The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Conditions which cause proliferation of hemopoietically active tissue or of tissue which has embryonic hemopoietic potential. They all involve dysregulation of multipotent MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS, most often caused by a mutation in the JAK2 PROTEIN TYROSINE KINASE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Tumors or cancer of the PAROTID GLAND.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Neoplasms developing from some structure of the connective and subcutaneous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective or soft tissue.
Neoplasms associated with a proliferation of a single clone of PLASMA CELLS and characterized by the secretion of PARAPROTEINS.
Tumors or cancer of the APPENDIX.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Tumors or cancer of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancer of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, from the MOUTH to the ANAL CANAL.
Carcinoma that arises from the PANCREATIC DUCTS. It accounts for the majority of cancers derived from the PANCREAS.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Neoplasms composed of vascular tissue. This concept does not refer to neoplasms located in blood vessels.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Neoplasms composed of muscle tissue: skeletal, cardiac, or smooth. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in muscles.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A malignant cystic or semisolid tumor most often occurring in the ovary. Rarely, one is solid. This tumor may develop from a mucinous cystadenoma, or it may be malignant at the onset. The cysts are lined with tall columnar epithelial cells; in others, the epithelium consists of many layers of cells that have lost normal structure entirely. In the more undifferentiated tumors, one may see sheets and nests of tumor cells that have very little resemblance to the parent structure. (Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p184)
Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Neoplasms composed of sebaceous or sweat gland tissue or tissue of other skin appendages. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the sebaceous or sweat glands or in the other skin appendages.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Tumors or cancer of the PALATE, including those of the hard palate, soft palate and UVULA.
Neoplasms composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Tumors or cancer of the MANDIBLE.
A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
A cystic tumor of the ovary, containing thin, clear, yellow serous fluid and varying amounts of solid tissue, with a malignant potential several times greater than that of mucinous cystadenoma (CYSTADENOMA, MUCINOUS). It can be unilocular, parvilocular, or multilocular. It is often bilateral and papillary. The cysts may vary greatly in size. (Dorland, 27th ed; from Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972)
Cancer or tumors of the MAXILLA or upper jaw.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Tumors or cancer of the anal gland.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
Neoplasms located in the bone marrow. They are differentiated from neoplasms composed of bone marrow cells, such as MULTIPLE MYELOMA. Most bone marrow neoplasms are metastatic.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Tumors or cancer of the DUODENUM.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Tumors or cancer in the ILEUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Tumors or cancer of the VAGINA.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A malignant tumor arising from secreting cells of a racemose gland, particularly the salivary glands. Racemose (Latin racemosus, full of clusters) refers, as does acinar (Latin acinus, grape), to small saclike dilatations in various glands. Acinar cell carcinomas are usually well differentiated and account for about 13% of the cancers arising in the parotid gland. Lymph node metastasis occurs in about 16% of cases. Local recurrences and distant metastases many years after treatment are common. This tumor appears in all age groups and is most common in women. (Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1240; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p575)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
A usually benign glandular tumor composed of oxyphil cells, large cells with small irregular nuclei and dense acidophilic granules due to the presence of abundant MITOCHONDRIA. Oxyphil cells, also known as oncocytes, are found in oncocytomas of the kidney, salivary glands, and endocrine glands. In the thyroid gland, oxyphil cells are known as Hurthle cells and Askanazy cells.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A Janus kinase subtype that is involved in signaling from GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTORS; PROLACTIN RECEPTORS; and a variety of CYTOKINE RECEPTORS such as ERYTHROPOIETIN RECEPTORS and INTERLEUKIN RECEPTORS. Dysregulation of Janus kinase 2 due to GENETIC TRANSLOCATIONS have been associated with a variety of MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.
A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Clonal myeloid disorders that possess both dysplastic and proliferative features but are not properly classified as either MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES or MYELOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS.
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
RSV is a class VI enveloped virus with a positive sense RNA genome having a DNA intermediate. RSV has four genes: gag - encodes ... transcribes viral RNA into the full length DNA complement. Rous P (September 1910). "A Transmissible Avian Neoplasm (Sarcoma of ... As with all retroviruses, it reverse transcribes its RNA genome into cDNA before integration into the host DNA. RSV was ... The RSV genome has terminal repeats enabling its integration into the host genome and also overexpression of RSV genes. The src ...
... expression of DNA repair enzymes due to epigenetic methylation of DNA repair genes or altered microRNAs that control DNA repair ... as assessed by whole genome sequencing, frequently have between 10,000 and 100,000 mutations in their entire genomes.[2] ... Malignancy, malignant neoplasm and malignant tumor are synonymous with cancer. *Malignant ascites ... Malignant tumors are also characterized by genome instability, so that cancers, ...
Once a cancer is formed, it usually has genome instability. This instability is likely due to reduced DNA repair or excessive ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... The protein-coding DNA within the nucleus is about 1.5% of the total genomic DNA. Within this protein-coding DNA (called the ... Deficiencies in DNA repair cause increased mutation rates. A deficiency in DNA repair, itself, can allow DNA damages to ...
Genome instability[edit]. Cancers are known to exhibit genome instability or a mutator phenotype.[55] The protein-coding DNA ... ICD-10 classifies neoplasms into four main groups: benign neoplasms, in situ neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, and neoplasms of ... Malignant neoplasms[edit]. DNA damage[edit]. The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in ... Deficiencies in DNA repair cause increased mutation rates.[34][35][36] A deficiency in DNA repair, itself, can allow DNA ...
Comparisons of LINE DNA sequences can be used to date transposon insertion in the genome. The first description of an ... Rodić N, Burns KH (March 2013). "Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1): passenger or driver in human neoplasms?". PLOS Genetics ... The reverse transcriptase makes a DNA copy of the LINE RNA that can be integrated into the genome at a new site. The only ... In the first human genome draft the fraction of LINE elements of the human genome was given as 21% and their copy number as ...
Cancers are known to exhibit genome instability or a "mutator phenotype". The protein-coding DNA within the nucleus is about ... would reflect the earliest event in formation of a malignant neoplasm. In experimental evaluation of specific DNA repair ... In addition to the oxidative DNA damage 8-OHdG, H. pylori infection causes other characteristic DNA damages including DNA ... With a DNA repair deficiency, DNA damage persists in cells at a higher than typical level (5th level from the top in figure); ...
In 1995, a group of researchers found DNA sequences that identified KSHV/HHV8 sequences in 8 lymphomas in the malignant cells ... This lymphoma also belongs to a group of lymphoid neoplasms with plasmablastic differentiation that involve malignant ... or peritoneal spaces and had malignant cells in their effusions that evidenced the Epstein-Barr viral genome. Nadir and ... Cesarman E, Chang Y, Moore PS, Said JW, Knowles DM (May 1995). "Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-like DNA sequences in ...
... red wording indicates the central role of DNA damage and defects in DNA repair in progression to cancer.) When DNA repair is ... They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often ... Roukos DH (April 2009). "Genome-wide association studies: how predictable is a person's cancer risk?". Expert Review of ... "DNA Damage, DNA Repair and Cancer". In Chen C. New Research Directions in DNA Repair. InTech. doi:10.5772/53919. ISBN 978-953- ...
Cellular DNA integrity is often compromised in cancer. Genome instability can refer to the accumulation of extra copies of DNA/ ... In contrast to most other cancers, adrenocortical neoplasms appear to have decreased expression of H19. To determine a possible ... or any abnormal changes in DNA tertiary structure that can cause either the loss of DNA, or the misexpression of genes. It ... double stranded breaks in DNA, the intercalation of foreign substances into the DNA double helix, ...
Huang HY, Ladanyi M, Soslow RA (2004). "Molecular detection of JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion in endometrial stromal neoplasms with ... 2004). "The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... 2003). "Human Chromosome 7: DNA Sequence and Biology". Science. 300 (5620): 767-72. doi:10.1126/science.1083423. PMC 2882961. ... Genome Res. 16 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1101/gr.4039406. PMC 1356129. PMID 16344560. Micci F, Panagopoulos I, Bjerkehagen B, Heim S ( ...
DNA damage appears to be the primary underlying cause of cancer. If accurate DNA repair is deficient, DNA damages tend to ... "A genome-wide analysis of CpG dinucleotides in the human genome distinguishes two distinct classes of promoters". Proc. Natl. ... Such mutations and epigenetic alterations can give rise to cancer (see malignant neoplasms). Thus, CpG island hyper/hypo- ... a large proportion of carcinogenic gene silencing is a result of altered DNA methylation (see DNA methylation in cancer). DNA ...
It is easier to target mutation within mitochondrial DNA versus nuclear DNA because the mitochondrial genome is much smaller ... caused by accumulation of DNA mutations and epigenetic alterations leading to unrestrained cell proliferation and neoplasm ... If DNA repair is deficient, DNA damage tends to accumulate. Such excess DNA damage can increase mutational errors during DNA ... the stability and integrity of the human genome are maintained by the DNA-damage response (DDR) system. Un-repaired DNA damage ...
The genome of M. genitalium consists of 525 genes in one circular DNA of 580,070 base pairs. Scott N. Peterson and his team at ... The protein was identified during investigations on the origin of multiple myeloma, a B-cell hematologic neoplasm. To ... The small genome of M. genitalium made it the organism of choice in The Minimal Genome Project, a study to find the smallest ... DNA repair, cellular transport, and energy metabolism. It was the second complete bacterial genome ever sequenced, after ...
Liu QR, Chan PK (March 1993). "Characterization of seven processed pseudogenes of nucleophosmin/B23 in the human genome". DNA ... subsequent NPM1 mutations drive progression into overt myeloproliferative neoplasm. NPM1 has been shown to interact with AKT1, ... doi:10.1089/dna.1993.12.149. PMID 8471164. Morris SW, Kirstein MN, Valentine MB, Dittmer KG, Shapiro DN, Saltman DL, Look AT ( ... Gjerset RA (September 2006). "DNA damage, p14ARF, nucleophosmin (NPM/B23), and cancer". Journal of Molecular Histology. 37 (5-7 ...
