Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Carbon-Oxygen Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-oxygen bond. EC 6.1.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Teicoplanin: Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Daptomycin: A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.Alcaligenes faecalis: The type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Virginiamycin: A cyclic polypeptide antibiotic complex from Streptomyces virginiae, S. loidensis, S. mitakaensis, S. pristina-spiralis, S. ostreogriseus, and others. It consists of 2 major components, VIRGINIAMYCIN FACTOR M1 and virginiamycin Factor S1. It is used to treat infections with gram-positive organisms and as a growth promoter in cattle, swine, and poultry.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Glycopeptides: Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Kanamycin: Antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces kanamyceticus from Japanese soil. Comprises 3 components: kanamycin A, the major component, and kanamycins B and C, the minor components.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Gelatinases: A class of enzymes that catalyzes the degradation of gelatin by acting on the peptide bonds. EC 3.4.24.-.Kanamycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the antibiotic KANAMYCIN, which can bind to their 70S ribosomes and cause misreading of messenger RNA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.PeptidoglycanInterspersed Repetitive Sequences: Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Streptogramin A: A specific streptogramin group A antibiotic produced by Streptomyces graminofaciens and other bacteria.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Minocycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog, having a 7-dimethylamino and lacking the 5 methyl and hydroxyl groups, which is effective against tetracycline-resistant STAPHYLOCOCCUS infections.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Streptococcaceae: A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Bacitracin: A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers. (From Goodman and Gilman, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1140)Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.DNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Lactams: Cyclic AMIDES formed from aminocarboxylic acids by the elimination of water. Lactims are the enol forms of lactams.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Lactococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Serine-Type D-Ala-D-Ala Carboxypeptidase: A carboxypeptidase that is specific for proteins that contain two ALANINE residues on their C-terminal. Enzymes in this class play an important role in bacterial CELL WALL biosynthesis.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Kanamycin Kinase: A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Acinetobacter baumannii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, commonly found in the clinical laboratory, and frequently resistant to common antibiotics.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Fosfomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Imipenem: Semisynthetic thienamycin that has a wide spectrum of antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, including many multiresistant strains. It is stable to beta-lactamases. Clinical studies have demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of infections of various body systems. Its effectiveness is enhanced when it is administered in combination with CILASTATIN, a renal dipeptidase inhibitor.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Acetoin: A product of fermentation. It is a component of the butanediol cycle in microorganisms. In mammals it is oxidized to carbon dioxide.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.

*Pathogenic bacteria

Both uses may be contributing to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. Phage therapy can ... Enterococcus faecalis, Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacter pylori, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Neisseria ... Audio help) More spoken articles Pathogenic bacteria genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource ... Khachatourians GG (November 1998). "Agricultural use of antibiotics and the evolution and transfer of antibiotic-resistant ...

*Enterococcus faecium

This bacterium has developed multi-drug antibiotic resistance and uses colonization and secreted factors in virulence (enzymes ... Genomes listed below are from the Integrated Microbial Genomes website. The 22 sequenced Enterococcus faecium genomes Linezolid ... Enterococcus faecium has been a leading cause of multi-drug resistant enterococcal infections over Enterococcus faecalis in the ... Enterococcus faecium is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic or nonhemolytic bacterium in the genus Enterococcus. It can be ...

*Multilocus sequence typing

Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has generated growing concerns over its resistance to almost all antibiotics except ... "Molecular Typing of Selected Enterococcus faecalis Isolates: Pilot Study Using Multilocus Sequence Typing and Pulsed-Field Gel ... of the genomic sequence to assign type while disregarding the rest of the bacterial genome). For example, whole-genome ... the role of high-risk clones in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 35 (5): 736-55. doi: ...

*List of antibiotic resistant bacteria

M. tuberculosis develops resistance to drugs by spontaneous mutations in its genomes. Resistance to one drug is common, and ... Multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are associated with nosocomial infections. These strains ... List of antibiotic resistant bacteria at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Animation of Antibiotic Resistance CDC Guideline "Management of ... Play media A list of antibiotic resistant bacteria is provided below. These bacteria have shown antibiotic resistance (or ...

*Enterococcus faecalis

Feb 2002). "In vivo induction of virulence and antibiotic resistance transfer in Enterococcus faecalis mediated by the sex ... "Genome-wide identification of small RNAs in the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis V583". PLoS One. 6 (9): e23948. ... where the naturally high levels of antibiotic resistance found in E. faecalis contribute to its pathogenicity. E. faecalis has ... "Transfer of Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium to the genus Enterococcus nom. rev. as Enterococcus faecalis comb ...

*Bottromycin

The need to find new antibiotics to combat antibiotic resistance means that biologic and synthetic interest in bottromycin will ... Enterococcus faecalis NCTC12201, and E. faecalis NCTC12203 (both VRE). Bottromycin A2 had low micromolar activity against all ... However, bottromycin was found to be a highly modified ribosomal peptide by a combination of genome mining and gene deletion ... Antibiotic Streptomyces Secondary metabolite Peptide MRSA Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus Waisvisz, J. M. (1957). " ...

*Vancomycin

Three main resistance variants have been characterised to date among resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis populations ... The three peptide synthases are located at the start of the region of the bacterial genome linked with antibiotic biosynthesis ... Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus emerged in 1987. Vancomycin resistance evolved in more common pathogenic organisms during the ... Pootoolal J, Neu J, Wright GD (2002). "Glycopeptide antibiotic resistance". Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 42: 381-408. doi: ...

