Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Genome, Chloroplast: The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genome, Plastid: The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genome, Microbial: The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Genome Components: The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Terminal Repeat Sequences: Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.INDEL Mutation: A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Interspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Inverted Repeat Sequences: Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Virus Integration: Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Genes, Archaeal: The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Segmental Duplications, Genomic: Low-copy (2-50) repetitive DNA elements that are highly homologous and range in size from 1000 to 400,000 base pairs.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.GC Rich Sequence: A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genes, Duplicate: Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.DNA Copy Number Variations: Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Mutation Rate: The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Untranslated Regions: The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Tandem Repeat Sequences: Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Genes, Overlapping: Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.

Analysis of genomic integrity and p53-dependent G1 checkpoint in telomerase-induced extended-life-span human fibroblasts. (1/8470)

Life span determination in normal human cells may be regulated by nucleoprotein structures called telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres have been shown to be essential for chromosome stability and function and to shorten with each cell division in normal human cells in culture and with age in vivo. Reversal of telomere shortening by the forced expression of telomerase in normal cells has been shown to elongate telomeres and extend the replicative life span (H. Vaziri and S. Benchimol, Curr. Biol. 8:279-282, 1998; A. G. Bodnar et al., Science 279:349-352, 1998). Extension of the life span as a consequence of the functional inactivation of p53 is frequently associated with loss of genomic stability. Analysis of telomerase-induced extended-life-span fibroblast (TIELF) cells by G banding and spectral karyotyping indicated that forced extension of the life span by telomerase led to the transient formation of aberrant structures, which were subsequently resolved in higher passages. However, the p53-dependent G1 checkpoint was intact as assessed by functional activation of p53 protein in response to ionizing radiation and subsequent p53-mediated induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1). TIELF cells were not tumorigenic and had a normal DNA strand break rejoining activity and normal radiosensitivity in response to ionizing radiation.  (+info)

An effective approach for analyzing "prefinished" genomic sequence data. (2/8470)

Ongoing efforts to sequence the human genome are already generating large amounts of data, with substantial increases anticipated over the next few years. In most cases, a shotgun sequencing strategy is being used, which rapidly yields most of the primary sequence in incompletely assembled sequence contigs ("prefinished" sequence) and more slowly produces the final, completely assembled sequence ("finished" sequence). Thus, in general, prefinished sequence is produced in excess of finished sequence, and this trend is certain to continue and even accelerate over the next few years. Even at a prefinished stage, genomic sequence represents a rich source of important biological information that is of great interest to many investigators. However, analyzing such data is a challenging and daunting task, both because of its sheer volume and because it can change on a day-by-day basis. To facilitate the discovery and characterization of genes and other important elements within prefinished sequence, we have developed an analytical strategy and system that uses readily available software tools in new combinations. Implementation of this strategy for the analysis of prefinished sequence data from human chromosome 7 has demonstrated that this is a convenient, inexpensive, and extensible solution to the problem of analyzing the large amounts of preliminary data being produced by large-scale sequencing efforts. Our approach is accessible to any investigator who wishes to assimilate additional information about particular sequence data en route to developing richer annotations of a finished sequence.  (+info)

High polymorphism level of genomic sequences flanking insertion sites of human endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats. (3/8470)

The polymorphism at the multitude of loci adjacent to human endogenous retrovirus long terminal repeats (LTRs) was analyzed by a technique for whole genome differential display based on the PCR suppression effect that provides selective amplification and display of genomic sequences flanking interspersed repeated elements. This strategy is simple, target-specific, requires a small amount of DNA and provides reproducible and highly informative data. The average frequency of polymorphism observed in the vicinity of the LTR insertion sites was found to be about 12%. The high incidence of polymorphism within the LTR flanks together with the frequent location of LTRs near genes makes the LTR loci a useful source of polymorphic markers for gene mapping.  (+info)

Search for retroviral related DNA polymorphisms using RAPD PCR in schizophrenia. (4/8470)

Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is widely used to detect polymorphisms in many organisms. Individual (or strain) specific amplified bands are generated with single or pairs of primers in PCR reactions and can serve as genetic markers. We have used this method to generate a large number of reproducible bands with single primers, random and retroviral related, on 92 human DNA samples. Theoretically, RAPD PCR presents a logical approach for assessing variability among individuals. We used ten retroviral related primers (12, 20 and 22 bp) and eight random primers (10 bp) to assess individual differences in the context of testing the retroviral hypothesis for schizophrenia. Three pairs of discordant monozygotic twins, four pairs of discordant full sibs and 53 schizophrenic individuals with 25 of their unrelated matched controls were analyzed. Ten of these primers resulted in a total of approx. 850 amplified bands (65-110 bands per primer). Almost all of these bands were identical among each individual analyzed. However, the results are inconclusive with respect to the retroviral hypothesis for schizophrenia. The general lack of RAPD polymorphism in this study may argue for mechanisms other than rearrangements such as inversions, associated with the evolution of the human genome.  (+info)

Identification of a novel activation-inducible protein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and its ligand. (5/8470)

Among members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, 4-1BB, CD27, and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene (GITR) share a striking homology in the cytoplasmic domain. Here we report the identification of a new member, activation-inducible TNFR family member (AITR), which belongs to this subfamily, and its ligand. The receptor is expressed in lymph node and peripheral blood leukocytes, and its expression is up-regulated in human peripheral mononuclear cells mainly after stimulation with anti-CD3/CD28 monoclonal antibodies or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin. AITR associates with TRAF1 (TNF receptor-associated factor 1), TRAF2, and TRAF3, and induces nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation via TRAF2. The ligand for AITR (AITRL) was found to be an undescribed member of the TNF family, which is expressed in endothelial cells. Thus, AITR and AITRL seem to be important for interactions between activated T lymphocytes and endothelial cells.  (+info)

A previously undescribed intron and extensive 5' upstream sequence, but not Phox2a-mediated transactivation, are necessary for high level cell type-specific expression of the human norepinephrine transporter gene. (6/8470)

The synaptic action of norepinephrine is terminated by NaCl-dependent uptake into presynaptic noradrenergic nerve endings, mediated by the norepinephrine transporter (NET). NET is expressed only in neuronal tissues that synthesize and secrete norepinephrine and in most cases is co-expressed with the norepinephrine-synthetic enzyme dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH). To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating human NET (hNET) gene expression, we isolated and characterized an hNET genomic clone encompassing approximately 9. 5 kilobase pairs of the 5' upstream promoter region. Here we demonstrate that the hNET gene contains an as-yet-unidentified intron of 476 base pairs within the 5'-untranslated region. Furthermore, both primer extension and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends analyses identified multiple transcription start sites from mRNAs expressed only in NET-expressing cell lines. The start sites clustered in two subdomains, each preceded by a TATA-like sequence motif. As expected for mature mRNAs, transcripts from most of these sites each contained an additional G residue at the 5' position. Together, the data strongly support the authenticity of these sites as the transcriptional start sites of hNET. We assembled hNET-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter constructs containing different lengths of hNET 5' sequence in the presence or the absence of the first intron. Transient transfection assays indicated that the combination of the 5' upstream sequence and the first intron supported the highest level of noradrenergic cell-specific transcription. Forced expression of the paired-like homeodomain transcription factor Phox2a did not affect hNET promoter activity in NET-negative cell lines, in marked contrast to its effect on a DBH-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter construct. Together with our previous studies suggesting a critical role of Phox2a for noradrenergic-specific expression of the DBH gene, these data support a model in which distinct, or partially distinct, molecular mechanisms regulate cell-specific expression of the NET and DBH genes.  (+info)

The ancestry of a sample of sequences subject to recombination. (7/8470)

In this article we discuss the ancestry of sequences sampled from the coalescent with recombination with constant population size 2N. We have studied a number of variables based on simulations of sample histories, and some analytical results are derived. Consider the leftmost nucleotide in the sequences. We show that the number of nucleotides sharing a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) with the leftmost nucleotide is approximately log(1 + 4N Lr)/4Nr when two sequences are compared, where L denotes sequence length in nucleotides, and r the recombination rate between any two neighboring nucleotides per generation. For larger samples, the number of nucleotides sharing MRCA with the leftmost nucleotide decreases and becomes almost independent of 4N Lr. Further, we show that a segment of the sequences sharing a MRCA consists in mean of 3/8Nr nucleotides, when two sequences are compared, and that this decreases toward 1/4Nr nucleotides when the whole population is sampled. A measure of the correlation between the genealogies of two nucleotides on two sequences is introduced. We show analytically that even when the nucleotides are separated by a large genetic distance, but share MRCA, the genealogies will show only little correlation. This is surprising, because the time until the two nucleotides shared MRCA is reciprocal to the genetic distance. Using simulations, the mean time until all positions in the sample have found a MRCA increases logarithmically with increasing sequence length and is considerably lower than a theoretically predicted upper bound. On the basis of simulations, it turns out that important properties of the coalescent with recombinations of the whole population are reflected in the properties of a sample of low size.  (+info)

Structural characterization of the gene for human histidine-rich glycoprotein, reinvestigation of the 5'-terminal region of cDNA and a search for the liver specific promoter in the gene. (8/8470)

Genomic DNA libraries were screened for the human histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) gene and a sequence of 15,499 nucleotides was determined. The gene is composed of 7 exons and 6 introns, and all the exon-intron boundaries match the consensus GT/AG sequence for donor and acceptor splice sites. Each of cystatin-like domains I and II of HRG is encoded by three exons, exons I to III and exons IV to VI, respectively, like those of other members of the cystatin superfamily. The entire C-terminal half of the molecule is encoded by the largest exon, VII. The first 103 nucleotides of the cDNA sequence reported for human HRG [Koide, T., Foster, D., Yoshitake, S. , and Davie, E.W. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 2220-2225] could not be found in the determined gene sequence. A homology search of this sequence against a database showed the complete matching to a part of the yeast mitochondrial DNA encoding 21S ribosomal RNA. Rapid amplification of cDNA 5' ends (5'-RACE) analysis revealed that the cDNA has multiple 5'-ends and that a possible starting point is nucleotide 104 of the reported cDNA sequence. These results suggest that the first 103 nucleotides of the cDNA sequence reported for human HRG originated from yeast mitochondrial DNA and were incidentally incorporated into the HRG cDNA in the process of the construction of a cDNA library. Various fragments obtained on restriction endonuclease digestion of the 5'-noncoding region of the HRG gene were ligated to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene and then transfected into HepG2 and 293 cells to analyze the promoter activity. The sequence between -262 and -21 from the putative translation initiation site supported the expression of CAT in HepG2 cells but not in 293 cells, suggesting that this segment promotes the liver-specific transcription of the human HRG gene.  (+info)

