Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.
A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from pigs. It is a pathogen of swine but rarely occurs in humans.
A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.
Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A series of 7 virulent phages which infect E. coli. The T-even phages T2, T4; (BACTERIOPHAGE T4), and T6, and the phage T5 are called "autonomously virulent" because they cause cessation of all bacterial metabolism on infection. Phages T1, T3; (BACTERIOPHAGE T3), and T7; (BACTERIOPHAGE T7) are called "dependent virulent" because they depend on continued bacterial metabolism during the lytic cycle. The T-even phages contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in place of ordinary cytosine in their DNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Bacteriophages whose genetic material is RNA, which is single-stranded in all except the Pseudomonas phage phi 6 (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. Some frequently encountered RNA phages are: BF23, F2, R17, fr, PhiCb5, PhiCb12r, PhiCb8r, PhiCb23r, 7s, PP7, Q beta phage, MS2 phage, and BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
Viruses whose host is Bacillus. Frequently encountered Bacillus phages include bacteriophage phi 29 and bacteriophage phi 105.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P2-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA with 19-base sticky ends.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.
The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.
Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria that is numerous in the mouth and throat. It is a common cause of endocarditis and is also implicated in dental plaque formation.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Bacteriophage in the genus T7-like phages, of the family PODOVIRIDAE, which is very closely related to BACTERIOPHAGE T7.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
Temperate bacteriophage of the genus INOVIRUS which infects enterobacteria, especially E. coli. It is a filamentous phage consisting of single-stranded DNA and is circularly permuted.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Proteins found in the tail sections of DNA and RNA viruses. It is believed that these proteins play a role in directing chain folding and assembly of polypeptide chains.
A genus of filamentous bacteriophages of the family INOVIRIDAE. Organisms of this genus infect enterobacteria, PSEUDOMONAS; VIBRIO; and XANTHOMONAS.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Bacteriophage and type species in the genus Tectivirus, family TECTIVIRIDAE. They are specific for Gram-negative bacteria.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The folding of an organism's DNA molecule into a compact, orderly structure that fits within the limited space of a CELL or VIRUS PARTICLE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Exotoxins produced by certain strains of streptococci, particularly those of group A (STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES), that cause HEMOLYSIS.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharynx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation, most characteristically in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and LIVER.
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolases of ester bonds within DNA. EC 3.1.-.
A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Treatment of diseases with biological materials or biological response modifiers, such as the use of GENES; CELLS; TISSUES; organs; SERUM; VACCINES; and humoral agents.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. It is commonly found in the oropharnyx flora and has a proclivity for abscess formation in the upper body and respiratory tract.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.
A species of filamentous Pseudomonas phage in the genus INOVIRUS, family INOVIRIDAE.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
A subset of VIRIDANS STREPTOCOCCI, but the species in this group differ in their hemolytic pattern and diseases caused. These species are often beta-hemolytic and produce pyogenic infections.
2011). "Genome annotation and intraviral interactome for the Streptococcus pneumoniae virulent phage Dp-1". J. Bacteriol. 193 ( ... lambda Escherichia coli bacteriophage T7 Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Dp-1 Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp- ... 2011). "The proteome and interactome of Streptococcus pneumoniae phage Cp-1". J. Bacteriol. 193 (12): 3135-8. doi:10.1128/JB. ... Some published virus interactomes include Bacteriophage Escherichia coli bacteriophage ...
Virology 63:577-582 NCBI: Streptococcus phage Dp-1 (species) Tiraby JG, Tiraby E, Fox MS (Dec 1975) Pneumococcal bacteriophages ... is basal to the Streptococcus group. The genomes of hundreds of species have been sequenced. Most Streptococcus genomes are 1.8 ... Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci (Streptococcus viridans or viridans streptococci) display alpha- ... The remaining nonenterococcal group D strains include Streptococcus gallolyticus, Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus equinus ...
... in that they carry one or more bacteriophage on their genomes. Some of the 'phages may be defective, but in some cases active ' ... both Streptococcus dysgalactiae and the Streptococcus anginosus group can possess group A antigen. Group A streptococci when ... In general, the genome of S. pyogenes strains isolated during disease are >90% identical, they differ by the 'phage they carry ... 2001). "Complete Genome Sequence of an M1 Strain of Streptococcus pyogenes". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 98 (8): 4658-63. Bibcode: ...
Novel isolates of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophages from group 5093 identified with an improved multiplex PCR typing ... DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: From phage typing to whole-genome sequencing. Infect Genet Evol. Szymczak P, ... The viruses that infect bacteria are called bacteriophages ("phages" for short) and some of these can only infect a single ... The phage drops are allowed to dry and are incubated: The susceptible phage regions will show a circular clearing where the ...
... is also a prototypic phage for all the speA-carrying phages of Streptococcus pyogenes, meaning that its genome is the prototype ... The phage genome is reported to carry the speA gene, which is a 1.7kb segment of the phage T12 genome flanked by SalI and ... and the phage attachment site (attp) are located just upstream of the speA gene in the phage genome. The bacteriophage T12 ... Bacteriophage T12 is a bacteriophage that infects the bacterial species Streptococcus pyogenes. It is a proposed species of the ...
The following genera are recognized: Cepunavirus (formerly Cp1virus, with species Streptococcus virus Cp1 aka Complutense phage ... Genomes are linear, double stranded DNA, and are relatively small (between 16-20 kbp)-hence the term pico-virinae. Picoviruses ... Kleppen HP, Holo H, Jeon SR, Nes IF, Yoon SS (2012). "Novel Podoviridae family bacteriophage infecting Weissella cibaria ... Another virus (Weissella phage phiYS61) that has been isolated is so unlike the known members that it may belong to a new genus ...
"Genetic diversity in temperate bacteriophages of Streptococcus pyogenes: identification of a second attachment site for phages ... It is carried by the bacteriophage T12 which integrates into the streptococcal genome from where the toxin is transcribed. The ... Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A Streptococcus (group A strep) infection.[1] The signs and ... Strep throat[edit]. Typical symptoms of streptococcal pharyngitis (also known as strep throat):[10] ...
"Genetic diversity in temperate bacteriophages of Streptococcus pyogenes: identification of a second attachment site for phages ... It is carried by the bacteriophage T12 which integrates into the streptococcal genome from where the toxin is transcribed. The ... Scarlet fever is a disease resulting from a group A streptococcus (group A strep) infection, also known as Streptococcus ... The strains of group A streptococcus that cause scarlet fever need specific bacteriophages in order for there to be pyrogenic ...
BacteriophageEdit. Bacteriophages have been described for many species of Streptococcus. 18 prophages have been described in S ... The genomes of hundreds of species have been sequenced.[21] Most Streptococcus genomes are 1.8 to 2.3 Mb in size and encode ... Some of the first Streptococcus phages discovered were Dp-1[23] and ω1.[24][25] In 1981 the Cp (Complutense phage) family was ... Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci (Streptococcus viridans or viridans streptococci) display alpha ...
The type III systems analysed from S. solfataricus and P. furiosus both target the mRNA of phages rather than phage DNA genome ... A CRISPR region in Streptococcus thermophilus acquired spacers from the DNA of an infecting bacteriophage. The researchers ... When a microbe is invaded by a bacteriophage, the first stage of the immune response is to capture phage DNA and insert it into ... Basepairing between the PAM and the phage genome is required in type II systems. However, the PAM is recognized on the same ...
Kong, M; Kim, M; Ryu, S (June 2012). "Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Bacteriophage PBC1". Journal of Virology. 86 ... This group includes numerous phages known to infect Lactobacillus, Mycobacterium, Streptococcus, and other bacteria. ... phage Eb49 Escherichia phage Jk06 Escherichia phage Rogue1 Escherichia phage AHP24 Escherichia phage AHS24 Escherichia phage ... Cellulophaga phage phi18:1 Cellulophaga phage phi12:1 Cellulophaga phage phi12:3 Cellulophaga phage phi17:1 Cellulophaga phage ...
... phages can either be eliminated or originate a phage epidemic (the number of bacteriophages is amplified). If the starting ... Anti-CRISPR results from an evolutionary process occurred in phages in order to avoid having their genomes destroyed by the ... were demonstrated to work properly against Streptococcus pyogenes type II-A defensive CRISPR system. The result of all this ... Consequently, initial abortive phage infections may be unable to hamper CRISPR immunity, but phage-phage cooperation can ...
"The Genome of Cronobacter sakazakii Bacteriophage vB_CsaP_GAP227 Suggests a New Genus within the Autographivirinae". Genome ... Cronobacter phage vB CsaP GAP227 Species: Cronobacter phage vB CsaP GAP227 Yersinia phage phiR8-01 Yersinia phage phi80-18 ... with species Streptococcus virus Cp1, Cp-1) Negarvirus Salasvirus Species unassigned to a genus in Picovirinae: Actinomyces ... Cellulophaga phage phi18:3 Species: Cellulophaga phage phi18:3 Cellulophaga phage phi13:2 Cellulophaga phage phi19:3 ...
Bacteriophages, known as phages, are a form of viruses. Phages attach to bacterial cells, and inject a viral genome into the ... Shigella or Vibrio and against wound infections caused by facultative pathogens of the skin like staphylococci and streptococci ... Phage therapy, viral phage therapy, or phagotherapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial ... Viruses portal Antimicrobial resistance Phage display Phage monographs Phagoburn Prophage "Silent Killers: Fantastic Phages?". ...
van der Ploeg, JR (2007). "Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans bacteriophage M102". FEMS Microbiol Lett. 275 (1): 130-8. ... The Holin LLH family is found in Firmicutes and phage of Firmicutes as well as other bacteria. Members are fairly large, ... "Molecular analysis of the region encoding the lytic system from Oenococcus oeni temperate bacteriophage phi 10MC". FEMS ... "Identification and characterization of the two-component cell lysis cassette encoded by temperate bacteriophage phiPYB5 of ...
... furiosus both target the mRNA of phages rather than phage DNA genome,[66][120] which may make these systems uniquely capable of ... A CRISPR region in Streptococcus thermophilus acquired spacers from the DNA of an infecting bacteriophage. The researchers ... Use by phagesEdit. Another way for bacteria to defend against phage infection is by having chromosomal islands. A subtype of ... Basepairing between the PAM and the phage genome is required in type II systems. However, the PAM is recognized on the same ...
"Genome Sequence of a Jumbo Bacteriophage That Infects the Kiwifruit Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae". ... Hanauer, David I.; Graham, Mark J.; SEA-PHAGES; Betancur, Laura; Bobrownicki, Aiyana; Cresawn, Steven G.; Garlena, Rebecca A.; ... Hendrickson studies the way bacteria like Deinococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus bacteria evolved a spherical shape. ... Her research is focussed on the evolution of bacterial cell shape, and the discovery of bacteriophages that can attack ...
The gene for this toxin, once incorporated into the bacterium's genome, is expressed when the gene coding for the pilus is ... Some bacteria, viruses or bacteriophages attach to receptors on pili at the start of their reproductive cycle. Pili are ... "Electrophoresis and phage susceptibility studies on a filament-producing variant of the E. coli bacterium". Biochimica et ... and many strains of Streptococcus. This is because the presence of pili greatly enhances bacteria's ability to bind to body ...
Phage-encoded proteins both mediate the transfer of DNA into the recipient cytoplasm and assist integration of DNA into the ... Other species, such as Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, become competent when they enter a particular phase in ... New genes may be introduced into bacteria by a bacteriophage that has replicated within a donor through generalized ... there is relatively little variation in genome size when compared with the genome sizes of other major groups of life. Genome ...
2004). "Complete sequence and comparative genome analysis of the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus". Nature ... Bacteriophages specific to L. lactis cause significant economic losses each year by preventing the bacteria from fully ... Several epidemiologic studies showed the phages mainly responsible for these losses are from the species 936, c2, and P335 (all ... "Transfer of Streptococcus lactis and Related Streptococci to the Genus Lactococcus gen. nov" (PDF). Systematic and Applied ...
Chen L, Ge X, Xu P (2015). "Identifying essential Streptococcus sanguinis genes using genome-wide deletion mutation". Gene ... November 2016). "Identification of Essential Genes in the Salmonella Phage SPN3US Reveals Novel Insights into Giant Phage Head ... "Functional requirements for bacteriophage growth: gene essentiality and expression in mycobacteriophage Giles". Molecular ... Essential amino acid Essential proteins in protein complexes Gene Genome Minimal genome Mutation Xu, Ping; Ge, Xiuchun; Chen, ...
... coli may be induced to take up DNA from bacteriophage λ without the use of helper phage after treatment with calcium chloride ... Transformation in Streptococcus mutans, as well as in many other streptococci, occurs at high cell density and is associated ... For such genomes this method is a form of transfection and not a real transformation, since the inserted genes never reach the ... Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sanguinis and in Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. ...
2004). "Complete sequence and comparative genome analysis of the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus". Nature ... Bacteriophages specific to L. lactis cause significant economic losses each year by preventing the bacteria from fully ... metabolizing the milk substrate.[24] Several epidemiologic studies showed the phages mainly responsible for these losses are ... "Genome Research. 22 (1): 115-24. doi:10.1101/gr.121285.111. PMC 3246198 . PMID 22080491.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ...