*List of sequenced bacterial genomes

2003). "Role of mobile DNA in the evolution of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis". Science. 299 (5615): 2071-4. ... "Draft Genome Sequences of Propionibacterium acnes Type Strain ATCC6919 and Antibiotic-Resistant Strain HL411PA1". Genome ... 2005). "Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant ... For the genomes of archaea see list of sequenced archaeal genomes. Genome project Human microbiome project List of sequenced ...
Since the advent of the modern antibiotic era there has been an increasing number of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics. The growing antibiotic resistance and the lack in development of new antibiotics poses a serious public health threat worldwide. One of the first steps to combat this problem is to understand the molecular details associated with antibiotic resistance. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common causes of healthcare associated infections (HAI). E. faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that normally resides in the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of humans and other animals. This bacterium possesses intrinsic antibiotic resistance and can also acquire resistance to other antibiotics through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Some multi-drug resistant ...
BioAssay record AID 67253 submitted by ChEMBL: In vitro antibacterial activity against vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VanA, BM4166).
Molecular characterization and multilaboratory evaluation of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 for quality control of screening tests for vancomycin and high-level aminoglycoside resistance in enterococci.
BioAssay record AID 300437 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 after 24 hrs by broth microdilution test.
The prevalence and diversity of antibiotic resistant enterococci populations in samples collected four times from urban sewage treatment plant in Tehran, Iran between June 2005 and July 2006 were studied. Filtered samples were grown on mEnterococci medium containing 4 μg/ml vancomycin after which the enterococci isolates were identified to the species level. All strains were then tested for their resistance against nine antibiotics. Of the 131 isolates, 98 (75%) isolates were identified as Enterococcus gallinarum, followed by 24 (18%) and 9 (7%) for E. faecium and E. casseliflavus, respectively. All E. gallinarum isolates carried vanC1 gene with 64 (65%) and 14 (14%) isolates concomitantly harboured either vanA or vanB gene, respectively. Some E. casseliflavus concomitantly harboured vanA and vanC2 or vanB and vanC2. Typing the total enterococci isolates with a high resolution biochemical fingerprinting method showed a high diversity (D i = ...
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are bacterial strains of the genus Enterococcus that are resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin. Six different types of vancomycin resistance are shown by enterococcus: Van-A, Van-B, Van-C, Van-D, Van-E and Van-G. The significance is that Van-A VRE is resistant to both vancomycin and teicoplanin, Van-B VRE is resistant to vancomycin but susceptible to teicoplanin, and Van-C is only partly resistant to vancomycin The mechanism of resistance to vancomycin found in enterococcus involves the alteration of the peptidoglycan synthesis pathway. The D-alanyl-D-lactate variation results in the loss of one hydrogen-bonding interaction (four, as opposed to five for D-alanyl-D-alanine) being possible between vancomycin and the peptide. The D-alanyl-D-serine variation causes a six-fold loss of affinity between vancomycin and ...
The faecal carrier rate of vancomycin resistant enterococci VRE was surveyed among 616 patients in selected departments of 7 Norwegian hospitals. One Enterococcus gallinarum isolate harbouring a vanB2 element was recovered from a child with malignant disease treated with vancomycin and ceftazidime. No vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis...
COVO MORALES, E.; DIAZ CABALLERO, A. e SIMANCAS PALLARES, M.. Gene expression esp (enterococcus surface protein) of enterococcus faecalis in an in vitro model of extracted teeth. Av Odontoestomatol [online]. 2016, vol.32, n.4, pp.195-204. ISSN 2340-3152.. Objective: To determine the presence and expression of Enterococcus faecalis Esp gene in several strains from an in vitro model on extracted teeth. Methods: An in vitro system was designed to evaluate the biofilm formation through fluorescence microscopy and gene expression that could be associated to biofilm formation. The system consisted of a previously extracted human tooth that was cut and prepared to provide by means of its root canal, an adequate surface for biofilm formation on behalf of Enterococcus faecalis. The system disposed an anaerobe chamber that allowed the growth of bacteria in broth culture and avoided contamination with ...
Enterococcus faecalis biofilm traits and distribution characteristics in China have not been clarified. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of E. faecalis biofilm formation in a sample of clinical isolates and to explore the virulence factors associated with biofilm formation in those isolates. A total of 265 E. faecalis isolates were collected from patients in Shenzhen, China. Virulence genes were detected within the genomes of the microbes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The isolates were subjected to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) based on housekeeping genes. Biofilms were detected by crystal violet staining. The expression levels of the clinical E. faecalis isolates genes were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of biofilm formation among E. faecalis clinical isolates was 47.2%. MLST yielded 44 different ...
Enterococcus faecalis ATCC ® 700802D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Enterococcus faecalis Strain V583 TypeStrain=False Application:
Enterococcus sp. bacteria. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through Enterococcus sp. bacteria. These were formerly grouped with the Streptococcus sp. bacteria. These are oval-shaped cocci, seen here forming two paired groups. They are a normal inhabitant of human and animal intestines, but they may become pathogenic. They are known to cause bacterial endocarditis (infection of the lining of the heart) after surgery, and may infect the urinary tract, wounds and skin ulcers. They are resilient bacteria, and can survive temperatures from 10 to 60 degrees Celsius. Magnification unknown. - Stock Image B236/0118
The distribution characteristics of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the resistance of enterococcus isolates to various antibiotics were investigated in Yae River, which flows through Miyazaki city, Japan. The prevalence of VRE among specimens collected from the urban river basin using mEI agar was 0.9% (2 of 226 enterococcal isolates). In the 333 enterococcal isolates obtained using mEI agar or vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar, the possession of the vancomycin-resistant genes (vanA, vanB, vanC1, and vanC2/C3) was examined using multiplex PCR analysis. Although VRE possessing vanA and vanB were not detected in any isolates, isolates possessing vanC2/C3 were detected at all sampling sites and on all days. All isolates (101 strains) possessing vanC2/C3 that were obtained on vancomycin-supplemented mEI agar were identified as E. casseliflavus and analyzed for genotypes using pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. These E. casseliflavus ...
Salah satu penyebab kegagalan perawatan endodontik adalah mikroba yang bertahan di dalam sistem saluran akar, termasuk Enterococcus faecalis. Senyawa yang terdapat pada ekstrak etanol rimpang jahe yang terdiri dari gingerol, paradol, shogaol, zingerone dan minyak atsiri diduga merupakan golongan senyawa bioaktif yang dapat menghambat pertumbuhan mikroba. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui efek antimikroba ekstrak etanol rimpang jahe (EERJ) terhadap Enterococcus faecalis. Penelitian bersifat eksperimental laboratorik. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan kertas cakram steril yang ditetesi ekstrak etanol rimpang jahe (Zingiber offcinale Rosc.) dengan konsentrasi 5%, 10%, 20% dan 40% dan klorheksidin 0,2% sebagai kontrol positif serta kertas cakram steril yang ditetesi akuades steril sebagai kontrol negatif pada medium Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA) yang telah dibiakkan bakteri Enterococcus faecalis. Cakram ...
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens in many countries with the genotype vanA and vanB being the most important is hospital environment. The objectives of this study is the Molecular characterization of VRE isolated from hematology-oncology patients. Fecal/rectal samples from 50 randomly selected patients together with blood samples from the 11 patients who developed bacteremia. Enterococcal isolates were identified and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing to vancomycin by agar screen method. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by determining its minimum inhibitory concentration by broth dilution method. Susceptibility of the VRE isolates to different antimicrobials was also determined using the disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was used to detect vanA and vanB genes among the isolated VRE strains. Fifty enterococcal strains were isolated from the fecal-rectal samples, of which six (12 %) were VRE (3 E. faecium, 2 E. ...
Enterococcus raffinosus ATCC ® 49464™ Designation: AmMS 239 TypeStrain=False Application: Quality control strain for MicroScan [Reg TM] products
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural insights into the alanine racemase from Enterococcus faecalis. AU - Priyadarshi, Amit. AU - Lee, Eun Hye. AU - Sung, Min Woo. AU - Nam, Ki Hyun. AU - Lee, Won Ho. AU - Kim, Eunice EunKyeong. AU - Hwang, Kwang Yeon. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Alanine racemase (AlaR) is a bacterial enzyme that belongs to the fold-type III group of pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes. AlaR catalyzes the interconversion between l- and d-alanine, which is important for peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This enzyme is common in prokaryotes, but absent in eukaryotes, which makes it an attractive target for the design of new antibacterial drugs. Here, we report the crystal structures of both the apoenzyme and the d-cycloserine (DCS) complex of AlaR from the pathogenic bacterium Enterococcus faecalis v583, at a resolution of 2.5 Å. DCS is a suicide inhibitor of AlaR and, as such, serves as an antimicrobial agent and has been ...
Enterococcus faecalis - formerly classified as part of the group D Streptococcus system - is a Gram-positive, commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Like other species in the genus Enterococcus, E. faecalis can cause life-threatening infections in humans, especially in the nosocomial (hospital) environment, where the naturally high levels of antibiotic resistance found in E. faecalis contribute to its pathogenicity. E. faecalis has been frequently found in root canal-treated teeth in prevalence values ranging from 30% to 90% of the cases. Root canal-treated teeth are about nine times more likely to harbor E. faecalis than cases of primary infections. E. faecalis is a nonmotile microbe; it ferments glucose without gas production, and does not produce a catalase reaction with hydrogen peroxide. ...
Enterococcus casseliflavus is a commensal of the intestinal tract of livestock animals, such as cattle, horses, and sheep (1, 2). Antibiotic resistance is prevalent within this species, with isolates from livestock animals being reported as resistant to vancomycin, tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin, and gentamicin (3-5). Here, we report the draft genome sequences of three strains of E. casseliflavus, strains UFMG-H7, UFMG-H8, and UFMG-H9, which were isolated from urine collected from healthy dairy cattle in Brazil.. Sample collection took place at the Agricultural Research Company of Minas Gerais State in May 2019 and was previously approved by the Ethics Committee in Animal Experimentation of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil (CEUA/UFMG approval number 40/2019). All of the assays performed were in accordance with relevant guidelines. The heifers sampled were from a herd composed of pure-by-origin Gyr cattle. For ...
BACKGROUND: Studies on transmission of Enterococcus faecalis among chickens during hatch have not been carried out so far. Information about vertical transmission and subsequent spreading and colonization of the cloacal mucosa through cloacal drinking during hatch are important to understand the epidemiology of E. faecalis infections. In the present investigation vertical transmission and subsequent spreading and colonization of the cloacal mucosa of chickens by E. faecalis through cloacal drinking were examined. METHODS: Two different batches of layer chickens originating from 45 weeks old Brown and White Lohmann parents, respectively from the same farm were sampled in the hatcher. Isolates were confirmed to be E. faecalis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and further by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to state their population structure and comparison made to sequence types previously obtained from chicken. RESULTS: A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunological Characterization of Pheromone-induced Proteins Associated with Sexual Aggregation in Enterococcus faecalis. AU - Nakayama, Jiro. AU - Watarai, Hiroshi. AU - Isogai, Akira. AU - Suzuki, Akinori. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - Sexual aggregation involved in conjugative transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmids pPDl and pADl is enhanced by sex pheromones cPDl and cADl, respectively, which are excreted from recipient cells. PD78 (78kDa) and AD74 (74kDa) were detectable on the surface of donors harboring pPDl and pAD1, respectively, at the time of cell aggregation. The proteins PD78 and AD74 were purified and used to raise anti-PD78 and anti-AD74 antibodies. The antibodies blocked the sexual aggregation and the plasmid transfer. Anti-AD74 antibody reacted to both 153 kDa proteins extracted from cPDl and cADl-induced donor cells after lysozyme digestion of cell wall. Pheromone-induced synthesis of PD78 and ...
Enterococcus faecalis is recognized as one of the leading pathogens causing nosocomial infections. Here we report a draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis SK460, isolated from a chronic diabetic foot ulcer patient. This strain exhibits various biofilm-associated genes, virulence genes, and antibiotic-resistance genes related to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance.. ...
CHARACTERIZATION OF AZO DYE REDUCTION IN ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS By SUMIT PUNJ Bachelor of Science University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India 1998 Master of Science University of Mumbai Mumbai, India 2000 Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate College of the Oklahoma State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY July, 2008 ii CHARACTERIZATION OF AZO DYE REDUCTION IN ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS Dissertation Approved: Dr. Gilbert H. John Dissertation Adviser Dr. Robert L. Burnap Dr. Rolf A. Prade Dr. Babu Z. Fathepure Dr. Carol L. Bender Dr. A. Gordon Emslie Dean of the Graduate College iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to my adviser, Dr. Gilbert H. John who has been very patient and understanding throughout my years in the program. He has given me the opportunity to develop and execute my ideas and has always been very encouraging. I sincerely thank each one of my committee ...
Enterococci are important nosocomial pathogens, with Enterococcus faecalis most commonly responsible for human infections. In this study, we used several measures to test the hypothesis that house flies, Musca domestica (L.), acquire and disseminate antibiotic-resistant and potentially virulent E. faecalis from wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF) to the surrounding urban environment. House flies and sludge fromfourWWTF (1-4) as well as house flies from three urban sites close to WWTF-1 were collected and cultured for enterococci. Enterococci were identified, quantified, screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and assessed for clonality. Of the 11 antibiotics tested, E. faecalis was most commonly resistant to tetracycline, doxycycline, streptomycin, gentamicin, and erythromycin, and these traits were intra-species horizontally transferrable by in vitro ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Esculin hydrolysis was first described by Rochaix in 1924.(8) Swan first introduced the use of Bile Esculin Agar in 1954.(9) In 1970, Facklam and Moody determined that the use of the bile esculin test was a reliable way of identifying group D streptococci from non-group D streptococci.(3) When using BEA in biochemical testing of group D streptococci, they found that all group D streptococci will blacken this medium.(3) Other researchers have used BEA for the presumptive identification of Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., and Serratia spp., among the Enterobacteriaceae. This medium contains esculin, ferric citrate to provide ferric ions, and 4% oxbile to inhibit most other strains of non-group D streptococci. Esculin is hydrolyzed by group D streptococci to form dextrose and esculin. This compound reacts with the ferric ions contained within the medium, turning the medium from its original amber color to a dark brown to black. Thus the tolerance to the presence of bile and the hydrolysis of ...