The first edition of Human Genome Epidemiology, published in 2004, discussed how the epidemiologic approach provides an important scientific foundation for studying the continuum from gene discovery to the development, applications and evaluation of human genome information in improving health and preventing disease. Since that time, advances in human genomics have continued to occur at a breathtaking pace.
The first edition of Human Genome Epidemiology, published in 2004, discussed how the epidemiologic approach provides an important scientific foundation for studying the continuum from gene discovery to the development, applications and evaluation of human genome information in improving health and preventing disease. Since that time, advances in human genomics have continued to occur at a breathtaking pace.
The Society runs two themed meetings each year as satellites to either the American or European Societies of Human Genetics annual meeting as a forum for scientists to exchange ideas and form collaborations. Prominent speakers in the field are invited. The meetings are designed to update and increase knowledge of human genome variation and generally attract a stimulating and interesting collection of abstracts in all fields of human genome variation making it an ideal forum to share information and results. We invite members and non-members alike to attend these meetings.. FORTHCOMING HGVS MEETINGS ...
The 1000 Genomes Project aims to provide a deep characterization of human genome sequence variation as a foundation for investigating the relationship between genotype and phenotype. Here we present results of the pilot phase of the project, designed to develop and compare different strategies for genome-wide sequencing with high-throughput platforms. We undertook three projects: low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of 179 individuals from four populations; high-coverage sequencing of two mother-father-child trios; and exon-targeted sequencing of 697 individuals from seven populations. We describe the location, allele frequency and local haplotype structure of approximately 15 million single nucleotide polymorphisms, 1 million short insertions and deletions, and 20,000 structural variants, most of which were previously undescribed. We show that, because we have catalogued the vast majority of common variation, over 95% of the currently accessible variants found in any individual are present in this data
CALL FOR PAPERS Human Genomic Variation: Disease, drug response and clinical phenotypes January 3-7, 2002 Island of Kauai, Hawaii, USA A session of the Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2002 The recent completion of the first assembly of the human genome has provided an invaluable tool for investigating the biology of our species. Several academic and industrial laboratories are working to add value to this raw genome sequence by generating DNA variation and gene expression data. However, researchers are encountering substantial challenges regarding the management, annotation and analysis of this information. Many of the critical issues involved in linking genetic variation to clinical phenotypes are complicated by a need to synthesize biological and computational expertise. For example, there is a need to apply and extend population genetic analyses to high- throughput data to elucidate underlying patterns of variation in the human genome. When operating at a high-throughput mode, extensive ...
There are 481 segments longer than 200 base pairs (bp) that are absolutely conserved (100% identity with no insertions or deletions) between orthologous regions of the human, rat, and mouse genomes. Nearly all of these segments are also conserved in the chicken and dog genomes, with an average of 95 and 99% identity, respectively. Many are also significantly conserved in fish. These ultraconserved elements of the human genome are most often located either overlapping exons in genes involved in RNA processing or in introns or nearby genes involved in the regulation of transcription and development. Along with more than 5000 sequences of over 100 bp that are absolutely conserved among the three sequenced mammals, these represent a class of genetic elements whose functions and evolutionary origins are yet to be determined, but which are more highly conserved between these species than are proteins and appear to be essential for the ontogeny of mammals and other vertebrates.
The stored 5.3 billion base pairs represent 2.58 billion base pairs of unique sequence which have been calculated to cover about 81 percent of an estimated genome size of 3.18 billion base pairs. These data, combined with all of the "finished" and "draft" human genome sequence data from the public databases, give Celera coverage of 90 percent of the human genome. The companys sequencing was performed on 300 PE Biosystems ABI Prism 3700 DNA Analysers.. The whole genome shotgun technique concentrates on sequencing the entire genome at once, allowing for real time discovery of human genes across the entire genome, according to J. Craig Venter, Ph.D., who is Celeras president and chief scientific officer. "The early phase of sequencing the human genome using the whole genome shotgun process is especially important for gene discovery. Today, we are rapidly coming to an end of that phase. Our statistical analysis and comparison to known genes suggest that more than 97 percent of all human genes are ...
Release of the first human genome assembly was a landmark achievement, and after nearly two decades of improvements, the current human reference genome (GRCh38) is the most accurate and compl
Milestone crossed on the 15th anniversary of the completion of the Human Genome Project, as the worldwide estimate for whole human genomes sequenced approaches one million
Received January 23, 2003 The recent sequencing of the human genome, resulting from two independent global efforts, is poised to revolutionize all aspects of human health. This landmark achievement has also vindicated two different methodologies that can now be used to target other important large genomes. The human genome sequence has revealed several novel/surprising features notably the probable presence of a mere 30-35,000 genes. In depth comparisons have led to classification of protein families and identification of several orthologues and paralogues. Information regarding non-protein coding genes as well as regulatory regions has thrown up several new areas of research. Although still incomplete, the sequence is poised to become a boon to pharmaceutical companies with the promise of delivering several new drug targets. Several ethical concerns have also been raised and need to be addressed in earnest. This review discusses all these aspects and dwells on the possible impact of the human ...
View Notes - SNPsW11 from BIMM 101 at UCSD. How much does DNA sequence vary among humans? Some estimates are that human genome 99.5 - 99.9% similar among individuals Human genome about 3,000,000,000
Of course the biggest hook of this announcement has been that Illumina is claiming to have made possible, for the first time ever (others have claimed this but failed to deliver), a sequenced human genome for under $1,000. Now of course this claim comes with a bit of a caveat. According to Illumina, running a single sample (so a single human genome) will cost about $800 in reagents, so technically a single human genome will cost less than $1,000. However, these machines are selling for $1 million each, and you have to purchase them in sets of ten, so the machine cost up front will be about $10,000,000. After you consider the costs associated with preparing the DNA for sequencing, the costs associated with maintaining and running the machines, and the analyses required for the data, it seems like we may be getting out of that $1,000 range. I have not done the math, so I cant give you a detailed explanation or say exactly what the cost is going to be. Fortunately another blogger outlined some ...
Jasper D. Rine was named on May 13 the Acting Director of the Human Genome Center at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and to a position in the LBL Cell and Molecular Biology Division, of which the center is a major component. Rine will maintain his current professorship of genetics at the University of California, Berkeley (UCB), which he joined in 1982.. "The Human Genome Center at LBL is an opportunity to establish for the biology community the same synergistic relationship between LBL and the UCB campus that exists in physics and chemistry," Rine said. "The Berkeley environment is one of the few places where a major research university and a major DOE facility are physically adjacent, and I believe this proximity can foster interaction to catalyze new scientific discoveries." Rine expects to add an emphasis on genetics and genetic analysis to the current strengths in instrumentation, informatics, and physical mapping.. As a member of the LBL Human Genome Center Advisory Committee, Rine will ...
This post was published earlier on ZYX Buy Change Alert. Last year Human Genome Sciences Inc. (HGSI) successfully introduced the first new treatment for Lupus in a very long time. GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), the big drug giant, is Human Genomes partner.. Human Genome has disclosed that it received an unsolicited $13.00 per share cash offer from GlaxoSmithKline.. It is likely that the deal will ultimately get done at a premium to the present bid of $13.00 per share.. Buy zone is $12.50 to $13.56. To control risk consider not exceeding 20% of full core position size. Stop zone is$11.48 to $11.75. Target zone is $16 to $18.. Caution: Consider not chasing the price even at the risk of missing the trade. Further it is important to keep the position small because of the risk involved. There is no guarantee that a deal will done.. ...
Greenman C., Stephens P., Smith R., Dalgliesh G.L., Hunter C., Bignell G., Davies H., Teague J., Butler A., Stevens C., Edkins S., OMeara S., Vastrik I., Schmidt E.E., Avis T., Barthorpe S., Bhamra G., Buck G., Choudhury B., Clements J., Cole J., Dicks E., Forbes S., Gray K., Halliday K., Harrison R., Hills K., Hinton J., Jenkinson A., Jones D., Menzies A., Mironenko T., Perry J., Raine K., Richardson D., Shepherd R., Small A., Tofts C., Varian J., Webb T., West S., Widaa S., Yates A., Cahill D.P., Louis D.N., Goldstraw P., Nicholson A.G., Brasseur F., Looijenga L., Weber B.L., Chiew Y.-E., DeFazio A., Greaves M.F., Green A.R., Campbell P., Birney E., Easton D.F., Chenevix-Trench G., Tan M.-H., Khoo S.K., Teh B.T., Yuen S.T., Leung S.Y., Wooster R., Futreal P.A., Stratton M.R.. Cancers arise owing to mutations in a subset of genes that confer growth advantage. The availability of the human genome sequence led us to propose that systematic resequencing of cancer genomes for mutations would lead ...
The latest issue of Nature is just as it should be: nearly wall-to-wall human genomics, with a special focus on personal genomics (more on that later).. The main event is a potential historical milestone: quite possibly the last two papers ever to be published in a major journal describing the sequencing of single human genomes from healthy individuals1. The papers, which both appear to be open access (kudos to Nature for that decision) describe the analysis of the first Asian genome by researchers at the Beijing Genomics Institute, and the sequencing of the first African genome by a cast of thousands centred around next-gen sequencing company Illumina. Both genomes were sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology from Illumina, which generates sequence information in the form of very short (35-50 base pair) reads. Although each read is extremely short and relatively error-prone compared to reads from old-fashioned sequencing methods, the sheer number of reads generated by the Illumina ...
... contain 89 genes selected for targeted studies of the human dendritic & antigen presenting cell pathway. Arrayit Pathways™ Microarrays gene content is derived from our H25K Whole Human Genome Microarray constructed using highly optimized and unique long-mer oligonucleotides designed to maximize detection of the greatest number of cellular transcripts in the human transcriptome with
In a study appearing in PLoS Genetics, a Stanford University-led team described the "ethnicity-specific" reference genome approach it used to analyze whole genome sequences from four members of a single family.. By incorporating estimated allele frequency data from the 1000 Genomes Project into the existing human reference genome, the researchers came up with three synthetic human genome references containing the major alleles identified in European, African, or East Asian populations - a strategy thats intended to more accurately represent the genetic variation present in each of the major HapMap populations.. "There has been a large focus, at least in the genome-wide association study space, on Caucasian populations," first author Frederick Dewey, a researcher at Stanford Universitys Center for Inherited Cardiovascular Disease, told GenomeWeb Daily News. "What we hope to show is that ethnicity certainly matters - it begins at the point of genome assembly and carries all the way through ...
In just the span of an average lifetime, science has made leaps and bounds in our understanding of the human genome and its role in heredity and health-from the first insights about DNA structure in the 1950s to the rapid, inexpensive sequencing technologies of today. However, the 20,000 genes of the human genome are more than DNA; they also encode proteins to carry out the countless functions that are key to our existence. And we know much less about how this collection of proteins supports the essential functions of life.. In order to understand the role each of these proteins plays in human health-and what goes wrong when disease occurs-biologists need to figure out what these proteins are and how they function. Several decades ago, biologists realized that to answer these questions on the scale of the thousands of proteins in the human body, they would have to leave the comfort of their own discipline to get some help from a standard analytical-chemistry technique: mass spectrometry. Since ...
By Boonsri Dickinson. Long before he could grow his signature beard, geneticist George Church fantasized about sequencing the genomes of mankind.. Today, that dream is a reality.. Three years before anyone else thought to sequence genomes -- 1987, to be precise -- Church was in his Harvard University laboratory unraveling the DNA data code.. Hype is mounting for the 10-year anniversary of the announcement of the first draft of the human genome, officially this June.. But Church admits that hes not at all impressed -- despite $3 billion already invested, humanity is far from completely decoding the human genome.. Perhaps no one has seen genomics as up-and-close as Church, who became his own guinea pig in thePersonal Genome Project, or PGP. To date, the project counts more than 16,000 volunteers -- but only a select dozen has made their genetic and medical history public.. Eventually, 100,000 people will be sequenced through the project.. This week, Church is in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, where ...
The human genome-the sum total of hereditary information in a person-contains a lot more than the protein-coding genes teenagers learn about in school, a massive international project has found. When researchers decided to sequence the human genome in the late 1990s, they were focused on finding those traditional genes so as to identify all the proteins necessary for life. Each gene was thought to be a discrete piece of DNA; the order of its DNA bases-the well-known letter molecules that are the building blocks of DNA-were thought to code for a particular protein. But scientists deciphering the human genome found, to their surprise, that these protein-coding genes took up less than 3% of the genome. In between were billions of other bases that seemed to have no purpose. Now a U.S.-funded project, called the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), has found that many of these bases do, nevertheless, play a role in human biology: They help determine when a gene is turned on or off, for example. ...
Recent studies generating complete human sequences from Asian, African and European subgroups have revealed population-specific variation and disease susceptibility loci. Here, choosing a DNA sample from a population of interest due to its relative geographical isolation and genetic impact on further populations, we extend the above studies through the generation of 11-fold coverage of the first Irish human genome sequence. Using sequence data from a branch of the European ancestral tree as yet unsequenced, we identify variants that may be specific to this population. Through comparisons with HapMap and previous genetic association studies, we identified novel disease-associated variants, including a novel nonsense variant putatively associated with inflammatory bowel disease. We describe a novel method for improving SNP calling accuracy at low genome coverage using haplotype information. This analysis has implications for future re-sequencing studies and validates the imputation of Irish haplotypes