Phage therapy, using bacteriophages can also be used to treat certain bacterial infections. Infections can be prevented by ... It is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Erysipelas is an acute streptococcus bacterial infection of ... Still University Pathogenic bacteria genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by ... Some species of Streptococcus and Staphylococcus are part of the normal skin microbiota and typically reside on healthy skin or ...
Group A Streptococcus pyogenes is a bacteria that can lead to common infections, including strep throat and impetigo, but is ... In vitro overexpression of DnaK can recover phage λ replication without GrpE. GrpE's pivotal role in phage λ replication is at ... In the Archaea genome, the gene for GrpE is located upstream of the gene for DnaK which, is upstream of the gene for DnaJ. Out ... Saito H, Uchida H (June 1977). "Initiation of the DNA replication of bacteriophage lambda in Escherichia coli K12". Journal of ...
Phage therapy is the therapeutic use of bacteriophages to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. Phage therapy has many ... lincomycin and clindamycin with phages induced from Streptococcus pyogenes". The Journal of Antibiotics. 28 (9): 681-8. doi: ... Although mutations are rare, with spontaneous mutations in the pathogen genome occurring at a rate of about 1 in 105 to 1 in ... Phage therapy relies on the use of naturally-occurring bacteriophages to infect and lyse bacteria at the site of infection in a ...
... and control of phage genome excision in induction is described in detail in the lambda phage article. Bacteriophages are ... whose genes are considered to be part of the genome of lambdoid prophages. Streptococcus pyogenes, produce a pyrogenic exotoxin ... Bacteriophages are viruses that infect and replicate within a bacterium. Temperate phages (such as lambda phage) can reproduce ... Via the lysogenic cycle, the bacteriophage's genome is not expressed and is instead integrated into the bacteria's genome to ...
Gram-positive LAB have a thick peptidoglycan layer, which must be traversed to inject the phage genome into the bacterial ... and Streptococcus based on biochemical characteristics, as well as molecular features. Formerly, streptococci were segregated ... The relationship between bacteriophages and their bacterial hosts is very important in the context of the food fermentation ... The first contact between an infecting phage and its bacterial host is the attachment of the phage to the host cell. This ...
An A. baumannii infection was recently treated using phage therapy. Phages are viruses that attack bacteria, and have also been ... Of these, insertion sequences are considered one of the key forces shaping bacterial genomes and ultimately evolution. ... "Bacteriophage-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii are resensitized to antimicrobials". Nature Microbiology. 6 (2): 157-161. doi: ... including Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Symptoms of A. baumannii infections in turn range from fevers and ...
The first full DNA genome to be sequenced was that of bacteriophage φX174 in 1977.[25] Medical Research Council scientists ... were used to sequence the cohesive ends of lambda phage DNA.[15][16][17] Between 1970 and 1973, Wu, R Padmanabhan and ... did use the short sequence reads and mass spectroscopy to compare single-nucleotide polymorphisms in pathogenic Streptococcus ... The major landmark of RNA sequencing is the sequence of the first complete gene and the complete genome of Bacteriophage MS2, ...
Common bacteriophage include T7 and Lamda phage.[17] There are bacteriophages that infect every kind of bacteria including both ... Viruses may also undergo sexual interaction when two or more viral genomes enter the same host cell. This process involves ... which can be caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas, and foodborne illnesses, which can be caused by bacteria ... Bacteriophages are viruses, also known as phage, that infect bacteria often leading to the death of the bacteria that was ...
... system for genome editing. The CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short guide RNA (sgRNA) sequence to direct a Streptococcus pyogenes ... Each domain contained a stem-loop that can be recognized by a PP7 bacteriophage coat protein. The complex was delivered into ... 650nt size with an additional P4-P6 domain with hairpin loops that can be recognized by another phage coat protein, MS2. These ... Melé, Marta; Rinn, John L. (2016-06-02). ""Cat's Cradling" the 3D Genome by the Act of LncRNA Transcription". Molecular Cell. ...
Phage therapy infects pathogenic bacteria with their own viruses. Bacteriophages and their host ranges are extremely specific ... Bacteriophages may harbour virulence factors or toxic genes in their genomes and identification of genes with similarity to ... "The antibacterial activity of plant extracts containing polyphenols against Streptococcus mutans". Caries Research. 41 (5): 342 ... Bacteriophages, also known simply as phages, infect and can kill bacteria and affect bacterial growth primarily during lytic ...
... and a system that uses CRISPR sequences to retain fragments of the genomes of phage that the bacteria have come into contact ... when the integration of a bacteriophage introduces foreign DNA into the chromosome. Many types of bacteriophage exist, some ... Some organisms, such as Staphylococcus or Streptococcus, can cause skin infections, pneumonia, meningitis and even overwhelming ... Bacteria genomes usually encode a few hundred to a few thousand genes. The genes in bacterial genomes are usually a single ... Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-03-30. *↑ Denamur E, Matic I (2006). "Evolution of mutation rates in bacteria". Mol Microbiol ... understanding Bacteriophages in details (en). Iliwekwa mnamo 2021-03-30. *↑ Bickle TA, Krüger DH (1 June 1993). "Biology of DNA ... Baadhi ya viumbe, kama vile Staphylococcus au Streptococcus, wanaweza kusababisha maambukizi ya ugonjwa wa ngozi, kichomi, ... Brüssow H, Canchaya C, Hardt WD (September 2004). "Phages and the evolution of bacterial pathogens: from genomic rearrangements ...
"Putative prophages related to lytic tailless marine dsDNA phage PM2 are widespread in the genomes of aquatic bacteria". BMC ... Marine bacteriophages play an important role in deep sea ecosystems. There are between 5x1012 and 1x1013 phages per square ... Viruses that that live as obligate parasitic agents in marine bacteria are known as marine bacteriophages or marine phages.[2] ... 2005). Phages: their role in bacterial pathogenesis and biotechnology. Washington DC: ASM Press. p. 450. ISBN 978-1-55581-307-9 ...
Genomes of bacteria within the same lineage are mostly conserved, with the exception of mobile genetic elements. Mobile genetic ... Strains of S. aureus can host phages, such as the prophage Φ-PVL that produces Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), to increase ... The genes encoding the components of PVL are encoded on a bacteriophage found in community-associated MRSA strains.[citation ... Catalase-activity tests are sometimes used to distinguish staphylococci from enterococci and streptococci. Previously, S. ...
Sajjad, Sahir; Qadir, Muhammad Imran (2017). "Phage Therapy against Streptococcus pneumoniae: Modern Tool to Control Pneumonia ... These block the entry of HIV genome into human CD4 cells by binding to HR1 region of spike protein of HIV, so that the virus ... Qadirphages: He discovered local bacteriophages to be used as anti-bacterial products which were named as Qadirphages. The ... Qadir isolated local phages, characterized them and found their antibacterial activities. The phages showed maximum propagation ...
Subsequently, the Human Genome Organization Gene Nomenclature Committee changed the gene symbols of PGRP-S, PGRP-L, PGRP-Iα, ... 2019). "Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection". Frontiers in Microbiology. 10: 199. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00199. PMC 6389715. ... which is also present in bacteriophage type 2 amidases and consists of two histidines, one tyrosine, and one cysteine (His411, ... can recognize Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial cell wall independently of T phage lysozyme homology domain". Journal ...
de Jong A, van Hijum SA, Bijlsma JJ, Kok J, Kuipers OP (July 2006). "BAGEL: a web-based bacteriocin genome mining tool". ... February 2006). "Production of the lantibiotic salivaricin A and its variants by oral streptococci and use of a specific ... Müller I, Lurz R, Geider K (July 2012). "Tasmancin and lysogenic bacteriophages induced from Erwinia tasmaniensis strains". ... explosive release and killing activity of phage tail-like weapons for Pseudomonas kin exclusion". Communications Biology. 87 (4 ...
... the starter cultures Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus are both readily attacked by phages. Bacteriophages are ... Bacteriophage is a trait that varies from strain to strain. Thus, when multiple genome sequences within a species are known, it ... Why obtain the genome sequence for dairy-related LAB? Heres an example of how such data is helpful to cheesemakers. ... Currently, the genome sequence is known or is being determined for more than 20 LAB. Some of this research is being conducted ...
... pyogenes M1 genome (http: // Comparison with the GenBank database determined that the 25-kDa protein ... Induction of Lysogenic Bacteriophage and Phage-Associated Toxin from Group A Streptococci during Coculture with Human ... Induction of Lysogenic Bacteriophage and Phage-Associated Toxin from Group A Streptococci during Coculture with Human ... Induction of Lysogenic Bacteriophage and Phage-Associated Toxin from Group A Streptococci during Coculture with Human ...
In the Yersinia pestis genome, three such elements are found at three distinct loci, one of them being highly polymorphic. The ... Interestingly, the most recently acquired spacers were found to have a homologue at another locus in the genome, the majority ... Genome sequence of a serotype M3 strain of group A Streptococcus: phage-encoded toxins, the high-virulence phenotype, and clone ... Deng, W., Burland, V., Plunkett, G., 3rd & 18 other authors ( 2002 ). Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis KIM. J Bacteriol 184, ...
Based on this characterisation, 39 distinct isolates representing all four phage groups were selected for genome sequencing. ... phages. Until recently, dairy streptococcal phages were classified into two groups (cos and pac groups), while more recently, ... The 987 phages isolated within this study shared high levels of sequence similarity, yet displayed reduced levels of similarity ... This highlights the requirement for consistent monitoring of phage populations in the industry. Here, we report a survey of 35 ...
Induction of lysogenic bacteriophage and phage-associated toxin from Group A Streptococci during co-culture with human ... most toxins arrive in bacterial genomes by various mobile elements, especially bacteriophages. This is the case for the ... are phage-associated, encoded on bacteriophages and inserted into the bacterial chromosomes (Waldor and Mekalanos, 1996; Nataro ... Streptococcus pneumoniae G54 (NC_011072), Streptococcus pyogenes M1 GAS (NC_002737), Salmonella typhi CT18 (NC_003198), ...
The sizes of the genomes vary slightly, with group 1 phages having genomes between 31 to 33 kb, group 2 phages having genomes ... Genome organization and molecular analysis of the temperate bacteriophage MM1 of Streptococcus pneumoniae. J. Bacteriol. 185 : ... Interestingly, the new phage genomes grouped perfectly well with the pneumophage genomes studied in this work and share the ... Phage integrases are responsible for the integration of the phage genome into the bacterial chromosome. The putative integrases ...
"Genome annotation and intraviral interactome for the Streptococcus pneumoniae virulent phage Dp-1". J. Bacteriol. 193 (2): 551- ... Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophage Cp-1[41]. The lambda and VZV interactomes are not only relevant for the biology of these ... "The proteome and interactome of Streptococcus pneumoniae phage Cp-1". J. Bacteriol. 193 (12): 3135-8. doi:10.1128/JB.01481-10. ... "G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics. 2 (4): 453-67. doi:10.1534/g3.111.001560. PMC 3337474. PMID 22540037.. ...
Virology 63:577-582 NCBI: Streptococcus phage Dp-1 (species) Tiraby JG, Tiraby E, Fox MS (Dec 1975) Pneumococcal bacteriophages ... is basal to the Streptococcus group. The genomes of hundreds of species have been sequenced. Most Streptococcus genomes are 1.8 ... Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci (Streptococcus viridans or viridans streptococci) display alpha- ... The remaining nonenterococcal group D strains include Streptococcus gallolyticus, Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus equinus ...
... phages, and especially on the temperate phages. While virulent phages certainly perform transduction and engage in evolutionary ... Bacteriophages may thus have contributed to the current compact nature of bacterial genomes. The approximately 100 currently ... published bacterial genome complete nucleotide sequences, and about 285 prophages are related to known bacteriophages. Of the ... There are two rather complex types of genetic entity in which this appears to have happened: the phage tail-like bacteriocins ...
... a temperate bacteriophage infecting Streptococcus thermophilus strain CNRZ1205, was determined. The phage genome has a unit ... Three genes encoding the major structural proteins were identified on the phi O1205 genome. The phage attachment site attP, the ... Sequence analysis and characterization of phi O1205, a temperate bacteriophage infecting Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ1205.. ... The genomic organization and structure of phi O1205 resemble those of several temperate lactococcal phages that display a life- ...
... of which two are located on phage genomes [37,38]. The N-terminal 97 aas of this ORF are encoded to the right of attR, and the ... Tight binding of fragments containing the linear ends of phage CNRZ1205 from Streptococcus thermophilus has been observed ... which spans 10 kb of the DinoHI genome. Bacteriophage particles were successfully induced from this strain, and the genome size ... Integration of satellite bacteriophage P4 in Escherichia coli, DNA sequencing of the phage and host regions involved in site- ...
The following genera are recognized: Cepunavirus (formerly Cp1virus, with species Streptococcus virus Cp1 aka Complutense phage ... Genomes are linear, double stranded DNA, and are relatively small (between 16-20 kbp)-hence the term pico-virinae. Picoviruses ... Kleppen HP, Holo H, Jeon SR, Nes IF, Yoon SS (2012). "Novel Podoviridae family bacteriophage infecting Weissella cibaria ... Another virus (Weissella phage phiYS61) that has been isolated is so unlike the known members that it may belong to a new genus ...
