In order to assess the epigenetic states of haploid and diploid genomes, we compared single nucleotide resolution DNA methylation profiles (DNA methylomes) of haploid and diploid individuals of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Malaria-spreading mosquitoes have genomes sequenced to find out why they carry the parasite and which species may be. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Many current reference genomes are riddled with errors-parts of genes are missing, some are incorrectly assembled, and other genes are completely missing. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Although both Tribolium and C. elegans show a robust systemic RNAi response, our genome-wide survey reveals significant differences between the RNAi mechanisms of these organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In diploid organisms (like humans), the somatic cells possess two copies of the genome, one inherited from the father and one from the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenomic results suggest that " Ca . Baumannia" is derived from the clade consisting of Sodalis and relatives, a group that has evolved symbiotic associations with numerous insect hosts. (asm.org)
  • To understand how symbiont genome degeneration proceeds, we compared the genomes of symbionts in two leafhopper species, Homalodisca vitripennis (glassy-winged sharpshooter [GWSS]) and Graphocephala atropunctata (blue-green sharpshooter [BGSS]) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). (asm.org)
  • Various intracellular bacterial symbionts that provide their host with essential nutrients have much-reduced genomes, attributed largely to genomic decay and relaxed selection. (asm.org)
  • Genome reduction of the symbionts is associated with an increased number of host metabolic inputs to the symbiont and also reduced metabolic cost to the host. (asm.org)
  • We hypothesize that genome reduction of symbionts may be driven by selection for increased host control and reduced host costs, as well as by the stochastic process of genomic decay and relaxed selection. (asm.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Current understanding of many animal-microbial symbioses involving unculturable bacterial symbionts with much-reduced genomes derives almost entirely from nonquantitative inferences from genome data. (asm.org)
  • To overcome this limitation, we reconstructed multipartner metabolic models that quantify both the metabolic fluxes within and between three xylem-feeding insects and their bacterial symbionts. (asm.org)
  • The positive relationship between symbiont genome size and the metabolic cost incurred by the host points to fitness benefits to the host of bearing symbionts with small genomes. (asm.org)
  • Many insects possess vertically-transmitted bacterial symbionts that provide them with amino acids and vitamins ( Moran 2006 ). (g3journal.org)
  • We now know that ants have the genes and genome signature of DNA methylation -- the same molecular mechanism that published honeybee studies have shown is responsible for switching whether the genome is read to be a worker or queen," says Assistant Professor Christopher Smith of San Francisco State University, an author on three of the four genome studies. (abc.net.au)
  • The RNAi pathway confers antiviral immunity in insects. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Some insects also exhibit a systemic RNAi response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have identified the core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in systemic RNAi, from the Tribolium genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, insects may use an alternative mechanism for the systemic RNAi response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • His studies and those of his students have dealt with the control of sequential polyphenism in metamorphosis, of alternate polyphenisms in caste determination of social insects and the many seasonal forms of insects. (duke.edu)
  • Indeed, I believe there is good evidence that some species of insects are in decline and in danger of extinction . (livescience.com)
  • The first eukaryotic genome to be sequenced is that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( S. cerevisiae ) in 1996, and it is commonly known as brewer's yeast. (wikibooks.org)
  • Whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) cryptic species complex are among the most important agricultural insect pests in the world. (mdpi.com)
  • When the Argentine ants invade, they devastate the native insect communities while promoting the population growth of agricultural pests," says Tsutsui, corresponding author on the Argentine ant paper and co-author of two other papers on the genomes of the red harvester and leaf-cutter ants. (abc.net.au)
  • The knowledge presented here is discussed with the aim of further improving control strategies of insect pests and enhance resistances of crop plants. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of virion structural components reveals vestiges of the ancestral ichnovirus genome. (irisa.fr)
  • Due to modern techniques of DNA analysis, many genomes have been sequenced and analyzed. (wikibooks.org)
  • Epigenetic mechanisms play a role in processes like development, learning and memory formation, aging, diseases, cell differentiation and genome defence. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, it remains unknown whether epigenetic mechanisms contribute to regulatory compensation for genome dosage. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Overall, this study suggests that epigenetic mechanisms may be important to maintaining appropriate patterns of gene regulation in biological systems that differ in genome copy number. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Scientists who warn that this catastrophe is unfolding assert that arthropods - a large category of invertebrates that includes insects - are rapidly declining , perhaps signaling a general collapse of ecosystems across the world. (livescience.com)
  • Target areas are insect resistance and fungal resistance. (wur.nl)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that the two " Ca . Baumannia" genomes represent different stages of genome reduction in which many essential functions are being lost and likely compensated by hosts. (asm.org)
  • Multiple factors influence bacterial genome size, including spatiotemporal variability in environmental conditions, nutrient availability, biotic interactions, and effective population size ( 1 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Researchers have determined that a diminutive insect out-flies all other winged migrators by traveling thousands of miles between continents and across oceans yearly. (the-scientist.com)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb News) - Insects trapped in an amber precursor contained no endogenous DNA , University of Manchester researchers reported in PLOS One yesterday, a finding that counters previous claims that such DNA could be successfully extracted and could potentially be used in a Jurassic Park -style re-creation of extinct animals. (genomeweb.com)
  • Intuitively, one might imagine that the complete and rapid engulfment in resin, resulting in almost instantaneous demise, might promote the preservation of DNA in a resin-entombed insect," the researchers noted in their new paper. (genomeweb.com)
  • Researchers in the Department of Entomology isolated the cellulase genes from seven species of stick insect, including the Australian Extatosoma tiaratum, the Vietnamese Ramulus artemis, and the Bornean Aretaon asperrimus. (phys.org)
  • Starting around the year 2000, and more frequently since 2017, researchers have documented large population declines among moths , beetles , bees , butterflies and many other insect types . (livescience.com)
  • Jaenisch R, Bird A (2003) Epigenetic regulation of gene expression: how the genome integrates intrinsic and environmental signals. (springer.com)
  • Epigenetic inheritance and genome regulation: is DNA methylation linked to ploidy in haplodiploid insects? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Thus, these results suggest that epigenetic information may be linked to ploidy compensation in haplodiploid insects. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • http://hymenopteragenome.org ) is a genome informatics resource for insects of the order Hymenoptera, which includes bees, ants and wasps. (springer.com)
  • To see whether such preserved insect samples could house DNA, Brown and his colleagues examined two stingless bees, Trigonisca ameliae , that were encased in copal, the sub-fossilized resin precursor of amber. (genomeweb.com)
  • Working together with our partners at Germany's Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology and France's National Institute for Agricultural Research, the project will help establish us as leaders in organising major insect genome projects. (scienceblog.com)
  • With the information in our research now available, there is a unique opportunity for innovators to create an intelligent pesticide that targets locusts, but not other insects crucial to the ecosystem, such as pollinators. (le.ac.uk)
  • A gene for efficient muscles allowed the insect to fly farther, new research suggests. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Ongoing research deals with the mechanism by which insects asses their body size and stop growing when they have achieved a characteristic size. (duke.edu)
  • However, a significant proportion of insect taxa has so far been excluded from GBOL and merely all biodiversity research, because no or only very insufficient expertise and information are available that allow to get a grip on them. (zfmk.de)
  • An unsupervised clustering methodology combined with a comparative functional analysis unveiled proteomic signatures in the major clades of winged insects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientists build a living cellular organism with a genome smaller than any known in nature. (the-scientist.com)
  • Each genome contains all of the information needed to build that organism and allow it to grow and develop. (eurekalert.org)