Anne Trafton, MIT News Office. Only about 1 percent of the human genome contains gene regions that code for proteins, raising the question of what the rest of the DNA is doing. Scientists have now begun to discover the answer: About 80 percent of the genome is biochemically active, and likely involved in regulating the expression of nearby genes, according to a study from a large international team of researchers.. The consortium, known as ENCODE (which stands for "Encyclopedia of DNA Elements"), includes hundreds of scientists from several dozen labs around the world. Using genetic sequencing data from 140 types of cells, the researchers were able to identify thousands of DNA regions that help fine-tune genes activity and influence which genes are expressed in different kinds of cells.. Just as the sequencing of the human genome helped scientists learn how mutations in protein-coding genes can lead to disease, the new map of noncoding regions should provide some answers on how mutations in the ...
Detailed explorations of the human genome are showing that individual genes may have complex structures, and that much of what had been called junk DNA is not junk at all.
In order to contribute to the establishment of a complete map of transcribed regions of the human genome, we constructed a testicular cDNA library for the cynomolgus monkey, and attempted to find novel transcripts for identification of their human homologues. The full-insert sequences of 512 cDNA clones were determined. Ultimately we found 302 non-redundant cDNAs carrying open reading frames of 300 bp-length or longer. Among them, 89 cDNAs were found not to be annotated previously in the Ensembl human database. After searching against the Ensembl mouse database, we also found 69 putative coding sequences have no homologous cDNAs in the annotated human and mouse genome sequences in Ensembl. We subsequently designed a DNA microarray including 396 non-redundant cDNAs (with and without open reading frames) to examine the expression of the full-sequenced genes. With the testicular probe and a mixture of probes of 10 other tissues, 316 of 332 effective spots showed intense hybridized signals and 75 cDNAs were
Among the 518 kinases identified in the human genome are many exciting targets for cancer drug discovery (22). Molecular alterations in numerous kinases have been documented to drive malignant proliferation either via overexpression or activation, the latter secondary to an acquired mutation. Where dependence on a kinase is essential to the phenotype of a tumor, the term oncogene addiction has been coined. It is interesting that where such oncogene addiction is observed, the kinase inhibitors can have dramatic effects, whereas a lesser effect is observed on cells with mere overexpression of the target. An example of this is the activity of gefitinib or erlotinib in lung cancers with or without mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (23). Can this be considered cytotoxicity on the one hand but cytostasis on the other? On examination of these agents, it becomes clear that the outcome, cytostasis or cytotoxicity, may depend less on the agent and more on the cellular context, especially the ...
While we cannot exclude entirely the possibility of off target modifications in addition to on target cleavage, we believe it represents a relatively low and controllable risk, as a number of recent publications have demonstrated that the CRISPR-Cas9 system is to be highly specific (e.g. Cencic et al).. Further to this a collaborator group have published a paper where they examine off-targets in the HAP1 cell line and observe very low frequencies.. At Horizon, to mitigate the risk still further our in-house selection algorithms warrant that only those guide RNAs with minimal predicted off-target sites in the human genome are chosen. Further to this, scientists can control their experiments through the use of multiple, independent clones or rescue of the knockout with a wild-type cDNA.. ...
So this week, in over 30 different journals, a detailed study was reported on the nature of the over 3 billion nucleotides (the fundamental building blocks of genes and thus of DNA) that make up the human genome. In the turn of this century, the human genome was completely sequenced (identified at the nucleotide level). …
Video created by Novosibirsk State University for the course From Disease to Genes and Back. This week you will learn about human genome organisation. This week is very important as all this knowledge will form a basis for all of the ...
Manhattan Beach, California. These are not simply my claims: The preponderance of scientifically verified biological data do not support the substructure of human populations into any discrete, internally consistent racial subgroups. When sampled adequately, the genetic differences in populations dissolve into a continuum of variation. The partitioning of humans into biological races was permissible when the knowledge of our genetic inheritance was based on less than 0.1 percent of the human genome. However, based on data now available, we see that the sequence of the 3 billion nucleotides in any individual genome is unique in comparison with the sequence of another individuals genome, while the degree of sequence similarity between the 3 billion nucleotides in any two genomes is remarkably high. The uniqueness of the individual human genome in the presence of extreme similarity between any two genomes challenges the concept of human races. The reader implies that a scientist cannot be both ...
Centromeric alpha satellite (AS) is composed of highly identical higher-order DNA repetitive sequences, which make the standard assembly process impossible. Because of this the AS repeats were severely underrepresented in previous versions of the human genome assembly showing large centromeric gaps. The latest hg38 assembly (GCA_000001405.15) employed a novel method of approximate representation of these sequences using AS reference models to fill the gaps. Therefore, a lot more of assembled AS became available for genomic analysis. We used the PERCON program previously described by us to annotate various suprachromosomal families (SFs) of AS in the hg38 assembly and presented the results of our primary analysis as an easy-to-read track for the UCSC Genome Browser. The monomeric classes, characteristic of the five known SFs, were color-coded, which allowed quick visual assessment of AS composition in whole multi-megabase centromeres down to each individual AS monomer. Such comprehensive annotation of AS
Razib points me to a great plain-language article reviewing our current scientific understanding of human genetic variation. The major focus is on copy-number variants (CNVs) - genetic variants involving the insertion or deletion of large chunks of DNA, sometimes spanning over a million bases. These large-scale variants lurked essentially unknown within the human genome until \[…\]
Porvair Sciences latest product catalogue is packed with vital information on the companys wide range of microplates, plate sealers and microplate evaporators to help you get the best from your separations, assays and storage applications.
Putting the Genome on the Map. The scale of the human genome is staggering. Our 80,000 genes account for only a small part of the delicate thread of three thousand million bases of sequence that we carry on our chromosomes. Encoded within this part of the sequence are the Instructions for making a complete set of proteins that drive all of the processes in our cells. We have almost no idea about what functions, if any, the rest of the sequence might have. Determining the sequence of the human genome - both that of the genes and that of the non-coding regions - is going to tell us much about our biology. However, there is also a lot that we will not be able to fathom from the sequence of the human genome alone. We need to broaden our horizons when thinking about the map of the human genome and the richness of information that we want it to contain. We need to understand how chromosome environment can perturb gene function every bit as effectively as mutation within gene sequence and how ...
DNA Transposons. pseudogenes. However, there is also a large amount of sequence that does not fall under any known classification.. Much of this sequence may be an evolutionary artifact that serves no present-day purpose, and these regions are sometimes collectively referred to as "junk" DNA. There are, however, a variety of emerging indications that many sequences within are likely to function in ways that are not fully understood. Recent experiments using microarrays have revealed that a substantial fraction of non-genic DNA is in fact transcribed into RNA,[6] which leads to the possibility that the resulting transcripts may have some unknown function. Also, the evolutionary conservation across the mammalian genomes of much more sequence than can be explained by protein-coding regions indicates that many, and perhaps most, functional elements in the genome remain unknown.[7] The investigation of the vast quantity of sequence information in the human genome whose function remains unknown is ...
The first round of genomics companies had two basic scientific strategies. Companies such as Incyte and Human Genome Sciences planned to sequence the expressed genes & some how sift out the good stuff. Another set of companies, such as Millennium, Sequana, Myriad and Mercator planned to find important genes through positional cloning. Positional cloning uses either carefully collected human family samples or carefully bred mice to identify regions of the genome that track with the trait of interest. By progressively refining the resolution of the genetic maps, the work could narrow down the region to something that could be sequenced. Further arduous screening of the genes in that region for mutations which tracked with the trait would eventually nail down the gene. Prior to the human genome sequence this was a long & difficult process, and sometimes in the end not all the ambiguity could be squeezed out. It is still serious work, but the full human genome sequence and tools such as gene mapping ...
The theoretical price of having ones personal genome sequenced just f...The sharp drop is due to a new DNA sequencing technology developed by ...The Church groups technology is based on converting a widely availabl... Meeting the challenge of the $1000 human genome requires a significa...The new technique calls for replicating thousands of DNA fragments att...,A,step,toward,the,$1,000,personal,genome,using,readily,available,lab,equipment,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Development of novel in vivo genome engineering approaches for cancer research Cancer develops from mutations and copy number alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Genome sequencing studies have identified a large collection of genetic alterations that occur in human cancers. However, the determination of which mutations are causally related to tumorigenesis remains a major challenge. Our lab is pioneering the use of GEMMs of lung cancer in combination with in vivo CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering approaches to address the immediate need to systematically interrogate the complex catalog of mutations obtained from cancer genome sequencing studies.. In the era of personalized medicine, CRISPR/Cas9-based approaches provide invaluable tools to tackle the complexity of cancers. The extensive information recorded from an individual patient tumor can be functionally validated using a platform that makes use of both in vitro and in vivo CRIPSR/Cas9-based approaches. Once important ...
Large‐scale sequencing projects and comparative genomics have provided insights into the function and evolution of many fragments of the human genome, but relatively little is known about the spatial organisation of the genome
Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome - The human genome holds an extraordinary trove of information about human development, physiology, medicine and evolution. Here we report the results of an international collaboration to produce and make freely available a draft sequence of the human genome. We also present an initial analysis of the data, describing some of the insights that can be gleaned from the sequence…The sequence data have been made available without restriction and updated daily throughout the project. The task ahead is to produce a finished sequence, by closing all gaps and resolving all ambiguities. Already about one billion bases are in final form and the task of bringing the vast majority of the sequence to this standard is now straightforward and should proceed rapidly…The sequence of the human genome is of interest in several respects. It is the largest genome to be extensively sequenced so far, being 25 times as large as any previously sequenced genome and ...
Cambridge, UK, 26 March 2018: Horizon Discovery (LSE: HZD) ("Horizon" or the "Company"), a global leader in the application of gene editing and gene modulation to deliver inspired cell solutions, today announced the introduction of Edit-R™ CRISPRa arrayed crRNA (CRISPR RNA) libraries, the latest addition to its CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) reagent platform from the recently acquired Dharmacon™ business. The new libraries offer a powerful tool for drug discovery, pathway analysis, and disease progression studies.. Unlike lentiviral pooled screens, Edit-R synthetic crRNA arrayed libraries enable one-gene-per-well investigation, using high-content assays to answer more in-depth biological questions. A CRISPRa-based system for overexpression studies also overcomes many of the shortcomings of early generations of DNA plasmid-encoded gene expression tools. By triggering the endogenous genes expression, the gene is transcribed in its native form, so researchers can be assured of highly relevant ...
We are not advocating for a single mechanism but a governance framework that can: (i) Identify relevant issues, a range of specific mechanisms to address them, and be developed in collaboration with the widest possible range of institutions, organizations and peoples. (ii) Be scalable, sustainable and appropriate for use at the international, regional, national and local levels. (iii) Work in parts of the world where there is traditionally weaker regulation of scientific and clinical research and practice, and where genome editing may not yet be pursued or invested in with great intensity. (iv) Provide those with specific governance roles for human genome editing with the tools and guidance they need," the WHO committee said ...
In a special edition of the show, Charlie investigates the race to map the human genome, in a profile of Celera Genomics Craig Venter.
May 15, 2013 The University of Chicago is launching the first secure cloud-based computing system that will enable researchers to access and analyze human genomic cancer information without the costly and cumbersome infrastructure normally needed to download and store massive amounts of data.. Until now, researchers authorized by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to analyze The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) had to set up a secure, compliant computing environment capable of managing and analyzing terabytes of data, download the data-which could take weeks-and then install the appropriate tools needed to perform the desired analysis.. The Bionimbus Protected Data Cloud, which is the only NIH-approved cloud-based system for TCGA data, will be equipped with the most commonly used query pipelines and will allow researchers to focus solely on the analysis of large-scale cancer genome sequencing, which experts believe can unlock paths to appropriate treatment, early detection and prevention of ...
In June 2000, the draft sequence of the human genome was announced. It is, and will be for some years, incomplete, but the vast majority is now available. Currently about a third is finished (including two complete chromosomes); the rest has good coverage, but not long-range continuity. First-pass analysis indicates, among other things, fewer genes than expected: about 40000 now looks a likely number. This uncertainty illustrates the difficulty of interpretation: the sequence is not an end in itself, but a resource to be continually reanalysed as our biological understanding increases. That is the scientific reason for releasing it promptly, fully and freely. The social reasons for doing so are even more compelling. ...
The human genome is regulated by hundreds of thousands of functional DNA elements that play pivotal roles in development and disease, yet remain poorly understo...
The human genome was sequenced a. by sequencing each gene on each chromosome, one at a time. b. using DNA fingerprinting. c. by looking for overlapping regions between sequenced DNA fragments. d. using open reading frames.
