The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The genetic complement of CHLOROPLASTS as represented in their DNA.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The genetic complement of PLASTIDS as represented in their DNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The genetic complement of a microorganism as represented in its DNA or in some microorganisms its RNA.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The parts of a GENOME sequence that are involved with the different functions or properties of genomes as a whole as opposed to those of individual GENES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Copies of nucleic acid sequence that are arranged in opposing orientation. They may lie adjacent to each other (tandem) or be separated by some sequence that is not part of the repeat (hyphenated). They may be true palindromic repeats, i.e. read the same backwards as forward, or complementary which reads as the base complement in the opposite orientation. Complementary inverted repeats have the potential to form hairpin loop or stem-loop structures which results in cruciform structures (such as CRUCIFORM DNA) when the complementary inverted repeats occur in double stranded regions.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Highly repeated sequences, 100-300 bases long, which contain RNA polymerase III promoters. The primate Alu (ALU ELEMENTS) and the rodent B1 SINEs are derived from 7SL RNA, the RNA component of the signal recognition particle. Most other SINEs are derived from tRNAs including the MIRs (mammalian-wide interspersed repeats).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Low-copy (2-50) repetitive DNA elements that are highly homologous and range in size from 1000 to 400,000 base pairs.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Two identical genes showing the same phenotypic action but localized in different regions of a chromosome or on different chromosomes. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.
Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
The number of mutations that occur in a specific sequence, GENE, or GENOME over a specified period of time such as years, CELL DIVISIONS, or generations.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The parts of the messenger RNA sequence that do not code for product, i.e. the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS and 3' UNTRANSLATED REGIONS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Diseases of plants.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.
Genes whose nucleotide sequences overlap to some degree. The overlapped sequences may involve structural or regulatory genes of eukaryotic or prokaryotic cells.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.
A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.

Ribozymes, genomics and therapeutics. (1/9340)

Genome-sequencing projects are proceeding at a rapid pace and determining the function of open reading frames is the next great challenge. Ribozymes with site-specific cleaving activity could aid greatly in this process. High-throughput screening methods to identify optimal target sites for ribozyme cleavage will provide tools for functional genomics as well as therapeutic reagents.  (+info)

Nonmethylated transposable elements and methylated genes in a chordate genome. (2/9340)

The genome of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis was found to be a stable mosaic of methylated and nonmethylated domains. Multiple copies of an apparently active long terminal repeat retrotransposon and a long interspersed element are nonmethylated and a large fraction of abundant short interspersed elements are also methylation free. Genes, by contrast, are predominantly methylated. These data are incompatible with the genome defense model, which proposes that DNA methylation in animals is primarily targeted to endogenous transposable elements. Cytosine methylation in this urochordate may be preferentially directed to genes.  (+info)

Alternative splicing of transcripts encoding the alpha- and beta-subunits of mouse glucosidase II in T lymphocytes. (3/9340)

Glucosidase II is a processing enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum that functions to hydrolyze two glucose residues in immature N -linked oligosaccharides attached to newly synthesized polypeptides. We previously reported the cDNA cloning of the alpha- and beta-subunits of mouse glucosidase II from T cells following copurification of these proteins with the highly glycosylated transmembrane protein-tyrosine phosphatase CD45. Subsequent examination of additional cDNA clones, coupled with partial genomic DNA sequencing, has revealed that both subunits are encoded by gene products that undergo alternative splicing in T lymphocytes. The catalytic alpha-subunit possesses two variably expressed segments, box Alpha1, consisting of 22 amino acids located proximal to the amino-terminus, and box Alpha2, composed of 9 amino acids situated between the amino-terminus and the putative catalytic site in the central region of the molecule. Box Beta1, a variably expressed 7 amino acid segment in the beta-subunit of glucosidase II, is located immediately downstream of an acidic stretch near the carboxyl-terminus. Screening of reverse transcribed RNA by polymerase chain reaction confirms the variable inclusion of each of these segments in transcripts obtained from a panel of T-lymphocyte cell lines. Thus, distinct isoforms of glucosidase II exist that may perform specialized functions.  (+info)

An intact sperm nuclear matrix may be necessary for the mouse paternal genome to participate in embryonic development. (4/9340)