Phage 3396 from a Streptococcus Dysgalactiae Subsp. Equisimilis Pathovar May Have Its Origins in Streptococcus Pyogenes Journal ... In this study we report the first complete genome sequence of a GGS phage, Phi3396. Exhibiting high homology to the GAS phage ... Furthermore, bacteriophages are strongly associated with altering the pathogenic potential of GAS. In contrast, little is know ... All bacterial genome maps are now supplemented with separate prophage genome maps as well as separate tRNA and rRNA maps. Each ...
Such DNases have been suggested to digest the bacterial chromosome into bacteriophage genome building blocks; however, since ... Induction of lysogenic bacteriophage and phage-associated toxin from group A streptococci during coculture with human ... Complete genome sequence of an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:4658-4663. ... The role of temperate bacteriophage in the production of erythrogenic toxin by group A streptococci. J. Exp. Med. 119:761-780. ...
... notifications in 2014 a national genomic study was undertaken of Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococci, GAS) isolates ... No single phage was found to be over represented in SF vs iGAS. However, a ... The Bacteriophages of Streptococcus pyogenes. Streptococcus pyogenes: Basic Biology to Clinical Manifestations. In: Book, ... In terms of phage, no single known phage was found in this study, rather several differing phage carrying ssa in isolates from ...
Although P. larvae phages were isolated prior to 2013, no full genome sequences of P. larvae bacteriophages were published or ... which are small-genome myoviruses that infect Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium, respectively.This paper represents ... larvae phage genomes and 107 genomes of Firmicute-infecting phages, including 71 Bacillus phages. Phamerator identified ... Genome Sequences of Three Novel Bacillus cereus Bacteriophages. Genome announcements Grose, J. H., Jensen, J. D., Merrill, B. D ...
Although P. larvae phages were isolated prior to 2013, no full genome sequences of P. larvae bacteriophages were published or ... which are small-genome myoviruses that infect Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, and Clostridium, respectively.This paper represents ... larvae phage genomes and 107 genomes of Firmicute-infecting phages, including 71 Bacillus phages. Phamerator identified ... such as bacteriophages (phages). Though phages are abundant in the gut, very few phages have been isolated from this ecosystem ...
Site-specific spontaneous deletions in three genome regions of a temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage. Virology 219 1996 ... Evolution of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage genomes by modular exchanges followed by point mutations and small ... Genome structure of the Lactobacillus temperate phage phi g1e: the whole genome sequence and the putative promoter/repressor ... TPW22, a lactococcal temperate phage with a site-specific integrase closely related to Streptococcus thermophilus phage ...
"Genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans bacteriophage M102". *(2012)Biology and Genome Sequence of Streptococcus mutans Phage ... li,(2012)Biology and Genome Sequence of Streptococcus mutans Phage M102AD. ,/li, ... Utilize the Streptococcus phage M102 to infect S. mutans and act as a sensor. ... as our indicator between phage and E.coli. Due to the idea of phage threshold control of the number of S. mutans in prevention ...
... bacteriophages or phages) have a complex relationship that is in constant flux. Studies in natural environments, and by ... Functional phage genes but dysfunctional phage genomes. J Bacteriol 182:6992-6998PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Zabriskie J (1964) The role of temperate bacteriophage in the production of erythrogenic toxin by Group A Streptococci. J Exp ... Evolution of mosaically related tailed bacteriophage genomes seen through the lens of phage P22 virion assembly. Virology 411(2 ...
... replicate their genome and assemble new virions, and then rupture the host to release the newly formed phages. Lytic phages can ... lysogeny by GAS bacteriophages can directly enhance the pathogenic potential of the host streptococcus through toxigenic ... Although the role played by lytic streptococcal phages in pathogenesis may be indirect, acting as vehicles of genetic exchange ... The lytic bacteriophages infect their specific host bacterium, ... selection for the rare phage-resistant variants in a mostly ...
Biology of the temperate Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage TP-J34 and physical characterization of the phage genome. ... we used polyclonal phage antiserum raised against phage P53 for neutralization of the phage particles (19). Phage suspensions ... recombination between two phage genomes can occur by two mechanisms following phage infection: (i) recombination may take place ... Phage P1109 could infect all three hosts, while phage P53 could be propagated in strains a10 and 55n. Phage a10/J9 had a narrow ...
Phage response to CRISPR-encoded resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus. J. Bacteriol. 190, 1390 (2008). doi:10.1128/JB.01412 ... The CRISPR/Cas bacterial immune system cleaves bacteriophage and plasmid DNA. Nature 468, 67 (2010). doi:10.1038/nature09523 ... A bacterial genome defense system is adapted to function as a genome-editing tool in mammalian cells. [Also see Perspective by ... A bacterial genome defense system is adapted to function as a genome-editing tool in mammalian cells. [Also see Perspective by ...
Alternatively, group C streptococci were infected with the C1 bacteriophage as previously described (11), and phage-produced ... A Tsp509I expression library of the C1 bacteriophage genome was cloned into pBAD24 (23) and screened for lytic activity against ... S. pyogenes D471 (group A streptococcus), Streptococcus equisimilis 26RP66 (group C streptococcus), and the C1 bacteriophage ... The streptococcal C1 bacteriophage lysin, now called PlyC for "phage lysin from C1," was first described in 1957, when C1 phage ...
... as does Lancefield group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). We sequenced the entire genome of SDSE strain ... Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) causes invasive streptococcal infections, including streptococcal toxic ... 124.1 is a chimeric phage. This prophage was inserted at the predicted bacteriophage T12att site, which has been shown to be a ... Overview of the SDSE GGS_124 genome sequence We found that, similar to other streptococcal genomes, the SDSE GGS_124 genome ...
Biology and genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans phage M102AD. Appl Environ Microbiol 78(7): 2264-2271. ... The cell lysis activity of the Streptococcus agalactiae bacteriophage B30 endolysin relies on the cysteine, histidine-dependent ... Targeted Genome Editing of Virulent Phages Using CRISPR-Cas9 Authors: Marie-Laurence Lemay, Ariane C. Renaud, Geneviève M. ... This protocol describes a straightforward method to generate specific mutations in the genome of strictly lytic phages. Briefly ...
Streptococcus pyogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium harbor a multitude of prophages and each phage-encoded ... In addition, they can serve as anchoring points for genome inversions. The current review presents the available genomics and ... SUMMARY Comparative genomics demonstrated that the chromosomes from bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) are coevolving ... Phages and the Evolution of Bacterial Pathogens: from Genomic Rearrangements to Lysogenic Conversion. Harald Brüssow, Carlos ...
... but they have a vast array of biochemical capabilities and patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents or bacteriophages ... Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages or phages) have DNA or RNA as genetic material. The two essential functions of genetic ... The third class of transposons consists of bacteriophage Mu and related temperate phages. The entire phage genome functions as ... erythrogenic toxin by Streptococcus pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic streptococci), botulinum toxin by Clostridium botulinum, and ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages show highly specific patterns of interactions among bacteria and their phages. ... Reversible Silencing of Cytomegalovirus Genomes by Type I Interferon Governs Virus Latency. In: PLOS Pathogens 10(2), e1003962 ...
  • For example, the starter cultures Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus are both readily attacked by phages. (
  • Sequence analysis and characterization of phi O1205, a temperate bacteriophage infecting Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ1205. (
  • The complete nucleotide sequence of phi O1205, a temperate bacteriophage infecting Streptococcus thermophilus strain CNRZ1205, was determined. (
  • The replication module encoded genes with strong homology to helicases and primases found in several Streptococcus thermophilus phages. (
  • Using Streptococcus thermophilus phages, plasmid transduction in Lactococcus lactis was demonstrated. (
  • These results are the first evidence that there is phage-mediated direct transfer of DNA from S. thermophilus to L. lactis . (
  • Bacteriophages of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis , two important starter strains in the dairy industry ( 5 , 25 ), share significant sequence homology ( 3 , 6 ). (
  • Three virulent cos -type S. thermophilus phages were selected for this study (Table 1 ), which had different host ranges for three S. thermophilus strains (strains a10, 55n, and St11) ( 18 , 21 ). (
  • For preparation of plasmid-transducing lysates, 0.1 to 0.3 ml of phage lysate was added at low multiplicities of infection (MOI) (between 10 −4 and 1) to 0.1- to 0.3-ml portions of overnight cultures of plasmid-bearing S. thermophilus strains in the presence of 10 mM CaCl 2 . (
  • Phage lysates (150 μl) were added at an MOI of 0.01 ( S. thermophilus ) or 0.1 ( L. lactis ) to 300 μl of bacteria. (
  • Phage adsorption was performed for 10 min at 42°C ( S. thermophilus ) or for 30 min at 30°C ( L. lactis ). (
  • Phage adsorption was stopped on ice by addition of 1 ml of ice-cold thM17 or GM17 broth containing 20 mM ( S. thermophilus ) or 200 mM ( L. lactis ) trisodium citrate. (
  • Review: Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophages. (
  • The endless battle between phages and CRISPR-Cas systems in Streptococcus thermophilus. (
  • Protocols of selecting CRISPR-containing strains without deliberate genetic modifications are already in place for dairy Streptococcus thermophilus . (
  • Genomic and morphological characterization of a novel genus of phages infecting Streptococcus thermophilus. (
  • 1997) Molecular ecology of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage infections in a cheese factory. (
  • Desiere F, Lucchini S and Brussow H (1998) Evolution of Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage genomes by modular exchanges followed by point mutations and small deletions and insertions. (
  • Recently, Barrangou and colleagues found that CRISPR systems can provide resistance to phage infection in Streptococcus thermophilus . (
  • 19] A CRISPR location in Streptococcus thermophilus obtained spacers with the DNA of the infecting bacteriophage. (
  • The scientists manipulated the resistance of S. thermophilus to phage by incorporating and deleting spacers whose sequence matched All those present in the tested phages. (
  • 2015. Costs of CRISPR-Cas-mediated resistance in Streptococcus thermophilus . (
  • 2015. Complete genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus SMQ-301, a model strain for phage-host interactions. (
  • Role of Temperate Bacteriophage ϕ20617 on Streptococcus thermophilus DSM 20617 T Autolysis and Biology. (
  • Streptococcus thermophilus DSM 20167T showed autolytic behavior when cultured in lactose- and sucrose-limited conditions. (
  • Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR-Cas9 systems enable specific editing of the human genome. (
  • Here, we provide the first report of the cloning, expression, purification and in vitro functional analysis of the Cas3 protein of the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR4 (Ecoli subtype) system. (
  • Detecting natural adaptation of the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR-Cas systems in research and classroom settings. (
  • For the first time, statistical principal components analysis, including genome size, GC%, TA modules, restriction enzymes, and toxins, revealed that toxins are the only proteins other than TA modules that are correlated with the pathogenic character of bacteria. (
  • Streptococcus is a genus of gram-positive coccus (plural cocci) or spherical bacteria that belongs to the family Streptococcaceae, within the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria), in the phylum Firmicutes. (
  • In 1984, many bacteria formerly grouped in the genus Streptococcus were separated out into the genera Enterococcus and Lactococcus. (
  • The viridans streptococci are a large group of commensal bacteria that are either alpha-hemolytic, producing a green coloration on blood agar plates (hence the name "viridans", from Latin vĭrĭdis, green), or nonhemolytic. (
  • Finally, we speculate on the induction of phage-encoded DNase (Spd1) enhancing the fitness of both bacteria and phage. (
  • Additionally, phage induction has long been observed to result in the up-regulation of extracellular toxins in bacteria such as S. pyogenes ( 32 ) and Corynebacterium diphtheriae ( 17 ). (
  • Bystander Phage Therapy: Inducing Host-Associated Bacteria to Produce Antimicrobial Toxins against the Pathogen Using Phages. (
  • A variety of cell surface structures dictate interactions between bacteria and their environment, including their viruses (bacteriophages). (
  • Our results reveal important roles for Bacteroides CPSs and other cell surface structures that allow these bacteria to persist under bacteriophage predation, and hold important implications for using bacteriophages therapeutically to target gut symbionts. (
  • Our emerging view of the gut microbiome largely focuses on bacteria, while less is known about other microbial components, such as bacteriophages (phages). (
  • Bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages or phages) have a complex relationship that is in constant flux. (
  • Studies in natural environments, and by manipulations of phages and bacteria in a laboratory setting, have demonstrated that phages can profoundly influence bacterial populations. (
  • Phages can alter the density of different bacteria by lytic infection, and the genetic makeup of bacteria can be altered by lysogeny or transduction. (
  • The genetic traits acquired from phages can influence adaptation of bacteria to an environment by providing enhanced or novel metabolic properties, resistance to other phages or protozoan predators, and acquisition of antibiotic resistance or new virulence traits. (
  • In this chapter, we will discuss how phages influence the fitness of bacteria in particular environmental niches. (
  • Appreciably, exogenous addition of purified lysins to susceptible Gram-positive bacteria also produces complete lysis in the absence of bacteriophage ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Whereas microgram or milligram quantities of most phage lysins can effect a multiple-log drop of target bacteria within minutes, PlyC requires only nanogram quantities. (
  • Phage Resistance in Lactic Acid Bacteria. (
  • I work with another phages and another host bacteria (Staphylococcus, Klebsiella) and need to modify this protocol a lot. (
  • SUMMARY Comparative genomics demonstrated that the chromosomes from bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophages) are coevolving. (
  • The interactome of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages show highly specific patterns of interactions among bacteria and their phages. (