Enterococcus hirae ATCC ® 10541D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Enterococcus hirae strain FDA M19 TypeStrain=False Application:
During and shortly after birth, newborn infants are colonized with enterococci. This study analyzes predictors for early enterococcal colonization of infants in a neonatal intensive care unit and describes risk factors associated with multidrugresist
Citation: Fisher, K. and Phillips C. (2009). The use of an antimicrobial citrus vapour to reduce Enterococcus sp. on salad products. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 44 (9), pp.1748-1754. ...
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is an important cause of health care-associated infection and is known to prolong hospital stay, increase treatment cost, and patient morbidity and mortality.1 2 3 4 5 A VRE carrier was defined as any patient with VRE isolated from a clinical or surveillance specimen. The first case of VRE in Hong Kong was identified at Queen Elizabeth Hospital (QEH) in 1997.6 In 2010, VRE constituted 0.4% of all Enterococcus isolates. Apart from individual small-scale outbreaks,7 8 VRE had not gained a foothold in Hong Kong. Queen Elizabeth Hospital is the largest public acute general tertiary hospital under the administration of the Hospital Authority (HA) with 1800 beds. There are more than 160 000 admissions with 104 000 in-patients treated annually. A major VRE outbreak occurred in QEH in 2013. There was an abnormal increase in the incidence of VRE carriage in multiple clinical departments compared with baseline. Prior to this outbreak, VRE control measures were ...
Objectives: To characterize, phenotypically and genotypically, the first Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate harbouring a vanG operon.Methods: The antibiotic resistance profile of E. faecium 16-346 was determined and its whole genome sequenced using PacBio technology. Attempts to transfer vancomycin resistance by filter mating were performed and the inducibility of expression of the vanG operon was studied by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in the presence or absence of subinhibitory concentrations of vancomycin.Results: E. faecium 16-346 was resistant to rifampicin (MIC |4 mg/L), erythromycin (MIC |4 mg/L), tetracycline (MIC |16 mg/L) and vancomycin (MIC 8 mg/L), but susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC 0.5 mg/L). The strain harboured the vanG operon in its chromosome, integrated in a 45.5 kb putative mobile genetic element, similar to that of Enterococcus faecalis BM4518. We ...
Conjugative transfer of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pCF10 is induced by the peptide pheromone cCF10 when recipient-produced cCF10 is detected by donors. cCF10 is produced by proteolytic processing of the signal sequence of a chromosomally encoded lipoprotein (CcfA). In donors, endogenously produced cCF10 is carefully controlled to prevent constitutive expression of conjugation functions, an energetically wasteful process, except in vivo, where endogenous cCF10 induces a conjugation-linked virulence factor. Endogenous cCF10 is controlled by two plasmid-encoded products; a membrane protein PrgY reduces pheromone levels in donors, and a secreted inhibitor peptide iCF10 inhibits the residual endogenous pheromone that escapes PrgY control. In this study we genetically determined the amino acid specificity determinants within PrgY, cCF10, and the cCF10 precursor that are necessary for cCF10 processing and for PrgY-mediated control. We showed that amino acid residues 125 to ...
VRE, like many bacteria, can be spread from one person to another through casual contact or through contaminated objects. Most often, VRE infections are spread from the hands of health care workers to a patient in a hospital or other facility such as a nursing home. VRE infections are not usually spread through the air like the common cold or flu virus unless you have VRE pneumonia and are coughing, which is rare.. If you are healthy, your chances of getting a VRE infection are very low. Even if you have been exposed to VRE, or have VRE in your body, you are not likely to get an infection. VRE infections typically only occur among people who have weakened immune systems, such as people who have long-term illnesses or people who have had major surgery or other medical procedures and have been treated with multiple antibiotics.. Experts do not know exactly why some people become infected with VRE and others do not. But they do know that VRE infections are more likely to develop when ...
As a popular medicine for probiotic therapy to treat with patients with diarrhea, the safety of Shin Biofermin S is paramount. Therefore, in the present study, the species of the SBS-1 strain isolated from a commercial medicine (Shin Biofermin S) was determined via genome sequencing. Species identification is important for evaluating safety and is favorable for formulating therapeutic strategies. The scientific names of E. faecium have been changed several times. Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium were separate until 1984, when DNA-DNA and DNA-rRNA hybridization tests revealed that they belonged to Enterococcus instead (5). Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Volume 3: The Firmicutes also demonstrated this result (6), such that Streptococcus faecalis was renamed Enterococcus faecalis. In the food and health industry, E. faecium and E. faecalis have been used to improve ...
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered hotspots for the environmental dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinants. Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are candidates for gauging the degree of AMR bacteria in wastewater. Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are recognized indicators of fecal contamination in water. Comparative genomics of enterococci isolated from conventional activated sludge (CAS) and biological aerated filter (BAF) WWTPs was conducted. VRE isolates, including E. faecalis (n = 24), E. faecium (n = 11), E. casseliflavus (n = 2) and E. gallinarum (n = 2) were selected for sequencing based on WWTP source, species and AMR phenotype. The pangenomes of E. faecium and E. faecalis were both open. The genomic fraction related to the mobilome was positively correlated with genome size in E. faecium (p | ...
Enterococci are isolated from 10% to 15% of patients with endocarditis (1-3) and rank as the third commonest cause of endocarditis, behind viridans streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus (3). These group D streptococci (Lancefield classification) differ physiologically from most other streptococci by their ability to grow in media containing 40% bile and to cleave esculin. Enterococci are distinguished from nonenterococcal group D organisms (that is, S. bovis or S. equinus) by their growth in broth containing 6.5% sodium chloride. Enterococcal endocarditis is usually caused by S. faecalis and rarely by S. faecium or S. durans.. Therapy for patients with enterococcal endocarditis ...
Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. faecalis ATCC ® 8750™ Designation: 16 TypeStrain=True Application: Produces nitrilase Quality control strain Quality control strain for Autobac products
We showed in vitro and in experimental endocarditis that glycopeptide resistance in enterococci did not affect the activity of GAR-936, as demonstrated by similar activities of the drug against two isogenic strains differing by their glycopeptide susceptibility. This result, which was already reported by others (11; S. M. Mikels, E. B. Lenoy, W. Allen, S. Compton, and W. J. Weiss, Abstr. 38th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., abstr. 135, 1998), could be anticipated from the absence of relation between mechanisms of resistance to glycopeptides and to tetracyclines. GAR-936 was not less active against a tetracycline-resistant VanA type E. faecium isolate than against a tetracycline-susceptible VanA type E. faecalis strain, showing that the ability of GAR-936 to overcome the mechanisms responsible for tetracycline resistance is relevant in vivo. Since glycopeptide resistance is often associated to multidrug ...
Food supplements containing viable bacteria, so called probiotics, have been suggested to have beneficial health effects due to their influence on the normal microflora. However, there has been safety concern regarding probiotics containing Enterococcus faecium. Although part of the normal intestinal microflora in humans, enterococci can cause infections such as urinary tract infections, septicaemia, and endocarditis. Enterococci are also inclined to develop antibiotic resistance and their hardy nature promotes survival and dissemination in the hospital setting. Although the importance of E.faecium as a bloodstream isolate is increasing, little regarding its virulence is known. One virulence trait attributed to E. faecium is the enterococcal surface protein, Esp, encoded by the esp gene. Since enterococci have different roles from the human perspective, such as occurrence in food, as probiotic strains, members of the normal intestinal microflora, and as the ...
The treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) is still a challenge. Despite the availability of transoesophageal echocardiography which enables earlier diagnosis, and the use of appropriate antibiotics, the death rate remains high (20%). The reasons are that the population continues to become older with more comorbidities and more aggressive microorganisms like Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis are more frequently responsible for IE. These microorganisms induce more tissue destruction in a short time, leading to severe heart valve dysfunction early in the course of the disease. This evolution necessitates valve surgery, according to the 2006 ACC/AHA1 and 2009 ESC guidelines.2 However, the issue is the timing of surgery. Every delay in surgery compromises the final result. However, there may … ...
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) has emerged as an important global nosocomial pathogen, and this trend is associated with the spread of high-risk clones. Here, we determined the genetic and phenotypic features of 93 VREfm isolates that were obtained from patients in 13 hospitals in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil, during 2012-2013. All the isolates were vancomycin-resistant and harbored the vanA gene. Only 6 (6.5%) of the VREfm isolates showed the ability to form biofilm. The 93 isolates analyzed belong to a single pulsed-field gel electrophoresis lineage and presented six subtypes. MLST genotyping showed that all VREfm belonged to ST412 (the high-risk clone, hospital-adapted). The present study describes the dissemination of ST412 clone in the local hospitals. The clonal spread of these ST412 isolates in the area we analyzed as well as other hospitals in southeastern Brazil supports the importance of identifying and controlling the presence of these microorganisms in ...
In this study, twelve Mallards living in an artificial wastewater wetland were exposed to treated wastewater containing 1 x 103- 4 x 103 enterococci 100 ml-1 for a period of 55 days. Faecal samples were collected before, during and after exposure and analysed for Enterococcus spp. The isolates were phenotyped using the PhenePlateTM system. 270 Enterococcus spp. of Mallard origin were analysed, together with 116 Enterococcus spp. isolates from treated wastewater and from incoming raw wastewater. In general, the Mallard and wastewater enterococci isolates belonged to different phenotypes, although several sharing identical phenotypic profiles were found. One E. faecalis phenotype was found in Mallards before, during and after exposure to treated wastewater, as well as in raw and treated wastewater. Our results indicate that there is a common source of enterococci for Mallards and humans. We propose an increased focus on emissions of human ...
Introduction. Microorganisms are the major causative factor associated with endodontic treatment failure.1,2 The success of endodontic treatment depends on the reduction or elimination of bacteria present in the root canal system. Residual pulpal tissue, bacteria, and dentine debris may persist in the irregularities of root canal systems, even after meticulous mechanical preparation.3 Therefore, irrigant solutions should be used in combination with canal preparation.4-6 Root canal irrigants are used during chemomechanical procedures not only as antimicrobial agents but also to flush out loose debris, to lubricate the dentinal walls, and to dissolve organic compounds in the canal.7, 8 Chemomechanical preparation is one of the most important phases of endodontic treatment and irrigants such as sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), citric acid, and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) are commonly used. The efficacy of these procedures also depends upon the vulnerability of the species involved.9 Many ...
This retrospective cohort study revealed that linezolid resistance in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium was dependent on prior linezolid exposure and duration of linezolid therapy. These strains of E. faecium were resistant to the entire class of oxazolidinones.. ...
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus Faecium Infections - Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast - 2025 is a market research report available at US $5750 for a Single User PDF License from RnR Market Research Reports Library.
The sale of small turtles is banned from the US market due to concerns about their excretion of Salmonella spp. To produce a safe pet for the export market, the Louisiana pet turtle industry uses 1000 μg/ml gentamicin sulfate baths to eradicate Salmonella spp. from turtle eggs. In 1999, we analyzed bacterial samples recovered from turtle farms and found that strains of Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae and other bacteria such as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, were resistant to high concentrations of gentamicin (|2000 μg/ml) and to other aminoglycosides. The goal of this study was to identify the gene(s) contributing to the high-level gentamicin resistance phenotype observed in bacteria from environmental samples with turtle farming activity, particularly the salmonellae, and to estimate their incidence in these bacteria, as well as to explore the molecular elements that contribute to ...
Agarwal, J., Kalyan, R. and Singh, M. (2009) High-Level Aminoglycoside Resistance and Beta-Lactamase Production in Enterococci at a Tertiary Care Hospital in India. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 62, 158-159.
0141] FIGS. 5A to 5E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 1. FIGS. 6A to 6E are bar charts showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans as well as Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis, respectively, when treated with micelles formed from Example 3. FIG. 7 is a bar chart showing the viability of Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis when treated with micelles formed from Example 2. Example 2 does not show a strong inhibition effect towards bacterial growth, having a MIC of higher than 66.4 micromole/L against Bacillus subtilis (FIG. 7). This is attributed to the ...
Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium are difficult nosocomial pathogens to treat. Daptomycin (DAP) is a key front-line bactericidal antibiotic against VRE. Development of DAP resistance during therapy raises concerns about the role of DAP monotherapy in severe enterococcal infections. Limited previous data suggest that ceftaroline (CPT) enhances the in vitro activity of DAP against enterococci. We sought to evaluate the in vivo activity of DAP plus CPT against a DAP-R strain of E. faecium using an experimental infective endocarditis (IE) rat model. Methods: MICs and time-kill assays were performed using standard methods. IE was produced in carotid artery and jugular vein catheterized rats by intracardiac inoculation of 10X the ID90 of E. faecium HOU497. Therapy (3 days, via infusion pump) was begun 24 h after inoculation. Some animals were sacrificed at the time of therapy initiation to evaluate bacterial loads (T=0). Drug regimens included ...
The last 30 years Enterococcus faecium has become an important nosocomial pathogen in hospitals worldwide. The aim of this study was to obtain insight in the cell surface proteome of E. faecium when grown in laboratory and clinically relevant conditions. Enterococcus faecium E1162, a clinical blood stream isolate, was grown ... read more until mid-log phase in brain heart infusion medium (BHI) with, or without 0.02% bile salts, Tryptic Soy Broth with 1% glucose (TSBg) and urine, and its cell surface was "shaved" using immobilized trypsin. Peptides were identified using MS/MS. Mapping against the translated E1162 whole genome sequence identified 67 proteins that were differentially detected in different conditions. In urine, 14 proteins were significantly more and nine proteins less abundant relative to the other conditions. Growth in BHI-bile and TSBg, revealed four and six proteins, respectively, which were uniquely present in these conditions while two ...