We have been interested in determining the minimally required elements in the sperm head that are necessary in order for the paternal genome to participate in embryogenesis. We used an ionic detergent, mixed alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (ATAB), plus dithiothreitol (DTT) to remove the acrosome and almost all of the perinuclear theca, leaving only the sperm nucleus morphologically intact. We also tested the stability of the sperm nuclear matrix by the ability to form nuclear halos. Sperm nuclei washed in freshly prepared 0.5% ATAB + 2 mM DTT completely decondensed when extracted with salt, but nuclei washed in the same buffer that was 1 wk old, and then extracted with salt, produced nuclear halos, indicating stable nuclear matrices. When we treated sperm heads with freshly prepared ATAB+DTT and injected them into oocytes, none of the oocytes developed into live offspring. In contrast, sperm heads treated in the same way but with 1-wk-old ATAB+DTT solution could support development of about 30% of the oocytes to live offspring. Electron microscopy demonstrated that most of the perinuclear theca had been removed in both cases. These data suggest that at least in the mouse, the only component of the spermatozoa that is crucial for participation in embryologic development is the sperm nucleus with a stable nuclear matrix.  (+info)

The prokaryotic beta-recombinase catalyzes site-specific recombination in mammalian cells. (5/9340)

The development of new strategies for the in vivo modification of eukaryotic genomes has become an important objective of current research. Site-specific recombination has proven useful, as it allows controlled manipulation of murine, plant, and yeast genomes. Here we provide the first evidence that the prokaryotic site-specific recombinase (beta-recombinase), which catalyzes only intramolecular recombination, is active in eukaryotic environments. beta-Recombinase, encoded by the beta gene of the Gram-positive broad host range plasmid pSM19035, has been functionally expressed in eukaryotic cell lines, demonstrating high avidity for the nuclear compartment and forming a clear speckled pattern when assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. In simian COS-1 cells, transient beta-recombinase expression promoted deletion of a DNA fragment lying between two directly oriented specific recognition/crossing over sequences (six sites) located as an extrachromosomal DNA substrate. The same result was obtained in a recombination-dependent lacZ activation system tested in a cell line that stably expresses the beta-recombinase protein. In stable NIH/3T3 clones bearing different number of copies of the target sequences integrated at distinct chromosomal locations, transient beta-recombinase expression also promoted deletion of the intervening DNA, independently of the insertion position of the target sequences. The utility of this new recombination tool for the manipulation of eukaryotic genomes, used either alone or in combination with the other recombination systems currently in use, is discussed.  (+info)

Genome reduction in a hemiclonal frog Rana esculenta from radioactively contaminated areas. (6/9340)

A decrease in genome size was found in the hemiclonal hybridogenetic frog Rana esculenta (R. ridibunda x R. lessonae) from areas of radioactive contamination that resulted from the Chernobyl fallout. This genome reduction was of up to 4% and correlated with the background level of gamma-radiation (linear regression corresponded on average to -0.4% per doubling of radiation level). No change in genome size was observed in the coexisting parental species R. lessonae. There was no correlation between genome size and body mass in R. esculenta froglets, which have metamorphosed in the year of the study. The hemiclonal forms may become a suitable object for study on biological significance of individual DNA sequences (and of genome size as a whole) because mutant animals with deletions in a specified genome can arise after a low radiation dose. The proneness to genetic damage makes such forms also a prospective bioindicator of radioactive (and possibly other mutagenic) pollution with the effects of genetic damage conveniently and rapidly monitored by DNA flow cytometry.  (+info)

Sequence analysis of cDNA and genomic DNA, and mRNA expression of the medaka fish homolog of mammalian guanylyl cyclase C. (7/9340)

We isolated the cDNA and genomic DNA encoding a membrane guanylyl cyclase of medaka fish (designated as OlGC6), and determined their complete nucleotide sequences. The open reading frame for OlGC6 cDNA predicted a protein of 1,075 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that OlGC6 is a member of the enterotoxin/guanylin receptor family. We also determined the partial genomic structure of the gene of another membrane guanylyl cyclase of medaka fish, OlGC2, which is a member of the natriuretic peptide receptor family. The intron positions relative to the protein-coding sequence are highly conserved in the intracellular domains of OlGC6, OlGC2, mammalian GC-A, and GC-E. Despite their divergent primary structures, some intron positions also seem to be conserved in the extracellular domains of different membrane guanylyl cyclase genes. Northern blot analysis demonstrated that an OlGC6 transcript of 3.9 kb is only present in the intestine, while reverse transcription (RT)-PCR analysis demonstrated that the OlGC6 transcript is present in the kidney, spleen, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, ovary, testis, brain, and eye. RT-PCR also demonstrated that OlGC6 is only expressed zygotically and that transcripts are present from 1 day after fertilization, i.e. long before the intestinal tissues begin to develop.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of RGS9-2: a striatal-enriched alternatively spliced product of the RGS9 gene. (8/9340)

Regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins act as GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G-proteins. Previous in situ hybridization analysis of mRNAs encoding RGS3-RGS11 revealed region-specific expression patterns in rat brain. RGS9 showed a particularly striking pattern of almost exclusive enrichment in striatum. In a parallel study, RGS9 cDNA, here referred to as RGS9-1, was cloned from retinal cDNA libraries, and the encoded protein was identified as a GAP for transducin (Galphat) in rod outer segments. In the present study we identify a novel splice variant of RGS9, RGS9-2, cloned from a mouse forebrain cDNA library, which encodes a striatal-specific isoform of the protein. RGS9-2 is 191 amino acids longer than the retinal isoform, has a unique 3' untranslated region, and is highly enriched in striatum, with much lower levels seen in other brain regions and no expression detectable in retina. Immunohistochemistry showed that RGS9-2 protein is restricted to striatal neuropil and absent in striatal terminal fields. The functional activity of RGS9-2 is supported by the finding that it, but not RGS9-1, dampens the Gi/o-coupled mu-opioid receptor response in vitro. Characterization of a bacterial artificial chromosome genomic clone of approximately 200 kb indicates that these isoforms represent alternatively spliced mRNAs from a single gene and that the RGS domain, conserved among all known RGS members, is encoded over three distinct exons. The distinct C-terminal domains of RGS9-2 and RGS9-1 presumably contribute to unique regulatory properties in the neural and retinal cells in which these proteins are selectively expressed.  (+info)

There are several types of genomic instability, including:

1. Chromosomal instability (CIN): This refers to changes in the number or structure of chromosomes, such as aneuploidy (having an abnormal number of chromosomes) or translocations (the movement of genetic material between chromosomes).
2. Point mutations: These are changes in a single base pair in the DNA sequence.
3. Insertions and deletions: These are changes in the number of base pairs in the DNA sequence, resulting in the insertion or deletion of one or more base pairs.
4. Genomic rearrangements: These are changes in the structure of the genome, such as chromosomal breaks and reunions, or the movement of genetic material between chromosomes.

Genomic instability can arise from a variety of sources, including environmental factors, errors during DNA replication and repair, and genetic mutations. It is often associated with cancer, as cancer cells have high levels of genomic instability, which can lead to the development of resistance to chemotherapy and radiation therapy.

Research into genomic instability has led to a greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying cancer and other diseases, and has also spurred the development of new therapeutic strategies, such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies.

In summary, genomic instability is a key feature of cancer cells and is associated with various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging. It can arise from a variety of sources and is the subject of ongoing research in the field of molecular biology.

Polyploidy is a condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, which are the thread-like structures that carry genetic information. It can occur in both plants and animals, although it is relatively rare in most species. In humans, polyploidy is extremely rare and usually occurs as a result of errors during cell division or abnormal fertilization.

In medicine, polyploidy is often used to describe certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer, that have extra sets of chromosomes. This can lead to the development of more aggressive and difficult-to-treat tumors.

However, not all cases of polyploidy are cancerous. Some individuals with Down syndrome, for example, have an extra copy of chromosome 21, which is a non-cancerous form of polyploidy. Additionally, some people may be born with extra copies of certain genes or chromosomal regions due to errors during embryonic development, which can lead to various health problems but are not cancerous.

Overall, the term "polyploidy" in medicine is used to describe any condition where an organism has more than two sets of chromosomes, regardless of whether it is cancerous or non-cancerous.

Inversions are classified based on their location along the chromosome:

* Interstitial inversion: A segment of DNA is reversed within a larger gene or group of genes.
* Pericentric inversion: A segment of DNA is reversed near the centromere, the region of the chromosome where the sister chromatids are most closely attached.

Chromosome inversions can be detected through cytogenetic analysis, which allows visualization of the chromosomes and their structure. They can also be identified using molecular genetic techniques such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH).

Chromosome inversions are relatively rare in the general population, but they have been associated with various developmental disorders and an increased risk of certain diseases. For example, individuals with an inversion on chromosome 8p have an increased risk of developing cancer, while those with an inversion on chromosome 9q have a higher risk of developing neurological disorders.

Inversions can be inherited from one or both parents, and they can also occur spontaneously as a result of errors during DNA replication or repair. In some cases, inversions may be associated with other genetic abnormalities, such as translocations or deletions.