  • Bacteria have few structural or developmental features that can be observed easily, but they have a vast array of biochemical capabilities and patterns of susceptibility to antimicrobial agents or bacteriophages. (
  • Chemically modified purine and pyrimidine bases are found in some bacteria and bacteriophages. (
  • Bacteria and bacteriophages arm themselves with various defensive and counterdefensive mechanisms to protect their own genome and degrade the other's. (
  • When Escherichia coli bacteria containing CRISPR-Cas9 were infected with phage T4, its cytosine hydroxymethylated and glucosylated genome was cleaved poorly by Cas9 nuclease, but the continuing CRISPR-Cas9 pressure led to rapid evolution of mutants that accumulated even by the time a single plaque was formed. (
  • Our findings lead to the hypothesis that the CRISPR-Cas might be a double-edged sword, providing survival advantages to both bacteria and phages, leading to their coevolution and abundance on Earth. (
  • Bacteriophages (phages) and bacteria are the most abundant organisms on Earth ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Phages infect bacteria and often kill them by using the cell as a factory to manufacture hundreds of new viruses and dissolving the cellular envelope to release the progeny. (
  • Bacteria have evolved strategies to defend themselves against this onslaught by phages, such as the production of restriction endonucleases that can digest the phage genome ( 4 ). (
  • Although the molecular mechanisms of many of these innate defensive strategies are well understood, how the bacteria and phages, despite this perpetual "arms race," have evolved to dominate Earth's biomass remains poorly understood. (
  • Like other cocci , streptococci are round bacteria. (
  • We have documented the bacterial population structure of several pathogens of the genus //Streptococcus// and found differences between bacteria that are asymptomatically carried and those causing distinct infections in the various age groups. (
  • This study supports the use of phage-encoded EPS depolymerases to prevent and disperse staphylococcal biofilms, thereby making bacteria more susceptible to the action of antimicrobials. (
  • Abstract Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, often resulting in lysis of the bacterial host. (
  • The first is the methods to capture and isolate Streptococcus bacteriophages using human saliva tested against Streptococcus mutans lab strains, and other wild-type bacteria obtained from the human oral cavity. (
  • Receptors for bacteriophage to bind to the host bacterium appear to be in the cell wall of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, through the capsule and slime layer, and through appendages like flagella. (
  • In the Streptococcus bacteriophage study, eight lab strains of Streptococcus mutans and 11 wild-type bacteria were cultured from the human oral cavity, cultured were used as bacterial hosts. (
  • Bacteriophages are very complex viruses that have been around since the earliest Earth history and have played a crucial role in maintaining the balance over the population of bacteria on our planet. (
  • Streptococcus is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes [3] and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria). (
  • A phage is a tiny virus that latches its fibres onto a bacteria and impregnates it with DNA, hijacking the machinery of the cell and forcing it to produce countless more phages which eventually burst out, destroying the bacteria. (
  • The first inkling that phages existed came in 1896 when British chemist Ernest Hanbury Hankin discovered that the murky waters of the river Ganges could destroy cholera bacteria. (
  • Conversely, another possibility of constructing phage-resistant strains is the integration of synthetic spacers that match conserved sequences of industrially occurring phages into the CRISPR array of starter bacteria. (
  • Bacteriophages of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Biotechnological Tools. (
  • Phages attack the bacteria and slow or stop the fermentation process, resulting in reduced product quality and considerable financial loss. (
  • Daly C, Fitzgerald GF and Davis R (1996) Biotechnology of the lactic acid bacteria with special reference to bacteriophage resistance. (
  • Moineau S (1999) Applications of phage resistance in lactic acid bacteria. (
  • In this context, bacteriophage lytic enzymes such as endolysins and structural peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases have received considerable attention as possible antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria. (
  • All RNA phages infect their host bacteria via the host's surface pili. (
  • Tectiviridae 0 questions A family of lipid-containing bacteriophages with double capsids which infect both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. (
  • CRISPR-Cas immune systems utilize RNA-guided nucleases to protect bacteria from bacteriophage infection. (
  • Cariou was referring to phage therapy, a controversial treatment that uses a type of virus to defeat bacterial infection.It makes use of one of the oldest enemies of bacteria found in nature. (
  • The doctor promised that if Summerhayes's bacteria again develops resistance and his antibiotic eventually fails, she'll ask Health Canada to approve phage therapy for him. (
  • Bacteria and archaea are master strategists, thriving despite the omnipresent hordes of phage. (
  • Phages is short for bacteriophages, which are viruses that attack bacteria. (
  • So, in order to find a phage treatment for strep throat, for instance, you have to find the specific bacteriophages that attack the strains of bacteria causing the disease. (
  • And there is no way for bacteria to develop overall resistance, because phages evolve even faster than they do. (
  • No phages are known so far for the bacteria that cause some serious diseases (leprosy, tuberculosis, botulism). (
  • Phages and bacteria evolve a lot faster than the regulatory process, and light years faster than the patent process. (
  • Streptococcus suis bacteria are commonly part of the porcine tonsillar microbiota ( 1 ), comprising carriage strains and strains that cause infectious disease in pigs and humans ( 2 ). (
  • The predicted S10 phage contains a candidate virulence gene with high identity (E value, 7E−164) with the S. mitis ( 14 ) and S. pneumoniae ( 15 ) phage-encoded gene pblB , which encodes a platelet adhesin that plays a role during multiple steps in endocardial infection, including direct binding of bacteria to platelets. (
  • My current research primarily focuses on bacteriophages (viruses that specifically attack bacteria). (
  • More recently however, the alarming rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria and the consequent need for antibiotic alternatives renewed the interest in phages as antimicrobial agents. (
  • From these observations, D'Herelle radically intuited that he had discovered " un microbe invisible antagoniste des bacilles dysentériques ," described it as " un bactériophage obligatoire ," suggested that his other bacteria would be found to similarly be infected by these pathogens of pathogens, and (perhaps too radically) posited that these bacteriophage were the true agent of natural immunity. (
  • Indeed, our oceans, soils and potentially even our bodies would be overrun with bacteria were it not for bacteria-eating viruses, called bacteriophages, that keep the microbial balance of ecological niches in check. (
  • RNA bacteriophages have been shown to infect gram-negative bacteria, which have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics and are the source of many infections in health-care settings. (
  • But the researchers also showed for the first time that these bacteriophages also may infect gram-positive bacteria, which are responsible for strep and staph infections as well as MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). (
  • But you can think of bacteriophages and bacteria as having a predator-prey relationship. (
  • Eventually, we'd like to manipulate that dynamic to use phages to selectively kill particular bacteria. (
  • The arms race between bacteria and their bacteriophages profoundly influences microbial evolution. (
  • We introduce an individual-based model (eVIVALDI) to investigate the role of environmental structure in the elimination of a population with a combined treatment of antibiotics and virulent phages, and in the invasion of a population of phage-sensitive bacteria by lysogens. (
  • Phages, viruses that prey on bacteria, are the most abundant and diverse inhabitants of the Earth. (
  • CRISPR ( / ˈ k r ɪ s p ər / ) ( clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats ) is a family of DNA sequences found within the genomes of prokaryotic organisms such as bacteria and archaea . (
  • Bacteriophages (phages), which are natural viral predators of bacteria, multiply by infecting specific host bacteria. (
  • In contrast to the lytic cycle, which results in immediate bursting of the host bacteria and the release of bacteriophage progeny, the lysogenic cycle involves the maintenance of the phage genome as a part of the host genome for several generations, typically by integrating into host chromosomes or, more rarely, by replicating as low-copy-number phage plasmids (2-4). (
  • in the remaining majority of the bacteria, the phage DNA becomes integrated into the bacterial chromosome and replicates along with it. (
  • In some interactions between lysogenic phages and bacteria, lysogenic conversion may occur. (
  • It is when a temperate phage induces a change in the phenotype of the bacteria infected that is not part of a usual phage cycle. (
  • Changes can often involve the external membrane of the cell by making it impervious to other phages or even by increasing the pathogenic capability of the bacteria for a host. (
  • In this case, the gene that codes for the toxin is carried by the phage, not the bacteria. (
  • A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek φάγειν phagein to eat ) is any one of a number of viruses that infect bacteria. (
  • Bacteriophages (that is, phages: viruses that infect bacteria) are highly abundant and are known to play critical roles in bacterial mortality, biogeochemical cycling and horizontal gene transfer. (
  • We emphasize the newly recognized roles of phages as puppet masters of their bacterial hosts, where phages are capable of altering the metabolism of infected bacteria through the expression of auxiliary metabolic genes and the redirection of host gene expression patterns. (
  • Finally, we propose the 'royal family model' as a hypothesis to describe successional patterns of bacteria and phages over time in marine systems, where despite high richness and significant seasonal differences, only a small number of phages appear to continually dominate a given marine ecosystem. (
  • Bacteriophages are a promising alternative for curtailing infections caused by multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. (
  • Phage can transfer genetic information to the bacteria they infect. (
  • Living in these environmental reservoirs, the phage can influence evolution of the bacteria within these environments in several different manners. (
  • To explore this hypothesis, we cultured environmental bacteria and screened them for a phage-encoded exotoxin gene. (
  • In this study, we describe the isolation of bacteria from environmental ambient air and the screening of the isolates for the phage-encoded sea gene using an exotoxin-specific colony PCR assay. (
  • Bacteriophages (phages/viruses) need host bacteria to replicate and propagate. (
  • Bacteriophages are estimated to be the most abundant entities in the biosphere, and as the natural predators of bacteria, have important roles in bacterial ecology and evolution [ 1 ]. (
  • Bacteriophages (phages) are viruses that specifically infect bacteria. (
  • Their influence on bacterial populations isn't limited to predation - 'temperate' phages integrate into their host's genome and can drastically impact the physiology of the bacteria they infect, protecting them from other phages, encoding new surface proteins or bacterial toxins, and conferring numerous fitness advantages to their hosts. (
  • Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus ) is responsible for a large number of serious diseases worldwide, the most common of which is pharyngitis. (
  • The pathogenic group A streptococcus Streptococcus pyogenes is a bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases. (
  • Streptococcus pyogenes (Lancefield group A streptococcus, GAS) is a common cause of bacterial throat infections, and also causes mild to severe skin and soft tissue infections, including impetigo, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis. (
  • Aziz RK, Edwards RA, Taylor WW, Low DE, McGeer A, Kotb M (2005) Mosaic prophages with horizontally acquired genes account for the emergence and diversification of the globally disseminated M1T1 clone of Streptococcus pyogenes. (
  • Bao YJ, Liang Z, Mayfield JA, Donahue DL, Carothers KE, Lee SW, Ploplis VA, Castellino FJ (2016) Genomic characterization of a pattern D Streptococcus pyogenes emm53 isolate reveals a genetic rationale for invasive skin tropicity. (
  • A recent in vitro reconstitution of the Streptococcus pyogenes type II CRISPR system demonstrated that crRNA fused to a normally trans-encoded tracrRNA is sufficient to direct Cas9 protein to sequence-specifically cleave target DNA sequences matching the crRNA ( 4 ). (
  • This chapter focuses on the influence that the bacteriophages of Streptococcus pyogenes, both lytic and lysogenic or temperate, have on the biology and dissemination of virulence factors of this important gram-positive pathogen. (
  • Prophage association of mef(A) elements encoding efflux-mediated erythromycin resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes. (
  • An anti-CRISPR from a virulent streptococcal phage inhibits Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9. (
  • equisimilis (SDSE) causes invasive streptococcal infections, including streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS), as does Lancefield group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS). (
  • Vibrio cholerae , Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Corynebacterium diphtheriae , and Clostridium botulinum depend on a specific prophage-encoded toxin for causing a specific disease, whereas Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pyogenes , and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium harbor a multitude of prophages and each phage-encoded virulence or fitness factor makes an incremental contribution to the fitness of the lysogen. (
  • The type II CRISPR-Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes is the simplest and the best-studied bacterial adaptive immune system ( 6 ). (
  • Streptococcus pyogenes is a species of Gram-positive bacterium in the genus Streptococcus . (
  • MT1 (metabolic type 1) clone is frequently associated with invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections among developed countries. (
  • Superantigens produced by Streptococcus pyogenes have been implicated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). (
  • Prime candidates are the streptococcal superantigens (SAgs), a family of highly mitogenic proteins secreted individually or in certain combinations by many Streptococcus pyogenes strains ( 7 - 10 ), although other virulence factors, such as Streptolysin O and various cell wall antigens can also cause toxic shock ( 11 ). (
  • Streptococcus pyogenes " causes scarlet fever . (
  • For the most commonly used Cas9 from Streptococcus pyogenes ( Sp Cas9), the required PAM sequence is NGG. (
  • Being able to choose phage-resistant strains for cheesemaking can have major economical impact on operations. (