Approach distills vast amounts of data into a single score. Seattle, Wash. and Huntsville, Ala.-Researchers from the University of Washington and the HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology have developed a new method for organizing and prioritizing genetic data. The Combined Annotation-Dependent Depletion, or CADD, method will assist scientists in their search for disease-causing mutation events in human genomes.. The new method is the subject of a paper titled "A general framework for estimating the relative pathogenicity of human genetic variants," published in Nature Genetics.. Current methods of organizing human genetic variation look at just one or a few factors and use only a small subset of the information available. For example, the Encyclopedia Of DNA Elements, or ENCODE, catalogs various types of functional elements in human genomes, while sequence conservation looks for similar or identical sequences that have survived across different species through hundreds of millions of years of ...
Scientists from Singapore and China studying people of Han Chinese descent have identified genes and regions in the human genome that increase susceptibility to IgA nephropathy. The researchers believe the genes could also play a role in the development of clinical symptoms and their severity. Lead scientist, Dr. Yu Xueqing said,… Continue reading. ...
View Notes - Lecture 4 MCB121 from MCB 121 at UC Davis. I. Origins of replication A. Identification of orgins-genetics 50-100,000 origins of rep in human genome, only a couple dozen have been
Chadwick, Ruth and Hedgecoe, Adam (2002) Commercial exploitation of the Human Genome. In: Burley, Justine and Harris, John (eds.) A Companion to Genethics. Blackwell. ISBN 978-0631206989 Full text not available from this repository ...
Its ten years since scientists sequenced the human genome, the first step in answering some of the questions about what makes us tick. But how much do you know about what makes you, you?
Jun 29, 2012 - Human Genome Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq HGSI) today issued the following statement regarding the extension by GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) of its unsoli
Issued Thursday 19 April 2012, London UK - Transaction would deliver Human Genome Sciences shareholders immediate full value and certainty - Acquisition would g
Scientists claim humans may actually have double the number of genes than previously thought. The race to finish mapping the human genome could get even hotter.
It has now been a decade since the so-called first draft of the human genome was released, amid predictions that it would revolutionize medicine. But has the revolution been postponed?
GlaxoSmithKline (NYSE: GSK) is reportedly in discussions this weekend with Human Genome Sciences (NASDAQ: HGSI) to increase its previous offer, according to ...
Human Genome Sciences, Inc. (NYSE: HGSI) is a freshly minted commercial biotech company, with the approval of its flagship drug, Benlysta in 2011...
By César Palacios-González @CPalaciosG More than a year after the fallout from He Jiankuis announcement to the world that he had edited human embryos in order to made them resistant to HIV, the debate on whether we should move ahead with heritable human genome editing has given no signs of slowing down. For example, just a […]...
When you can sequence an entire human genome for less than $5,000, and the price is diving fast to $1,000, what kinds of questions will your doctor be
After mapping of the entire human genome was completed in 2003, scientists focused on the so-called junk DNA. Nine years later, in 2012, the international ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) project published the largest single genome update in Nature and other journals. It found that, far from useless, the so-called junk contained 10,000 genes-around 18% of the total-that help control how the protein-coding genes work. Also found were 4 million regulatory switches that turn genes on and off (it is the failure of these switches that leads to diseases such as type 2 diabetes and Crohns disease). In total, ENCODE predicted that up to 80 percent of our DNA has some sort of biochemical function ...
After mapping of the entire human genome was completed in 2003, scientists focused on the so-called junk DNA. Nine years later, in 2012, the international ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) project published the largest single genome update in Nature and other journals. It found that, far from useless, the so-called junk contained 10,000 genes-around 18% of the total-that help control how the protein-coding genes work. Also found were 4 million regulatory switches that turn genes on and off (it is the failure of these switches that leads to diseases such as type 2 diabetes and Crohns disease). In total, ENCODE predicted that up to 80 percent of our DNA has some sort of biochemical function ...
A comprehensive understanding of how the body and all its components function is essential when this knowledge is exploited for medical purposes. The achievements in biological and medical research during last decades has provided us with the complete human genome and identified signaling pathways that governs the cellular processes that facilitates the development and maintenance of higher order organisms. This has brought about the realization that diseases such as cancer is a consequence of genomic aberrations that effects these signaling pathways, endowing cancer cells with the capacity to circumvent homeostasis by acquiring features like self-sustained proliferation and insensitivity to apoptosis. The increased understanding of biology and medicine has been made possible by the development of advanced methods to carry out biological and clinical analyses. The demands of a method often differ regarding in what context it will be applied. It may be acceptable for method to be laborious and ...
A comprehensive understanding of how the body and all its components function is essential when this knowledge is exploited for medical purposes. The achievements in biological and medical research during last decades has provided us with the complete human genome and identified signaling pathways that governs the cellular processes that facilitates the development and maintenance of higher order organisms. This has brought about the realization that diseases such as cancer is a consequence of genomic aberrations that effects these signaling pathways, endowing cancer cells with the capacity to circumvent homeostasis by acquiring features like self-sustained proliferation and insensitivity to apoptosis. The increased understanding of biology and medicine has been made possible by the development of advanced methods to carry out biological and clinical analyses. The demands of a method often differ regarding in what context it will be applied. It may be acceptable for method to be laborious and ...
The sequencing of individual human genomes may soon be routine in certain clinical contexts - for example, to diagnose suspected Mendelian disorders in pediatri...
DNA in the human genome is arranged into 24 distinct chromosomes--physically separate molecules that range in length from about 50 million to 250 million base pairs. A few types of major chromosomal abnormalities, including missing or extra copies or gross breaks and rejoinings (translocations), can be detected by microscopic examination. Most changes in DNA, however, are more subtle and require a closer analysis of the DNA molecule to find perhaps single-base diEach chromosome contains many genes, the basic physical and functional units of heredity. Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions on how to make proteins. Genes comprise only about 2% of the human genome; the remainder consists of noncoding regions, whose functions may include providing chromosomal structural integrity and regulating where, when, and in what quantity proteins are made. The human genome is estimated to contain 20,000-25,000 genes ...
Ten years after Craig Venter revealed the first working draft of the entire Human Genome, this special report demonstrates how Biology is now at the brink of something brilliant - just recently, the draft of the entire genome of the Neanderthal was revealed. Suck on that, sceptics! ...
A point mutation analysis of the entire human genome finds that alterations to as many as 7.5 percent of nucleotides may have contributed to humans evolutionary split from chimpanzees.. 1 Comment. ...
A point mutation analysis of the entire human genome finds that alterations to as many as 7.5 percent of nucleotides may have contributed to humans evolutionary split from chimpanzees.. 1 Comment. ...
Date: 5/5/2017. Version Affected: 13.1 to 14.1. Version Fixed: NA. Issue: The Variant Annotation Database (VAD) based on human genome reference GRCh37 was first released with Lasergene 13.1 in March 2016. With the March 2017 release of Lasergene 14.1, a companion VAD version was added, based on human genome reference GRCh38. DNASTAR software automatically detects which version of the human genome reference sequence is used in a SeqMan NGen assembly and accesses the corresponding VAD for variant annotation.. The aforementioned Lasergene 14.1 release also included an update of the GRCh37 version of the VAD and the removal of Polyphen2 data from both VAD versions due to licensing issues.. In May 2017, to address some data inconsistencies caused by changes in the reference sequence between the GRCh37 and GRCh38 VAD builds, the GRCh37 version was reverted to its pre-Lasergene 14.1 state. We also anticipate some cases in which annotations from the GRCh38 version of the VAD will be missing, due to the ...
DNA in the human genome is arranged into 24 distinct chromosomes--physically separate molecules that range in length from about 50 million to 250 million base pairs. A few types of major chromosomal abnormalities, including missing or extra copies or gross breaks and rejoinings (translocations), can be detected by microscopic examination. Most changes in DNA, however, are more subtle and require a closer analysis of the DNA molecule to find perhaps single-base diEach chromosome contains many genes, the basic physical and functional units of heredity. Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions on how to make proteins. Genes comprise only about 2% of the human genome; the remainder consists of noncoding regions, whose functions may include providing chromosomal structural integrity and regulating where, when, and in what quantity proteins are made. The human genome is estimated to contain 20,000-25,000 genes ...
The 2016 edition offers many new examples for microarray and region specific assays, trackable changes to the previous edition and a nomenclature standard to facilitate the description of chromosome rearrangements characterized by DNA sequencing developed through collaboration between the Human Genome Variation Society and ISCN to accommodate the increased use of sequencing technologies in the characterization of chromosomal abnormalities. ...
A central challenge in interpreting personal genomes is determining which mutations most likely influence disease. Although progress has been made in scoring the functional impact of individual mutations, the characteristics of the genes in which those mutations are found remain largely unexplored. …
In 2010 the 1000 Genome Project published their analyses and findings from the pilot data to determine their strategy of using the light sequencing approach was adequate to present variation results. For the HuGGV project I have studied the genetic variants from the 1000 genomes 2011 release dataset. I downloaded the variant call format (.vcf)…
|p||span|A worldwide forum for state-of-the-art ideas, methods, and techniques in the field, |/span||em|Human Biology|/em||span| focuses on genetics in its broadest sense. Included under this rubric are: human population genetics, evolutionary a
Large-scale genomics efforts have provided the opportunity to access a comprehensive catalog of genetic alterations in multiple cancers. However, it has also become apparent that very few driver mutations are emerging and as a consequence of that, limited opportunities exist to target mutated oncogenic proteins. It is imperative therefore to develop alternative approaches to therapy that can leverage the selective vulnerabilities of tumor cells resulting from the engagement of abnormal pathway connectivity. These can be best exploited in vivo, in a context that is closer to the environment tumors strive in. To identify new relevant actionable dependencies we have developed PILOT (Patient-oriented In vivo Lethality to Optimize Treatment), a loss-of-function in vivo platform for rapid identification of potential therapeutic targets in Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDXs). By optimizing primary tumor explant and expansion, determination of tumor-initiating cell frequency trough retroviral-mediated ...
By Robert Sanders, Media Relations , , BERKELEY As the cost of sequencing a single human genome drops rapidly, with one company predicting a price of $100 per person in five years, soon the only reaso...
The Math Forums Internet Math Library is a comprehensive catalog of Web sites and Web pages relating to the study of mathematics. This page contains sites relating to Web Interactive/Java.
The Math Forums Internet Math Library is a comprehensive catalog of Web sites and Web pages relating to the study of mathematics. This page contains sites relating to Web Interactive/Java.
I would start by loking on Ensembl.org. Select Human and Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (in the case of the L44140) to get:. http://www.ensembl.org/Homo_sapiens/Search/Summary?species=Homo_sapiens;idx=;q=glucose%206%20phosphate%20dehydrogenase. The first returned item is:. http://www.ensembl.org/Homo_sapiens/Transcript/Domains/Genes?domain=IPR001282;t=ENST00000377403. Which seems to suggest that there are copies on Chromosome 1 and X. If you select the X Chromosome copy you get:. http://www.ensembl.org/Homo_sapiens/Location/View?g=ENSG00000160211. ...which gives you the region in detail. From here you should be able to "zoom in" to the region you are interested in. Im guessing it is the G6PDH promoter. It should eventually tell you the exact location details.. Good Luck.. ...
Its amazing to think that a single-celled organism could unlock the secrets to the complexity of human health and disease.. All disease has a genetic basis, whether in genes inherited by the affected individual, environmentally-induced genetic changes that produce a cancer, or the genes of a virus and their interaction with an infected person. But, despite astounding advances in biomedical research, the cause of common human diseases remains largely unknown. Common disorders have proven to be difficult to study as they likely arise from a complex interplay of many different genes. The importance of genetic interactions in disease has been emphasized by genome sequencing projects, particularly with the revelation of the human genome sequence, which estimates 4.1 million variants - differences in DNA - between any two people! Determining how combinations of genetic variants or perturbations manifest themselves, particularly in the context of human disease, is a formidable challenge. To address ...
The human genome reference sequence is well characterized, highly annotated, and its development represents a considerable investment of time and money. This sequence is the foundation for genotyping microarrays and DNA sequencing analysis. Yet, in several critical aspects the reference sequence remains incomplete as are the many research tools that are based on it. We have found that, when new variation data from 1000 Genome Project (1Kg) and Complete Genomics (CG) are used to measure the effectiveness of existing tools and concepts, approximately 50% of probes on commonly used genotyping arrays contain confounding variation, impacting the results of 37% of GWAS studies to date. The sources of confounding variation include unknown variants in close proximity to the probed variant and alleles previously assumed to be di-allelic that are poly-allelic. When mean linkage disequillibrium (LD) lengths from HapMap are compared to 1Kg data, LD decreases from 16.4 Kb to 7.0 Kb within common samples and ...
The human genome reference sequence is well characterized, highly annotated, and its development represents a considerable investment of time and money. This sequence is the foundation for genotyping microarrays and DNA sequencing analysis. Yet, in several critical aspects the reference sequence remains incomplete as are the many research tools that are based on it. We have found that, when new variation data from 1000 Genome Project (1Kg) and Complete Genomics (CG) are used to measure the effectiveness of existing tools and concepts, approximately 50% of probes on commonly used genotyping arrays contain confounding variation, impacting the results of 37% of GWAS studies to date. The sources of confounding variation include unknown variants in close proximity to the probed variant and alleles previously assumed to be di-allelic that are poly-allelic. When mean linkage disequillibrium (LD) lengths from HapMap are compared to 1Kg data, LD decreases from 16.4 Kb to 7.0 Kb within common samples and ...
AFPMIAMIScientists have sequenced the genome of a 4,500-year-old man in Africa for the first time, a difficult achievement since the hot climate has made DNA
The more we learn about our genome, the more peculiar its workings appear. Linda Geddes looks at the findings of the ENCODE project