A 77 year old man was admitted to our department because of enterorrhagia and progressive anaemia. On physical examination he was pale, dyspnoeic, and an aortic systodiastolic murmur (Levine grade 3) was heard. Laboratory examination showed microcytic hypochromic anaemia (haemoglobin 62 g/l). An echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular hypertrophy and a calcific aortic valve with moderate-severe stenoinsufficiency. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy, computed tomography of the abdomen and pelvis, and arteriography of gastrointestinal vessels did not disclose the origin of the bleeding. No antibiotic prophylaxis was performed before procedures. Fifteen days after colonoscopy, the patient became febrile (body temperature up to 40.1°C). A repeat echocardiogram showed two small and mobile vegetations on the right and non-coronary aortic cusps, and transoesophageal echocardiogram confirmed this finding. Three blood specimens for culture were drawn and within seven days all ...
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The pentose phosphate pathway is a process of glucose turnover that produces NADPH as reducing equivalents and pentoses as essential parts of nucleotides. There are two different phases in the pathway. One is irreversible oxidative phase in which glucose-6P is converted to ribulose-5P by oxidative decarboxylation, and NADPH is generated [MD:M00006]. The other is reversible non-oxidative phase in which phosphorylated sugars are interconverted to generate xylulose-5P, ribulose-5P, and ribose-5P [MD:M00007]. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) formed from ribose-5P [MD:M00005] is an activated compound used in the biosynthesis of histidine and purine/pyrimidine nucleotides. This pathway map also shows the Entner-Doudoroff pathway where 6-P-gluconate is dehydrated and then cleaved into pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3P [MD:M00008 ...
Enterococcus faecium BM4165 and BM4178, isolated from immunocompromised patients, one treated with vancomycin, were inducibly resistant to high levels of the glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin but susceptible to the new lipopeptide daptomycin (LY146032). Strain BM4165 was also resistant to macrolidelincosamide-streptogramin B-type (MLS) antibiotics. The genes conferring resistance to glycopeptides and to MLS antibiotics in strain BM4165 were carried on plasmids pIP819 and pIP821, respectively; pIP819 also carried genes that encoded resistance to MLS antibiotics. The two plasmids, which were distinct although related, were self-transferable to other E. faecium strains. Plasmid pIP819 could also conjugate to E. faecalis, Streptococcus sanguis, S. pyogenes, S. lactis, and Listeria monocytogenes, in which it conferred inducible glycopeptide ...
VRE (Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus) is an infection caused by the bacteria Enterococcus which has become resistant to treatment with vancomycin, an antibiotic commonly used to treat this type of infection. Enterococcus is a type of bacteria that is normally found in human intestines (gut) and the female genital tract and is also often found in the environment without causing disease. When it becomes resistant to vancomycin, it is then called vancomycin resistant Enterococcus or VRE. VRE can be present in an individual but not cause symptoms, this is often called colonization of the bacteria. Sometimes however, the VRE bacteria can cause a variety of infections in the urinary tract, the bloodstream or in open wounds on the skin. VRE is spread by simple skin to skin contact or by touching surfaces contaminated with the bacteria. Most VRE infections spread this way in hospitals. VRE cannot be spread through the air by ...
RESULTS: A total of 66 of the 405 rectal swab surveillance cultures obtained from 46 inpatients were positive for VRE, among which 27 inpatients were culture-positive for VRE on admission to medical ICU, and 19 inpatients were initially culture-negative but converted to culture-positive after admission. All isolates carried vanA gene consisting of 51 Enterococcusgallinarum, 13 Enterococcus faecium, and two Eenterococcus casseliflavus. Of the 51 E. gallinarum isolates, 40 were type ST 341, seven were ST 252, two were ST 78, and two were ST 64. The Enterococcus spp., MLST and PFGE subtypes were almost similar among these two groups of inpatients. Linezolid and tigecycline were most active against VRE in vitro ...
Laboratory testing shows that, when cleaned regularly, CuVerro surfaces kill greater than 99.9% of the following bacteria within 2 hours of exposure: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli O157:H7, and Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE). The use of CuVerro® surfaces is a supplement to and not a substitute for standard infection control practices; users must continue to follow all current infection control practices, including those practices related to cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces. This surface has been shown to reduce microbial contamination, but do not necessarily prevent cross contamination. CuVerro® is a registered trademark of GBC Metals LLC and is used with permission. ...
... , A - Z Programs & Services. At Ross Memorial Hospital, its our mission to provide quality acute and continuing care services to the residents of the City of Kawartha Lakes and adjacent communities. In fulfilling this mission, RMH is committed to: Anticipating and responding to the health needs of the community.
RESULTS: Global rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii were 38% and 43% respectively. No S. aureus isolates were resistant to linezolid or vancomycin; all isolates were susceptible to tigecycline. 2% of Enterococcus faecalis and 28% of Enterococcus faecium were vancomycin-resistant. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers accounted for 22% of Klebsiella pneumoniae and 16% of Escherichia coli. Resistance to minocycline among E. faecalis, E. faecium, K. pneumoniae and E. coli decreased significantly (p,0.0001). There were significant increases (p,0.0001) in A. baumannii resistance to cefepime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam ...
Background: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) are important hospital-acquired pathogens among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. We examined the incidence and outcomes of patients with VRE colonization and bacteremia (VREB) over a ten-year period at a center that routinely screens and uses barrier precautions for VRE. Methods: Adults receiving their first allogeneic HCT at our center between September 2007 and August 2016 were eligible for inclusion. Patients who were positive either by standardized pre-HCT stool/rectal screening or at any point two years prior to HCT were considered VRE colonized. Patients with acquired VRE were those with positive VRE cultures only post-HCT. Colonization and 100-day post-HCT VREB incidence rates were compared over time using linear regression. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to assess the relationship between 100-day mortality and: a) pre-HCT colonization, and b) the number of days with sequential VREB cultures. ...
Licorice, which is the underground part of Glycyrrhiza species, has been used widely in Asian and Western countries as a traditional medicine and as a food additive. Our continuous investigation on the constituents of roots and stolons of Glycyrrhiza uralensis led to the isolation of two new phenolics, in addition to 14 known compounds. Structural studies including spectroscopic and simple chemical derivatizations revealed that both of the new compounds had 2-aryl-3-methylbenzofuran structures. An examination of the effectiveness of licorice phenolics obtained in this study on vancomycin-resistant strains Enterococcus faecium FN-1 and Enterococcus faecalis NCTC12201 revealed that licoricidin showed the most potent antibacterial effects against both of E. faecalis and E. faecium with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.9 × 10−5 M. 8-(γ,γ-Dimethylallyl)-wighteone, isoangustone A, 3-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl)-kievitone, glyasperin C, and ...
The bactericidal activities of daptomycin, vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid at human peak free serum concentrations (C(max,free)) were determined against Staphylococcus aureus (one methicillin-susceptible and two methicillin-resistant strains), Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium (one vancomycin-susceptible and one vancomycin-resistant strain of each). Daptomycin was rapidly bactericidal against 7/7 strains at C(max,free) of 22.0 mg/L (corresponding to 63% protein binding) and against 3/7 strains at 4.8 mg/L (corresponding to 92% protein binding). Vancomycin (18.0 mg/L) was bactericidal against only two strains. Both teicoplanin (4.5 mg/L) and linezolid (10.4 mg/L) were consistently bacteriostatic. Daptomycin is a useful option for the treatment of Gram-positive infections owing to its strong bactericidal activity ...
Surface filamentous structures designated pili, and implicated in virulence, have been found on the surfaces of several Gram-positive pathogens. This work describes the conditional expression of two phenotypically distinct pilus-like structures, designated PilA and PilB, on the surface of a hospital-adapted Enterococcus faecium bloodstream isolate. E. faecium is an emerging Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe disease, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Expression of PilA- and PilB-type pili was analysed during different phases of growth in broth culture. During growth, PilA and PilB pilin subunits were expressed around the cross-wall in early-exponential-phase cells. Polymerization and migration of short PilB-type pili towards the poles occurred in cells from the exponential phase and long polymerized pili were expressed at the poles of cells grown to stationary phase. In contrast, PilA-type pili were not expressed in broth culture, but only when cells were ...
The high sensitivity of amplification by PCR requires the specimen to be processed in an environment in which contamination of the specimen by Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus DNA is unlikely.. Submit only 1 of the following specimens:. Supplies:. Culturette (BBL Culture Swab) (T092). C and S Vial (T058). Stool container, Small (Random), 4 oz Random (T288). Preferred:. Specimen Type: Perianal, perirectal, rectal. Container/Tube: Culture transport swab (Dacron or rayon swab with aluminum or plastic shaft with either Stuart or Amies liquid medium [T092]). Specimen Volume: Swab. Acceptable:. Specimen Type: Preserved Stool. Container/Tube: Commercially available transport system specific for recovery of enteric pathogens from fecal specimens (15 mL of non-nutritive transport medium containing phenol red as a pH indicator, either Cary-Blair, Para-Pak C and S [T058]). Specimen Volume: Representative portion of stool. Collection Instructions:. 1. Collect fresh stool and submit 1 gram or 5 mL in ...
Objectives: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of using calcium hydroxide as intra-canal medication on elimination of Enterococcus faecalis after root canal obturation. Methods: Sixty extracted human teeth were infected with E.faecalis for 3 weeks. The canals were prepared by a standard step-back technique and divided in two groups. In the first group (G1) calcium hydroxide was used as intra canal medication for 7 days and obturated with guta percha and sealer. The specimens of group two (G2) were obturated with guta percha and sealer immediately. All teeth incubated for 60 days .Each specimen were transversally cut in middle of the root. Dentine chips for detection E. faecalis were removed from two different depth of the apical intra walls with two sterile burs. Samples were immediately collected in separate test tubes containing BHI broth medium, and cultured to agar plates and colony forming units were counted. Results: ...
Virulence determinants in vancomycin-resistant **Enterococcus faecium vanB**: clonal distribution, prevalence and significance of **esp** and **hyl** in Australian patients with haematological disorders ...
Principle: Bile-esculin test is based on the ability of certain bacteria, notably the group D streptococci and Enterococcus species, to hydrolyze esculin in the presence of bile (4% bile salts or 40% bile).. Note: Many bacteria can hydrolyze esculin, but few can do so in the presence of bile. Esculin is a glycosidic coumarin derivative (6-beta-glucoside-7-hydroxy-coumarin). The two moieties of the molecule (glucose and 7-hydroxycoumarin) are linked together by an ester bond through oxygen. For this test, esculin is incorporated into a medium containing 4% bile salts.. Bacteria that are bile-esculin positive are, first of all, able to grow in the presence of bile salts. Hydrolysis of the esculin in the medium results in the formation of glucose and a compound called esculetin.. ...
To determine the prevalence of indicator bacteria resistant to antimicrobials among poultry in three Southeast Asian countries (Vietnam, Indonesia and Thailand), we examined the antimicrobial susceptibilities of commensal bacteria isolated from chickens. In total, 125, 117 and 180 isolates of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively, were
Despite the uniformly favorable results following the use of antibiotics in the therapy of subacute bacterial endocarditis due to Streptococcus viridans,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 the same treatment programs when the enterococcus (Streptococcus fecalis) is the offending organism have mostly met with failure. Although an occasional success has been reported,19, 20, 21, 22 the therapy of enterococcus endocarditis still remains a challenge.. The purpose of this communication is to analyze the factors responsible for the failures and to describe methods which have been adopted in an effort ...
The effects of Enterococcus faecium on growth, intestinal barrier function, and immune response in Escherichia coli O78-challenged broiler chickens were investigated. Three hundred eight 1-day-old Ross male chickens were randomly assigned into three treatment groups: negative control (C), E. coli O78-infected positive (EP), and E. coli O78-infected with 200 mg/kg E. faecium dietary supplementation (EF). E. faecium significantly increased the body weight on day 10 (P , 0.05) and day 15. Furthermore, these birds had a greater average daily gain compared with the other groups during days 1-10 (P , 0.05). The death rate of the EF chickens dramatically declined. E. faecium supplementation improved the jejunal villus height and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (P , 0.05) 3 and 7 days post-infection. The mRNA expression of claudin-1 significantly increased by E. faecium (P , 0.05) 3 and 7 days post-infection, and Mucin2 was markedly enhanced (P , 0.05) 3 days post-infection. E. faecium ...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian brown propolis as an intracanal medication against Enterococcus faecalis. Thirty dentin discs prepared from intact freshly extracted bovine maxillary central incisors were infected with E. faecalis for 21 days. The specimens were distributed into six groups according to the medicament used as follows: G1- calcium hydroxide paste; G2- Carbowax 400 (control group); G3- 20% brown propolis paste; G4- 40% brown propolis paste; G5- 20% brown propolis paste + calcium hydroxide paste; and G6- 40% brown propolis paste + calcium hydroxide paste. The experimental pastes were placed into the canal lumen and left for 14 days. After each period, irrigation was performed with sterile saline to remove the medicament, and the canals were dried with sterile paper points. The dentin chips were removed from the canals with sequential sterile round burs at low speed and were immediately ...
This question follows from a new study published in the journal Current Microbiology titled, "The Effect of Glyphosate on Potential Pathogens and Beneficial Members of Poultry Microbiota In Vitro," which found that the active ingredient in Monsantos Roundup herbicide, known as glyphosate, negatively impacted the gastrointestinal bacteria of poultry in vitro. The researchers presented evidence that highly pathogenic bacteria resisted glyphosate, whereas beneficial bacteria were moderately to highly susceptible to it. Some of the beneficial species that were found to be suppressed by glyphosate were Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus spp. The pathogenic species which were found to resist glyphosate toxicity were Salmonella Entritidis, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum.. The researchers stated that "A reduction of beneficial ...
Enterococci are a group of commensal bacteria that are important nosocomial pathogens. They are abundant in human sewage and wastewater treatment facilities (WWTF). This study focused on the role of house flies, Musca domestica, in the ecology of enterococci at WWTF in both field and laboratory experiments. The first study objective focused on sampling and characterizing enterococci from house flies and wastewater sludge from four WWTF in northeastern Kansas. Enterococci were quantified, identified, and screened for antibiotic resistance and virulence traits, and genotyped. The profiles of enterococci (spp. diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence) from WWTF sludge and the house flies were similar, indicating that the flies successfully acquired the bacteria from the WWTF substrate. Enterococci with the greatest amount of antibiotic resistant and virulence traits originated from the WWTF that processed meat waste from ...