  • Scientists have found that many lactococcal phage-resistance plasmids can be transferred into other strains of L. lactis by conjugation. (
  • A comparison of the complete genome sequences of two strains of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. (
  • Suppliers can screen the species for such strains and deliver to cheesemakers only those strains that resist phage. (
  • As part of a program to characterize the genetic makeup of prophages associated with clinical strains and to assess the potential roles that they play in the biology and pathogenesis in their host, we performed comparative genomic analysis of 10 temperate pneumococcal phages. (
  • Treatment of D. nodosus strains with ultraviolet light resulted in the isolation of DinoHI, a member of the Siphoviridae and the first bacteriophage to be identified in D. nodosus. (
  • Part of the DinoHI genome containing the packaging site is found in all D. nodosus strains tested and is located at the end of the vrl, suggesting a role for DinoHI in the transfer of the vrl by transduction. (
  • Using B. thetaiotaomicron strains that express defined subsets of CPSs, we show that CPSs dictate host tropism for these phages and that expression of non-permissive CPS variants is selected under phage predation, enabling survival. (
  • Phage P1109 could infect all three hosts, while phage P53 could be propagated in strains a10 and 55n. (
  • Genomic Diversity of Phages Infecting Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus paracasei. (
  • Similar to GGS_124, the SDSE strains contained larger numbers of clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) spacers than did GAS, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer via streptococcal phages between SDSE and GAS is somewhat restricted, although they share phage species. (
  • Prophages are encoded in most genomes of sequenced Clostridium difficile strains. (
  • The majority of these phages are not amenable to propagation, and therefore the development of a molecular marker is a useful tool with which to establish the extent and diversity of C. difficile prophage carriage within clinical strains. (
  • Temperate bacteriophages in C. difficile strains may contribute to the pathogenicity of their host either by encoding novel toxins or by differentially regulating the expression of bacterial toxins ( 10 , 15 , 44 ). (
  • phages were induced from a large number of strains and extensive screening identified a host strain for a small subset of phages. (
  • These phages therefore represent a very small fraction (∼3 to 6%) of the total phages present in clinical strains since most do not have a suitable alternative host strain to support virulent phage production ( 10 , 19 , 30 ). (
  • Complete and draft genome sequences are also available from L. curvatus strains originating from various origins. (
  • The primary applications of CRISPR systems include the use of these arrays' hypervariability for genotyping purposes (primarily for pathogenic strains) and crRNA-mediated interference for phage resistance in industrially relevant strains. (
  • From an industrial point of view, where bacteriophage attack is recognized as a major problem in dairy fermentative processes for almost 80 years, there is a recognized need for transfer of phage-resistance systems to phage-sensitive strains of industrial importance. (
  • Among the different approaches used to generate phage-resistant strains is the exploitation of CRISPR/Cas systems. (
  • Coffey A and Ross RP (2002) Bacteriophage‐resistance systems in dairy starter strains: molecular analysis to application. (
  • Since phage infection has been an ongoing problem for that industry, numerous phage-resistant strains are available, as well as genome sequences for more than a dozen infecting phages. (
  • For a bacteriophage to be useful for phage therapy it must be both isolated from the environment and shown to have certain characteristics beyond just killing strains of the target bacterial pathogen. (
  • The aims of this study were to analyse the organization of CRISPR in further S. mutans strains and to investigate the importance of CRISPR in acquired immunity to M102-like phages. (
  • The Staphylococcus enterotoxin A ( sea ) gene carried by virulent strains of S. aureus is encoded by multiple phages, including ϕ 11, ϕ 12, ϕ 13, 80 α , and 42D [ 18 - 21 ]. (
  • Other toxins are carried by phages isolated from S. aureus strains from animals, food, and the environment [ 20 , 22 - 31 ]. (
  • Given that multiple S. aureus toxins are encoded by phage, it is possible that multiple transduction events over time have resulted in the generation of the current virulent S. aureus strains. (
  • Four phages were isolated from canine faeces using two MRSP strains as initial hosts. (
  • A novel, inducible Mu-like phage (vB_BvM-G4P1) was isolated from B. vietnamiensis G4 that had lytic activity against strains of five Burkholderia species prevalent in CF infections, including the Boston epidemic B. dolosa strain SLC6. (
  • Bacteriophages are viruses that attack and destroy bacterial cells. (
  • Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages or phages) have DNA or RNA as genetic material. (
  • A single viral genome delivered by a single phage is sufficient to take control of the entire cell and divert the resources to assemble viruses ( 3 ). (
  • TUD-based phylogeny of eukaryotic viruses indicates that they cluster largely based on nucleic acid type and genome size. (
  • Eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages exist in numerous forms and are capable of infecting disparate hosts. (
  • Phages De Bacillus 0 questions Viruses whose host is Bacillus. (
  • Phages De Pseudomonas 0 questions Viruses whose host is Pseudomonas. (
  • Bactériophage P22 0 questions A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. (
  • Phages De Streptococcus 0 questions Viruses whose host is Streptococcus. (
  • Mariano R., Khuri S., Uetz P. & Wuchty S. (2016) Local Action with Global Impact: Highly Similar Infection Patterns of Human Viruses and Bacteriophages . (
  • Viruses and phage are excellent models to study protein interaction networks and protein function because they are small and have loads of uncharacterized proteins. (
  • Many exotoxin genes are carried on mobile genetic elements, including bacterial viruses (bacteriophage or phage). (
  • Furthermore, we show that the bacteriophage induction event is mediated by a pharyngeal cell soluble factor for which we provide an initial characterization. (
  • Further biochemical characterization of the recombinantly expressed protein verified it to be a divalent cation-dependent streptococcal phage-encoded DNase (Spd1). (
  • Characterization of two polyvalent phages infecting Enterobacteriaceae. (
  • Characterization of Five Podoviridae Phages Infecting Citrobacter freundii. (
  • Identification and characterization of a phage gene sav involved in sensitivity to the lactococcal abortive infection mechanism AbiV. (
  • No previous studies have described phage carriage within a large set of known clinically relevant ribotypes or have linked molecular data to TEM characterization and the ability of phages to be induced following antibiotic treatment. (
  • Thus, the systematic characterization of bacteriophage genomes represents a unique opportunity to increase the size and knowledge of both the global proteome and overall genetic diversity. (
  • Characterization of a Type II-A CRISPR-Cas System in Streptococcus mutans. (
  • Developing a process for successful isolation of bacteriophage is crucial to the process of understanding specificity through characterization of the bacterial host and the bacteriophage isolated. (
  • An EOP of 10-3 or better indicated productive infection of these bacteriophages, which makes these two bacteriophage potential candidates for characterization of the genomes for further understanding of cross-infectivity and lysogeny. (
  • This book expands on the previous volumes with new chapters focusing on functional characterization of phage and their proteins, and on the development of phage therapy by outlining novel models. (
  • The characterization of mutations conferring resistance to pneumophages highlighted that diverse host genes are involved in the replication of phages from different families. (
  • Capra ML, Quiberoni A, Ackermann HW, Moineau S and Reinheimer JA (2006) Isolation and characterization of a new virulent phage (MLC‐A) of Lactobacillus paracasei. (
  • Arendt, E.K., Neve, H. and Hammes, W.P. (1991b) Characterization of phage isolates from a phage-carrying culture of Leuconostoc oenos 58N. (
  • This study highlights how genomic characterization of Burkholderia prophages can lead to the discovery of novel bacteriophages with potential therapeutic or biotechnological applications. (
  • A better characterization of these phage communities will allow us to identify new diagnostic and predictive markers, as well as develop phage-based approaches to manipulate the gut microbiome. (
  • In the group A streptococci, we have further demonstrated that the pharyngeal cell itself (i.e., the cell at the most common site of streptococcal infection) generates the signal for the induction of both phage and the associated SpeC toxin ( 6 ). (
  • One of the predominant reasons for fermentation failures is infection of the starter culture by bacteriophages, resulting in slow acid formation and a product of inferior value. (
  • The sources of phage infection for the predominant c2 and 936 species are environmental and include raw milk and in-plant contamination. (
  • During a bacteriophage (or phage) infection cycle within a host organism, phage-directed proteins, called holins, are produced to perforate the bacterial membrane, allowing the accumulating cytoplasmic lysins access to the cell wall ( 3 ). (
  • Scarlet fever is a disease which can occur as a result of a group A Streptococcus (group A strep) infection . (
  • The cleaved phage genome is cannibalized, potentially to acquire additional spacers, and is no longer able to support a productive phage infection. (
  • A Lactococcal Phage Protein Promotes Viral Propagation and Alters the Host Proteomic Response During Infection. (
  • Modifications included an increase of infection time, incubation time, limiting potential bacteriophage tail damage from centrifugation - reduced centrifugation times or elimination of centrifugation, using saliva without filtration, and using saliva without filtration and not allowing the sample to settle. (
  • Conjugation is compromised by phage infection that specifically targets the secretion machinery. (
  • Using quantitative PCR to enumerate genomic loci in a resource-limited batch culture, we quantify the infection kinetics of the nonlytic phage M13 and its impact on conjugation in the absence of selection pressure (isogenic set). (
  • Modeling the resulting experimental data reveals the cellular growth rate to be reduced to 60% upon phage infection. (
  • We also find a maximum phage infection rate of 3×10 −11 mL phage −1 min −1 which is only 1 order of magnitude slower than the maximum conjugation rate (3×10 −10 mL cell −1 min −1 ), suggesting phages must be in significant abundance to be effective antagonists to horizontal gene transfer. (
  • In the regime where the number of susceptible cells (F + ) and phages are equal upon initial infection, we observe the spread of the conjugative plasmid throughout the cell population despite phage infection, but only at 10% of the uninfected rate. (
  • Bacteriophage replication depends on bacterial proteins and inactivation of genes coding for such host factors should interfere with phage infection. (
  • Significant effort has been dedicated by the dairy industry to combating phage infection. (
  • Despite their relatively small size and apparent simplicity, double-stranded DNA bacteriophages propagate by a tightly programmed infection process which involves a number of steps. (
  • In addition to endolysins which are synthesized at the late stage of the lytic cycle, virions often harbour murein hydrolases that locally degrade the PG in order to facilitate the entry of phage DNA during infection. (
  • For some time, it has been known that prokaryotic cells have ploys for blocking phage adsorption, preventing DNA injection, recognizing and cleaving the incoming DNA, and otherwise aborting the infection. (
  • When the sequence of an intervening region was identical to a phage sequence, the mutant was resistant to infection by that phage, and resistance increased with the number of such regions acquired. (
  • In addition to these dairy related issues, the potential to exploit bacteriophage to control infection (phage-therapy) is being investigated. (
  • In the context of food, research has focused on phage diversity and ecology in the dairy industry and environment, together with the selection and development of starter cultures resistant to phage infection. (
  • Many phage resistance systems, including restriction-modification systems, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas (CRISPR-Cas) systems, a variety of abortive infection systems, and many others that are not yet mechanistically defined, have been described. (
  • Although there is an additional type of phage-host relationship called "steady-state infection," which is exemplified by filamentous phages (1), phage genome replication generally occurs via two different developmental paths: the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle. (
  • 2015. Investigating the requirement for calcium during lactococcal phage infection. (
  • This suggests that the acquisition of the spacers contributed to the resistance against phage infection. (
  • One-step growth curve, in vitro time kill curve study and in vivo infection model were performed to evaluate the efficacy of phage to curtail planktonic growth. (
  • These data suggest that selective phage infection and possibly plasmid transfer may contribute to maintenance of multiple genotypes of M. aeruginosa and that rapid co-evolution within a host-phage combination may be driven by increased contact frequency. (
  • In deciphering the interactions of the streptococcus with its host, both surface and extracellular proteins are likely involved. (
  • Three genes encoding the major structural proteins were identified on the phi O1205 genome. (
  • Consequently, this enzyme has been used as a molecular tool for decades to isolate cell-wall-linked proteins and extract DNA from group A streptococci ( 9 , 10 ). (
  • Here, we report the complete genomic sequences, and predicted proteins of 27 bacteriophages of the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus . (
  • Comparative nucleotide and protein sequence analysis indicates that these phages are a remarkable source of untapped genetic diversity, encoding 2,170 predicted protein-encoding ORFs, of which 1,402 cannot be annotated for structure or function, and 522 are proteins with no similarity to other phage or bacterial sequences. (
  • Using this strategy, we have previously shown that several Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophages encode proteins that target components of the DNA replication and RNA transcription machinery ( 12 ). (
  • As part of this ongoing effort, we now report the complete genomes and predicted proteins of a group of 27 S. aureus bacteriophages. (
  • They have a linear genome of approximately 33kb - 244 kb in length and it encodes for 40 - 415 proteins. (
  • Previously we discovered bacteriophage-encoded Cas9-specific anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins that serve as countermeasures against host bacterial immunity by inactivating their CRISPR-Cas systems (A. Pawluk, N. Amrani, Y. Zhang, B. Garcia, et al. (
  • Finally, we validate these new anti-CRISPR proteins as potent off-switches for Cas9 genome engineering applications. (
  • IMPORTANCE As one of their countermeasures against CRISPR-Cas immunity, bacteriophages have evolved natural inhibitors known as anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins. (