2) CULTIVAREA FORMEI R CU ARN DIN TULPINI S 3) CULTIVAREA TULPINII R CU CAPSULA MUCOPOLIZAHARIDICA DIN TULPINA S 4) CULTIVAREA TULPINII R CU ADN EXTRAS SI PURIFICAT DIN FORMELE S - AU APARUT COLONII VIRULENTE CARE INJECTATE LA SOARECI AU PROVOCAT MOARTEA ACESTORA 5) CULTIVAREA FORMELOR VII R CU ADN -S DISTRUS IN PREALABIL CU ENZIME- DN-AZA- SE OBTIN FORME R NECAPSULATE SI NEVIRULENTE CONCLUZIE: ADN ESTE SUPORTUL EREDITATII The Big Bang Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase (1952) DNA is genetic material. . Watson and Crick (1953) DNA is a double helix.. . INFORMATIA DETINUTA FIIND ACCESIBILA. ESTE SURSA DE VARIABILITATE MUTATIE.CARACTERE ADN . ARE CAPACITATE DE SINTEZA ( AUTOREPLICARE).IMPLICATIA IN EREDITATE ARE STRUCTURA SPECIFICA - SPECIFICITATE DE SPECIE PRIN ORDONAREA BAZELOR AZOTATE. INFORMATIA ADN POATE FI DECODIFICATA SI TRANSMISA ARN→ SINTEZA DE PROTEINE → CARACTERE (dogma centrală a geneticii moleculare). PRIN RECOMBINARE SI ARE O DISPUNERE LINIARA.. STRUCTURA ADN LOCALIZAREA CELULARA A ...
ENCODE researchers answered a bunch of question on Reddit a few days ago. I asked them to give their opinion on how much junk DNA is in our genome but they declined to answer that question. However, I think we can get some idea about the current thinking in the leading labs by looking at the questions they did choose to answer. I dont think the picture is very encouraging. Its been almost five years since the ENCODE publicity disaster of September 2012. Youd think the researchers might have learned a thing or two about junk DNA since that fiasco.. The question and answer session on Reddit was prompted by award of a new grant to ENCODE. They just received 31.5 million dollars to continue their search for functional regions in the human genome. You might have guessed that Dan Graur would have a few words to say about giving ENCODE even more money [Proof that 100% of the Human Genome is Functional & that It Was Created by a Very Intelligent Designer @ENCODE_NIH ...
Project lead Andrew Conrad - who said he had amassed dozens of biochemistry, optics and molecular biology experts - speculated that the study might find genetic keys to fighting obesity, or markers that can detect cancer and heart disease early
In human cells, three billion base pairs arrange themselves into sequences of As, Ts, Gs, and Cs to form genes. However, despite its large size, only 1% to 2% of the human genome is actually organized into genes. So, what does the remaining, mysterious, 98% of the human genome do?
The best evidence for this may be our everyday behavior as we practice science: Why do we rush to get our papers submitted and into print? Because if we dont do it first, someone else will, and soon. Why was sequencing the human genome such a personal race between Craig Venter and Francis Collins? Because two groups, two methods, were each capable of doing it. The tools were there last year for cloning the human genome, just as the tools were there in 1921 for extracting insulin.. Why did Banting spend the rest of his life, well documented in other works by Bliss (28,29), futilely trying to make another major discovery, trying to cure cancer or treat sepsis, when for most of us discovering insulin would have been plenty for one career? Because he too was trying, in effect, to disprove Bacon, trying to show that he was better than, not just "nearly on a level" with, other scientists. He was trying to work well in advance of the rising tide of science (as he had done also in the fall of 1920 in ...
There are also various self replicating genetic elements that exist in huge numbers in the human genome alu alone numbers about 500,000 compared to about 30,000 protein coding genes. About 45% of the human genome is composed of these elements. These elements can play many roles in the human including disrupting genes, promoting certain types of mutation and they can be co-opted to play a role in gene expression, although most seem to have no effect on the host ...
The Project (PersonalGenomes.org) enables open observation and critique of a large cohort test-driving comprehensive participatory personalized medicine. This is the only fully open-access
The publication of human genome blueprint in 2000 was a great block party, summer Olympics coming to town, but the next morning saw most revelers picking up their drunken selves and going back to their old day jobs. Some kept the flames burning by taking up more and more sequencing of whatever came their way labeled as a model organism. The human genome blueprint was like a great idea which won a patent but still needed a lot of development work to morph into a cool product. ...
Transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are ancient workhorse molecules and part of the cellular process that creates the proteins, critical building blocks of life that keep a cell running smoothly.
Chris writes German scientists have succeeded in snipping HIV out of human cells after it has integrated itself into a patients DNA. The procedure is a breakthrough in bio-technology and fuels hope of a cure for AIDS. The group is only cautiously optimistic, though, as treating a full-on infection...
Law and the human genome review = Revista de derecho y genoma humano / Chair in Law and the Human Genome, BBV Foundation-Provincial Government of Biscay, University of Deusto ...
Human Biology Chapter 20 Support and Movement. Introduction:. Have you ever seen a house or a skyscraper being built? What is the function of the metal or wooden frame of the building? It supports the walls and roof of the building As humans we have a frame, which is our Skeletal system ....
Unit 1 Higher Human Biology Summary Notes a. Cells tissues organs body systems Division of labour occurs in multicellular organisms (rather than each cell carrying out every function) Most cells become
The genome browser provides convenient access to TALEN target sites in the coding region of the mouse, rat, and the human genome. For example, in the mouse genome 7.27 million identified target sites are available. ...
Since the human genome draft sequence was in public for the first time in 2000, genomic analyses have been intensively extended to the population level. The following three international projects are good examples for large-scale studies of human genome variations: 1) HapMap Data (1,417 individuals) (http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/downloads/genotypes/2010-08_phaseII+III/forward/), 2) HGDP (Human Genome Diversity Project) Data (940 individuals) (http://www.hagsc.org/hgdp/files.html), 3) 1000 genomes Data (2,504 individuals) http://ftp.1000genomes.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp/release/20130502/ If we can integrate all three data into a single volume of data, we should be able to conduct a more detailed analysis of human genome variations for a total number of 4,861 individuals (= 1,417+940+2,504 individuals). In fact, we successfully integrated these three data sets by use of information on the reference human genome sequence, and we conducted the big data analysis. In particular, we constructed a ...
The use of genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data has recently proven useful in the study of human population structure. We have studied the internal genetic structure of the Swedish population using more than 350,000 SNPs from 1525 Swedes from all over the country genotyped on the Illumina HumanHap550 array. We have also compared them to 3212 worldwide reference samples, including Finns, northern Germans, British and Russians, based on the more than 29,000 SNPs that overlap between the Illumina and Affymetrix 250K Sty arrays. The Swedes - especially southern Swedes - were genetically close to the Germans and British, while their genetic distance to Finns was substantially longer. The overall structure within Sweden appeared clinal, and the substructure in the southern and middle parts was subtle. In contrast, the northern part of Sweden, Norrland, exhibited pronounced genetic differences both within the area and relative to the rest of the country. These distinctive genetic features of
SAN FRANCISCO (WebMD) -- Ninety percent of "the blueprint of human beings," the Human Genome Project, will be finished by the spring of 2000, much earlier than the original goal of 2005, according to Dr. Francis Collins, director of the National Human Genome Research Institute at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Collins spoke on Thursday at an American Medical Association media briefing in San Francisco. Implications for research The Human Genome Project (HGP), started in 1990 as a 15-year program, is coordinated by the Department of Energy and the NIH. Its goal is to identify all of the 80,000 genes in human DNA, as well as to develop tools to analyze the 3 billion pairs of chemical bases of which DNA is made. A genome is a map of all the DNA in an organism. Genetic analysis will enable doctors to screen people for serious diseases including cancer and heart disease, as well as to diagnose and treat these conditions. The HGP will also help researchers to understand why these diseases, ...
Early detection of karyotype abnormalities, including aneuploidy, could aid producers in identifying animals which, for example, would not be suitable candidate parents. Genome-wide genetic marker data in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are now being routinely generated on animals. The objective of the present study was to describe the statistics that could be generated from the allele intensity values from such SNP data to diagnose karyotype abnormalities; of particular interest was whether detection of aneuploidy was possible with both commonly used genotyping platforms in agricultural species, namely the Applied BiosystemsTM AxiomTM and the Illumina platform. The hypothesis was tested using a case study of a set of dizygotic X-chromosome monosomy 53,X sheep twins. Genome-wide SNP data were available from the Illumina platform (11 082 autosomal and 191 X-chromosome SNPs) on 1848 male and 8954 female sheep and available from the AxiomTM platform (11 128 autosomal and 68 ...
Genome evolution is the process by which a genome changes in structure (sequence) or size over time. The study of genome evolution involves multiple fields such as structural analysis of the genome, the study of genomic parasites, gene and ancient genome duplications, polyploidy, and comparative genomics. Genome evolution is a constantly changing and evolving field due to the steadily growing number of sequenced genomes, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, available to the scientific community and the public at large. Since the first sequenced genomes became available in the late 1970s, scientists have been using comparative genomics to study the differences and similarities between various genomes. Genome sequencing has progressed over time to include more and more complex genomes including the eventual sequencing of the entire human genome in 2001. By comparing genomes of both close relatives and distant ancestors the stark differences and similarities between species began to emerge as well as ...
Bethesda, Md., Sun., Aug. 15, 2010 - Using a new, rapid and less expensive DNA sequencing strategy, scientists have discovered genetic alterations that account for most cases of Kabuki syndrome, a rare disorder that causes multiple birth defects and mental retardation. Instead of sequencing the entire human genome, the new approach sequences just the exome, the 1-2 percent of the human genome that contains protein-coding genes.. Kabuki syndrome, which has an estimated incidence of 1 in 32,000 births, was originally described by Japanese scientists in 1981. Patients with the disorder often have distinct facial features that resemble the make-up worn by actors of Kabuki, a Japanese theatrical form.. The work, published in todays advanced online edition of Nature Genetics, was carried out by scientists at the University of Washington in Seattle as part of a larger effort to use second generation DNA sequencing technologies in new ways to identify genes for rare disorders. The project is funded ...
Asthma and allergy are complex multifactorial disorders, with both genetic and environmental components determining disease expression. The use of molecular genetics holds great promise for the identification of novel drug targets for the treatment of asthma and allergy. Genome-wide linkage studies have identified a number of potential disease susceptibility loci but replication remains inconsistent. The aim of the current study was to complete a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide linkage studies of asthma and related phenotypes and provide inferences about the consistency of results and to identify novel regions for future gene discovery. The rank based genome-scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method was used to combine linkage data for asthma and related traits; bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), allergen positive skin prick test (SPT) and total serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) from nine Caucasian asthma populations. Significant evidence for susceptibility loci was identified for quantitative traits
Genome-wide association studies are important tools to reconstruct the genotype phenotype map to understand the underlying genetic architecture of complex traits. This enables us to better understand the genetic architecture of these phenotypes. With the advances in genotyping and high throughput sequencing technologies, millions of markers can be identified for individual populations in very short durations of time. Due to the multiple loci control nature of complex phenotypes, there is great interest to test markers simultaneously instead of one by one. In chapter 2, we compare three model selection methods for genome wide association studies using simulations: the Stochastic Search Variable Selection (SSVS), the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) and the Elastic Net. We apply the three methods to identify genetic variants that are associated with daunorubicin-induced cytotoxicity. We also compare the LASSO and the SSVS to a dataset of two quantitative phenotypes related ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 1-Mb resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization using a BAC clone set optimized for cancer gene analysis. AU - Greshock, Joel. AU - Naylor, Tara L.. AU - Margolin, Adam. AU - Diskin, Sharon. AU - Cleaver, Stephen H.. AU - Futreal, P. Andrew. AU - deJong, Pieter J.. AU - Zhao, Shaying. AU - Liebman, Michael. AU - Weber, Barbara L.. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. N2 - Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is a recently developed tool for genome-wide determination of DNA copy number alterations. This technology has tremendous potential for disease-gene discovery in cancer and developmental disorders as well as numerous other applications. However, widespread utilization of aCGH has been limited by the lack of well characterized, high-resolution clone sets optimized for consistent performance in aCGH assays and specifically designed analytic software. We have assembled a set of ∼4100 publicly available human bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones ...
4 Genome. *5 Human interaction *5.1 In captivity. *6 References. *7 External links *7.1 Research and info ... Genome[edit]. In 2016, researchers from China National Genebank and A*STAR Singapore, including Nobel laureate Sydney Brenner, ... Among humans, sunfish are considered a delicacy in some parts of the world, including Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. In the EU, ... Despite their size, ocean sunfish are docile, and pose no threat to human divers.[23] Injuries from sunfish are rare, although ...
"Genome Human *^ "There is Crick the mentor, Crick the atheist, Crick the free-thinker, and Crick the playful."Entertaining Dr ... famous for describing human behaviour from a zoological perspective in his books The Naked Ape and The Human Zoo.[240][241] ... UCLA Oral History of Human Genetics. October 27, 2005. But that tells you about my religious affiliation, which is not very ... Haldane was also the first to construct human gene maps for haemophilia and colour blindness on the X chromosome and he was one ...
"Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2013-12-24. ... "An Online Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders.. *^ Genome Decoration Page, NCBI. Ideogram data for Homo sapience (400 ... Gilbert F (1998). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 17". Genet Test. 2 (4): 357-81. ... See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 17.. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 17. For complete ...
"Human Genome Assembly GRCh38 - Genome Reference Consortium". National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2013-12-24. ... Gilbert F (1999). "Disease genes and chromosomes: disease maps of the human genome. Chromosome 16". Genet Test. 3 (2): 243-54. ... See also: Category:Genes on human chromosome 16.. The following is a partial list of genes on human chromosome 16. For complete ... International Standing Committee on Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (2013). ISCN 2013: An International System for Human ...