2005). "The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome". Nature. 434 (7031): 325-37. doi:10.1038/nature03440. PMC 2665286. PMID ... 2003). "Down-regulation of drs mRNA in colorectal neoplasms". Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 93 (8): 888-93. doi:10.1111/j.1349-7006.2002. ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
... remodels DNA nucleosomes), BRD4 (binds acetylated lysine residues in DNA-associated histone to regulate gene accessibility), ... Genome Research. 19 (12): 2172-84. doi:10.1101/gr.098921.109. PMC 2792182. PMID 19887574. Yang N, Park S, Cho MS, Lee M, Hong ... "Spectrum of myeloid neoplasms and immune deficiency associated with germline GATA2 mutations". Cancer Medicine. 4 (4): 490-9. ... In both GATA1 and GATA1-S, C-ZnF (i.e. C-terminus zinc finger) binds to DNA-specific nucleic acid sequences sites viz., (T/A( ...
For the majority of cancers, genome instability is reflected in a large frequency of mutations in the whole genome DNA sequence ... which may be benign neoplasms) or else a malignant neoplasm (cancer). These neoplasms are also indicated, in the diagram below ... He also postulated an immortal DNA strand that is discussed at Immortal DNA strand hypothesis. Nowell synthesized the ... 2007). "The dynamics of cancer chromosomes and genomes". Cytogenet Genome Res. 118 (2-4): 237-246. doi:10.1159/000108306. PMID ...
Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788-95 ... "Expression of N-acetyl transferase human and human Arrest defective 1 proteins in thyroid neoplasms". Thyroid. 15 (10): 1131-6 ... Yi CH, Sogah DK, Boyce M, Degterev A, Christofferson DE, Yuan J (19 November 2007). "A genome-wide RNAi screen reveals multiple ... Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2136-44. doi:10.1101/gr.2576704. PMC 528930. PMID 15489336. Arnesen T, Gromyko D, Horvli O, Fluge Ø, ...
2003). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7". Nature. 424 (6945): 157-164. doi:10.1038/nature01782. PMID 12853948. Kimura K ... "Finer delineation and transcript map of the 7q31 locus deleted in myeloid neoplasms". Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics. 162 (2 ... Genome Research. 16 (1): 55-65. doi:10.1101/gr.4039406. PMC 1356129. PMID 16344560.. ...
2003). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7". Nature. 424 (6945): 157-64. doi:10.1038/nature01782. PMID 12853948. Kimura K; ... Hahn Y, Lee B (Feb 2006). "Human-specific nonsense mutations identified by genome sequence comparisons". Hum Genet. 119 (1-2): ... "Finer delineation and transcript map of the 7q31 locus deleted in myeloid neoplasms". Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 162 (2): 151-9. ... 2003). "Human Chromosome 7: DNA Sequence and Biology". Science. 300 (5620): 767-72. doi:10.1126/science.1083423. PMC 2882961. ...
Polyomaviruses are non-enveloped double-stranded DNA viruses with circular genomes of around 5000 base pairs. The genome is ... Stewart SE, Eddy BE, Borgese N (June 1958). "Neoplasms in mice inoculated with a tumor agent carried in tissue culture". ... when the host cell's genome is replicated - because host cell DNA replication machinery is needed for viral genome replication ... LT induces DNA replication from the viral genome's non-coding control region (NCCR), after which expression of the early mRNA ...
DNA damage is also very frequent, occurring on average more than 60,000 times a day in the genomes of human cells.[citation ... Lobular and Medullary Neoplasms (8550-8559) Acinar cell neoplasms (8560-8580) Complex epithelial neoplasms The term carcinoma ... in cells defective in DNA mismatch repair A deficiency in DNA repair, itself, can allow DNA damages to accumulate, and error- ... Adnexal and Skin appendage Neoplasms (8430-8439) Mucoepidermoid Neoplasms (8440-8490) Cystic, Mucinous and Serous Neoplasms ( ...
Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788-95 ... Vega F, Medeiros LJ, Bueso-Ramos CE, Arboleda P, Miranda RN (2015). "Hematolymphoid neoplasms associated with rearrangements of ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... 2004). "From ORFeome to biology: a functional genomics pipeline". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2136-44. doi:10.1101/gr.2576704. PMC ...
2005). "A genome annotation-driven approach to cloning the human ORFeome". Genome Biol. 5 (10): R84. doi:10.1186/gb-2004-5-10- ... 1999). "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22". Nature. 402 (6761): 489-95. doi:10.1038/990031. PMID 10591208. Korenbaum E, ... 2005). "No evidence of INI1hSNF5 (SMARCB1) and PARVG point mutations in oligodendroglial neoplasms". Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
Horvath S (2013). "DNA methylation age of human tissues and cell types". Genome Biology. 14 (10): R115. doi:10.1186/gb-2013-14- ... Such mutations and epigenetic alterations can give rise to cancer (see malignant neoplasms). Thus, CpG island hyper/hypo- ... DNA damage appears to be the primary underlying cause of cancer. If accurate DNA repair is deficient, DNA damages tend to ... and the insertion into a host DNA can produce DNA methylation and provoke a spreading into the Flanking DNA area. This ...
Since then, studies have demonstrated integration of the MCV genome into the genome of MCC tumor cells. Central to the our ... Studies suggest that LT may also preserve cell proliferation signals such as c-Myc and cyclin E and cause DNA injury to the p53 ... various cutaneous leukemic/lymphoid neoplasms, and Ewing's sarcoma. Neuroendocrine molecular markers such as synaptophysin or ... However, integration of the viral genome into the host genome can result in truncation of the LT protein proximal to this ...
"Entrez Gene: DDX43 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 43". Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in ... Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2136-44. doi:10.1101/gr.2576704. PMC 528930. PMID 15489336. Mehrle A, Rosenfelder H, Schupp I, del Val C ... in benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands". Mol. Pathol. 56 (4): 226-31. doi:10.1136/mp.56.4.226. PMC 1187325. ... Genome Res. 11 (3): 422-35. doi:10.1101/gr.GR1547R. PMC 311072. PMID 11230166. Simpson JC, Wellenreuther R, Poustka A, ...
"Genome-wide analysis of DNA copy number changes and LOH in CLL using high-density SNP arrays". Blood. 109 (3): 1202-10. doi: ... Renal epithelial neoplasms have characteristic cytogenetic aberrations that can aid in classification. See also Atlas of ... The arrays themselves can be genome-wide (probes distributed over the entire genome) or targeted (probes for genomic regions ... In addition, virtual karyotypes generate a relative copy number normalized against a diploid genome, so tetraploid genomes will ...
DNA binding. • sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. • transcriptional ... Some whole-genome sequencing studies have shown that PAX8 also targets BRCA1 (carcinogenesis), MAPK pathways (thyroid ... aka Hurthle-Cell Neoplasms).[15] Tumors expressing the PAX8/PPARy are usually present in at a young age, small in size, present ... transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II core promoter sequence-specific DNA binding. • RNA polymerase ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... 2005). "Assessment of JC polyoma virus in colon neoplasms". Dis. Colon. Rectum. 48 (1): 86-91. doi:10.1007/s10350-004-0737-2. ... A map of the genome of JC virus, indicating the position of the tumor antigen genes (red), the three capsid protein genes ( ... DNA virus. HBV Hepatocellular carcinoma. HPV Cervical cancer. Anal cancer. Penile cancer. Vulvar cancer. Vaginal cancer. ...
radiology - randomized trial - rebound - receptor (immunology) - recombinant - recombinant DNA - recombinant DNA technology - ... genome - genotypic assay - germinal centers - giardiasis - globulins - glycoprotein - gonorrhea - gp120 (gp120) - gp160 (gp160 ... neoplasm - nephrotoxic - neuralgia - neurological complications of AIDS - neuropathy - neutralization - neutralizing antibody ... DNA - Domain (biology) - dose-ranging study - dose-response relationship - double-blind study - drug resistance - drug-drug ...
Neoplasms 60% increase in death rate 60% increased death rate from neoplasms. In 1999-2003, neoplasms accounted for 17% of all ... Cooper, A. (2001). "Human Origins and Ancient Human DNA". Science. 292 (5522): 1655-6. doi:10.1126/science.292.5522.1655. PMID ... 2005). "Single, Rapid Coastal Settlement of Asia Revealed by Analysis of Complete Mitochondrial Genomes". Science. 308 (5724): ... Callaway, E. (2011). "First Aboriginal genome sequenced". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2011.551.. ...
Cells have mechanisms for repairing single-strand DNA damage and double-stranded DNA damage. However, double-stranded DNA ... Hypopituitarism commonly develops after radiation therapy for sellar and parasellar neoplasms, extrasellar brain tumours, head ... "A genome-based model for adjusting radiotherapy dose (GARD): a retrospective, cohort-based study". The Lancet. Oncology. 18 (2 ... Single-strand DNA damage is then passed on through cell division; damage to the cancer cells' DNA accumulates, causing them to ...
... deficiency hinders DNA synthesis and cell division, affecting hematopoietic cells and neoplasms the most because of ... and vitamin B12 and their function in the maintenance of nuclear and mitochondrial genome integrity". Mutation Research/ ... This pathology results from persistently thwarted attempts at normal DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell division, and ... DNA production[edit]. Folate derivatives participate in the biosynthesis of both purines and pyrimidines. Formyl folate is ...
Inserting the DNA into the effector cell can be accomplished by several methods. Most commonly, this is done using a lentivirus ... "The 2016 revision to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia". Blood. 127 (20): ... "A subtype of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with poor treatment outcome: a genome-wide classification study". The ... Chromosomal translocations involve moving a large region of DNA from one chromosome to another. This move can result in placing ...