  • Regularly clustered, interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) represents a family of DNA repeats initially described in 1987 in an intergenic region in the E. coli K12 genome, which are often accompanied by CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas). (
  • c) Phage proteins redirect the host's cellular machinery to produce the building blocks of the virion. (
  • Bacteriophages have in turn evolved inhibitory "anti-CRISPR" (Acr) proteins, including six inhibitors (AcrIIA1-AcrIIA6) that can block DNA cutting and genome editing by type II-A CRISPR-Cas9 enzymes. (
  • A database search identified many proteins with homology to Ant, suggesting the extensive use of antirepressor-mediated lytic induction among temperate phages in the order Caudovirales. (
  • 2015. Investigation of the protective effect of whey proteins on lactococcal phages during heat treatment at various pH. (
  • Although only a few spacers matched the phage sequence completely, most of the mismatches had no effect on the amino acid sequences of the phage-encoded proteins. (
  • This is accomplished by attaching the "library" of proteins to the coat of bacteriophage, and applying the modified phage to a target molecule. (
  • After incubating, any unbound phage are washed away, while those phage expressing favourably binding proteins are eluted. (
  • Allue-Guardia A, Garcia-Aljaro C, Muniesa M (2011) Bacteriophage-encoding cytolethal distending toxin type v gene induced from nonclinical Escherichia coli isolates. (
  • The EPS depolymerase (Dpo7) derived from bacteriophage vB_SepiS-phiIPLA7, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and characterized. (
  • Genome-wide mapping of methylated adenine residues in pathogenic Escherichia coli using single-molecule real-time sequencing. (
  • We used this approach to detect 49,311 putative 6-methyladenine (m6A) residues and 1,407 putative 5-methylcytosine (m5C) residues in the genome of a pathogenic Escherichia coli strain. (
  • The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli EC958: a high quality reference sequence for the globally disseminated multidrug resistant E. coli O25b:H4-ST131 clone. (
  • 2013) The Protein Interaction Network of Bacteriophage Lambda with Its Host, Escherichia col i . (
  • The toxins of Vibrio cholera (cholera toxin), Escherichia coli (shiga toxin), Corynebacterium diphtheria (diphtheria toxin), and Staphylococcus aureus (enterotoxin A) are encoded by phage [ 14 - 17 ]. (
  • Emergent properties of reduced-genome Escherichia coli. (
  • Across the world, a growing number of scientists are crowing the advantages of bacteriophages , touting them as the only serious answer to the "superbugs" like multi-drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) that resist antibiotics. (
  • Commercial production of bacteriophages specific against Staphylococcus spp, Streptococcus spp, Pseudomonas spp, Proteus spp, Shigella spp were done till mid 1950's at EIBMV, HIEET, Poland (Sulakvelidze et al. (
  • We aimed to isolate and characterize bacteriophages (phages) with preferential activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), a multidrug-resistant canine pathogen. (
  • In vivo genome editing using Staphylococcus aureus Cas9. (
  • Using this method the study was able to predict known gene functions better than any other genome-scale data set as well as adding functional information for genes that hadn't been previously described. (
  • All of the genomes are organized into five major gene clusters: lysogeny, replication, packaging, morphogenesis, and lysis clusters. (
  • however, genes that were homologous to known phage virulence genes, including the pblB gene of Streptococcus mitis and the vapE gene of Dichelobacter nodosus , were also identified. (
  • Up to 76% of clinical isolates have been showed to contain prophages (or prophage remnants) when studied with a DNA probe specific for the major autolysin gene, lytA , which hybridizes with many of the endolysin genes of temperate pneumococcal phages ( 54 ). (
  • There are two rather complex types of genetic entity in which this appears to have happened: the phage tail-like bacteriocins and the gene transfer agents. (
  • The importance of lysogenic bacteriophage as an agent of horizontal gene transfer as well as a means for the regulation of those genes makes them a critical component in studying bacterial pathogenesis. (
  • Neither a phage attachment site nor an integrase gene, required to establish lysogeny, was identified, explaining its lytic lifestyle and suggesting its origin from a temperate phage ancestor. (
  • Several regions showing extensive DNA and protein homologies to different temperate phages of Lactococcus , Lactobacillus , and Streptococcus were also discovered, indicating the likely exchange of DNA cassettes through horizontal gene transfer in the dynamic ecological environment of dairy fermentations. (
  • First of all, "constitutive promoter+ RBS+ GFP" and "nlmC promoter+ RBS+ GFP" will be tested by observing the green fluorescence in the gene-modified Streptococcus mutans. (
  • Under the addition of CSP, the nlmC promoter will be induced, thereby create the green fluorescence which we can observe in the gene-modified Streptococcus mutans. (
  • The holin gene is the only gene present in all sequenced phage genomes, conserved at both terminals, with a variable mid-section. (
  • Based on their genome size, organization of their gene map and comparative nucleotide and protein sequence analysis, the S. aureus phages can be organized into three groups. (
  • Comparison of their gene maps reveals extensive genome mosaicism, hinting to a large reservoir of unidentified S. aureus phage genes. (
  • In addition, the comparative analysis of multiple bacteriophages from a single bacterial species offers a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms driving prokaryotic genetic diversity, including lateral gene transfer and illegitimate recombination ( 4 , 8 - 10 ). (
  • and at the second stage two oligonucleotides pairs to the genome virus regions (gene S and gene X) and corresponding oligonucleotide fluorescently labeled probes complementary to the amplified fragments regions carrying fluorophores at the 5'-end, and non-fluorescent quenchers at the 3'-end. (
  • Inter- and intraspecies horizontal gene transfer enabled by bacterial secretion systems is a powerful mechanism for bacterial genome plasticity. (
  • In this article we bring all the pieces to one place, telling the evolution of a series of discoveries, which together may have the Protein, Cas9, changing the Biotech Industry forever with its contributions to Diagnosing Diseases and Gene Therapy by Precision Genome Editing and Cost-effective microRNA Profiling. (
  • Insertion of foreign DNA into the gene encoding a capsid protein results in expression of the introduced peptide or protein on the surface of the phage. (
  • The genome contains a complete prophage that encodes a candidate virulence gene. (
  • The genome sequence of S. suis S10 will enable the research community to make targeted gene deletion mutants. (
  • rays, the radiation-induced reversion of T4 amber mutants to wild-type was found to depend on the product of the DNA-repair gene x of the phage. (
  • Gene Insertion in the Podoviridae Phage GRCS Results in Osmotically Sensitive Instability. (
  • Nevertheless, the strong activity of phage promoters and potentially toxic gene products may impose a severe fitness burden and must be tightly controlled. (
  • We observed that a single nucleotide change in the LexA-binding site, which overlaps with the promoter of the phage antirepressor gene, causes constitutive expression of the antirepressor Ant and consequent inhibition of phage repressor function in SPC32N. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer between the phage and the bacterium can result in the rapid evolution of new pathogens and may have serious implications in public health [ 12 ]. (
  • If a phage encodes virulence genes, such as exotoxin genes, the phage could facilitate the transfer of these genes to nontoxigenic bacterial hosts, thereby increasing the exotoxin gene pool. (
  • This is the first report of an alternative bacterial host from the environment that carries a phage-encoded exotoxin gene that is commonly associated with a different bacterial host. (
  • Engineered bacteriophage targeting gene networks as adjuvants for antibiotic therapy. (
  • Thus, when multiple genome sequences within a species are known, it allows for the study of strain-specific traits. (
  • Only three S. pneumoniae bacteriophage genomes have been characterized in detail, and their sequences have been determined. (
  • The approximately 100 currently published bacterial genome complete nucleotide sequences, and about 285 prophages are related to known bacteriophages. (
  • Complete Genome Sequences of 18 Paenibacillus larvae Phages from the Western United States. (
  • By cleaving genomic sequences targeted by RNA sequences ( 4 - 6 ), such a system could greatly enhance the ease of genome engineering. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the holin sequences identified three groups of C. difficile phages, two within the myoviruses and a divergent siphovirus group. (
  • CRISPR arrays consist of 24-47 bp direct repeats, separated by unique sequences (spacers) that are acquired from viral or plasmid genomes [6] . (
  • The proteome of these phages was annotated by comparative analyses within the phage group itself and with the known sequences of three S. aureus lytic phages, 44AHJD, P68, and K ( 13 , 14 ). (
  • Here we show that CRISPR spacers derive from preexisting sequences, either chromosomal or within transmissible genetic elements such as bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids. (
  • The DNA sequences of newly acquired spacers were matched to corresponding fragments, named proto-spacers, in the phage genomes. (
  • Strong interest in CRISPRs was aroused when it was found that the sequences of some spacers matched sequences in known phages or plasmids. (
  • Startlingly, the sequences of those regions were derived from the phage genomes. (
  • Phage evade the new defense by mutations (either nucleotide substitutions or deletions) in the corresponding sequences, thus trumping that particular CRISPR sequence. (
  • In contig_00009, Phage Search Tool Enhanced Release (PHASTER) ( 13 ) predicted a complete prophage containing 64 coding sequences (CDS) spanning a region of 62,145 base pairs ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • The results suggest that S. mutans is often attacked by M102-like bacteriophages, and that its acquisition of novel phage-derived CRISPR sequences goes along with the presence of S. mutans phages in the environment. (
  • Analysis of CRISPR1 of M102-resistant mutants of S. mutans OMZ 381 showed that some of them had acquired novel spacers, and the sequences of all but one of these matched the phage M102 genome sequence. (
  • The genomic sequences of these five bacteriophages are almost identical and are closely related to members of the Chivirus genus. (
  • Thanks to the exponentially increasing number of publicly available bacterial genome sequences, one can now estimate the important contribution of integrated viral sequences to the diversity of bacterial genomes. (
  • Burkholderia species have environmental, industrial and medical significance, and are important opportunistic pathogens in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Using a combination of existing and newly determined genome sequences, this study investigated prophage carriage across the species B. vietnamiensis , and also isolated spontaneously inducible prophages from a reference strain, G4. (
  • Here we use phage-assisted continuous evolution to evolve an expanded PAM Sp Cas9 variant (xCas9) that can recognize a broad range of PAM sequences including NG, GAA and GAT. (
  • Extrachromosomal genetic elements such as plasmids and bacteriophages are nonessential replicons which often determine resistance to antimicrobial agents, production of virulence factors, or other functions. (
  • CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) loci, together with cas (CRISPR-associated) genes, form the CRISPR/Cas adaptive immune system, a primary defense strategy that eubacteria and archaea mobilize against foreign nucleic acids, including phages and conjugative plasmids. (
  • Bacteriophages and conjugative plasmids are involved in prokaryotic population control, evolution, and pathogenicity. (
  • 2016). The first adaptation or acquisition stage is responsible for the acquisition of spacers into CRISPR array following the exposure to foreign mobile genetic elements, such as phages or plasmids. (
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that often carries temperate bacteriophages. (
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen and a major etiological agent of pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis in adults and of otitis media in children. (
  • Bacteriophages of S. pneumoniae (pneumophages) were first identified in 1975 from samples isolated from throat swabs of healthy children by two independent groups ( 46 , 65 ). (
  • The abundance of temperate bacteriophages in S. pneumoniae has been reported in different studies in the past ( 6 , 54 ). (
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae and a group of oral streptococci (Streptococcus viridans or viridans streptococci) display alpha-hemolysis. (
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the leading pathogens that cause a variety of mucosal and invasive infections. (
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is an encapsulated Gram-positive bacterium usually found in the nasopharynx of healthy humans as part of the normal flora ( 1 ). (
  • A genomic approach to understand interactions between Streptococcus pneumoniae and its bacteriophages. (
  • To gain further insights into the interactions between S. pneumoniae and its pneumophages, we characterized S. pneumoniae mutants selected for resistance to the virulent phages SOCP or Dp-1. (
  • S. pneumoniae R6-SOCPR and R6-DP1R were highly resistant to the phage used for their selection and no cross-resistance between the two phages was detected. (
  • Resistance reconstruction in phage-sensitive S. pneumoniae confirmed that mutations in a GntR-type regulator, in a glycerophosphoryl phosphodiesterase and in a Mur ligase were responsible for resistance to SOCP. (
  • 2017) The Protein Interactome of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Bacterial Meta-interactomes Improve Function Predictions . (
  • The objective of the present study is to evaluate phage populations from water bodies to inhibit planktonic and biofilm mode of growth of drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in vitro and curtail planktonic growth in vivo in a zebrafish model. (
  • Phage specific to K. pneumoniae (MTCC 432) was isolated from Ganges river (designated as KpG). (
  • In vitro time kill assay showed a 3 log decline and a 6 log decline in K. pneumoniae colony counts, when phages were administered individually and in combination with streptomycin, respectively. (
  • The muscle tissue of zebrafish, infected with K. pneumoniae and treated with KpG phages showed a significant 2 log decline in bacterial counts relative to untreated control. (
  • Of the more than 280 prophages in the currently sequenced bacterial genomes, only a few are known to be fully functional bacteriophages. (
  • This process is most evident for bacterial pathogens where the majority contain prophages or phage remnants integrated into the bacterial DNA. (
  • Prophage diversification seems to be fueled by the frequent transfer of phage material by recombination with superinfecting phages, resident prophages, or occasional acquisition of other mobile DNA elements or bacterial chromosomal genes. (
  • Prophages also contribute to the diversification of the bacterial genome architecture. (