Biological degradation of phenol by Alcaligenes faecalis with high biodegradation activity and high tolerance was investigated at 25C. Phenol could be utilized by the bacteria as the sole carbon and energy sources. The cell growth and substrate degradation of phenol as single substrates for Alcaligenes faecalis in batch cultures (shaking flasks) were investigated at different initial phenol concentrations. Phenol was observed to be an inhibitory compound. Particularly, when free cells grew on a high concentration of phenol, substrate inhibition was observed and the higher the concentration of phenol, the longer was the lag period. The lag time and whole required time for phenol biodegradation was considerably decreased by immobilized cells due to improvement of cells resistance against high Phenol concentration by cell immobilization compared to free cells. Required time for completely degrade initial phenol of 700 and 1000 ppm by free and immobilized cells ...
Purification and Characterization of a β-lactam-Resistant Penicillin-Binding Protein from Enterococcus hirae (Streptococcus faecium ...
Cubicin® is a lipopeptide antibiotic for Gram-positive infections, particularly Staph and MRSA infections and the following infections: Complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by susceptible isolates of the following Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant isolates), Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis, and Enterococcus faecalis (vancomycin-susceptible isolates only). S. aureus are bloodstream infections (bacteremia), including those with right-sided infective endocarditis, caused by methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant isolates ...
Wastewater disinfection is used in many countries for reducing fecal coliform levels in effluents. Disinfection is therefore frequently used to improve recreational bathing waters which do not comply with microbiological standards. It is unknown whether human enteric viruses (which are responsible for waterborne disease) are simultaneously inactivated alongside fecal coliforms. This laboratory study focused on the chlorination of primary treated effluent with three doses (8, 16, and 30 mg/liter) of free chlorine as sodium hypochlorite. Seeding experiments showed that inactivation (>5 log10 units) of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis was rapid and complete but that there was poor inactivation (0.2 to 1.0 log10 unit) of F+-specific RNA (FRNA) bacteriophage (MS2) (a potential virus indicator) at all three doses. However, seeded poliovirus was significantly more susceptible (2.8 log10 units) to inactivation by chlorine than was the FRNA bacteriophage. To ensure that ...
Introduction In the present study, confocal microscopy, a miniflow cell system, and image analysis were combined to test in situ the effect of antimicrobials and alkali on biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus paracasei, Streptococcus anginosus, and Streptococcus gordonii isolated from root canals with persistent infections. Methods Biofilms formed for 24 hours were exposed for 5 minutes to alkali (pH = 12), chlorhexidine digluconate (2.5%), EDTA (50 mmol/L), and sodium hypochlorite (1%). The biofilms were then characterized by using fluorescent markers targeting cell membrane integrity (LIVE/DEAD) and metabolic activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride and fluorescein diacetate). In addition, the biofilm architecture and the extent to which coating of the substrate surface with collagen influenced the resistance pattern to the chemicals were also analyzed. Results NaOCl (1%) affected the membrane integrity of all organisms and removed ...
a Other bacterial strains tested wereNeisseria lactamica (n = 5), N. gonorrhoeae(n = 4), N. sicca (n = 1), N. flavescens (n = 1), N. cinerea (n = 1),N. elongata (n = 1), N. pharyngis(n = 1), N. polysaccharidae (n = 1),Enterococcus faecalis (n = 5), Lancefield group B streptococci (n = 5), coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 5), methicillin-resistant S. aureus(n = 5), E. coli (n = 5), E. coli K1 (n = 1), P. aeruginosa (n = 5), diphtheroids (n = 5), Proteus mirabilis(n = 5), Acinetobacter sp. (n = 5),K. pneumoniae (n = 5), Moraxella catarrhalis(n = 5), E. cloacae (n = 5), andH. influenzae types a (n = 1), d (n = 1), e (n = 1), and f (n = 1). Viruses tested were herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (n = 4), varicella-zoster virus (n = 1), cytomegalovirus (n = 2), and hepatitis B virus (n = 2). ...
The genus Roseomonas comprises a group of pink-pigmented, slow-growing, aerobic, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacteria, which have been isolated from environmental sources such as water and soil, but are also associated with human infections. In the study presented here, Roseomonas mucosa was identified for the first time as part of the endodontic microbiota of an infected root canal and characterised in respect to growth, antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation. The isolated R. mucosa strain showed strong slime formation and was resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics, while it was susceptible to aminoglycosides, carbapenemes, fluorochinolones, polymyxines, sulfonamides and tetracyclines. Biofilm formation on artificial surfaces (glass, polystyrene, gutta-percha) and on teeth was tested using colorimetric and fluorescence microscopic assays. While solid biofilms were formed on glass surfaces, on the hydrophobic surface of gutta-percha points, no confluent but ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
BACKGROUND: Avoparcin, cross-resistance with vancomycin, was added as feed-additive since 1970s and was prohibited in 1997 in Korea. After avoparcin was banned we examined prevalence and genetic relatedness of VRE in enterococci isolated from livestock and humans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using enrichment broth and 6 microgram/mL vancomycin-containing enterococcosel selective agar, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) were isolated from fecal sample of 255 pigs of 8 farms, 431 chickens of 9 farms, and 328 humans (Food industry employee and Institution cafeteria employee) of 5 public health centers, and 100 raw chicken meats from April to June 2003. Antimicrobial susceptibility was examined by disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and E-test. Species identification and genotyping were done by multiplex PCR method. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of vanA-type VRE isolates was performed by CHEF-Mapper system. RESULTS: 19 isolates from 255 pigs, 122 isolates from ...
Ethanol extract of flowers of Phrygilanthus acutifolius (Ruiz & Pav.) Eichler (Loranthaceae) inhibited the growth of both Gram (+) bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram (-) bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter sp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). This extract was bactericidal against Staphylococcus aureus and bacteriostatic against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Morphological evidence suggests that the extract causes the swelling of the bacterial body of Staphylococcus aureus, the disintegration of the cell surface and the cell death. Bactericidal activity was optimal at pH 7.5 and was not affected by different ionic strengths. The presence of Mg2+ in the culture medium of Phrygilanthus acutifolius diminished the sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain against the extract. Test results would tend to corroborate the folk belief that the flowers of this plant are efficacious against respiratory infections and would ...
1,8-cineole (eucalyptol). Medicinal uses. Uses supported by clinical data. None.. Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine. Symptomatic treatment of catarrh and coughs (17, 18). As a component of certain dental root canal sealers; topically as a rubefacient for treatment of rheumatic complaints (18, 19).. Uses described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data. Treatment of cystitis, diabetes, gastritis, kidney disease (unspecified), neuralgia, laryngitis, leukorrhoea, malaria, pimples, ringworm, sinusitis, wounds, ulcers of the skin, urethritis and vaginitis (4, 6).. Pharmacology. Experimental pharmacology. Antimicrobial activity. Aetheroleum Eucalypti inhibited the growth in vitro of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli (20-25), but not of Bacillus cereus, Penicillium cyclopium or Aspergillus aegyptiacus (22, 25). Intramuscular injection of the ...
Myxobacteria are natural predators of microorganisms and the subjects of concerted efforts to identify novel antimicrobial compounds. Myxobacterial predatory activity seems to require more than just the possession of specific antimicrobial metabolites. Thus a holistic approach to studying predation promises novel insights into antimicrobial action. Here we report the isolation of 113 myxobacteria from samples of soil taken from a range of habitats in mid Wales. Predatory activity of each isolate was quantified against a panel of clinically important prey organisms, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, and three species of Staphylococcus. Myxobacterial isolates exhibited a wide range of predation activity profiles against the panel of prey. Efficient predation of all prey by isolates within the collection was observed, with K. pneumoniae and C. albicans proving particularly susceptible to myxobacterial predation. Notably ...
BACKGROUND: Microbial infections and resulting inflammation and oxidative stress are common pathogenesis of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders. In South Africa, several species of the genus Maytenus are used in traditional medicine to treat various infectious diseases. Most of the previous work on this genus was focused on nonpolar extracts from the root and bark. In this study, leaf extracts of polar extracts of Maytenus peduncularis, Maytenus procumbens, Maytenus senegalensis and Maytenus undata were evaluated for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities to determine their efficacy as therapeutic agents in GIT disorders. METHODS: Phenolic-enriched leaf extracts and fractions were prepared by extracting with acidified 70% methanol and solvent-solvent fractionation. The activities of the fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis as well as clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, ...
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that is found in all cells of the body. Cholesterol enters the human body mainly through food [1], and the majority of the cholesterol in the body originates from the liver [2]. Cholesterol is required for the formation of sex hormones [3], Cholesterol can also be converted to bile acids in the liver and vitamin D in the skin and kidney [4] and the formation of bile acids that help the body to digest fat [5]. Many studies have reported the ability of different bacteria to reduce the cholesterol levels in aqueous systems, such as liquid media [6] and the blood serum [7].. Some bacteria not only utilize cholesterol as a sole carbon source [8] but also decompose cholesterol via the cholesterol oxidase enzyme (ChoX) and produce different intermediate compounds [9]. Enterococcus faecium CX and Lactobacillus acidophilus N5, which colonise the intestinal tract and survive under gastric conditions, assimilate cholesterol and reduce its level in serum [10]. ...
Gaca, A. O., Kudrin, P., Colomer-Winter, C., Beljantseva, J., Liu, K., Anderson, B., . . . Lemos, J. A. (2015). From (p)ppGpp to (pp)pGpp: Characterization of regulatory effects of pGpp synthesized by the small alarmone synthetase of enterococcus faecalis. Journal of Bacteriology. Gilbert GH; Gordan VV; Korelitz JJ; Fellows JL; Meyerowitz C; Oates TW; Rindal DB; Gregory RJ. "Provision of specific dental procedures by general dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network: questionnaire findings." BMC oral health. 2015. Javed, F., Al Amri, M. D., Al-Kheraif, A. A., Qadri, T., Ahmed, A., Ghanem, A., . . . Romanos, G. E. (2015). Efficacy of non-surgical periodontal therapy with adjunct nd:YAG laser therapy in the treatment of periodontal inflammation among patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus: A short-term pilot study. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology.B, Biology. Javed, F., Al-Kheraif, A. A., Al Amri, M. D., Alshehri, M., Vohra, F., ...
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PONESSA, Adriana et al. Vancomycin-resistant enterocci-colonized patients located in critical areas of four hospitals in Rosario City, Argentina. Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam. [online]. 2006, vol.40, n.4, pp. 499-502. ISSN 1851-6114.. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have emerged as important pathogenic bacteria all over the world. The first outbreak of infections due to VRE occurred in Rosario in 2000 due to Enterococcus faecium with the Van-A phenotype. As the use of contact isolation precautions for VRE-colonized and infected patients was recommended in order to prevent the spread of vancomycin resistance, a study to determine the level of fecal colonization among patients hospitalized in critical areas was conducted. Samples of rectal swabs were obtained from patients hospitalized in intensive care units of four hospitals in Rosario looking for VRE. Sixty-four cases of colonized patients with VRE were detected among the 565 patients studied. Sixty E. faecium, and ...
Context: Daptomycin is the only antibiotic available with in vitro bactericidal activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Its increased use has resulted in cases of decreased daptomycin efficacy. Recent in vitro studies have shown effective use of beta (beta)-lactam and daptomycin antibiotics, as a combination therapy, in the treatment of VRE. We describe a case of effective treatment in a patient with VRE infection using dual ampicillin and daptomycin therapy that shows bench-to-bedside application of the abovementioned finding. Case Report: A 76-year-old gentleman with a history of bilateral arthroplasty was admitted with a swollen left knee. Blood cultures were positive for Enterococcus faecium. Left knee joint aspiration showed leukocytosis and alpha defensins. Extensive imaging did not show any other source of infection. Culture sensitivity results showed multidrug-resistant enterococci sensitive to daptomycin. The patient was started on ...
Overall, 20,000 VRE infections varying in site and severity occur in hospitalized patients each year. The most common infections caused by VRE are urinary tract infections (UTIs), bacteremia, and wound infections.1 Other VRE infections, such as endocarditis and meningitis, are serious and may require more aggressive combination therapy.5,8 For noninvasive infections, nonpharmacologic interventions (e.g., catheter or foreign-body removal or drainage of an enclosed infection) are often necessary in conjunction with antimicrobial therapy. Although the optimal approach for treating VRE is uncertain in many clinical situations, appropriate antimicrobial selection is guided by severity and site of infection, as well as in vitro susceptibility and pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic properties of agents. Several choices for current, and possibly future, treatment of VRE infection are described below.14. Two agents, linezolid (LZD) and quinupristin-dalfopristin (QPD), have been approved by the FDA for ...
Learn more about Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Infection at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Enterococcus seriolicida is the causative agent of an enterococcal infection in yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata and is antigenically classified into 2 phenotypes, KG+ and KG-. Phenotypic variation from KG- to KG+ occurs readily on an artificial medium. The surface morphologies of the KG- and KG+ phenotypes were differentiated by scanning electron microscopy. KG- cells were more hydrophilic than KG+ cells and were resistant to phagocytosis by yellowtail head kidney phagocytes. The chemiluminescent response of these phagocytic cells was lower with the KG- phenotype than with the KG+ phenotype. The immune responses of yellowtail following injection of the 2 phenotypes differed: higher agglutinating titers were obtained with the KG+ phenotype compared to the KG- phenotype. Thus, the cell surface may function as an anti-phagocytic factor in E. seriolicida and apparently affects its immunogenicity. ...
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Fram EB,· Agalliu I., DiVito J., Hoenig DM ., Stern J The visceral fat compartment is independently associated with changes in urine constituent excretion in a stone forming population. Urolithiasis DOI 10.1007/s00240-015-0770-8, April 23, 2015. Dicpingaitis PV , De Aquirre M. DiVito J.Enterococcus hirae Bacteremia Associated with Acute Pancreatitis and Septic Shock. . Case Reports in Infectious Disease, vol 2015. Article ID 123852. August 15, 2015. Keehn A, Srivastava A, Maiman R, Taylor J, DiVito J, Ghavamian R, Stern JM., The Relationship Between Visceral Obesity and the Clinicopathologic Features of Patients with Small Renal Masses.. J Endourol. Vol 29, No.3, Pp.372-376, March 2015. Fram EB, Agalliu I., DiVito J., Hoenig DM ., Stern JThe visceral fat compartment is independently associated with changes in urine constituent excretion in a stone forming population. Urolithiasis DOI 10.1007/s00240-015-0770-8, April 23, 2015. Dicpingaitis PV , De Aquirre M. DiVito ...