... and plays a regulatory role in S phase DNA replication and DNA damage repair.[17][18][19] Specifically, p21 has a high affinity ... CDKN1A human gene location in the UCSC Genome Browser.. *CDKN1A human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... Neoplasm: Tumor suppressor genes/proteins and Oncogenes/Proto-oncogenes. Ligand. Growth factors. ... not exposed to DNA damaging agents, have shown that DNA damage occurring in mother cell S-phase can induce p21 accumulation ...
DNA repair deficiency in NSCLC[edit]. Deficiencies in DNA repair underlie many forms of cancer.[21] If DNA repair is deficient ... likely cause the high level of mutation in lung cancer cells of more than 100,000 mutations per genome (see Whole genome ... Large cell lung carcinoma (LCLC) is a heterogeneous group of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms originating from transformed ... Epigenetic promoter methylation in DNA repair genes in NSCLC Gene Frequency of hyper- (or hypo-) methylation DNA repair pathway ...
... see malignant neoplasms). Thus, CpG island hyper/hypo-methylation in the promoters of DNA repair genes are likely central to ... "A genome-wide analysis of CpG dinucleotides in the human genome distinguishes two distinct classes of promoters". Proc Natl ... DNA damage appears to be the primary underlying cause of cancer.[39][40] If accurate DNA repair is deficient, DNA damages tend ... DNA repair genes with hyper/hypo-methylated promoters in cancers[edit]. DNA repair genes are frequently repressed in cancers ...
DNA damage is also very frequent, occurring on average more than 60,000 times a day in the genomes of human cells[13] (also see ... 8560-8580) Complex epithelial neoplasms. Carcinoma In situ[edit]. The term carcinoma in situ (or CIS) is a term for cells that ... DNA repair[edit]. In somatic cells, deficiencies in DNA repair sometimes arise by mutations in DNA repair genes, but much more ... a b Bernstein C, Prasad AR, Nfonsam V, Bernstein H. (2013). DNA Damage, DNA Repair and Cancer, New Research Directions in DNA ...
DNA damage and repair[edit]. DNA damage[edit]. DNA damage (or RNA damage in the case of some virus genomes) appears to be a ... Carcinogenesis and Neoplasm) and reference[24]). Furthermore, the ability of HRR to accurately and efficiently repair double- ... see DNA damage (naturally occurring). DNA damages are distinct from mutations although both are errors in the DNA. Whereas DNA ... DNA damage appears to play a key role in mammalian aging, and an adequate level of DNA repair promotes longevity (see DNA ...
Human CDH1 genome location and CDH1 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. ... positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • cellular response to lithium ion. • cell adhesion. • extracellular ... Neoplasm: Tumor suppressor genes/proteins and Oncogenes/Proto-oncogenes. Ligand. Growth factors. ... performed a genome wide expression study on 27 human mammary cell lines. Their results revealed two main clusters that have the ...
As summarized in the articles Carcinogenesis and Neoplasm, for sporadic cancers in general, a deficiency in DNA repair is ... The Cancer Genome Atlas[44]. *The Colorectal Cancer Atlas integrating genomic and proteomic data pertaining to colorectal ... "DNA Damage, DNA Repair and Cancer". In Chen C. New Research Directions in DNA Repair. InTech. ISBN 978-953-51-1114-6 ... Other options include virtual colonoscopy and stool DNA screening testing (FIT-DNA). Virtual colonoscopy via a CT scan appears ...
Analysis of somatic DNA mutations in well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors identified four important findings:[ ... Harada, T.; Chelala, C.; Crnogorac-Jurcevic, T.; Lemoine, N. R. (2009). "Genome-Wide Analysis of Pancreatic Cancer Using ... are neuroendocrine neoplasms that arise from cells of the endocrine (hormonal) and nervous system within the pancreas. ...
DNA binding and apoptosis[edit]. The c-Abl gene in wild-type cells is implicated in DNA binding, which affects such processes ... JAK2 mutations have been shown to be central to myeloproliferative neoplasms and JAK kinases play a central role in driving ... causing the cell to divide uncontrollably by interrupting the stability of the genome and impairing various signaling pathways ... The BCR-ABL fusion, in contrast, has been shown to inhibit apoptosis, but its effect on DNA binding in particular is unclear.[ ...
Tüümuse DNA sisaldab adeniini, guaniini, tsütosiini, tümiini. Tüümuse ribonukleiinhape[muuda , muuda lähteteksti]. Tüümuse RNA ... Paul Chih-Hsueh Chen, Chin-Chen Pan, An-Hang Yang, Liang-Shun Wang ja Hung Chiang, Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genome ... Tseng-Tong Kuo, Classification of thymic epithelial neoplasms: a controversial issue coming to an end?, J.Cell.Mol.Med. 5. ... C. Röpke, B. van Deurs, P. E. Høyer,DNA-synthesizing cells in human fetal thymus, Cell and Tissue Research, märts 1977, 178. ...
4) Protection against DNA damage. Mild, transient scrotal heat stress causes DNA damage, reduced fertility and abnormal ... The human genome includes approximately 20,000 protein coding genes: 80% of these genes are expressed in adult testes.[7] The ... Testicular cancer and other neoplasms - To improve the chances of catching possible cases of testicular cancer or other health ... The gametes contain DNA for fertilization of an ovum[2]. *Sertoli cells - the true epithelium of the seminiferous epithelium, ...
... and genome instability. These data demonstrated Mdm2-induced genome instability can be mediated through Mdm2:Nbs1 interactions ... negative regulation of DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator. • response to ether. • blood vessel ... Neoplasm: Tumor suppressor genes/proteins and Oncogenes/Proto-oncogenes. Ligand. Growth factors. ... DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest. • positive regulation of gene ...
2010). "A genome-wide association study in 19 633 Japanese subjects identified LHX3-QSOX2 and IGF1 as adult height loci". Hum. ... The gene that codes for the SDHB protein is nuclear, not mitchondrial DNA. However, the expressed protein is located in the ... Neoplasm: Tumor suppressor genes/proteins and Oncogenes/Proto-oncogenes. Ligand. Growth factors. ... 2010). "An approach based on a genome-wide association study reveals candidate loci for narcolepsy". Hum. Genet. 128 (4): 433- ...
Integration of viral DNA[edit]. DNA oncoviruses transform infected cells by integrating their DNA into the host cell's genome.[ ... "A Transmissible Avian Neoplasm (Sarcoma of the Common Fowl)". Journal of Experimental Medicine. 12 (5): 696-705. doi:10.1084/ ... The viral DNA is then translocated into the nucleus where one strand of the retroviral genome is put into the chromosomal DNA ... Tumor viruses come in a variety of forms: Viruses with a DNA genome, such as adenovirus, and viruses with an RNA genome, like ...
Although DNA analysis techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to look for DNA of herpesviruses in spinal ... The complete sequence of the viral genome was published in 1986.[33] Virus-specific proteins continue to be made by the ... Salivary gland neoplasms *Benign: Basal cell adenoma. *Canalicular adenoma. *Ductal papilloma. *Monomorphic adenoma ... Davison, AJ, Scott, JE (1986). "The complete DNA sequence of varicella-zoster virus". J. Gen. Virol. 67 (9): 1759-1816. doi: ...
"Genome wide measurement of DNA copy number changes in neuroblastoma: dissecting amplicons and mapping losses, gains and ... Nervous tissue tumors/NS neoplasm/Neuroectodermal tumor (ICD-O 9350-9589) (C70-C72, D32-D33, 191-192/225) ... and genetic features including DNA ploidy and N-myc oncogene amplification (N-myc regulates microRNAs[41]), into low, ... breakpoints". Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 115 (3-4): 273-82. doi:10.1159/000095924. PMID 17124410.. ...
Scattered throughout the genome, these mutations reduce a cell's ability to repair DNA. Both CDKN2A and XP mutations are highly ... Tumors: Skin neoplasm, nevi and melanomas (C43/D22, 172/216, ICD-O 8720-8799) ... from the sun is absorbed by skin cell DNA and results in a type of direct DNA damage called cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs ... An insult common to most cancers is damage to DNA.[38] UVA light mainly causes thymine dimers.[39] UVA also produces reactive ...
... red wording indicates the central role of DNA damage and defects in DNA repair in progression to cancer.) When DNA repair is ... They form a subset of neoplasms. A neoplasm or tumor is a group of cells that have undergone unregulated growth and will often ... Roukos DH (April 2009). "Genome-wide association studies: how predictable is a person's cancer risk?". Expert Review of ... Reduced expression of DNA repair genes disrupts DNA repair. This is shown in the figure at the 4th level from the top. (In the ...
Pair-end DNA sequencing. DNA samples from tumors and their relative controls were processed in parallel. Genomic DNA of each ... 2014 DNA copy number evolution in Drosophila cell lines. Genome Biol. 15(8): R70. doi:10.1186/gb-2014-15-8-r70. ... Drosophila Larval Brain Neoplasms Present Tumour-Type Dependent Genome Instability. View ORCID ProfileFabrizio Rossi, View ... Drosophila Larval Brain Neoplasms Present Tumour-Type Dependent Genome Instability Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
DNA, Neoplasm / genetics* * Epigenomics / methods* * Female * Genes, Tumor Suppressor* * Genome-Wide Association Study / ... To identify clinically relevant tumor suppressor genes silenced by DNA methylation in HCC, we integrated DNA methylation data ... 1 Cancer Genome Center, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Woodbury, New York; Mount Sinai Liver Cancer Program, Division of Liver ... Genome-wide methylation analysis and epigenetic unmasking identify tumor suppressor genes in hepatocellular carcinoma ...
Detection and quantification of 5-methyl 2-deoxycytidine in genomic DNA has been performed using micellar high-performance ... A new approach to the evaluation of the relative degree of genomic DNA methylation through the quantification of 2- ... DNA Methylation * DNA, Neoplasm / analysis * DNA, Plant / analysis * Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives* * Deoxycytidine / ... This approach has been demonstrated to be more sensitive and specific than other HPCE methods for the quantification of DNA ...