  • The highly flexible genome is genetically diverse and encodes several mobile elements, including transposons and prophages ( 18 , 43 , 47 , 48 ). (
  • Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important pathogen that can carry prophages. (
  • Prophages 0 questions Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. (
  • Temperate bacteriophages can integrate into the host genome and, as so-called prophages, maintain a long-term association with their host. (
  • All Salmonella mutants were derived from the prophage-cured Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain LT2 [referred to as LT2(c)] and its Δ LT2 gtrABC1 (SR5003) derivative to exclude the effect of prophages and spontaneous phage resistance via O-antigen glucosylation, respectively (13, 14). (
  • Lysogenic conversion has been long acknowledged to provide additional functions to the host, and particularly to bacterial pathogen genomes where prophages contribute important virulence factors. (
  • Eighty-one B. vietnamiensis genomes were bioinformatically screened for prophages using PHASTER (Phage Search Tool Enhanced Release) and prophage regions were found to comprise up to 3.4% of total genetic material. (
  • The role lysogenic bacteriophage play in the pathogenesis of the host bacterium is poorly understood. (
  • The lytic bacteriophages infect their specific host bacterium, replicate their genome and assemble new virions, and then rupture the host to release the newly formed phages. (
  • In transduction, donor DNA packaged in a bacteriophage infects the recipient bacterium. (
  • When a phage infects a bacterium, it incorporates short 20- to 40-base pair (bp) segments of phage genome ("spacers") into a CRISPR array present in the bacterial genome. (
  • thus, resulting in bacteriophage readiness to take over the host cell in the current bacterium, as well as future generations of the bacterium. (
  • When a phage transfers virulence genes to an avirulent bacterium, the bacterium can acquire the ability to cause disease. (
  • When a phage infects a bacterium, two alternative possibilities may result. (
  • Antagonistic coevolution between a bacterium and a bacteriophage. (
  • Phages are ubiquitous, and the rule of thumb is that for every bacterium there are 10 phages. (
  • Larger genome sizes are associated with ecologically flexible species such as Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum . (
  • Niche specialists, or host-adapted species such as Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis , possess much smaller genomes, reflecting ecological specialisation. (
  • Analysis of the genome sequence of Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC 33323 reveals the molecular basis of an autochthonous intestinal organism. (
  • The regulatory behavior of the promoter region differed significantly from the genetic responses of temperate Lactococcus lactis phages. (
  • Evolution of Lactococcus lactis phages within a cheese factory. (
  • Durmaz E and Klaenhammer TR (2000) Genetic analysis of chromosomal regions of Lactococcus lactis acquired by recombinant lytic phages. (
  • Durmaz E and Klaenhammer TR (2007) Abortive phage resistance mechanism AbiZ speeds the lysis clock to cause premature lysis of phage‐infected Lactococcus lactis. (
  • Hill C, Miller LA and Klaenhammer TR (1990) Cloning, expression and sequence determination of a bacteriophage fragment encoding bacteriophage resistance in Lactococcus lactis. (
  • 2015. A new virulent phage infecting Lactococcus garvieae , with homology to Lactococcus lactis phages. (
  • 2015. The targeted recognition of Lactococcus lactis phages to their polysaccharide receptors. (
  • Genetic diversity was observed among the cos isolates and correlations between receptor binding protein phylogeny and host range were also clear within this phage group. (
  • The 987 phages isolated within this study shared high levels of sequence similarity, yet displayed reduced levels of similarity to those identified in previous studies, indicating that they are subject to ongoing genetic diversification. (
  • Isolation of the Bacteriophage DinoHI from Dichelobacter nodosus and its Interactions with other Integrated Genetic Elements. (
  • Many bacterial toxins, such as SpeA and SpeC, are often harbored and disseminated by genetic mobile elements, such as lysogenic bacteriophage. (
  • The identification of a characteristic genetic switch including two divergent promoters and two cognate repressor genes strongly indicates that φ31 was derived from a temperate bacteriophage. (
  • Phages are promiscuous mediators of genetic exchange and often carry genes capable of altering the phenotypes of their bacterial hosts. (
  • Genetic elements responsible for erythromycin resistance in streptococci. (
  • Lysis or lytic cycle is a cytoplasmic viral replication process in which the bacteriophage injects its genetic material into a host cell, which allows this genetic material to replica, producing many new phages. (
  • The lysogenc cycle is one where a phage infuses its generic material into a host, but instead of rapidly replicating, this generic material finds its way to the host's genetic material and infuses itself with it, becoming a prophage. (
  • It becomes part of the host's genetic material and when the host cell divides, the temperate phage genetic material also undergoes a replication process. (
  • In their natural settings, CRISPR-Cas systems play crucial roles in bacterial and archaeal adaptive immunity to protect against phages and other mobile genetic elements, and they are also widely used as genome engineering technologies. (
  • Despite our ability to synthesize genes and even genomes [ 15 ], we still lack the sophistication to design de novo those genetic elements needed for advanced synthetic biology applications. (
  • Bacterial genomes are highly plastic allowing the generation of variants through mutations and acquisition of genetic information. (
  • Larger genomes, however, may impose metabolic burden and hence bacterial genomes are optimized by the loss of frivolous genetic information. (
  • Exotoxins are often encoded by mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophage (phage). (
  • As highly mobile genetic elements, phage can readily move between different environments, and are generally more resistant to environmental stress than their bacterial counterparts [ 4 - 11 ]. (
  • An environmental reservoir of toxin genes would provide novel virulence genes, and the genetic exchange between phage and novel bacterial hosts, could provide the mechanism for evolution of novel human pathogens. (
  • The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) confers adaptive immunity against phages via sequence fragments (spacers) derived from mobile genetic elements (MGEs), thus serving as a memory of past host-phage co-evolution. (
  • Primarily, a bacteriophage contains a head/capsid to encapsidate the genetic material. (
  • The genomic organization and structure of phi O1205 resemble those of several temperate lactococcal phages that display a life-cycle-specific organization, where ORFs believed to be involved in the lysogenic life-cycle are clustered and arranged in an orientation opposite to the ORFs supposedly involved in the lytic life-cycle. (
  • We found that bacteriophages have unique TUD patterns, representing genomic signatures that are relatively conserved among those with similar host range. (
  • Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of twelve (pro)phages identified in the genomes of S. suis isolates. (
  • The presented P. californicus genome assembly will pave the way for investigations of the genomic underpinnings of social polymorphism in the number of queens, regulation of aggression, and the evolution of adaptations to dry habitats. (
  • Comparative genomic analysis has revealed that adaptation to such highly variable environments is a result of genome evolution. (
  • L. sakei exhibits a high genomic diversity and several genomes are now available. (
  • CRISPR/Cas technology has undoubtedly revolutionized editing of the genome, granting a hitherto unachievable level of genomic targeting, simplicity and efficiency. (
  • Genome sequence analysis of strain DSM 20617T revealed the presence of a pac -type temperate bacteriophage, designated Φ20617, whose genomic organization and structure resemble those of temperate streptococcal bacteriophages. (
  • Notably, despite its broadened PAM compatibility, xCas9 has much greater DNA specificity than Sp Cas9, with substantially lower genome-wide off-target activity at all NGG target sites tested, as well as minimal off-target activity when targeting genomic sites with non-NGG PAMs. (
  • a) Phage DNA is injected from the phage particle and either integrates in the chromosome (lysogeny) or enters the lytic cycle. (
  • Microbial communities are shaped by bacteriophages through predation and lysogeny. (
  • The model organism for studying lysogeny is the lambda phage . (
  • ComCED signal loop precisely regulates nlmC expression in Streptococcus mutans. (
  • Initial methods were derived from previously published methods for Streptococcus mutans bacteriophage isolation. (
  • The genome sequence of Streptococcus mutans strain UA159 contains two CRISPR loci, designated CRISPR1 and CRISPR2. (
  • More than half of the CRISPR1 spacers and about 35 % of the CRISPR2 spacers showed sequence similarity with the genome sequence of M102, a virulent siphophage specific for S. mutans. (
  • We sought to use synthetic biology tools to create a targeting system for an antibiotic to kill only Streptococcus mutans, the primary causative agent of dental cavities. (
  • A combinatorial approach applying phage display and heterologous expression of modified lantibiotics was applied to develop this targeted S. mutans killing machine. (
  • In order to construct a targeted antibiotic, we utilized phage display to generate a targeting peptide that binds selectively to S. mutans. (
  • Our experimental approach incorporates a slight modification in the traditional phage display procedure - panning completed sequentially against a panel of organisms, including our target, S. mutans, and three commensals, S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. salivarius. (
  • Database searches revealed putative functions for several identified ORFs and further indicated that phi O1205 is genetically related to a particular group of lactococcal phages. (
  • The DNA sequence of the replication module, part of the lysis module, and remnants of a lysogenic module from the lytic P335 species lactococcal bacteriophage φ31 was determined, and its regulatory elements were investigated. (
  • Lactococcal phages are classified into 12 different species based on morphology, DNA homology, and protein profiles ( 35 ), but only three phage species, the prolate-headed c2 species and the isometric-headed 936 and P335 species represent the major virulent types responsible for problems in dairy plants. (
  • Detection of airborne lactococcal bacteriophages in cheese manufacturing plants. (
  • Identification of Dual Receptor Binding Protein Systems in Lactococcal 936 Group Phages. (
  • 1991) Species and type phages of lactococcal bacteriophages. (
  • Bacteriophage is a trait that varies from strain to strain. (
  • To overcome this problem, a variety of different strategies have been implemented, including improved sanitation, rotation of starter cultures ( 18 , 61 ), use of multiple-strain cultures ( 64 ), and the use of phage-resistant starter cultures (for a review, see reference 22 ). (
  • Phage a10/J9 had a narrow host range (only strain a10). (
  • We sequenced the entire genome of SDSE strain GGS_124 isolated from a patient with STSS. (
  • Next step: they challenged the phage-sensitive strain with either of two phages, or with both simultaneously, and recovered nine new phage-resistant mutants. (
  • Here, we report the draft whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus suis strain S10, isolated from the tonsils of a healthy pig. (
  • Here, we report the genome sequence of S. suis strain S10, sampled in 1992 from porcine tonsils, which has been used for experimental infections of pigs ( 3 ). (
  • The complete genome sequence of L. helveticus DPC4571, a strain with significant flavour enhancing potential in cheese systems, has been completed and is currently being mined for genes and enzymes of commercial potential. (
  • Vibrio cholerae " is a non-toxic strain that can become toxic, producing cholera toxin , when it is infected with the phage CTXφ. (
  • however, the most exciting developments in LAB genomics are now being fueled by nucleotide sequence information for complete genomes. (
  • Phages of dairy Leuconostoc mesenteroides: genomics and factors influencing their adsorption. (
  • Insights into the Draft Genome Sequence of the Kiwifruit-Associated Pathogenic Isolate Pseudomonas fluorescens AHK-1. (
  • A frequently encountered Pseudomonas phage is BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6. (
  • The extensive application of this species provides considerable opportunity for the proliferation of its infecting (bacterio)phages. (
  • In addition to streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat), certain Streptococcus species are responsible for many cases of pink eye, meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the 'flesh-eating' bacterial infections). (
  • citation needed] Species of Streptococcus are classified based on their hemolytic properties. (
  • The following genera are recognized: Cepunavirus (formerly Cp1virus, with species Streptococcus virus Cp1 aka Complutense phage 1, Cp-1) Negarvirus Salasvirus The following species are unassigned to a genus: Actinomyces virus Av1 Mycoplasma virus P1 Two bacteriophages in this family have been found to infect and lyse Clostridium perfringens. (
  • There are no known temperate phages in the group of the c2 and 936 species, while the P335 species contains both temperate and lytic phages ( 35 ). (
  • However, the increasing appearance of new lytic phages belonging to the P335 species, supported by DNA homology studies showing extensive homology between lytic and temperate P335 phage species, indicates that temperate phages or a phage remnant constitutes an important source for the development of new lytic bacteriophages ( 1 , 19 , 49 , 69 ). (
  • however, transduction between the two species has not been reported previously, nor have phages of one species been demonstrated to be able to infect the other species. (
  • Recent sequence analyses of bacteriophages from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other bacterial species indicates that between 50% and 75% of ORFs predicted from the phage genomes have no match in GenBank ( 4 - 6 ). (
  • It is the predominant species harboring the Lancefield group A antigen , and is often called group A streptococcus ( GAS ). (
  • These enzymes are encoded by the genomes of bacteriophage and exhibit high species-specific degrading activity against the bacterial peptidoglycan. (
  • The only genes that are well conserved in all the genomes studied are those involved in the integration and the lysis of the host in addition to two genes, of unknown function, within the replication module. (
  • The characteristics and location of this region and its ability to reduce the efficiency of plaquing of φ31 10 6 -fold when present at high copy number in trans provide evidence for identification of the phage origin of replication. (
  • Replication of the genome is essential for inheritance of genetically determined traits. (
  • This bacteriophage type uses the lytic cycle for replication. (
  • Temperate bacteriophages are the bacteriophage type that use the lysogenic cycle for replication. (
  • However, when a lysogenic bacteriophage feels under a certain amount of pressure, or its survival is placed at risk, it has the ability to switch from the lysogenic cycle to the lytic cycle, which results in rapid replication of newly formed phages which burst out of the host cell. (