"Escape from X inactivation in mice and humans". Genome Biology. 11 (6): 213. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-6-213. PMC 2911101 . PMID ... XiP XiM zygote → undergoing zygotic genome activation, leading to:. *XaP XaM → undergoing imprinted (paternal) X-inactivation, ... and the whole embryonic genome is silenced until zygotic genome activation. Thereafter, all mouse cells undergo an early, ... "Genome Research. 20 (5): 614-22. doi:10.1101/gr.103200.109. PMC 2860163 . PMID 20363980.. ...
The human genome - International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2001). "Initial sequencing and analysis of the human ... Jacques Benveniste and his team's work studying human basophil degranulation in the presence of extremely dilute antibody serum ... their paper concluded that less than a single molecule of antibody could trigger an immune response in human basophils, defying ... genome". Nature. 409 (6822): 860-921. Bibcode:2001Natur.409..860L. doi:10.1038/35057062. PMID 11237011.. ...
"Human Genome Project Information". Human Genome Project. Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008. ... These technologies were used to sequence the human genome in the Human Genome Project completed in 2003.[35] New high- ... "The sequence of the human genome". Science. 291.. *^ Griffiths, Anthony J. F.; Miller, Jeffrey H.; Suzuki, David T.; Lewontin, ... to edit the human genome in a way that can be inherited.[99][100][101][102] In April 2015, Chinese researchers reported results ...
Human Genome Organisation. Archived from the original on 4 January 2014.. *^ HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium; Abdulla MA; Ahmed I ... Findings from HUGO (Human Genome Organization) in 2009 further corroborated the studies when it concluded that Asia was ... They typically depict human figures (particularly a front facing human figure with flexed arms), birds, lizards, dogs, fish, ... Human Biology. 85 (1): 45-66.. *^ Détroit, F.; Mijares, A.S.; Corny, J.; Daver, G.; Zanolli, C.; Dizon, E; Robles, E.; Grün, R ...
There are about 3.2 billion nucleotide pairs on all the human chromosomes: this is the human genome. The order of the ... Human Genome Project Information. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Retrieved 2006-05-28.. ... Humans have two copies of each of their genes, and make copies that are found in eggs or sperm-but they only include one copy ... For example, in humans, one allele of the eye-color gene produces green eyes and another allele of the eye-color gene produces ...
Because the human genome has over 22,000 genes, there are 3.5 million variants in the average person's genome. These variants ... "National Human Genome Research Institute. USA.gov. Retrieved 23 April 2015.. *^ "Genetic Testing: MedlinePlus". Nlm.nih.gov. ... in people's genomes, making them the most common variations in the human genome. SNPs reveal information about an individual's ... Human Genome Project Information. Gene Testing *^ Holtzman NA, Murphy PD, Watson MS, Barr PA (October 1997). "Predictive ...
Finally, the Human Genome Project was launched in 1990 with the goal of mapping the general human genome. This project was ... The Human Genome Project was the first step in a globalized effort to incorporate accumulated knowledge of biology into a ... "Human genome finally complete". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-07-22.. *^ Mazzarello, P (May 1999). "A unifying concept: the history ... The field of animal physiology extends the tools and methods of human physiology to non-human species. Plant physiology borrows ...
International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2004-10-21). "Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome". Nature ... "National Human Genome Research Institute. 2011-11-28. Archived from the original on 2012-01-27. Retrieved 2012-02-09.. ... "A concurrent resolution designating April 2003 as "Human Genome Month" and April 25 as "DNA Day"" (PDF). United States ... Every year from 2003 onward, annual DNA Day celebrations have been organized by the National Human Genome Research Institute ( ...
Christley S, Lu Y, Li C, Xie X; Lu; Li; Xie (Jan 15, 2009). "Human genomes as email attachments". Bioinformatics. 25 (2): 274-5 ... Pavlichin DS, Weissman T, Yona G; Weissman; Yona (September 2013). "The human genome contracts again". Bioinformatics. 29 (17 ... have compression ratios of up to 1200-fold-allowing 6 billion basepair diploid human genomes to be stored in 2.5 megabytes ( ... relative to a reference genome or averaged over many genomes).[37][38]. For a benchmark in genetics/genomics data compressors, ...
"Parameters of the human genome". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 88 (17): 7474 ... calculated that the female genome is 4782 centimorgans long, while the male genome is only 2809 centimorgans long.[3] ... One centimorgan corresponds to about 1 million base pairs in humans on average.[1][2] The relationship is only rough as the ... The number of base-pairs to which it corresponds varies widely across the genome (different regions of a chromosome have ...
"Human Genome Organization: RBPJ Report".. *^ Hsieh JJ, Henkel T, Salmon P, Robey E, Peterson MG, Hayward SD (Mar 1996). " ... Recombining binding protein suppressor of hairless is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBPJ gene.[5][6][7] ... "Intracellular forms of human NOTCH1 interact at distinctly different levels with RBP-jkappa in human B and T cells". Leukemia. ... RBPJ[8] also known as CBF1, is the human homolog for the Drosophila gene Suppressor of Hairless. Its promoter region is ...
"National Human Genome Research Institute. Retrieved 2014-04-03.. *^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007". ... "National Human Genome Research Institute. August 2015. Retrieved 2014-04-03.. *^ Gerlai R (May 1996). "Gene-targeting studies ... Humans born with mutations that deactivate the p53 gene suffer from Li-Fraumeni syndrome, a condition that dramatically ... For example, mutations in the p53 gene are associated with more than half of human cancers and often lead to tumours in a ...
Genome Bioinformatics Group, Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering. "Human Gene TPMT (uc003ncm.1)". UCSC Genome ... Cloning of human liver cDNA and a processed pseudogene on human chromosome 18q21.1". Drug Metab. Dispos. 23 (3): 398-405. PMID ... 1998). "Promoter and intronic sequences of the human thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene isolated from a human PAC1 ... "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output ...
One example of infection of a virus constituting as extrachromosomal DNA is the human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPV DNA genome ... Silverthorn, Dee Unglaub (2007). Human Physiology. Peason/Benjamin Cummings. "Viral Genomes". Lorenz, LD; Rivera Cardona, J; ... Some viruses, such as HIV and oncogenetic viruses, incorporate their own DNA into the genome of the host cell. Viral genomes ... There are approximately 10 human Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs). Different TLRs in human detect different PAMPS: ...
Paired box gene 2, also known as PAX2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PAX2 gene.[5][6] ... Genome Research. 6 (9): 791-806. doi:10.1101/gr.6.9.791. PMID 8889548.. ... Nolte J (2009). The human brain: an introduction to its functional anatomy (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier. p. 685 ... Stayner CK, Cunliffe HE, Ward TA, Eccles MR (Sep 1998). "Cloning and characterization of the human PAX2 promoter". The Journal ...
Human Genome Organisation (ang.). *Chromosom 2 na stronie Genetics Home Reference (ang.) ... Origin of human chromosome 2: an ancestral telomere-telomere fusion. „PNAS". 88. 20, s. 9051-9055, 1992. PMID: 1924367 (ang.). ... Alec MacAndrew: Human Chromosome 2 is a fusion of two ancestral chromosomes (ang.). evolutionpages.com. [dostęp 2016-10-09]. ... Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. „Nature". 434. 7034, s. 724-31, 2005. PMID: ...
"Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer". Mamm. Genome. 16 (12): 942-54. doi:10.1007/s00335-005-0075-2. PMID 16341674.. ... G-protein coupled receptor 120 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR120 gene.[5][6] ... 2012). "Dysfunction of lipid sensor GPR120 leads to obesity in both mouse and human". Nature. 483 (7389): 350-4. doi:10.1038/ ... Fredriksson R, Höglund PJ, Gloriam DE, Lagerström MC, Schiöth HB (Nov 2003). "Seven evolutionarily conserved human rhodopsin G ...
"Transcriptome analysis of human gastric cancer". Mammalian Genome. 16 (12): 942-54. doi:10.1007/s00335-005-0075-2. PMID ... "Generation and analysis of 280,000 human expressed sequence tags". Genome Research. 6 (9): 807-28. doi:10.1101/gr.6.9.807. PMID ... Probable G-protein coupled receptor 34 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GPR34 gene.[5][6][7] ... "Signal sequence and keyword trap in silico for selection of full-length human cDNAs encoding secretion or membrane proteins ...
"Online Education Kit: 1990: Launch of the Human Genome Project". National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI). Retrieved ... By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, and launched the Human Genome Project.[18] ... and National Human Genome Research Institute with nearly 1,000 scientists and support staff.[21] The Frederick National ... Health and Human Services. *National Institutes of Health (NIH). *National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) ...
The set of chromosomes in a cell makes up its genome; the human genome has approximately 3 billion base pairs of DNA arranged ... For example, only about 1.5% of the human genome consists of protein-coding exons, with over 50% of human DNA consisting of non ... Data sets representing entire genomes' worth of DNA sequences, such as those produced by the Human Genome Project, are ... "Molecular fossils in the human genome: identification and analysis of the pseudogenes in chromosomes 21 and 22". Genome ...
The human microbiome refers to their genomes.[11] Humans are colonized by many microorganisms; the traditional estimate was ... Humans[edit]. Main article: Human microbiota. The human microbiota includes bacteria, fungi, archaea and viruses. Micro-animals ... The Human Microbiome Project sequenced the genome of the human microbiota, focusing particularly on the microbiota that ... "NIH Human Microbiome Project". US National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, US Government. 2016. ...
Member of the Human Genome Organization. *Associate editor of the Journal of Molecular Evolution ... American Journal of Human Genetics. 50 (1): 234-235. PMC 1682534.. *^ Wilson, A. C.; Pardee, A. B. (1962). "Regulation of ... consistent with an African origin of the human species (the Recent African origin of modern humans hypothesis). The data ... Work on human evolution. *Allan Charles Wilson, Biochemistry; Molecular Biology: Berkeley, by Bruce N. Ames, Thomas H. Jukes, ...
International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium. Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome.. Nature. 2001, 409 (6822 ... Mitochondrial DNA and human history. The Human Genome. 2003-10-09 [2006-09-19]. (原始内容存档于2015-09-07) (英语).. ... Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome.. Nature. 2005, 437 (7055): 69-87. PMID 16136131 ... Olson M, Varki A. Sequencing the chimpanzee genome: insights into human evolution and disease.. Nat Rev Genet. 2003, 4 (1): 20- ...
The Complete Human Olfactory Subgenome. „Genome Research". 11, s. 685-702, 2001. DOI: 10.1101/gr.171001 (ang.). ... Genomic divergences between humans and other hominoids and the effective population size of the common ancestor of humans and ... W: P. M. Kappeler, J. B. Silk: Mind the Gap: Tracing the Origins of Human Universals. Springer, 2010. ISBN 978-3-642-02724-6. ... a b Aiello, L. & Dean, C.: An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy. Academic Press, 1990, s. 193. ISBN 0-12-045590-0. ...
Human Genome Project results have told us that we have far fewer genes than expected. What other Human Genome Project results ... Now that the Human Genome Project is over, its time for scientists to examine the information produced and pursue related ... For more inform-ation about the Human Genome Project and other related topics like epigenetics, please visit the links on the ... Along with changing how we think about genes, the Human Genome Project spawned lots of other projects. For example, in 2002, ...
Sequencing the human genome depended on many technological improvements in the production and analysis of sequence data. Key ... innovations were developed both within and outside the Human Genome Project. Laboratory innovations included four-colour ...
Humans have 46 chromosomes, which contain all of a persons genes and DNA. Two of these chromosomes, the sex chromosomes, ... From the National Institute of Child Health & Human Development.. *Klinefelter Syndrome [nichd.nih.gov]. From the National ...
... observations and analysis about research on the human genome, including a searchable online database of genome variants. ... Human Genome Variation is an open-access, online-only peer-reviewed journal publishing important discoveries, ... Human Genome Variation now opens for submission of Software Reports. It is a short report on the newly invented tools and ... technologies used for the studies of human genome variations and epigenoics. Scope of the report covers softwares, applications ...
The mission of the National Office of Public Health Genomics is to integrate advances in human genetics into public health ... Human Genome Epidemiology Contributors.  alert icon Archived: This Page Is No Longer Being Updated This web page is archived ... Human Genome Epidemiology: A Scientific Foundation for Using Genetic Information to Improve Health and Prevent Disease. ... Human Genetics Center. University of Texas Health Science Center. Houston, Texas. WYLIE BURKE, M.D., Ph.D.. Department of ...
The new draft comes less than three years after the initial draft of the 3 billion letters that comprise human DNA was ... Scientists say the final draft of the human genome sequence is finished. ... Human Genome Map Complete. LONDON - Scientists have completed the finished sequence of the human genome, or genetic blueprint ... Completing the human genome is a vital step on a long road but the eventual health benefits could be phenomenal, Bradley said. ...
Their goal is to figure out the order of all DNA letters (bases) in our genome. ... Many scientists have joined forces on the Human Genome Project. ... in our genome. Since the human genome is more than 3 billion ... Scientists with the Human Genome Project (HGP) study only the human genome. ... Human Genome Project. Important dates: started in the mid-1980s; first draft finished in 2000; completion expected in 2003. Who ...
... and the technique could help scientists investigate how the very shape of the genome, and not just its DNA content, affects ... researchers have produced the highest-resolution picture ever of the genomes three-dimensional structure. The picture is one ... By breaking the human genome into millions of pieces and reverse-engineering their arrangement, ... The Human Genome in 3 Dimensions. By breaking the human genome into millions of pieces and reverse-engineering their ...
... and dissemination of population-based data on human genetic variation in health and disease. ... Collaborators in OPHGs Human Genome Epidemiology Network (HuGENet) which helps to translate genetic research findings into ... The Human Genome Project and the need for population-based epidemiologic research. Progress of the Human Genome Project has led ... The Human Genome Epidemiology Network (HuGENet™). It is upon this basis that the vision for the Human Genome Epidemiology ...
... are known to cause distinct types of infections in humans like endocarditis and urinary tract infections (UTI). Surprisingly, ... Draft genome visualization using BRIG. Whole genome circular comparative map of five CNS strains against reference genome S. ... genome size 2273,004 bp), the dark green circle surrounding reference genome signifies the genome of strain 1DB1 and the ... Genome Mining and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Five Coagulase- Negative Staphylococci (CNS) Isolated from Human Colon and ...
1. Human Genome Project. usage: an international study of the entire human genetic material. WordNet 3.0 Copyright © 2006 by ...
See an archive of all human genome sciences stories published on the New York Media network, which includes NYMag, The Cut, ... Say Hello to Chip Skowron III, the Latest Hedge-Funder Charged With Insider Trading [Updated]Over a tip about Human Genome ...
... ... Charting a dynamic DNA methylation landscape of the human genome. Nature 500(7463):477-481. ... The vision of the NIEHS is to use environmental health sciences to understand human disease and improve human health. Use the ... Genome-wide association studies showed that differentially methylated regions often contained single nucleotide polymorphisms ...
The GOP is considering a bill that would give employers the right to force employees to take genetic tests or pay thousands of dollars per year in increased insurance premium costs.. ...