It also contributes to the cytotoxic effects of some kinds of DNA damage, and cells defective in mismatch repair are resistant ... or tolerant, to the presence of some normally cytotoxic base analogues in their DNA. The absence of a par … ... DNA mismatch repair is an important pathway of mutation avoidance. ... Neoplasms / genetics* * O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase * Saccharomyces cerevisiae / drug effects * Saccharomyces ...
A total of 176 genes homozygously deleted in human lung cancer were identified by DNA array-based whole genome scanning of 52 ... Genomic DNA was isolated from tumor and non-tumor adrenocortical tissue, and DNA sequencing revealed the mutation status.. ... using a DNA microarray comprising approx. 3500 BACs covering the entire genome with a 1 Mb resolution and additional 800 BACs ... including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA ...
... characterization of a unique neoplasm by histology, immunohistochemistry, ultrastructure, and array-based comparative genomic ... Assembly of microarrays for genome-wide measurement of DNA copy number. Nat Genet. 2001;29(3):263-264. (15.) Misra A, Pellarin ... To determine if there were genetic alterations associated with this neoplasm, array CGH was performed on tumor DNA isolated ... The pituicytoma is a rare neoplasm of the sellar region. As illustrated in our 2 cases, a number of features common to the ...
DNA repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, and transcriptional regulation. BRCA1 germline mutations confer a high risk of early-onset ... DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA Repair-Deficiency Disorders. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Death-Associated Protein Kinases. Female. ... 0/Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0/BRCA1 Protein; 0/BRCA1 protein, human; 0/DNA, Neoplasm; 0/GATA4 Transcription Factor; 0/ ... Whole-genome massively parallel sequencing of ER-positive and ER-negative BRCA1 breast cancers, and their respective germline ...
DNA, Neoplasm / genetics*. Genome, Human*. Genomic Instability / genetics*. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Melanoma / ... Title: DNA repair Volume: 9 ISSN: 1568-7856 ISO Abbreviation: DNA Repair (Amst.) Publication Date: 2010 Aug ...
DNA was extracted with QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (QIAGEN). Genome-wide aCGH used Human Genome CGH Microarray Kit, 44K (Agilent ... Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasms. In: Swerdlow SH, Campo E, Harris NL, et al., editors. WHO Classification of ... Blastic NK-cell lymphomas (agranular CD4+CD56+ hematodermic neoplasms): a review. Am J Clin Pathol 2005;123(5):662-675. ... Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematologic disease, often presenting in the skin.1⇓-3 Its ...
Abdominal neoplasm. IPA. 1.09E-06. 1.927. 28. Differentiation of tumor cell lines. ... Genome-wide DNA methylation arrays showed that a number of genes, including RBM28 and CYTSB, appeared to be demethylated in the ... The genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of a total of 24 prostate samples from tumor or normal tissues were generated using ... Genome-wide methylation profiling. Total DNA was isolated from frozen prostate tissues using DNeasy Blood and Tissue kit ( ...
Antigens; Neoplasm/genetics, DNA; Mitochondrial/genetics, DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics, E2F3 Transcription Factor/genetics, ... Epigenesis; Genetic/genetics, Gene Expression Regulation; Neoplastic, Genetic Markers, Genome; Human/genetics, Glutathione S- ... Prostatic Neoplasms/*diagnosis/*genetics, RNA; Messenger/analysis, Racemases and Epimerases/genetics, Reverse Transcriptase ...
Performance Comparison of Affymetrix SNP6.0 and Cytogenetic 2.7M Whole-Genome Microarrays in Complex Cancer Samples. Bødker, J ... Cytogenetic and Genome Research. 139, 2, s. 80-87 8 s.. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › Tidsskriftartikel › Forskning › ...
Breast Neoplasms (ortholog); Neoplasm Invasiveness (ortholog); FOUND IN nucleoplasm (ortholog) ... ENCODES a protein that exhibits DNA binding (inferred); INVOLVED IN regulation of double-strand break repair via nonhomologous ... DNA binding enables. IEA. InterPro:IPR044198. 14298760. InterPro. GO_REF:0000002. histone binding enables. IBA. PANTHER: ... Genome Viewer) Overgo Probe Designer ACP Haplotyper Genome Scanner VCMap ...
MeSH Terms: Abdominal Neoplasms/genetics*; Abdominal Neoplasms/pathology; DNA Copy Number Variations*; Genome-Wide Association ... Peritoneal Neoplasms/genetics*; Peritoneal Neoplasms/pathology; Pleural Neoplasms/genetics*; Pleural Neoplasms/pathology ... Title: Genome-wide analysis of abdominal and pleural malignant mesothelioma with DNA arrays reveals both common and distinct ... We compared DNA array-based findings from 48 epithelioid peritoneal MMs and 41 epithelioid pleural MMs to identify similarities ...
... and show that array-based DNA methylation analysis holds promise as an ancillary tool to further characterize uterine neoplasms ... we describe distinct DNA methylation signatures in uterine neoplasms ... We report the genome-wide effects of KAP1 loss on the transcriptome, the chromatin state, and on recruitment of various ... ConclusionHerein, we describe distinct DNA methylation signatures in uterine neoplasms and show that array-based DNA ...
In addition, the viral genome has been found in the DNA of Reed-Sternberg cells in patients with Hodgkin disease and in ... Both of these neoplasms have been associated with EAC. Two cases of EAC were reported in a dermatomal distribution within the ... Neoplasms. EAC resolved with successful treatment of the malignancy but relapsed with tumor recurrence in the cases of Hodgkin ... believed to be secondary to their strong DNA-binding properties and affinity for melanin. Note the following drugs that have ...
One tumor had been classified as glioneuronal neoplasm. Human male and female genomic reference DNA was purchased from Promega ... Genome-wide analysis of DNA copy-number changes using cDNA microarrays. Nat Genet 1999; 23: 41-6. ... Tumor DNA was hybridized together with sex-matching reference DNA to a Stanford human cDNA microarray containing 41,421 cDNA ... Isolation and characterization of complementary DNA for N-cym, a gene encoded by the DNA strand opposite to N-myc. Cell Growth ...
Over time, cancer genome specialists have come to doubt that such a rule holds. In hematopoietic neoplasms usually only a few ... the Cancer Genome Project will sequence the genomes of more than 25,000 cancer patients, among whom are sufferers of about ... Most of the changes in the DNA code are known as „passenger mutations". They arise in the course of many cell divisions of the ... DNA methylation: an indicator of metastases. Many of the previously found driver mutations affect genes that are involved in ...
The Cancer Genome Atlas). Our study provides evidence for the promise of DNA methylation alterations for clinical applications. ... ACVR1 and Colonic Neoplasms. View Publications. 3. Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of ... Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI. Gene Summary. ACVR1. COSMIC, Sanger Institute. Somatic mutation information and related ... Recent genome-wide studies provided abundant evidence that unique selective pressures drive HGG in children compared to adults ...
Validity of whole genomes sequencing results in neoplasms in precision medicine. November 9, 2020. November 10, 2020. Eletr ... Antibodies Assay Kits Biology Cells cDNA Clia Kits Culture Cells Devices DNA DNA Templates DNA Testing Elisa Kit Enzymes ... Antibodies Assay Kits Biology Cells cDNA Clia Kits Culture Cells Devices DNA DNA Templates DNA Testing Elisa Kit Enzymes ... Antibodies Assay Kits Biology Cells cDNA Clia Kits Culture Cells Devices DNA DNA Templates DNA Testing Elisa Kit Enzymes ...
DNA/isolation & purification. MESH. DNA, Neoplasm/metabolism. MESH. Herpesvirus 4, Human/isolation & purification. MESH. ... Wolf, Hans J., zur Hausen, H. and Becker, V. (1973) EB viral genomes in epithelial nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. Nature. New ...
... renal cell carcinoma is ideally suited to the genome scale investigation made possible by DNA microarrays. A number of DNA ... The neoplasms occurred 5 years apart and were diagnosed as mixed epithelial stromal tumor in both instances. We describe the ... A DNA microarray survey of gene expression in normal human tissues GENOME BIOLOGY Shyamsundar, R., Kim, Y. H., Higgins, J. P., ... Tolerizing DNA vaccines for autoimmune arthritis AUTOIMMUNITY Ho, P. P., Higgins, J. P., Kidd, B. A., Tomooka, B., Digennaro, C ...
11 A and B ). Transgenic constructs were made by connecting the PR-cagAHs DNA fragment downstream of the CAG or HK promoter (SI ... which could induce rapid gene silencing after integration into mammalian genomes [supporting information (SI) Fig. 5]. Also, ... Chemically synthesized cagAHs DNA was subcloned into pCAGGS (28) or pHKATP vector (29). The CAG-cagAHs or HK-cagAHs fragment ... 4 B and C), PR-cagAHs mice neither showed gastric epithelial hyperplasia or leukocytosis nor developed neoplasms (except one ...
RSV is a class VI enveloped virus with a positive sense RNA genome having a DNA intermediate. RSV has four genes: gag - encodes ... transcribes viral RNA into the full length DNA complement. Rous P (September 1910). "A Transmissible Avian Neoplasm (Sarcoma of ... As with all retroviruses, it reverse transcribes its RNA genome into cDNA before integration into the host DNA. RSV was ... The RSV genome has terminal repeats enabling its integration into the host genome and also overexpression of RSV genes. The src ...
ENCODE whole-genome data in the UCSC Genome Browser. Nucleic Acids Res 2010;38:D620-5. ... DNA was isolated from 475 BMD blood samples. Two hundred forty, 95, and 140 were provided from North America, France, and The ... Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare and poorly understood neoplasm in humans that occurs in 15% to 25% of Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMD ... A compendium of genome-wide associations for cancer: critical synopsis and reappraisal. J Natl Cancer Inst 2010;102:846-58. ...
associated with Neoplasms;DNA:SNP:intron:IVS14+1G>A (human). associated with Stomach Neoplasms. RGD. PMID:19473056, PMID: ... DNA:deletion mutation:exon:. DNA:deletion:cds:. DNA:mutation: :. DNA:transversion mutation:splice site:1674G>C(mouse). DNA: ... associated with Ovarian Neoplasms;DNA:deletion: : (human). associated with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma; DNA:deletion:cds:. ... DNA:mutations:exons:. DNA:mutations:cds:. DNA:mutation:exon:p. E148Q (human). RGD. PMID:22451026, PMID:25232290, PMID:20602240 ...