Université de Rennes 1 - Genetic characterization of a VanG-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolateUniversité de Rennes 1 - Genetic characterization of a VanG-type vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clinical isolate

The antibiotic resistance profile of E. faecium 16-346 was determined and its whole genome sequenced using PacBio technology. ... similar to that of Enterococcus faecalis BM4518. We were unable to transfer vancomycin resistance from E. faecium 16-346 to E. ... Attempts to transfer vancomycin resistance by filter mating were performed and the inducibility of expression of the vanG ... faecium BM4107 and E. faecalis JH2-2. Lastly, transcription of the vanG gene was inducible by vancomycin.Conclusions: This is, ...
more infohttps://hal-univ-rennes1.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01743400

Enterococcus Faecalis Genome Defense Systems and Their Impact on Conjugative Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid TransferEnterococcus Faecalis Genome Defense Systems and Their Impact on Conjugative Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid Transfer

... ... faecalis with significant defense capability against antibiotic resistance plasmids. Subsequently, the distribution of R-M ... This phage evades E. faecalis R-M defense, most likely due to this ubiquitous genome modification. That the phage encodes an ... Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive bacterium that naturally colonizes humans and opportunistically causes life- ...
more infohttps://utd-ir.tdl.org/handle/10735.1/5776

The Impact of Genome Defense Systems on Antibiotic Resistance Dissemination in the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalisThe Impact of Genome Defense Systems on Antibiotic Resistance Dissemination in the Opportunistic Pathogen Enterococcus faecalis

This bacterium possesses intrinsic antibiotic resistance and can also acquire resistance to other antibiotics through ... The growing antibiotic resistance and the lack in development of new antibiotics poses a serious public health threat worldwide ... Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common causes of healthcare associated infections (HAI). E. faecalis is an ... an antibiotic of last-resort, leaving very few treatment options. It has been shown that MDR E. faecalis have expanded genomes ...
more infohttps://utd-ir.tdl.org/handle/10735.1/7237

Genome Modification in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF Assessed by Bisulfite Sequencing and Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing |...Genome Modification in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF Assessed by Bisulfite Sequencing and Single-Molecule Real-Time Sequencing |...