The Future of the Human Genome. What will the next 20 years of research bring? Eric Green, director of the National Human ... EmTech: Illumina Says 228,000 Human Genomes Will Be Sequenced This Year. Record number of genomes being decoded, but cost of ... Reinterpreting the Human Genome. Manolis Kellis helped lead a major effort to map the chemical tags that cells use to get their ... Genome Study Predicts DNA of the Whole of Iceland. Large genome databases are starting to reveal critical health information- ...
The Human Genome Project is unique among scientific projects for having set aside, from the beginning, research support for ... They shared a vision of the future in which knowledge of every gene that composes the human genome would be available to any ... PASADENA- Two of the key inventions that made possible the monumental task of sequencing the human genome came from the ... Coupled with some recent advances, the method remained the core for the just-completed phase of sequencing the human genome. ...
... sequence of Neanderthals reveals the existence of a mysterious human lineage and genetic changes that separate modern humans ...
A profitable quarter for Ford and a round of better-than-expected economic data helped lead stocks higher, though the buying was concentrated in United Technologies, Procter & Gamble and other blue chips.
DNA is crucial to the genome, we look back at the genetics milestones that got us here. ... Unraveling the Human Genome: 6 Molecular Milestones. By Stephanie Pappas, Live Science Contributor , January 23, 2013 08:58am ... The new findings are the latest in a series of increasingly deep looks at the human genome. Here are some of the major ... In a milestone for the understanding of human genetics, scientists announced in September 2012 the results of five years of ...
Human parechovirus 1, complete genome Human parechovirus 1, complete genome. gi,222446109,emb,FM178558.1, ... RefSeq Genome for Species Reference genome or particular genomic segment for the species ... RefSeq Genome Sequences Links from DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank nucleotides or genomic segments to genomic RefSeqs for the same species ...
Human genome databases are over the hump on the basic technical issues. Assemblies are in decent shape, and annotations of ... The human genome is one year old. That is, if you believe life begins at publication. I thought it would be nice to drop in to ... The human genome is one year old. That is, if you believe life begins at publication. I thought it would be nice to drop in to ...
Human Genome Variation. Fig. 1: Graphical views of MGeND.. From: MGeND: an integrated database for Japanese clinical and ...
... and say it gives new insights into differences between the apes and humans -- including their ability to produce competitive ... Scientists have sequenced the genome of the gorilla, the last great ape to have its genes decoded, ... The human genome project was completed in 2003, while the chimpanzee gene map was published in 2005 and the orangutan genome ... They found as expected that humans and chimpanzees are genetically closest to each other over most of the genome, but they ...
DNA from a mastodon tooth bolsters evidence that environmental factors in Africa caused humans and chimps to diverge about 6 ... the newly obtained mitochondrial genome allowed the researchers to calculate how many mutations accumulate in the genome over a ... And the latter two species appear to have split about 6.7 million years ago - roughly around the same time that humans and ... The analysis of a mastodon tooth gives the theory that climate changes in Africa caused the divergence of humans, chimps and ...
... supercomputers that are specifically designed to analyze the data generated by Human Genome Project and various private genomic ... TECHNOLOGY; Supercomputers Track Human Genome. By ANDREW POLLACK. AUG. 28, 2000. Continue reading the main story Share This ... The human genome is comprised of three billion chemical units represented by the letters A, C, T, and G -- a string that would ... Celera must persuade companies to pay for its genomic data when GenBank offers much of the same human genome data free. One way ...
  • Some researchers are now looking at the 99 or so percent of DNA that aren't genes, wondering if these previously neglected chunks of the genome have significant roles to play. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The HGP and subsequent research efforts have changed the consensus view of genes and noncoding DNA, casting them as part of an increasingly complex image of genes, DNA and other components of the genome. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Along with changing how we think about genes, the Human Genome Project spawned lots of other projects. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Now that the Human Genome Project is over, it's time for scientists to examine the information produced and pursue related research. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The segregation of active and inactive genes adds to evidence that genome structure affects gene function. (wired.com)
  • Given the massive amount of population-based data that will be generated over the next decades, we believe a coordinated global effort is needed to disseminate human genome epidemiologic information in order to keep up with the progress of the Human Genome Project and its accompanying gene discoveries. (cdc.gov)
  • Given the paucity of population-based epidemiologic data regarding the frequency, disease risks and environmental interactions for many newly discovered human gene variants, we are concerned that appropriate health policy on the use of genetic tests may not be possible. (cdc.gov)
  • They shared a vision of the future in which knowledge of every gene that composes the human genome would be available to any scientist in the world at the click of a computer key. (caltech.edu)
  • While confirming that our closest relative is the chimpanzee, the research also shows that around 15 percent of the human gene map resembles the gorilla more closely than it does the chimpanzee genome. (reuters.com)
  • The team used DNA from a western lowland gorilla, named Kamilah, to assemble a gorilla genome sequence and then compared it with the gene maps of the other great apes. (reuters.com)
  • The human genome project was completed in 2003, while the chimpanzee gene map was published in 2005 and the orangutan genome was completed in 2011. (reuters.com)
  • Genomic analysis of the HCMV AD169 strain genome and comparative analysis of other related herpesvirus genomes, combined with biochemical and functional studies, have led to the prediction of numerous viral ORFs and provided some insight into HCMV gene function ( 6 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Past efforts to figure out the puzzle of how DNA in the genome caused disease had focused on hundreds of genome-wide association studies, which screened genomes of people with particular medical conditions to determine DNA variants linked to those diseases, said University of Washington genome scientist Dr. John Stamatoyannopoulos, lead author of a study examining the connection between gene regulation and disease published Wednesday in the journal Science . (latimes.com)
  • Stamatoyannopoulos and his coauthors compared the gene regulation data from ENCODE and other projects with the associations uncovered in genome-wide association studies, looking to see when common variants were located in regulatory regions of the genome. (latimes.com)
  • For instance, the team discovered that one variant that had been associated in genome-wide studies with platelet count was actually part of the regulatory DNA that helps control a distant gene involved in platelet production. (latimes.com)
  • Taking cues from global positioning satellites, Yuval Itan, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher at Rockefeller University and his colleagues have created the "human gene connectome" (HGC), unveiled in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (plos.org)
  • Recent results suggest that most of the vast quantities of noncoding DNA within the genome have associated biochemical activities, including regulation of gene expression, organization of chromosome architecture, and signals controlling epigenetic inheritance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The estimate of the number of human genes has been repeatedly revised down from initial predictions of 100,000 or more as genome sequence quality and gene finding methods have improved, and could continue to drop further. (wikipedia.org)
  • Basic information about these molecules and their gene content, based on a reference genome that does not represent the sequence of any specific individual, are provided in the following table. (wikipedia.org)
  • Table 1 (above) summarizes the physical organization and gene content of the human reference genome, with links to the original analysis, as published in the Ensembl database at the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using newly-collected data on the sequencing of the human genome by the public Human Genome Project and the private firm Celera, this paper estimates the impact of Celera's gene-level IP on subsequent scientific research and product development. (nber.org)
  • Deanna Church, Ph.D., who has played a key role in the public efforts to create a human reference genome, discussed the importance of having more high-quality de novo human genomes, and Gene Myers, Ph.D., from the Max Planck Institute discussed his work to develop computational methods to enable perfect assemblies using SMRT Sequencing data. (cnbc.com)
  • In addition, W. Richard McCombie from Cold Spring Harbor presented analysis of structural re-arrangements and gene amplifications in a breast cancer cell line genome. (cnbc.com)
  • Now a U.S.-funded project, called the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), has found that many of these bases do, nevertheless, play a role in human biology: They help determine when a gene is turned on or off, for example. (freerepublic.com)
  • Eva Nogales and Yuan He used cryo-electron microscopy to record how a complex of biomolecules is able to read the human genome one gene at a time. (lbl.gov)
  • We've provided a series of snapshots that shows how the genome is read one gene at a time," says biophysicist Eva Nogales who led this research. (lbl.gov)
  • WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The White House said on Tuesday the ethical issues associated with gene-editing on the human genome need further study by the scientific community and should not be pursued until issues are resolved. (reuters.com)
  • The idea was that gene sequencing would become so cheap-on the order of $1,000-that ordinary people could afford to have their individual genomes sequenced, which their family doctors would use to diagnose their predisposition for disease. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The findings, appearing in the journal Nature , offer insights into embryonic development, gene regulation and other biological processes vital to understanding human biology and disease. (centerwatch.com)
  • We know that the genome architecture is critical in regulating gene expression and, more important, in regulating genes that are critical for parasite virulence. (news-medical.net)
  • The Human Genome Project will have a profound effect in the twenty-first century, providing the means to identify disease-causing mutations (including those involved in cancer), to design new drugs, to provide human gene therapy, to learn how genes control development, and to understand the origins and evolution of the human race. (enotes.com)
  • String (5 million protein-protein interactions), FunCoup (model organisms protein connections), and HumanNet (18,000 human gene interactions). (plos.org)
  • The human gene connectome produced results both expected and not. (plos.org)
  • Dr. Itan sees the human gene connectome as not just a research tool, but as a way to cut through the needle-in-a-haystack situation that clinical sequencing in today's early guise can impose. (plos.org)
  • Dr. Itan can't patent the human gene connectome, because, at the risk of a double negative, it isn't non-obvious, and it's based on publicly available information. (plos.org)
  • A practical application of the human gene connectome was in my blog from a few weeks ago, although I didn't know of it yet - diagnosing novel forms of a single-gene disease. (plos.org)
  • The app finds the gene on one of the 23 human chromosomes, displaying an interactive image of its precise location among the genome's 3 billion base pairs. (eurekalert.org)
  • In most other human populations the gene is rare. (liveleak.com)
  • But, as humans migrated and domesticated animals, Europeans and other populations developed a gene for tolerating lactose (and milk) throughout their lives. (scienceblog.com)
  • Previous research has shown that the majority of gene flow from Neanderthals into humans originated from Neanderthal populations that diverged from a group that lived in the Altai mountains of the Caucasus about 150,000 years ago. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Interbreeding between Neanderthals and early modern humans is likely to have occurred intermittently, presumably resulting in gene flow in both directions," they write. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • This may indicate that gene flow affected the ancestry of modern human populations more than it did Neanderthals," they write, and urge further research to resolve the issue. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • It has become easier to say what diseases a person may be prone to when you see the gene variations in his genome but there is not yet the technology or medication available for many diseases. (infobarrel.com)
  • The improvements in technology have resulted in a human gene sequencing costing just about $5000 now. (infobarrel.com)
  • Our emerging view of chromatin structure has already provided unexpected insights into human genome evolution, describing the impact of such constraints on the evolution of chromosome architecture, on gene function and on patterns of mutation and selection. (els.net)
  • Fraser P and Bickmore W (2007) Nuclear organization of the genome and the potential for gene regulation. (els.net)
  • 2007) Domain‐wide regulation of gene expression in the human genome. (els.net)
  • 2004) Chromatin architecture of the human genome: gene‐rich domains are enriched in open chromatin fibers. (els.net)
  • While the DNA sequence can identify genes (the 'what') within the genome, it cannot answer the more fundamental questions of 'how,' 'when' and 'where' gene products are expressed. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Probable ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX46 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DDX46 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Say Hello to Chip Skowron III, the Latest Hedge-Funder Charged With Insider Trading [Updated] Over a tip about Human Genome Sciences. (nymag.com)
  • The vision of the NIEHS is to use environmental health sciences to understand human disease and improve human health. (nih.gov)
  • The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is expanding and accelerating its contributions to scientific knowledge of human health and the environment, and to the health and well-being of people everywhere. (nih.gov)
  • Drugs giant GlaxoSmithKline is holding talks to buy American firm Human Genome Sciences, its partner on an immune system disease medicine, in a $2.6bn (£1.7bn) deal. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • GlaxoSmithKline has gone hostile with its $2.6bn (£1.6bn) offer for US Human Genome Sciences - bypassing management and taking its bid directly to shareholders. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Human Genome Sciences Inc.'s Benlysta, a drug that would become the first specific treatment for lupus since the disease was discovered, is effective in treating the autoimmune disorder but didn't benefit African Americans and carries several safety worries, FDA staff wrote in a review released Friday. (bizjournals.com)
  • Human Genome Sciences has already stopped work on another advanced drug candidate , Zalbin for hepatitis C, after the FDA declined to immediately approve the drug in October. (bizjournals.com)
  • Shares of Human Genome Sciences (NASDAQ: HGSI) fell 8.5 percent to about $24.50 by midday Friday on the release of the Benlysta review. (bizjournals.com)
  • National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine to develop guidelines for rapidly advancing technology to modify human embryos and germ cells. (nature.com)
  • The US National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the National Academy of Medicine (NAM) will launch a major initiative to develop guidelines for editing human genomes, they said on 18 May. (nature.com)
  • Human Genome Sciences, Inc. ([[NYSE]]: HGSI)''' is a development stage biopharmaceutical company with three products in late-stage clinical development: Albuferon for chronic hepatitis C, LymphoStat-B for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and ABthrax for anthrax disease. (wikinvest.com)