Damage to the DNA genome occurs in the development of ACC, as it does in all cancers studied to date. Various studies have ... This neoplasm is defined by its distinctive histologic appearance.. Differential Diagnosis. The differential diagnosis is ... Advanced tumors may present with pain and/or nerve paralysis, for this neoplasm has a propensity to invade peripheral nerves. ... There is some evidence that the p53 tumor suppressor gene is inactivated in advanced and aggressive forms of this neoplasm. ...
Overall, numerous studies in the past few years have definitively shown that gut microbes exert distinct impacts on DNA damage ... In: Genome Medicine, Vol. 11, No. 1, 11, 25.02.2019.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Review article ... Allen, J., & Sears, C. L. (2019). Impact of the gut microbiome on the genome and epigenome of colon epithelial cells: ... Allen, J & Sears, CL 2019, Impact of the gut microbiome on the genome and epigenome of colon epithelial cells: Contributions ...
Lisse et al., FASEB J 2011 (Bone Neoplasms...) : Among these was the gene for DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 ( DDIT4 ), an ... Wander et al., J Clin Invest 2011 (Neoplasms) : While hypoxia, nutrient deprivation, and DNA damage restrain mTORC1 activity, ... Real et al., PloS one 2011 : The activation of cell growth and mTORC1 by E2F1 is dependent on both E2F1 s ability to bind DNA ... Kim et al., Mol Cell 2013 (Breast Neoplasms...) : The TTT-RUVBL complex was necessary for the interaction between mTORC1 and ...
... system was driven in part by the human genome project in order to construct genomic DNA libraries and physical maps for genomic ... Delineation of commonly deleted regions (CDR). MDS: myelodysplastic syndrome; MPN: myeloproliferative neoplasm. ... We identify the BAC clones of interest through the human genome browser database of the genome bioinformatics group at the ... of the Bacterial Artificial Chromosome system was driven in part by the Human Genome Project in order to construct genomic DNA ...
  • Whole genome methylation and expression profiling identified differentially methylated sites and expressed genes between placebo and genistein groups. (
  • In hematopoietic neoplasms usually only a few of these genes are mutated. (
  • It will probably turn out over the next few years, writes Michael Stratton of The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute in Cambridge, England in a Science review, that many other DNA segments with aberrations are crucial for tumor development and thus to be previously unknown cancer genes. (
  • Many of the previously found driver mutations affect genes that are involved in chromatin modifications and therefore involved in the regulation of DNA expression. (
  • Among cancer genes are histon methylases, or methyltransferases, which methylate the DNA. (
  • High-resolution genome-wide mapping of exact boundaries of chromosomal alterations should facilitate the localization and identification of genes involved in gliomagenesis and may characterize genetic subgroups of glial brain tumors. (
  • A recent explosion of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) has identified several putative cancer-associated risk alleles, many of which are located near known cancer genes, although not within classic exonic boundaries (reviewed in ref. 2 ). (
  • Future work in the lab will focus on identifying genes that induce DNA damage in response to short telomeres, identifying how telomeres are processed and how telomere elongation is regulated. (
  • Another involves mutations of DNA mismatch repair genes. (
  • Whereas CpG dinucleotides are underrepresented in the mammalian genome, approximately half of all human genes contain a CpG-rich region called a "CpG island" in the 5′ area, often encompassing the promoter and transcription start site of the associated gene ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • The RSV genome has terminal repeats enabling its integration into the host genome and also overexpression of RSV genes. (
  • We illustrate here by several examples our experience at the University Cytogenetics Laboratory in Brest (France) using BAC clones to identify genes at chromosomal breakpoints and define commonly deleted regions in myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative neoplasms and leukemia. (
  • 5-azadC exerts its antitumor effects by reactivation of aberrantly hypermethylated growth regulatory genes and cytoxicity resulting from DNA damage. (
  • In the normal-like cells, nuclear matrix-attached DNA was enriched in expressed genes, while in the breast cancer cells, it was enriched in non-expressed genes. (
  • It is therefore practical to identify evolutionarily conserved CFS genes through genome-wide dissecting allelic imbalances in IR-induced tumors. (
  • The analysis of exonic DNA from prostate cancers has identified recurrently mutated genes, but the spectrum of genome-wide alterations has not been profiled extensively in this disease. (
  • To identify novel p53 target genes, we first used a comparative genomics approach to identify p53 binding sequences conserved in the human and mouse genome. (
  • The transcriptional coactivator p53 binds to DNA in a sequence-specific manner and induces transcription of a variety of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis, and DNA repair ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The aim here was to identify and compare p53 target genes in the human and mouse genomes using in silico genome scanning for sequence conservation of potential p53 binding sites. (
  • [3] They also frequently have reduced expression of DNA repair enzymes due to epigenetic methylation of DNA repair genes or altered microRNAs that control DNA repair gene expression. (
  • Cytoplasmic DNA is detected in cells by an enzyme called cGAS (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase) together with an adaptor protein known as STING (stimulator of interferon genes). (
  • The DNA of the samples will be studied to determine if there are changes in specific genes that might explain the cancers in the participant or their family members. (
  • The concept of a pan-genome refers to intraspecific diversity in genome content and structure, encompassing both genes and intergenic space. (
  • DNA copy number calculated by GeneCount is plotted against the corresponding FISH result for 9 genes in 94 lymphomas. (
  • The MDS and secondary AML patients displayed more extensive aberrant DNA methylation involving thousands of genes than did the normal CD34 + bone marrow cells or de novo AML blasts. (
  • The authors sequenced genomic DNA from both colorectal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples, targeting 145 genes previously associated with diverse cancers. (
  • DNA fragments (seeds) having the characteristics of amplicons, which are useful for amplifying genes of interest, have been isolated from Marek's disease viruses of poultry. (
  • To investigate cancer treatment plus pathogenic germline mutations (PGMs) in DNA repair genes (DRGs) for identification of childhood cancer survivors at increased risk of subsequent neoplasms (SNs). (
  • PGMs were evaluated in 127 genes from 6 major DNA repair pathways. (
  • A sixth subgroup (E) designates nononcogenic endogenous viruses produced by viral genes integrated into the host cell DNA. (
  • We applied a combination of whole-exome sequencing and targeted sequencing across 50 bladder cancer driver genes to plasma cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from 51 patients with aggressive bladder cancer, including 37 with metastatic disease. (
  • Variants in/near three of the four epidermal growth factor receptor genes (ERBB2/HER2, ERBB3/HER3 and ERBB4/HER4) are associated with PCOS at or near genome-wide significance. (
  • More recently, our group has identified and characterized novel risk-related genes in DLBCL, including the B-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPROt, which regulates spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) activity and is itself a BCL6 target, and 2 partner proteins, BAL and BBAP, which play unique roles in DNA damage repair. (
  • Colon tumor-specific DNA methylation at Cdx1 is reduced in the DNA-hypomethylated tumors accompanied by Cdx1 derepression and an increased expression of intestinal differentiation-related genes. (
  • Mutations in checkpoint genes contribute to many types of lymphoid malignant neoplasms, particularly in the context of ataxia telangiectasia, which has a defect in the gene for ATM and impairs the S-phase checkpoint. (
  • Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS. (
  • DNA mismatch repair is an important pathway of mutation avoidance. (
  • In the course of its life, influences from within and without are responsible for ever more points of mutation, areas where the sequence of letters, the sentence structure or even entire chapters in the book of DNA are no longer there in the way that they were written at the beginning. (
  • A JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) V617F mutation frequently reported in myeloproliferative neoplasms but not solid tumors was detected in three subjects with NSCLC. (
  • Therefore, transcription appears to reduce mutation prevalence specifically by relieving the constraints imposed by chromatin structure on DNA repair. (
  • Whole-genome sequencing of bladder cancers reveals somatic CDKN1A mutations and clinicopathological associations with mutation burden. (
  • The patterns of mutation in cancer genomes reflect the DNA damage and repair processes to which cancer cells and their precursors have been exposed. (
  • We directly measured the genome-wide mutation rate of a cancer cell line and found that purine-pyrimidine exchanges occurred unusually frequently among the newly acquired SNVs. (
  • 1 , 2 In myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), detection of acquired uniparental disomy (UPD) in chromosome 9p using microsatellite mapping led to the identification of the gain-of-function mutation V617F in JAK2 . (
  • We used targeted or whole-genome sequencing to identify somatic genomic alterations and designed personalized assays to quantify circulating tumor DNA in serially collected plasma specimens. (
  • Pituicytoma: characterization of a unique neoplasm by histology, immunohistochemistry, ultrastructure, and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. (
  • 3-5) In this study, we present the histologic, immunohistologic, and ultrastructural features of 2 cases of pituicytoma and demonstrate genomic copy number imbalances associated with this unique neoplasm by using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). (
  • Genomic DNA copy number aberrations are key genetic events in gliomagenesis. (
  • Recurrent genomic regions of alteration in copy number, including net gains and losses, have been found in these neoplasms. (
  • Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) has been used to analyze DNA copy number changes in various human cancers, including gliomas ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • Human male and female genomic reference DNA was purchased from Promega (Madison, WI). (
  • Genomic DNA was isolated using the DNeasy Tissue Kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA), DPNII (New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA) digested, and purified using the QIAquick PCR Purification Kit (Qiagen). (
  • Genomic DNA was collected from affected and unaffected BMD in North America and Europe. (
  • He performed several groundbreaking genomic, epigenomic and bioinformatic studies of esophageal and colonic neoplasms, shifting the GI research paradigm toward genome-wide approaches. (
  • Retrotransposons are pieces of genomic DNA that have the ability to duplicate themselves and insert into a new genomic location. (
  • Specifically, we extract genomic DNA and total RNA from liver tissues and use this genetic material for methylation-specific PCR (MSP), cDNA microarray, microRNA microarray and genomic DNA methylation array experiments. (