Rising antibiotic resistance in E. faecalis, including resistance to the last-line antibiotic vancomycin, complicates treatment ... Large scale variation in Enterococcus faecalis illustrated by the genome analysis of strain OG1RF. Genome Biol 9:R110. doi: ... faecalis genome modification system in modulating conjugative transfer of an antibiotic resistance plasmid. These results are ... faecalis strains have large genomes containing mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that harbor genes for antibiotic resistance and ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/197/11/1939?ijkey=180160fdf0e4a1a20554fe4fd17df61033745ead&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

A Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Enterococcus faecalis | Journal of Clinical MicrobiologyA Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Enterococcus faecalis | Journal of Clinical Microbiology

Robert Koch Institute, Division of Nosocomial Pathogens and Antibiotic Resistances, Wernigerode, Germany ... A Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Enterococcus faecalis. Bernd Neumann, Karola Prior, Jennifer K. Bender, Dag ... A Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Enterococcus faecalis. Bernd Neumann, Karola Prior, Jennifer K. Bender, Dag ... A Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Enterococcus faecalis. Bernd Neumann, Karola Prior, Jennifer K. Bender, Dag ...
more infohttps://jcm.asm.org/content/57/3/e01686-18.abstract

Multiple Roles for Enterococcus faecalis Glycosyltransferases in Biofilm-Associated Antibiotic Resistance, Cell Envelope...Multiple Roles for Enterococcus faecalis Glycosyltransferases in Biofilm-Associated Antibiotic Resistance, Cell Envelope...

... faecalis biofilms to antibiotics (25). However, a direct link between E. faecalis genes or alleles within the core genome that ... Mechanisms of Resistance. Multiple Roles for Enterococcus faecalis Glycosyltransferases in Biofilm-Associated Antibiotic ... Effects of biofilm growth on plasmid copy number and expression of antibiotic resistance genes in Enterococcus faecalis. ... Multiple Roles for Enterococcus faecalis Glycosyltransferases in Biofilm-Associated Antibiotic Resistance, Cell Envelope ...
more infohttps://aac.asm.org/content/59/7/4094?ijkey=42a48cadc002a4ee041b2f0f4359cb439ba5f477&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Andrews SC[au] - PubMed - NCBIAndrews SC[au] - PubMed - NCBI

Draft Genome Sequence of an Enterococcus faecalis Strain (24FS) That Was Isolated from Healthy Infant Feces and Exhibits High ... Antibacterial Activity, Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance, and Multiple Virulence Factors.. El Halfawy NM, El-Naggar MY, Andrews ... Draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecium SP15, a potential probiotic strain isolated from spring water. ... Ultrahigh electrical conductivity in solution-sheared polymeric transparent films.. Worfolk BJ, Andrews SC, Park S, Reinspach J ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?cmd=search&term=Andrews+SC%5Bau%5D&dispmax=50

Complete Genome Sequence of Enterococcal Bacteriophage SAP6 | Journal of VirologyComplete Genome Sequence of Enterococcal Bacteriophage SAP6 | Journal of Virology

The antibiotic resistance acquired by E. faecalis is restricted to antibiotics used in the clinical setting. While screening ... GENOME ANNOUNCEMENT. Enterococcus faecalis is used as a starter for fermented food and probiotics (5). However, it can also ... Eradication of Enterococcus faecalis by phage therapy in chronic bacterial prostatitis-case report. Folia Microbiol. 54:457-461 ... Enterococcus faecalis is an important bacterium for use as a probiotic and is an opportunistic pathogen in human beings. ...
more infohttps://jvi.asm.org/content/86/9/5402?ijkey=d093f011757517b5c65cd4d23ccf5485b4ba2ecf&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Genomic Insights into Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis SK460 Isolated from a Chronic Diabetic Ulcer Patient. | Physicians...Genomic Insights into Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis SK460 Isolated from a Chronic Diabetic Ulcer Patient. | Physician's...

... and antibiotic-resistance genes related to aminoglycoside, macrolide, and tetracycline resistance. ... Genome announcements 2018 01 116(2) pii e01463-17. Abstract. Enterococcus faecalis is recognized as one of the leading ... Here we report a draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis SK460, isolated from a chronic diabetic foot ulcer patient. ... Genomic Insights into Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecalis SK460 Isolated from a Chronic Diabetic Ulcer Patient. by Physicians ...
more infohttps://www.physiciansweekly.com/genomic-insights-into-biofilm-forming-enterococcus-faecalis-sk460-isolated-from-a-chronic-diabetic-ulcer-patient/

Comparative Genomics of Enterococci: Variation in Enterococcus faecalis, Clade Structure in E. faecium, and Defining...Comparative Genomics of Enterococci: Variation in Enterococcus faecalis, Clade Structure in E. faecium, and Defining...

Genome analysis has illuminated the extent of mobile content (5) and evolution of antibiotic resistance (6) in E. faecalis ST6 ... Large scale variation in Enterococcus faecalis illustrated by the genome analysis of strain OG1RF. Genome Biol. 9:R110. ... For a genome pair (genome 1 and genome 2), the total number of genes in genome 1 was determined and the number of genes in ... faecalis genome. For all 18 E. faecalis strains, genome sizes vary between the extremes of T11 and V583 (see Table S1 in the ...
more infohttps://mbio.asm.org/content/3/1/e00318-11?ijkey=8ae947f20790543ea8798a37cc48f29699872300&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Microbiology Society Journals | Streptococcus gordonii pheromone s.g.cAM373 may influence the reservoir of antibiotic...Microbiology Society Journals | Streptococcus gordonii pheromone s.g.cAM373 may influence the reservoir of antibiotic...

... and influence the reservoir of antibiotic resistance determinants of enterococcal origin in the oral metagenome. ... E. faecalis/pAM373/pAMS470 cells were incubated with synthetic s.g.cAM373, reverse peptide s.g.cAM373-R, or peptide-free medium ... Preinduction of E. faecalis donors with s.g.cAM373 resulted in transconjugation frequencies in non-pheromone producing strains ... Peptide-mediated communication between commensal streptococci and E. faecalis carrying pheromone-responsive plasmids may ...
more infohttp://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jmm/10.1099/jmm.0.000613

Multidrug-Resistant Enterococci Lack CRISPR-cas | mBioMultidrug-Resistant Enterococci Lack CRISPR-cas | mBio

E. faecalis CRISPR-cas and acquired antibiotic resistance.Examining the entire genomes of 16 E. faecalis strains allowed us to ... MLST, EfmCRISPR1-cas, and acquired antibiotic resistance in E. faecium draft genomes. Acquired antibiotic resistance is shown ... Acquired antibiotic resistances in enterococci, p. 355-383. In Gilmore M. S. , The enterococci: pathogenesis, molecular biology ... Large scale variation in Enterococcus faecalis illustrated by the genome analysis of strain OG1RF. Genome Biol. 9:R110. ...
more infohttps://mbio.asm.org/content/1/4/e00227-10

Frontiers | CRISPR-Cas Systems in Bacteroides fragilis, an Important Pathobiont in the Human Gut Microbiome | MicrobiologyFrontiers | CRISPR-Cas Systems in Bacteroides fragilis, an Important Pathobiont in the Human Gut Microbiome | Microbiology

... and three strains included all three CRISPR-Cas types in their respective genomes. The cas1 gene in the Type IIIB system ... DNA repair and ability to survive exposure to antibiotics. Also, based on their unique CRISPR-Cas arrays, their phylogenetic ... and three strains included all three CRISPR-Cas types in their respective genomes. The cas1 gene in the Type IIIB system ... Results: CRISPR elements in all strains of B. fragilis (n=109) with publically available genomes were identified. Three ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02234/full

The Enterococcus: a Model of Adaptability to Its Environment | Clinical Microbiology ReviewsThe Enterococcus: a Model of Adaptability to Its Environment | Clinical Microbiology Reviews

Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Both species demonstrate intrinsic resistance to common antibiotics, such as ... Additionally, a remarkably plastic genome allows these two species to readily acquire resistance to further antibiotics, such ... as high-level aminoglycoside resistance, high-level ampicillin resistance, and vancomycin resistance, either through mutation ... The Enterococcus: a Model of Adaptability to Its Environment Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
more infohttps://cmr.asm.org/content/32/2/e00058-18

The Enterococcus faecalis fsr Two-Component System Controls Biofilm Development through Production of Gelatinase | Journal of...The Enterococcus faecalis fsr Two-Component System Controls Biofilm Development through Production of Gelatinase | Journal of...

Virulence- and antibiotic resistance-associated two-component signal transduction systems of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria ... of 17 two-component systems and one orphan response regulator have been identified on the genome of the Enterococcus faecalis ... Effects of Enterococcus faecalis fsr genes on production of gelatinase and a serine protease and virulence. Infect. Immun. 68: ... The Enterococcus faecalis fsr Two-Component System Controls Biofilm Development through Production of Gelatinase. Lynn E. ...
more infohttps://jb.asm.org/content/186/17/5629?ijkey=5af0f3bbd1936c934fa5c02087408b402d34272a&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain F165 Isolated from a Urinary Tract Infection | Microbiology Resource...Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain F165 Isolated from a Urinary Tract Infection | Microbiology Resource...