  • These bacteriophages use cytoplasmic viral replication. (
  • These bacteriophages use cytoplasmic viral replication, lytic and lack the genes to become lysogenic. (
  • b) In the lytic cycle, phage DNA replicates as either a linear molecule or via theta/ rolling circle replication ( RCR ) as a circular form. (
  • Adsorption of the phage to the bacterial cell wall precedes injection of the nucleic acid and subsequent DNA replication, eventually giving raise to new phage particles that are released after lysis of the host. (
  • Bacteriophage replication and host phage relationships are being studied using micro-array technology. (
  • Interestingly, the most recently acquired spacers were found to have a homologue at another locus in the genome, the majority of these inside an inactive prophage. (
  • Further evidence of C. difficile prophage presence comes from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of six distinct ribotypes and hybridization analysis of 37 clinical isolates, which both suggested phage carriage was common ( 8 , 11 ). (
  • Lysogen - A lysogen or lysogenic phage is a phage that can exist as a prophage within its host organism. (
  • Lytic phages are capable only of infections ending in bacterial cell death and release of new phage progeny (lytic life cycle), whilst temperate phages can either behave as lytic phages, or integrate into the genome of a bacterial host as a prophage (lysogenic life cycle) [ 1 ]. (
  • CRISPR spacers may limit the horizontal transfer of phage encoded GAS virulence genes into SDSE. (
  • The bacterial genome is protected because the spacers in its CRISPR array lack additional recognition elements such as the PAM (protospacer adjacent motif) sequence. (
  • In scenario B or C, the plasmid is either lost through acquisition of a plasmid-targeting spacer other than the desired one (scenario C) or by other means (scenario B). When exposed to phages, these cells are only capable of typical naive CRISPR immunization, with one in 10 6 survivors having randomly acquired 1 of the 716 possible phage-derived spacers. (
  • To date, protection from other phages and disease virulence factors are the lysogenic conversion genes that have been discovered and studied in the laboratory, but this likely reflects their ease of study and the lifestyles of the hosts studied. (
  • Bacteriophage cell-wall hydrolases, or lysins, have recently been exploited for their bacteriolytic activity as an alternative to antibiotic therapy ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • The plasticity of bacterial genomes means that different isolates can carry a distinct array of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. (
  • Hence, the use of phages to regulate the spread of genes, such as acquired antibiotic resistance or as general biosanitation agents, has gained interest. (
  • Bacteriophages - a tool amongst many in the fight against antibiotic resistance. (
  • The Abstracts book in PDF version of the 5 th World Congress on Targeting Infectious Diseases: Targeting Phage & Antibiotic Resistance 2018 is available to order. (
  • Our experiments involved the use of the peptide based antibiotic actagardine, known to have activity against Streptococci. (
  • Another virus (Weissella phage phiYS61) that has been isolated is so unlike the known members that it may belong to a new genus. (
  • Corticoviridae 0 questions A family of icosahedral, lipid-containing, non-enveloped bacteriophages containing one genus (Corticovirus). (
  • Cystoviridae 0 questions A family of bacteriophages containing one genus (Cystovirus) with one member (BACTERIOPHAGE PHI 6). (
  • We heterologously expressed the lantibiotic actagardine, which was modified to directly target the Gram-positive pathogen Streptococcus mutan. (
  • Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is an important human and bovine pathogen. (
  • Arnold JW, Koudelka GB (2014) The Trojan Horse of the microbiological arms race: phage-encoded toxins as a defence against eukaryotic predators. (
  • Virulent bacteriophages happen to be those that play in our interest, as well as theirs. (
  • After being challenged by virulent bacteriophages: phage 858 and phage 2,972, new repeat-spacer units were observed on the leading end of the CRISPR array in the surviving Streptococcus thermophlis host cells. (
  • Based on this characterisation, 39 distinct isolates representing all four phage groups were selected for genome sequencing. (
  • The HKU360.vir phage was not detected yet the HKU360.ssa phage was present in 43/63 emm 12 isolates but not found to be over-represented in isolates from patients with SF. (
  • Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron-Infecting Bacteriophage Isolates Inform Sequence-Based Host Range Predictions. (
  • Source Tracking Based on Core Genome SNV and CRISPR Typing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg Isolates Involved in Foodborne Outbreaks in Quebec, 2012. (
  • Fifty-two isolates possessed the CRISPR and were classified into 22 different CRISPR-related genotypes, suggesting stable coexistence of multiple genotypes with different phage susceptibility. (
  • Picoviruses package linear, monomeric genomes with a terminal protein covalently attached to each end. (
  • Additionally, bacteriophages appear to represent an enormous and unique untapped source of protein sequence diversity. (
  • Chromosomal DNA, once the staid repository of protein-encoding information, has evolved into 'the dynamic genome. (
  • PLP, phage-like protein. (
  • A LexA-dependent lytic switch involving an antirepressor, rather than repressor proteolysis, has been found previously in only sipho- and myoviral phages (10-12), and the podoviral SPC32H/N Ant protein had no significant homology to these known antirepressors. (
  • While virulent phages certainly perform transduction and engage in evolutionary sparring with their hosts and so influence their evolution, the chapter focuses mainly on the complex interactions of temperate phages with their hosts. (
  • Members of the human gut Bacteroidetes characteristically produce several phase-variable capsular polysaccharides (CPSs), but their contributions to bacteriophage interactions are unknown. (
  • To begin to understand how CPSs have an impact on Bacteroides-phage interactions, we isolated 71 Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron-infecting bacteriophages from two locations in the United States. (
  • On privilégie une approche intégrative (combinant des données de génomique, transcriptomique, protéomique, et de biologie structurale) pour comprendre les interactions entre les phages et les bactéries. (
  • A better understanding of the interactions between these processes across different types of environments is key to elucidate how phages mediate microbial competition and to design efficient phage therapies. (
  • Impact of Xenogeneic Silencing on Phage-Host Interactions. (
  • This Review Article summarizes current knowledge of marine viral ecology and highlights the importance of phage particles to the dissolved organic matter pool, as well as the complex interactions between phages and their bacterial hosts. (
  • These findings expand the natural toolbox for regulating CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing temporally, spatially, and conditionally. (
  • A key limitation of the use of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for genome editing and other applications is the requirement that a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) be present at the target site. (
  • The new frontier of genome engineering with CRISPR-Cas9. (
  • Lee, C. M., Cradick, T. J. & Bao, G. The Neisseria meningitidis CRISPR-Cas9 system enables specific genome editing in mammalian cells. (
  • The released lysins cleave covalent bonds in the peptidoglycan, resulting in lysis of the bacterial cell and liberation of progeny phage. (
  • The cell lysis activity of the Streptococcus agalactiae bacteriophage B30 endolysin relies on the cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase domain. (
  • d) Phage DNA is packaged in the capsid of the phage particle and cell lysis is effected to release progeny phage. (
  • Many DNA-tailed phages employ the holin-endolysin lysis system to release their progeny. (
  • The expression of genes necessary for progeny production and host cell lysis is tightly repressed by a phage regulatory system, but some physiological changes in the host induced by UV light irradiation or other DNA-damaging agents activate the lytic cycle by disabling the phage repressor. (
  • One possibility is that the phage can replicate itself using phage and host factors, resulting in lysis of the bacterial host and release of new phage (the lytic lifestyle). (
  • In a previous study, we found that streptococcal coculture with human pharyngeal cells resulted in the induction of lysogenic bacteriophage as well as the phage-associated streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC). (
  • We present here the complete genomes of 18 phages that infect Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood in honeybees. (
  • In vivo genome editing with a small Cas9 orthologue derived from Campylobacter jejuni . (
  • We found that when group A streptococci are cocultured with human pharyngeal cells, they upregulate and secrete a 25-kDa toxin, determined to be the bacteriophage-encoded streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin C (SpeC). (
  • Until recently, dairy streptococcal phages were classified into two groups ( cos and pac groups), while more recently, two additional groups have been identified (5093 and 987 groups). (
  • Of the extracellular products produced by group A streptococci, the streptococcal p y rogenic exotoxins (Spes) have been most studied. (
  • Here, we have cloned and expressed a unique lysin from the streptococcal bacteriophage C 1 , termed PlyC. (
  • The streptococcal C 1 bacteriophage lysin, now called PlyC for "phage lysin from C 1 ," was first described in 1957, when C 1 phage lysates were found to rapidly lyse cultures of groups A and C streptococci, despite the fact that the C 1 phage does not infect group A streptococci ( 8 ). (
  • Scarlet fever affects a small number of people who have either strep throat or streptococcal skin infections . (
  • An anti-CRISPR from a virulent streptococcal phage inhibits SpCas9. (
  • Genomes of LAB contain both plasmid and chromosomal DNA. (
  • Years of research has shown that in lactococci, bacteriophage resistance is one of several industrially important traits that may be encoded by plasmid DNA. (
  • Here, we exploited the properties of native CRISPR-Cas systems to program the natural "memorization" process, efficiently generating immunity not only to a bacteriophage or plasmid but to any specifically chosen DNA sequence. (
  • In scenario A, the plasmid is maintained and exposure to a virulent phage (step 2) results in typical CRISPR immunization, with one in 10 6 survivors (step 3). (
  • 4th World Congress on Targeting Infectious Diseases: Phage Therapy was held in Paris on June 2-3, 2016. (
  • Lysins are murein hydrolases produced by bacteriophage that act on the bacterial host cell wall to release progeny phage. (
  • Alternatively, the phage can integrate into the bacterial genome and the bacterial host can utilize certain genes the phage carries in its genome for its own benefit (the lysogenic lifestyle) [ 13 ]. (
  • The phage DNA is encapsulated in the capsid before the release of progeny phage from the cell by DNA‐packaging mechanisms. (
  • Guided by spacer-specific crRNA, the complex recognizes a three-nucleotide 5′-NGG-3′ PAM sequence plus the upstream complementary protospacer sequence in phage genome and makes a double-stranded DNA break in the protospacer sequence. (
  • The well-studied model of tail morphology in bacteriophage classification was used for comparison with nucleotide usage patterns. (
  • Alternatively, there has been analysis of phylogenetic signal in whole-genome nucleotide usage patterns and is consistent with the predicted phylogenetic structure of prokaryotes based on 16S rRNA [ 19 ]. (
  • The lytic switch following lysogenic development has been well studied in the temperate phage lambda. (
  • All phage mutants were derived from the temperate phage SPC32H, which was previously isolated from chicken fecal samples obtained from a traditional marketplace in South Korea (15). (
  • temperate phages, assess and choose the cycle that they see fit in accordance to the environment they find themselves in, whether to go for the lytic or lysogenic cycle. (
  • Phages fall into two categories: virulent phages that replicate strictly by the lytic cycle and temperate phages that can enter both the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle. (
  • The implications of these results for phage evolution are discussed. (
  • These phage genomes offer an exciting opportunity to discern molecular mechanisms of phage evolution and diversity. (
  • Bacteriophages play a critical role in bacterial biology, diversity, and evolution. (
  • Unexpectedly, we discovered that the CRISPR-Cas system might also accelerate phage evolution. (
  • Analysis of TUD-based phylogeny indicates that host influences are important in bacteriophage evolution, and phylogenies containing both phages and their hosts support their co-evolution. (
  • Botstein D (1980) A theory of modular evolution for bacteriophages. (
  • The close relationship between host and virus has significantly shaped microbial evolution and phage elements may benefit their host by providing new functions. (
  • It is important to understand the role played by the phage that carry these genes in the evolution of pathogens. (
  • Lytic bacteriophages have shown clinical promise as therapeutic agents for topical or systemic treatments of bacterial infections ( 11 ) or for their ability to block and subvert essential host metabolic pathways ( 12 ). (
  • Early results were promising and western companies soon began to market phage therapies for typhoid and urinary-tract infections. (
  • One of those is the Phage Therapy Centre, an American-owned subsidiary which is bringing foreign patients to Tbilisi for phage treatments on diabetic foot, burns, ulcers, osteomyelitis, and drug-resistant infections such as MRSA. (
  • From a biomedical perspective, our interest is the exploitation of phages as a source of antimicrobials both for the treatment of bacterial infections and the control of specific bacterial populations in contexts such as animal husbandry and medical. (
  • Soon after this seminal publication, D'Herelle and others began experimenting with the use of phage as an antimicrobial therapeutic for infections beginning with the treatment of chicken typhoid. (
  • With an estimated 1023 phage infections occurring per second, there is strong selection for both bacterial survival and phage coevolution for continued propagation. (
  • In comparison with antibiotics, to deal with bacterial infections, phage therapy is thought to be more effective. (
  • In 1921, the use of phages against bacterial infections was first demonstrated. (
  • can release it, causing proliferation of new phages via the lytic cycle. (
  • This highlights the requirement for consistent monitoring of phage populations in the industry. (
  • The improvement in sequencing technology that sparked the microbial metagenomic revolution has provided another tool for understanding the impact of phages on bacterial populations. (
  • Metagenomic analysis of virus populations ("viromics") has provided insight into the surprising extent that phages modulate the bacterial genome. (
  • My group's research focuses on establishing the role of phages in shaping key bacterial populations, notably those of the gut microbiome. (
  • In this environment, temperate phages are common and diverse, and changes in phage populations correlate closely with disease states. (