  • The development of the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system was driven in part by the human genome project in order to construct genomic DNA libraries and physical maps for genomic sequencing. (
  • Common fragile sites: genomic hotspots of DNA damage and carcinogenesis. (
  • Experimental design for identification of genomic regions susceptible to DNA damage. (
  • CFSs are specific genomic loci susceptible to DNA damage induced by replication stress and genotoxic agents. (
  • 0.001) IR-induced tumor samples, indicating that this genomic region, which likely harbors an uncharacterized candidate tumor suppressor gene D7Ertd443e (Genbank accession number: GQ499374, NM_001199941), is highly susceptible to DNA damage [82]. (
  • By modeling the genesis of genomic rearrangements, we identified abundant DNA translocations and deletions that arise in a highly interdependent manner. (
  • Our modeling suggests that chromoplexy may induce considerable genomic derangement over relatively few events in prostate cancer and other neoplasms, supporting a model of punctuated cancer evolution. (
  • Comparison of orthologous genomic sequences has become a powerful tool for identifying functional elements within the genome ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • To explore novel genetic abnormalities occurring in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) through an integrative study combining array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and next-generation sequencing (NGS) in a series of MDS and MDS/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) patients. (
  • In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). (
  • In this study, we have applied a 32K clone-based genomic array, covering 99% of the current assembly of the human genome, to the detailed genetic profiling of a set of 78 GBs. (
  • GeneCount: genome-wide calculation of absolute tumor DNA copy numbers from array comparative genomic hybridization data. (
  • We present GeneCount, a method for genome-wide calculation of absolute copy numbers from clinical array comparative genomic hybridization data. (
  • Single-cell sequencing is needed to characterize these genomic differences but has been hindered by whole-genome amplification bias, resulting in low genome coverage. (
  • Such dynamic variations are reflected in the genomic heterogeneity among a population of cells, which demands characterization of genomes at the single-cell level ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • p53, known as the "guardian of the genome," is a sequence-specific transcription factor that binds DNA and transactivates cellular proteins involved in growth and cell cycle regulation ( 1 - 6 ). (
  • We will use new technologies to look at the DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites in the disease-containing blood, bone marrow, or tissue and normal cells from the skin. (
  • Oncogenes of DNA tumor viruses encode proteins that cause cells to divide incessantly, eventually leading to formation of a tumor. (
  • The genomes of adenoviruses, polyomaviruses, and papillomaviruses encode proteins that cause cells to divide. (
  • The cells divide, and in the process produce proteins involved in DNA replication, which are then used for viral replication. (
  • A five amino acid sequence within E1A and E7 proteins was identified that is responsible for overcoming the interferon response to cytoplasmic DNA. (
  • The DNA repair proteins poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), Ku86, and catalytic subunit of DNA-PK (DNA-PKcs) have been involved in telomere metabolism. (
  • To genetically dissect the impact of these activities on telomere function, as well as organismal cancer and aging, we have generated mice doubly deficient for both telomerase and any of the mentioned DNA repair proteins, PARP-1, Ku86, or DNA-PKcs. (
  • To determine if these genetic lesions appear in Drosophila tumors we have sequenced the genomes of 17 malignant neoplasms caused by mutations in l(3)mbt , brat , aurA , or lgl . (
  • Many of these tumors are hyperplasias that present during larval development and eventually differentiate, but others behave as frankly malignant neoplasms that are refractory to differentiation signals, lethal to the host and immortal. (
  • The question remains, however, as to the extent of GI in other samples of Ph tumors and, indeed, in different types of Drosophila malignant neoplasms. (
  • We compared the radiographic imaging of tumors with the assay of circulating tumor DNA, CA 15-3, and circulating tumor cells in 30 women with metastatic breast cancer who were receiving systemic therapy. (
  • Advanced tumors may present with pain and/or nerve paralysis, for this neoplasm has a propensity to invade peripheral nerves. (
  • Study of tumors or neoplasms. (
  • Using microarrays containing over 19,200 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones with insert size in the range of 170-210 kb and maximized coverage of mouse genome [104], the results of CGH analysis reveal a deletion site close to the end of mouse chromosome 7 in IR-induced tumors. (
  • This DNA region, corresponding to the contig of RP23-35I7, was deleted in 15% of spontaneous tumors (n = 20). (
  • We sequenced the genomes of 57 prostate tumors and matched normal tissues to characterize somatic alterations and to study how they accumulate during oncogenesis and progression. (
  • 2. To relate pretreatment plasma EBV DNA concentration to WHO classification of these tumors both in endemic and non-endemic areas. (
  • [1] Malignant tumors are also characterized by genome instability , so that cancers, as assessed by whole genome sequencing , frequently have between 10,000 and 100,000 mutations in their entire genomes. (
  • In addition, the release of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) by tumors into the bloodstream has been described for decades and has been recently leveraged in both research and clinical settings to facilitate therapy selection, identify drug resistance, and monitor treatment response ( 6-14 ). (
  • To determine the extent of promoter hypermethylation in such tumors, we compared the distribution of DNA methylation of 14 000 promoters in MDS and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients enrolled in a phase 1 trial of 5-azacytidine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor entinostat against de novo AML patients and normal CD34 + bone marrow cells. (
  • Unsupervised clustering analysis of the genome-wide hypermethylation alterations revealed no major differences between or within these groups of benign and malignant tumors regardless of their location in intergenic, intragenic, promoter, or 3′ end regions. (
  • The Role of DNA/Histone Modifying Enzymes and Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors. (
  • Still, little attention has been directed towards testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs)-representing the most common neoplasm among young adult Caucasian men-with most studies focusing on exploring the role of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and DNA demethylases (TETs). (
  • Rarely there can be a metastatic neoplasm with no known site of the primary cancer and this is classed as a cancer of unknown primary origin Neoplastic tumors are often heterogeneous and contain more than one type of cell, but their initiation and continued growth is usually dependent on a single population of neoplastic cells. (
  • We profiled a cohort of 279 head and neck cancers with next generation RNA and DNA sequencing and show that 35 (12.5%) tumors displayed evidence of high-risk HPV types 16, 33, or 35. (
  • Furthermore, a histological analysis revealed that Cdx1 derepression in the DNA-hypomethylated tumors is correlated with the differentiation of colon tumor cells. (
  • Recent genome-wide studies provided abundant evidence that unique selective pressures drive HGG in children compared to adults, identifying novel oncogenic mutations connecting tumorigenesis and chromatin regulation, as well as developmental signalling pathways. (
  • Whoever studies the DNA of uncontrollably-growing tumor cells finds therein a seemingly wild confusion of mutations: translocations, base pair substitutions and differing sets of chromosomes. (
  • Most of the changes in the DNA code are known as „passenger mutations" . (
  • This includes lung cancer (tobacco) and melanoma (UV radiation), which collect more than 100,000 mutations in their genomes. (
  • We have analyzed both genetic (mutations of BRAF, KRAS, and p53 and microsatellite instability) and epigenetic alterations (DNA methylation of 27 CpG island promoter regions) in 97 primary colorectal cancer patients. (
  • The great majority of these missense mutations have been mapped to the central DNA-binding region of the protein. (
  • In 2013, two seminal studies identified gain-of-function mutations in the Calreticulin ( CALR ) gene in a subset of JAK2 / MPL -negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) patients. (
  • Molecular characterization of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), a group of hematologic neoplasms, has greatly evolved since the discovery of JAK2 V617F in 2005 ( 1-3 ), and subsequent gene discovery studies which identified additional driver mutations present in patients with MPN, namely activating JAK exon 12 mutations ( 4 ), MPL W515L ( 5 ), and most recently a spectrum of mutations in CALR . (
  • Cancer is a disease of the genome and is characterized by several types of alterations including point mutations, balanced and unbalanced chromosomal rearrangements, and copy-number alterations (CNA). (
  • Clonality analysis of synchronous lesions of cervical carcinoma based on X chromosome inactivation polymorphism, human papillomavirus type 16 genome mutations, and loss of heterozygosity. (
  • Somatic mutations in cancer are more frequent in heterochromatic and late-replicating regions of the genome. (
  • Here we use whole-genome sequencing to identify somatic mutations and chromosomal changes in 14 bladder cancers of different grades and stages. (
  • These results indicate that DGGE provides a reliable method for the detection of the presence of point mutations in the LDLR gene of FH patients, thereby facilitating the introduction of rapid DNA diagnosis for this common and genetically heterogeneous disorder. (
  • A neoplasm can be caused by an abnormal proliferation of tissues, which can be caused by genetic mutations. (
  • Error-prone polymerases are alleged to induce mutations while replicating damaged DNA and to increase the risk of cancer. (
  • Patients with mutations in the DDB2 and XPC damage recognition steps of global genome repair exhibit almost exclusively actinic skin cancer. (
  • Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare and poorly understood neoplasm in humans that occurs in 15% to 25% of Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMD). (
  • In this article, we summarize findings from 2 independent histiocytic sarcoma GWAS in BMDs, offering insights into this poorly understood class of neoplasms as well as establishing a foundation for future studies of histiocytoses in humans. (
  • Melanomas are neoplasms of melanin-producing cells (melanocytes or melanoblasts), which can occur in many domestic species and in humans. (
  • To identify novel genetic lesions in myeloproliferative neoplasms, a large series of 151 clinically well characterized patients was analyzed in our study. (
  • Further analyses on single-gene level are necessary to uncover the mechanisms that are involved in the pathogenesis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. (
  • Genome instability is therefore inherent to Drosophila malignant neoplastic growth at a variable extent that is tumor type dependent. (