The identification of acquired antibiotic resistance and virulence factor genes were performed with the Web tool ResFinder and ... Draft Genome Sequence of Enterococcus faecalis Strain F165 Isolated from a Urinary Tract Infection. Thiago G. S. Paim, Luiza ... GENOME ANNOUNCEMENT. Enterococcus faecalis strains are the Gram-positive cocci often recovered from urinary tract infections ( ... We report here a draft genome sequence of Enterococcus faecalis strain F165 isolated from a urine specimen in South Brazil. The ...
more infohttps://mra.asm.org/content/4/5/e01084-16

Evolutionary dynamics of Clostridium difficile over short and long time scales | PNASEvolutionary dynamics of Clostridium difficile over short and long time scales | PNAS

... difficile genomes. Many of these mobile elements code for a variety of antibiotic resistance genes (Fig. 1), suggesting a ... In isolate 630, CTnCD1, CTnCD3, CTnCD6, and CTnCD7 are closely related to Tn916 in Enterococcus faecalis (17). We found the ... The genome-wide distribution of SNPs is shown for each strain against the core genome (excluding repetitive sequences) of ... Selective Forces Acting upon the C. difficile Genome.. To investigate the selective forces acting on the C. difficile genome, ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/107/16/7527?ijkey=48bcb6831f89b44a69026a81418e353f67438a4b&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Research initiatives score Dunn AwardsResearch initiatives score Dunn Awards

They plan to assess the virulence of more than 400 strains of Enterococcus faecalis, analyze the genomes of 80 critical strains ... Annual seed grants support work on antibiotic resistance, the microbiome, epigenetic remodeling with light and auditory ... worm model systems to study infection by gastrointestinal bacteria that can be infectious and develop resistance to antibiotics ... Kemere is an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering. McGinley is an assistant professor of neuroscience. ...
more infohttp://news.rice.edu/2018/11/14/research-initiatives-score-dunn-awards/

A functional gene array for detection of ... & related info | MendeleyA functional gene array for detection of ... & related info | Mendeley

This is the first report of a high density NimbleGen microarray system targeting microbial antibiotic resistance and virulence ... Our first generation array targets genes from Escherichia coli strains K12 and CFT073, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus ... In combination with whole-genome amplification, the array detects femtogram concentrations of purified DNA, either spiked in to ... produced and tested a series of high-density functional gene arrays to detect elements of virulence and antibiotic resistance ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/functional-gene-array-detection-bacterial-virulence-elements/

Comparative genomics of Enterococcus faecalis from healthy Norwegian infants | BMC Genomics | Full TextComparative genomics of Enterococcus faecalis from healthy Norwegian infants | BMC Genomics | Full Text

... and characterized with respect to antibiotic resistance and properties associated with virulence. A subset of the isolates was ... faecalis. In this work, information on the core genome of E. faecalis is also substantially extended. ... faecalis isolated from the feces of Norwegian infants. The E. faecalis isolates were first sequence typed by multilocus ... faecalis lineages. Previous MLST analysis of E. faecalis have identified so-called high-risk enterococcal clonal complexes ( ...
more infohttps://0-bmcgenomics-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2164-10-194

Whole-genome assembly of Akkermansia muciniphila sequenced directly from human stool | Biology Direct | Full TextWhole-genome assembly of Akkermansia muciniphila sequenced directly from human stool | Biology Direct | Full Text

Additional antibiotic resistance genes were found following comparison with the reference genome, providing some clues ... including colonization by organisms such as Enterococci, while their impact on bacterial load is variable. High-level ... However, no gene coding for imipenem resistance was detected, although this antibiotic was a part of the patients antibiotic ... We obtained draft genome of the Akkermansia muciniphila strain Urmite with only 56 gaps. The absence of particular metabolic ...
more infohttps://0-biologydirect-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/s13062-015-0041-1

Journal of Evolutionary Biology Research - November, 2012 editionJournal of Evolutionary Biology Research - November, 2012 edition

Analysis of its genome sequences highlighted by different antibiotic resistance gene primers offered the most direct and ... signature sequences on ABC-transporter proteins in the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lytic phage and Enterococcus faecalis ...
more infohttps://academicjournals.org/journal/JEBR/edition/November,_2012

View source for Enterococcus - microbewikiView source for Enterococcus - microbewiki

Vancomycin resistance in E. faecalis is encoded on a mobile element of DNA in the genome. The gene encodes vancomycin ... Enterococci also have a large amount of natural antibiotic resistance. ==Isolation and Cultivation== [[Image:s1s13.jpg,frame, ... Genome Structure== The genome of Enterococcus faecalis V583 was recently sequenced. The main chromosome is 3,218,031 bp ... 5D Genome] ,} ==Description and Significance== Enterococci are regular inhabitants of the bowel. The genome of E. faecalis ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Enterococcus&action=edit

Frontiers | Comparative Genomic Analysis of the ICESa2603 Family ICEs and Spread of erm(B)- and tet(O)-Carrying Transferable...Frontiers | Comparative Genomic Analysis of the ICESa2603 Family ICEs and Spread of erm(B)- and tet(O)-Carrying Transferable...

and even Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, which provided the sequence basis for the horizontal transfer of this ... Other notable accessory genes in this family were identified as resistance genes for antibiotics and heavy metals, intact or ... 2013). Genome sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae strain 09mas018883, isolated from a Swedish cow. Genome Announc. 1:e00456-13 ... enterococci, and possibly Listeria innocua and Enterococci faecalis, indicating that recombination and mobilization events are ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00055/full

Pre GI: SWBIT SVG BLASTNPre GI: SWBIT SVG BLASTN

Subject: NC_004668:241352 Enterococcus faecalis V583, complete genome. Lineage: Enterococcus faecalis; Enterococcus; ... They cause a number of infections that are becoming increasingly a problem due to the number of antibiotic resistance ... Both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause similar diseases in humans, and are mainly distinguished by their ... Enterococcus faecalis produces a cytolysin toxin that is encoded on various mobile genetic elements, pathogenicity islands, and ...
more infohttp://pregi.bi.up.ac.za/pre_gi_swbit.php?blast=blastn&query=NC_006142:33268&subject=NC_004668:241352
  • Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) enables unraveling of epidemiological linkages and putative transmission events between humans, animals, and food. (asm.org)
  • In combination with whole-genome amplification, the array detects femtogram concentrations of purified DNA, either spiked in to an aerosol sample background, or in combinations from one or more of the four target organisms. (mendeley.com)
  • The primary focus of the research presented here was to establish a role for R-M and CRISPR-Cas in providing genome defense in E. faecalis and to elucidate the interactions between CRISPR-Cas and MGEs. (tdl.org)
  • In my dissertation, a functional E. faecalis OG1RF encoded R-M system was identified and its activity against MGEs was confirmed using both conjugation and transformation assays. (tdl.org)
  • OG1RF has one of the smallest E. faecalis genomes sequenced to date and possesses few MGEs. (asm.org)
  • A type II R-M system confers the m5C modification, and disruption of this system impacts OG1RF electrotransformability and conjugative transfer of an antibiotic resistance plasmid. (asm.org)
  • This work was undertaken because phage therapy is increasingly of interest as an alternative to antibiotics for infection treatment. (tdl.org)
  • The genome modification status of one novel enterococcal phage was characterized, and the phage was found to be modified at most cytosine residues. (tdl.org)
  • This phage evades E. faecalis R-M defense, most likely due to this ubiquitous genome modification. (tdl.org)
  • Finally, a mouse model of E. faecalis colonization was used to show that CRISPR-Cas provides defense against PRP acquisition in vivo. (tdl.org)
  • Alterations in gut microbiota composition under antibiotic pressure have been widely studied, revealing a restricted diversity of gut flora, including colonization by organisms such as Enterococci, while their impact on bacterial load is variable. (beds.ac.uk)
  • High-level colonization by Akkermansia muciniphila , ranging from 39% to 84% of the total bacterial population, has been recently reported in two patients being treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, although attempts to cultivate this microorganism have been unsuccessful. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This year's winning teams will use the grants to studyantibiotic resistance, microbiome influence on developing organisms, light control of epigenetic factors involved in disease and sound-based virtual reality to enhance learning and memory. (rice.edu)
  • Enterococci are becoming the most important public health concern and emerging as multidrug-resistant organisms around the world including Africa particularly in Ethiopia where there is a lack of availability of effective antimicrobial drugs. (hindawi.com)
  • This work demonstrates that antibiotic use can inadvertently select for E. faecalis with enhanced abilities to acquire mobile genetic elements. (tdl.org)
  • The high genetic plasticity of E. faecalis complicates both molecular investigations and phylogenetic analyses. (asm.org)
  • The C. difficile genome is highly dynamic and readily undergoes genetic exchange of mobile elements ( 16 , 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our results suggest that the core C. difficile genome has been primarily shaped by purifying selection pressure, and that environmental as well as genetic effects may be responsible for its recent expansion as a major pathogen. (pnas.org)
  • In an attempt to gain insight into the genetic make-up of commensal E. faecalis , we have studied genomic variation in a collection of community-derived E. faecalis isolated from the feces of Norwegian infants. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Mobile genetic elements make up one quarter of the genome. (up.ac.za)
  • A compounding factor is the ability of microorganisms to form biofilms (communities of cells encased in a protective extracellular matrix) that are intrinsically resistant to antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • Enterococci are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobials groups. (omicsonline.org)
  • Here, we show that the E. faecalis fsr quorum-sensing system controls biofilm development through the production of gelatinase. (asm.org)
  • We also assess the role of an E. faecalis genome modification system in modulating conjugative transfer of an antibiotic resistance plasmid. (asm.org)
  • We also found that the GTFs play additional roles in E. faecalis resistance to detergent and bile salts, maintenance of cell envelope integrity, determination of cell shape, polysaccharide composition, and conjugative transfer of the pheromone-inducible plasmid pCF10. (asm.org)
  • Streptococcus gordonii produces a pheromone heptapeptide, s.g.cAM373, which induces a conjugative mating response in Enterococcus faecalis cells carrying the responsive plasmid, pAM373. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Biofilm populations can become up to 1,000-fold more resistant to antibiotics than planktonic cells, enhancing their prevalence in clinical settings in which antibiotic selection pressure is high ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Through in vitro evolution and deep sequencing analysis, it was concluded that under antibiotic selection for a PRP, the CRISPR-Cas system of T11 becomes compromised, providing a potential mechanism for the emergence of MDR E. faecalis. (tdl.org)
  • Overall, the data presented here have shown that R-M and CRISPR-Cas are capable of limiting MGE acquisition in E. faecalis justifying the claim that MDR E. faecalis emerge due to the absence of genome defense. (tdl.org)