  • ROCKVILLE, Md.--Human Genome Sciences opened a $42 million plant here this month, where it said it will manufacture drugs resulting from genomics research and development. (genomeweb.com)
  • Calling his company the "world's genomics pioneer," William Haseltine, CEO of Human Genome Sciences, said, "HGS was the first group anywhere to sequence most of the genes in the human genome. (genomeweb.com)
  • The ERP includes the Division of Genomic Medicine, the Division of Genome Sciences, the Division of Genomics and Society, and the Division of Extramural Operations. (nih.gov)
  • The human genome is packaged within each cell by chromatin, a structure composed of DNA wrapped around proteins called histones," explains lead author Nathaniel Heintzman, from LICR and the UCSD Biomedical Sciences Graduate Program. (sciencecodex.com)
  • The drawn-out battle by GlaxoSmithKline ( GSK ) to take over Human Genome Sciences ( HGSI ) is getting drawn out even further, as Glaxo has extended its $2.6 billion tender offer to the end of June. (investors.com)
  • Because few descriptions of LD for most regions of the human genome exist, we searched the human genome for the amount and extent of LD among 5048 autosomal short tandem repeat polymorphism (STRP) loci ascertained as specific haplotypes in the European CEPH mapping families. (genetics.org)
  • As a result of continual performance improvements with the PacBio RS II, it is now feasible to return to reference-quality de novo human genome assemblies and no longer rely on a single reference genome that does not adequately represent the variation in the global population," said Michael Hunkapiller, Ph.D., CEO of Pacific Biosciences. (cnbc.com)
  • We can sequence a human genome in a couple of days for well under $10,000, probably around $4,000 or $5,000. (nytimes.com)
  • Many of the genetic changes Pritchard's group detected came during or after the emergence of agriculture, beginning about 10,000 years ago, and long after the formation of modern human populations. (liveleak.com)
  • In a special edition of the show, Charlie investigates the race to map the human genome, in a profile of Celera Genomics' Craig Venter. (charlierose.com)
  • At the company's workshop, J. Craig Venter, Ph.D., of Human Longevity, Inc. presented data about his highly studied genome, which has now been sequenced using the PacBio RS II and assembled in the cloud on the DNAnexus platform, creating a higher resolution version of this reference genome at a fraction of the original time and cost. (cnbc.com)
  • ELISE FEINGOLD: So the most amazing thing that we found was that we can ascribe some kind of biochemical activity to 80 percent of the genome. (npr.org)
  • We aimed to eliminate as many possible confounding variables as possible, and when all is said and done, we find that as much as 10 percent of the genome may have been affected by one of these bouts of recent selection. (scienceblog.com)
  • There will still be gaps and ambiguities in the "working draft" of the human genome sequence to be available next spring, but Collins believes that by the year 2002 or 2003, the genome sequence will be "highly accurate. (cnn.com)
  • But despite these SNPs, human beings only differ from one another by about 0.1 percent, enough to ensure that no two human beings are genetically identical, even, sometimes, identical twins. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The first wave of information from the analysis of the human genome revealed SNPs to be the main source of genetic and phenotypic human variation. (nih.gov)
  • Michel Georges will tell you about the structural organisation of the human genome, the mechanisms contributing to the genome variability, the main types of genetic variation (SNPs, CNVs, aneuploidy, etc.), and differences between alleles and genotypes. (coursera.org)
  • By analyzing and comparing interpretation methods of whole genome data, the book discusses the possibilities of their application in genomic and translational medicine. (worldcat.org)
  • Topics such as electronic decision-making tools, translation algorithms, interpretation and translation of whole genome data for rare diseases are thoroughly explored. (worldcat.org)
  • Their comprehensive and integrated data analysis, conducted by primarily by Dr. Jianrong Wang from Dr. Jordan's team, allowed them to pinpoint the location of thousands of individual MIR elements in the human genome that appear to function as so-called "boundary elements" in T lymphocyte cells of the immune system. (eurekalert.org)
  • It's been a decade since the publication of the human genome. (technologyreview.com)
  • The outburst of scientific activity that has followed that first publication of the human genome has led to the accumulation of an enormous amount of data on a broad scale, Varmus noted, but so far "only a few selected items" are widely used. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Diligence and patience will see the Human Genome become the blueprint to better health care techniques worldwide. (infobarrel.com)
  • With 3,500 genomes already stored on its servers and more medical institutes jumping onboard, the blueprint of every person on Earth could soon be in the cloud. (rt.com)
  • Further, KAAS based annotation revealed the presence of CNS genes in different pathways involved in human diseases. (omicsonline.org)
  • The realization that traits and certain diseases can be passed from parent to offspring stretches back at least to the ancient Greeks, well before any genome was actually decoded. (livescience.com)
  • Genetic engineering can provide a range of benefits for people, for example, increasing the productivity of food plants or preventing diseases in humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Mapping of the human genome over the last decade has identified the genetic mutations that cause many simple genetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis and a small percentage of cancers, such as some breast and bowel cancers. (abc.net.au)
  • Most human diseases have a genetic component. (coursera.org)
  • Some rare diseases appear to be completely determined by the genome, whereas more common diseases arise from a complex interplay of many genes, the environment and chance. (coursera.org)
  • Discovering genes that contribute to common human diseases is always difficult, Voight said. (liveleak.com)
  • How long do we need to wait before the Human Genome is no longer an experimental device but a great tool which can diagnose and cure you of diseases? (infobarrel.com)
  • As the genome data comes out, you want to analyze it as fast as you can, make the discoveries first and protect the intellectual property,'' said Martin D. Leach, director for bioinformatics at CuraGen, which uses genomics to develop drugs. (nytimes.com)
  • The new perspective on genome function could breathe new life into the notion of personalized medicine, in which physicians can analyze a patient's DNA to tailor effective treatments case by case. (latimes.com)
  • We used genome-scale approaches to analyze the chromatin architecture in human cells and discovered distinct signatures of modified histones that correspond to known promoters and enhancers. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Its goal is to identify all of the 80,000 genes in human DNA, as well as to develop tools to analyze the 3 billion pairs of chemical bases of which DNA is made. (cnn.com)
  • This review and the accompanying wall chart attempt to provide an integrated, quantitative, and detailed summary of the status of knowledge on the human genome in mid-1990. (sciencemag.org)
  • For more detailed instructions, see the Genome Graphs User's Guide . (ucsc.edu)
  • The results, released this week, reveal that our genome is far more complex and mysterious than biologists imagined just a decade ago. (newscientist.com)
  • "We saw biologists moving from studying one genome at a time to studying millions," David Glazer, the software engineer who led the effort and was previously head of platform engineering for Google+, the social network, told the MIT Technology Review . (rt.com)
  • We now have sufficiently powerful biochemical tests to survey over a million sites on the genome simultaneously and, theoretically cover all chromosomal regions of the entire genome. (abc.net.au)
  • Surprisingly, there is a lack of genome analysis data in literature against CNS particularly of human origin. (omicsonline.org)
  • Genome Graphs is a tool for displaying genome-wide data sets such as the results of genome-wide SNP association studies, linkage studies and homozygosity mapping. (ucsc.edu)
  • Public access to genome data is essential to maximize its usefulness, Marra says. (cmaj.ca)
  • Moreover, these data identify sites in the genome that are highly intolerant to variation-possibly essential for life or health. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, discussions of current human genome databases and the possibilities of big data in genomic medicine are presented. (worldcat.org)
  • Genome Wowser supports viewing and querying of multiple types of genomic data, so that users can select the types of information that interest them and view them concurrently in a stacked display for a selected region. (eurekalert.org)
  • Perhaps most importantly, Genome Wowser allows convenient portability of genomic data. (eurekalert.org)
  • Yes there is a lot that the human genome has already given us and the data needs to be analyzed to reveal more secrets of health as time goes by. (infobarrel.com)
  • a) The dendrogram shows the relationships among human and mouse replication timing data in several embryonic stem cell (ESC) and neural progenitor cell (NPC) lines (Ryba et al . (els.net)
  • and replication timing data in human ESCs (Ryba et al . (els.net)
  • The treatment potential of being able to compare the genomes of multiple individuals suffering from the same ailments is astronomical, as is the profit motive for whoever holds the keys to the data locker. (rt.com)
  • the cost at Marra's laboratory, where he and his colleagues are responsible for fingerprinting DNA from the mouse genome, is $6. (cmaj.ca)
  • But just how much memory is needed to save all 6 billion of the nucleotide letters that comprise a single genome sequence? (rt.com)
  • In addition, the Genome Reference Consortium presented de novo assemblies for two human cell lines targeted for "platinum-grade" references. (cnbc.com)
  • Francis Collins, head of the public human genome consortium, runs a laboratory in the US National Institutes of Health. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • Comparisons between these can help us explore the origins of humans when we separated from the great ape species in Africa between 6 and 10 million years ago," said Richard Durbin, who also worked on the study at the Sanger Institute. (reuters.com)
  • And the latter two species appear to have split about 6.7 million years ago - roughly around the same time that humans and chimps last shared a common ancestor. (newscientist.com)
  • Perhaps the three species' shared ancestor was more like a chimp -- and humans and chimps share genes, say, for aggression. (latimes.com)
  • Given that human genome synthesis is a technology that can completely redefine the core of what now joins all of humanity together as a species, we argue that discussions of making such capacities real, like today's Harvard conference, should not take place without open and advance consideration of whether it is morally right to proceed. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • The wonderful diversity of the human species is not hard-wired in our genetic code. (i-sis.org.uk)
  • That's because humans are 99.9 percent genetically the same. (amnh.org)
  • They found as expected that humans and chimpanzees are genetically closest to each other over most of the genome, but they found many places where this is not the case. (reuters.com)
  • It raises all kind of Brave New World issues about genetically engineering the human race. (npr.org)
  • About eight percent of human genetic material comes from a virus and not from our ancestors - and could be causing mutations and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. (tgdaily.com)
  • The absence of human genetic material was thus unexpected. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Moreover, 10 percent of the funding was to be directed toward studies of the social, ethical, and legal implications of learning the human genome. (enotes.com)
  • In light of this, we performed genome mining and comparative genomic analysis of CNS strains Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. (omicsonline.org)
  • Jan. 30 (UPI) -- According to new genomic analysis, Scandinavia was settled by human populations migrating along both a northern and southern route. (upi.com)
  • Using a procedure called polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, they next sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of the mastodon, which stretches about 16,000 letters, or "base pairs", long. (newscientist.com)
  • Proposals for a large public-private initiative to synthesize an entire human genome from scratch - an effort that could take a decade and require billions of dollars for technological development - were formally unveiled today, a month after they were first aired at a secretive meeting. (scientificamerican.com)
  • So we're trying to drive things to actually measure the entire human genome and do it accurately. (scientificamerican.com)
  • For instance, genetic drift will cause regions of LD randomly distributed across the entire genome. (genetics.org)
  • Google's plan to store entire copies of the human genome online is edging closer to reality. (rt.com)
  • On May 30, sources told The New York Times that Glaxo was planning to replace Human Genome's entire board of shareholders. (investors.com)
  • The understanding of how our genomes contribute to disease susceptibility offers the prospect of large gains: it may guide disease diagnostics and prognostics and help in developing new therapies. (coursera.org)
  • The first curve in his genome career path came a decade ago, when Dr. David Baillie at Simon Fraser offered him graduate work in his laboratory. (cmaj.ca)
  • A more complete draft was published in 2003, and genome "finishing" work continued for more than a decade. (wikipedia.org)
  • Koonin, who is Caltech's provost, was chair of the JASON study of 1997, which noted to the scientific community that quality standards could be relaxed so that a "rough draft" of the human genome could be made years earlier and still be of great utility. (caltech.edu)
  • In the second part of the study, they compared the differences between this genome sequence and those obtained from African elephants, Asian elephants and mammoths. (newscientist.com)
  • Pruefer, who was first author of the bonobo genome study, worked with an international team to sequence the DNA of Ulindi, a female bonobo who lives at the Leipzig Zoo. (latimes.com)
  • The genome is a resource for further study. (latimes.com)
  • They compared this split to the one between chimpanzees and bonobos, or modern humans and Neanderthals. (reuters.com)
  • While there are significant differences among the genomes of human individuals (on the order of 0.1%), these are considerably smaller than the differences between humans and their closest living relatives, the chimpanzees (approximately 4%) and bonobos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bonobos and humans share a common ancestor. (latimes.com)
  • Comparing the genome of Ulindi and a few other bonobos with those of chimps from different parts of Africa, Pruefer and his colleagues found that bonobos share similar amounts of DNA with all of them. (latimes.com)
  • Ancient humans split away from bonobos and chimps about 4.5 million years ago. (latimes.com)
  • Examining Ulindi's DNA alongside the human genome, the team calculated that about 3% of the human genome is more closely related to bonobos or to chimpanzees than those animals are to each other. (latimes.com)
  • But for now, Pruefer said, it remains unclear what genetic differences between humans, chimps and bonobos have any bearing on human traits. (latimes.com)
  • Green: The timetable is still wide open, but we can imagine that we will start to see spectacular advances in our understanding of how the genome works, how disease works, and how genomic changes are associated with disease. (technologyreview.com)
  • And it's the ability to compare and contrast genomes that leads to advances in understanding of the hows and whys of human disease, according to Iceland's Stefansson. (medpagetoday.com)
  • It may not be very long as there have already been a number of advances based on the human genome. (infobarrel.com)
  • Classically, most of our understanding of the influence of balancing selection in humans was based on few well‐known examples, but recent advances at the genome scale (made possible by newly available genomic databases and analytical methods) provide further insights on the influence and targets of balancing selection in humans. (els.net)