  • In Drosophila, the sequencing of a single tumor caused by the loss of Polyhomeotic (Ph) revealed that neither single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nor copy number variations (CNVs) were significantly increased in comparison with non-tumoural control tissue, suggesting that genome instability (GI) may not be a pre-requisite for neoplastic epithelial growth in this model system. (
  • Impaired mismatch binding can cause an instability in DNA microsatellite regions that comprise repeated dinucleotides. (
  • Microsatellite DNA instability is common in familial and sporadic colon carcinomas as well as in a number of other tumours. (
  • We describe the use of low-coverage, genome-wide sequencing of cfDNA, validated extensively for noninvasive prenatal testing, to detect tumor-specific copy-number alterations, and the development of a new metric-the genome instability number (GIN)-to monitor response to these drugs. (
  • Genome instability is a hallmark of the malignant phenotype and a driving force for tumorigenesis. (
  • Our results demonstrate that the FHL2-GLI2 fusion is likely the oncogenic driver of SSTs, defining a genotypic-phenotypic correlation in ovarian neoplasms. (
  • however, understanding the genetic underpinning of SSTs may aide in the diagnosis and management of these rare ovarian neoplasms. (
  • A high degree of methylation signifies a favorable prognosis, whereas unmethylated DNA suggests metastasis and lesser survival. (
  • Whole-genome massively parallel sequencing of ER-positive and ER-negative BRCA1 breast cancers, and their respective germline DNAs, was used to characterize the genetic landscape of BRCA1 cancers at base-pair resolution. (
  • This cooperation would support early identification of a genetic predisposition for hematological neoplasms in patients, as well as future improvements in the diagnosis and care of those affected. (
  • A stepwise progression model involving two distinct genetic pathways has been proposed to explain the etiology of colon cancer from benign neoplasm to adenocarcinoma ( 2 ). (
  • By comparing the results of the diseased sample and normal skin cells and the results of the two types of genetic information (DNA and RNA), we should be able to identify genetic changes that are important for the initiation, progression, or treatment response of that particular disorder. (
  • Developmental transitions, environmental shifts, and pathogenic invasions lend a dynamic character to both the genome and its activity pattern.We study a variety of natural mechanisms that are utilized by cells adapting to genetic change. (
  • It also contributes to the cytotoxic effects of some kinds of DNA damage, and cells defective in mismatch repair are resistant, or tolerant, to the presence of some normally cytotoxic base analogues in their DNA. (
  • Damage to the DNA genome occurs in the development of ACC, as it does in all cancers studied to date. (
  • Overall, numerous studies in the past few years have definitively shown that gut microbes exert distinct impacts on DNA damage, DNA methylation, chromatin structure and non-coding RNA expression in CECs. (
  • Telomeres protect chromosome ends from being recognized as DNA damage and chromosomal rearrangements. (
  • We sought to better characterize the DNA damage response of tumor cells to 5-azadC and the role of DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3B (DNMT1 and DNMT3B, respectively) in modulating this process. (
  • We demonstrate that 5-azadC treatment results in growth inhibition and G 2 arrest - hallmarks of a DNA damage response. (
  • 5-azadC treatment led to formation of DNA double-strand breaks, as monitored by formation of γ-H2AX foci and comet assay, in an ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated)-dependent manner, and this damage was repaired following drug removal. (
  • This study therefore greatly enhances our understanding of the mechanisms underlying 5-azadC cytotoxicity and reveals novel functions for DNMT1 as a component of the cellular response to DNA damage, which may help optimize patient responses to this agent in the future. (
  • However, despite tremendous efforts, identifying a cancer-associated CFS gene (CACG) remains a challenge and little is known about the function of CACGs at most CFS loci.Recent studies of FATS (for Fragile-site Associated Tumor Suppressor), a new CACG at FRA10F, reveal an active role of this CACG in regulating DNA damage checkpoints and suppressing tumorigenesis.The identification of FATS may inspire more discoveries of other uncharacterized CACGs. (
  • Recent studies of FATS (for Fragile-site Associated Tumor Suppressor), a new CACG at FRA10F, reveal an active role of this CACG in regulating DNA damage checkpoints and suppressing tumorigenesis. (
  • Ionizing radiation (IR) is a well-known carcinogen that is able to induce DNA damage and initiate neoplastic progression. (
  • Clonogenic survival after UV-C irradiation showed that IGROV-1/Pt1 cells were ∼2-fold more resistant to DNA damage than parental cells. (
  • We show that inhibition of complex I of the mitochondria generates increased ROS, above an already elevated level in CSB cells, but without nuclear DNA damage. (
  • Extracellular signaling by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in neurons, however, generates ROS enzymatically through oxidase that does lead to oxidative damage to nuclear DNA. (
  • The phosphorylation modification of Dbf4 in response to DNA damage and the mechanism by which Dbf4/Cdc7 participates in the S-phase checkpoint will be investigated. (
  • A recessive variant of XRCC4 predisposes to non- BRCA1/2 breast cancer in chinese women and impairs the DNA damage response via dysregulated nuclear localization. (
  • Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an uncommon form of malignant neoplasm that arises within secretory glands, most commonly the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. (
  • Not all types of neoplasms cause a tumorous overgrowth of tissue, however (such as leukemia or carcinoma in situ) and similarities between neoplasmic growths and regenerative processes, e.g., dedifferentiation and rapid cell proliferation, have been pointed out. (
  • In this report, we describe our findings showing that a genome-wide reduction in the DNA methylation levels induces cellular differentiation in association with decreased cell proliferation in Apc Min/+ mouse colon tumor cells in vivo. (
  • In this report, we describe our findings showing that a genome-wide reduction in the DNA methylation levels induces cellular differentiation in association with decreased cell proliferation in ApcMin/+ mouse colon tumor cells in vivo. (
  • abstract = "Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human gammaherpesvirus associated with a wide spectrum of malignant neoplasms. (
  • 1. To determine the prognostic implication of plasma Epstein-Bar Virus (EBV) DNA concentrations, as measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). (
  • Epigenetic modifications such as DNA and histone methylation functionally cooperate in fostering tumor growth, including that of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • Potentially-malignant neoplasms include carcinoma in situ. (
  • Some neoplasms do not form a tumor - these include leukemia and most forms of carcinoma in situ. (
  • The differential diagnosis is largely that of other benign and malignant neoplasms that arise in these locations. (
  • In the present study, we performed genome-wide promoter DNA methylation analysis at diagnosis to identify DNA methylation profiles associated with risk for progress. (
  • DNA methylation analysis at diagnosis in ccRCC has the potential to improve outcome-prediction in non-metastatic patients at diagnosis. (
  • Additionally, biotinilated oligonucleotides were used to determine the presence of DNA of the Human Herpes virus type-8 (HHV-8) in 14/14 biopsy smears corresponding to plasmablastic lymphomas (PL). All were fenotype B cell lymphomas with an aggressive course and advanced neoplasm disease at the time of diagnosis. (
  • However, circulating cell-free DNA carrying tumor-specific alterations (circulating tumor DNA) has not been extensively investigated or compared with other circulating biomarkers in breast cancer. (
  • He directed an ambitious nationwide validation study of DNA methylation-based biomarkers for the prediction of neoplastic progression in Barrett's esophagus. (
  • We concluded that several DNA/histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelers may serve as biomarkers for subtyping, dictating prognosis and survival, and, possibly, for serving as targets of directed, less toxic therapies. (
  • This proof-of-concept analysis showed that circulating tumor DNA is an informative, inherently specific, and highly sensitive biomarker of metastatic breast cancer. (
  • International Cancer Genome Consortium. (
  • We report the genome-wide effects of KAP1 loss on the transcriptome, the chromatin state, and on recruitment of various components of the transcription machinery in the colon colorectal cancer cell line HCT116. (
  • In order to elucidate how, from a rather well-ordered text, a jumble of letters arises, and what meaning errors in individual chapters have, the Cancer Genome Project will sequence the genomes of more than 25,000 cancer patients, among whom are sufferers of about fifty different types of cancer. (
  • Over time, cancer genome specialists have come to doubt that such a rule holds. (
  • Timothy Chan from New York's Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center therein shows with tissue samples from breast-cancer patients that the methylation status of tumor DNA provides a prediction for whether the cancer cell metastasises. (
  • Both independent and combined genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were used to identify cancer-associated loci. (
  • By understanding L1 biology, we hope to better understand the role of these genomes and their behavior in complex human disease, such as cancer and mental disorders. (
  • Genome-wide DNA methylation patterns are frequently deregulated in cancer. (
  • Punctuated evolution of prostate cancer genomes. (
  • Establish a registry of families with clustering of cancer in which clinical data are linked to a repository of cryopreserved blood cells, germline DNA, and tumor tissues from the proband and other family members. (
  • Li, H & Mináróvits, J 2003, ' Host cell-dependent expression of latent Epstein-Barr virus genomes: Regulation by DNA methylation ', Advances in Cancer Research , vol. 89, pp. 133-156. (
  • Although these hypotheses remain to be tested in prospective well-designed, well-conducted clinical trials, this deeper cut in the cancer genome is providing more ammunition for an intelligent fight against cancer. (
  • We model this relationship among transcription, chromatin state, and DNA repair, revealing a new, personalized determinant of cancer risk. (
  • However, comprehensive analyses of DNA methylation in SSA and MSI cancer have not been conducted. (
  • Additionally, we performed in silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database to find the most relevant of those players in TGCTs. (
  • A neoplasm can be benign, potentially malignant, or malignant (cancer). (
  • Malignant neoplasms are commonly called cancer. (
  • Secondary neoplasm refers to any of a class of cancerous tumor that is either a metastatic offshoot of a primary tumor, or an apparently unrelated tumor that increases in frequency following certain cancer treatments such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy. (
  • Within cancer cells, the genome is shaped by various selective pressures. (
  • RLGS has been applied successfully to scan cancer genomes for aberrant DNA methylation patterns. (
  • Here, we describe the development of RLGS using AscI as the restriction landmark site for genome-wide scans of cancer genomes. (
  • Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is established in several solid malignancies as a minimally invasive tool to profile the tumor genome in real-time, but is critically underexplored in bladder cancer. (
  • HPV is known to drive cancer by the actions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but the molecular architecture of HPV infection and its interaction with the host genome in head and neck cancers have not been comprehensively described. (
  • The forced reduction of global DNA methylation suppresses tumor development in several cancer models in vivo. (
  • The absence of skin cancer despite increased photosensitivity in CS implies that the DNA repair deficiency is not associated with increased ultraviolet (UV)-induced mutagenesis, unlike DNA repair deficiency in XP that leads to high levels of UV-induced mutagenesis. (
  • They will help to elucidate the overall mechanism of the S-phase checkpoint in mammalian cells and shed light on the cellular mechanisms that control genome stability and prevent cancer. (
  • We compared DNA array-based findings from 48 epithelioid peritoneal MMs and 41 epithelioid pleural MMs to identify similarities and differences in copy number alterations (CNAs). (
  • Microarray-based CGH (array-CGH) provides a higher-resolution means to map DNA copy number alterations ( 4 ). (
  • The generated high-resolution genome-wide maps allowed delineating the precise (gene specific) boundaries of known and new chromosomal alterations, which is not feasible by classic chromosomal CGH. (
  • Over the past years, it has become clear that epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation are additional mechanisms for gene silencing. (
  • Single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays allow for genome-wide profiling of copy-number alterations and copy-neutral runs of homozygosity at high resolution. (
  • Integrations had a marked impact on the human genome and were associated with alterations in DNA copy number, mRNA transcript abundance and splicing, and both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. (
  • A whole-genome massively parallel sequencing analysis of BRCA1 mutant oestrogen receptor-negative and -positive breast cancers. (
  • BRCA1 breast cancers displayed a mutational signature consistent with that caused by lack of HR DNA repair in both ER-positive and ER-negative cases. (
  • Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the DNA methylation data identified three distinct groups of colon cancers named CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) 1, CIMP2, and CIMP negative. (
  • Specifically, enzymes responsible for methylation at histone-3 lysine-9 (like G9a) and aberrant DNA hypermethylation (DNMTs) have been implicated in a number of cancers. (
  • Similar studies to evaluate lymph node metastases from HPV-associated tonsil cancers for the presence of HPV DNA have not been performed and may provide further evidence that the HPV is essential for maintenance of the transformed state in these cancers. (
  • Malignant neoplasms are also simply known as cancers and are the focus of oncology. (
  • Cancers with integrated vs. nonintegrated HPV displayed different patterns of DNA methylation and both human and viral gene expressions. (
  • Using this new MAR-Seq approach, we provide the first genome-wide characterization of nuclear matrix attachment in mammalian cells and reveal that the nuclear matrix-associated genome is highly cell-context dependent. (
  • In modern English, tumor is used as a synonym for neoplasm (a solid or fluid-filled cystic lesion that may or may not be formed by an abnormal growth of neoplastic cells) that appears enlarged in size. (
  • To examine the immunological relatedness of this enzyme with other retroviral DNA polymerases, remaining Sm-MTV DNA polymerase activity was measured after treatment of this enzyme with various antisera prepared against each of the reverse transcriptases of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV), simian sarcoma virus-simian sarcoma associated virus (SSV/SSAV), and Rauscher murine leukemia virus (RLV). (
  • Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) of the B-cell type are the second most common neoplasm among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS. (
  • A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME. (
  • The absence of a particular mismatch binding function from some mammalian cells confers resistance to the base analogues O6-methylguanine and 6-thioguanine in DNA. (
  • Circulating tumor DNA levels showed a greater dynamic range, and greater correlation with changes in tumor burden, than did CA 15-3 or circulating tumor cells. (
  • Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare and aggressive malignancy derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells. (
  • The src gene was taken up by RSV and incorporated into its genome conferring it with the advantage of being able to stimulate uncontrolled mitosis of host cells, providing abundant cells for fresh infection. (
  • Most cells encountered by viruses are not dividing, and hence do not efficiently support viral DNA synthesis. (
  • It's been known for some time that when DNA is introduced into normal (that is, not transformed) cells, they respond with an innate response: interferons are produced. (
  • The altered cells produced interferon in response to cytoplasmic DNA. (
  • These new transformed cells failed to respond to cytoplasmic DNA. (
  • We aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and potential mechanism of action of our dual G9a histone-methyltransferase and DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitor in human HCC cells and their crosstalk with fibrogenic cells. (
  • Whole genome bisulfite sequencing revealed that integrin alpha6beta4 signaling promotes an overall hypomethylated state and site specific DNA demethylation of enhancer elements within the proximal promoters of AREG and EREG in pancreatic neoplasm cells as well as their expression. (
  • DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. (
  • XPC(-/-) cells lack global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), thus establishing differential access of DNA repair machinery within chromatin-rich regions of the genome as the primary cause for the regional disparity. (
  • 1. A substantially biologically pure amplicon derived from a Marek's disease virus as a DNA fragment thereof, wherein said amplicon contains all cis-acting functions required for DNAreplication, and in the presence of helper virus, said amplicon infects host cells and replicates, thereby forming high molecular weight concatemers of DNA. (
  • 5. Recombinant DNA comprising a substantially biologically pure amplicon derived from a Marek's disease virus and a foreign DNA sequence derived from a source other than said Marek's disease virus, wherein said amplicon contains all cis-actingfunctions required for DNA replication, and in the presence of helper virus, said amplicon infects host cells and replicates, thereby forming high molecular weight concatemers of DNA. (
  • Canine Melanoma Vaccine, DNA (Trade name: Oncept) consists of highly purified plasmid DNA capable of expressing the human tyrosinase protein in transfected canine cells. (
  • Kindred cells can have different genomes because of dynamic changes in DNA. (
  • Prompted by rapid progress in next-generation sequencing techniques ( 11 ), there have been several reports on whole-genome sequencing of single cells ( 12 - 16 ). (
  • In fact, both UV-induced DNA incision and the recruitment of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) to DNA repair sites occurred to a comparable extent in p53-wild type and -mutant cell lines, although PCNA remained associated with chromatin for a longer period of time in IGROV-1/Pt1 cells. (
  • One of the adaptive strategies for the constantly changing conditions of the environment utilized in bacterial cells involves the condensation of DNA in complex with the DNA-binding protein, Dps. (
  • Indeed, the dysregulation of many protein-coding players with enzymatic activity (DNA and histone-modifying enzymes) and chromatin remodelers have been depicted in various tumor models in recent years. (
  • Herein, we have summarized the major findings that were reported in literature regarding the dysregulation of DNA/histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelers in TGCTs. (
  • Several of these diseases, such as myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs), are responsive to DNA methyltransferase inhibitors. (
  • There is some evidence that the p53 tumor suppressor gene is inactivated in advanced and aggressive forms of this neoplasm. (
  • Notably, the gene encoding p53 is the most frequently mutated tumor suppressor gene in neoplasms. (
  • After identification of DNA variants in hematological neoplasms, DNA from fingernails is not suitable for demonstrating the constitutional origin of identified variants. (
  • Genome variants of these types have been associated with differential carcinogenic potential. (
  • Regions described as copy number variants (CNVs) in the database of the UCSC Human Genome Browser Gateway were excluded from the analysis. (
  • It will feature an update on the work of the Clinical Genome Resource (ClinGen) initiative which aims to functionally annotate variants for RUNX1 and GATA2 (an effort that is jointly sponsored by ASH and ClinGen), as well as efforts of several international consortia that have formed to study these conditions. (
  • For lymphoid neoplasms, e.g. lymphoma and leukemia, clonality is proven by the amplification of a single rearrangement of their immunoglobulin gene (for B cell lesions) or T cell receptor gene (for T cell lesions). (
  • The IPI has also been widely applied to other lymphoid neoplasms. (
  • High Whole-Genome Sequence Diversity of Human Papillomavirus Type 18 Isolates. (
  • This effect allows for efficient viral replication, because a dividing cell is producing the machinery for DNA synthesis. (
  • To understand why HeLa and HEK 293 cell lines did not respond to cytoplasmic DNA, the authors silenced the viral oncogenes by disrupting them with CRISPR/Cas9. (
  • One hypothesis, described above, is that they are needed to induce a cellular environment that supports viral DNA synthesis. (
  • Twenty-five cases had integration of the viral genome into one or more locations in the human genome with statistical enrichment for genic regions. (
  • Together, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which HPV interacts with the human genome beyond expression of viral oncoproteins and suggest that specific integration events are an integral component of viral oncogenesis. (
  • Efficient Expression of a Chimeric Chicken Ovalbumin Gene Amplified Within Defective Virus Genomes," Virology 142: 421-425 (1985). (
  • In patients who have received hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor DNA has been detected in the genome of the recipient s fingernails ( 2 ). (
  • Donor-derived DNA in fingernails among recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplants. (
  • We herein propose that DNA demethylation exerts a tumor suppressive effect in the colon by inducing tumor cell differentiation. (
  • DNA sequencing showed the presence of HPV type 16 in 21 patients (40%) with TSCC. (
  • The tumour suppressor gene TP53 plays an important role in the regulation of DNA repair, and particularly of nucleotide excision repair. (
  • During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. (
  • By poaching certain cellular enzymes, they copy and insert themselves at new sites in the genome. (
  • A neoplasm (/ˈniːoʊplæzəm, ˈniə-/) is a type of abnormal and excessive growth, called neoplasia, of tissue. (
  • The growth of a neoplasm is uncoordinated with that of the normal surrounding tissue, and persists in growing abnormally, even if the original trigger is removed. (
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Amplicon: Effect of Size on Replication of Constructed Defective Genomes Containing Eucaryotic DNA Sequences," J. Virol. (