Overall, chromosome inversions are an important aspect of human genetics and can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms underlying developmental disorders and disease susceptibility.

1. Activation of oncogenes: Some viruses contain genes that code for proteins that can activate existing oncogenes in the host cell, leading to uncontrolled cell growth.
2. Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes: Other viruses may contain genes that inhibit the expression of tumor suppressor genes, allowing cells to grow and divide uncontrollably.
3. Insertional mutagenesis: Some viruses can insert their own DNA into the host cell's genome, leading to disruptions in normal cellular function and potentially causing cancer.
4. Epigenetic changes: Viral infection can also cause epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation or histone modification, that can lead to the silencing of tumor suppressor genes and the activation of oncogenes.

Viral cell transformation is a key factor in the development of many types of cancer, including cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), and liver cancer caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV). In addition, some viruses are specifically known to cause cancer, such as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV).

Early detection and treatment of viral infections can help prevent the development of cancer. Vaccines are also available for some viruses that are known to cause cancer, such as HPV and hepatitis B. Additionally, antiviral therapy can be used to treat existing infections and may help reduce the risk of cancer development.

When a chromosome breaks, it can lead to genetic instability and potentially contribute to the development of diseases such as cancer. Chromosome breakage can also result in the loss or gain of genetic material, which can further disrupt normal cellular function and increase the risk of disease.

There are several types of chromosome breakage, including:

1. Chromosomal aberrations: These occur when there is a change in the number or structure of the chromosomes, such as an extra copy of a chromosome (aneuploidy) or a break in a chromosome.
2. Genomic instability: This refers to the presence of errors in the genetic material that can lead to changes in the function of cells and tissues.
3. Chromosomal fragile sites: These are specific regions of the chromosomes that are more prone to breakage than other regions.
4. Telomere shortening: Telomeres are the protective caps at the ends of the chromosomes, and their shortening can lead to chromosome breakage and genetic instability.

Chromosome breakage can be detected through cytogenetic analysis, which involves staining the cells with dyes to visualize the chromosomes and look for any abnormalities. The detection of chromosome breakage can help diagnose certain diseases, such as cancer, and can also provide information about the risk of disease progression.

In summary, chromosome breakage is a type of genetic alteration that can occur as a result of various factors, including exposure to radiation or chemicals, errors during cell division, or aging. It can lead to genetic instability and increase the risk of diseases such as cancer. Detection of chromosome breakage through cytogenetic analysis can help diagnose certain diseases and provide information about the risk of disease progression.

Tetraploidy can be caused by various factors such as:

1. Polyploidy: This is a condition where an individual has more than two sets of chromosomes, including tetraploidy.
2. Chromosomal abnormalities: Such as aneuploidy, where there is an extra or missing copy of a specific chromosome.
3. Genetic disorders: Such as Down syndrome, which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
4. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain chemicals or radiation can increase the risk of tetraploidy.

Symptoms of tetraploidy can vary depending on the severity of the condition and may include:

1. Growth delays: Children with tetraploidy may experience slowed growth and development.
2. Intellectual disability: Some individuals with tetraploidy may have cognitive impairments and learning difficulties.
3. Physical abnormalities: Tetraploidy can result in a variety of physical characteristics, such as short stature, thinning hair, and distinctive facial features.
4. Increased risk of health problems: Individuals with tetraploidy may be more susceptible to certain health issues, such as heart defects, hearing loss, and vision problems.

Diagnosis of tetraploidy is typically made through chromosomal analysis, which can be performed on a blood or tissue sample. Treatment for tetraploidy is not always necessary, but may include:

1. Monitoring growth and development: Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help track the child's growth and development.
2. Speech and language therapy: Children with tetraploidy may benefit from speech and language therapy to address any communication difficulties.
3. Occupational therapy: Individuals with tetraploidy may need occupational therapy to help them develop skills and abilities.
4. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to manage associated health problems, such as heart defects or seizures.

It is important to note that every individual with tetraploidy is unique and may have a different experience and outcome. With appropriate medical care and support, many individuals with tetraploidy can lead fulfilling lives.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

These disorders are caused by changes in specific genes that fail to function properly, leading to a cascade of effects that can damage cells and tissues throughout the body. Some inherited diseases are the result of single gene mutations, while others are caused by multiple genetic changes.

Inherited diseases can be diagnosed through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: This involves analyzing a person's DNA to identify specific genetic changes that may be causing the disease.
2. Blood tests: These can help identify certain inherited diseases by measuring enzyme levels or identifying specific proteins in the blood.
3. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help identify structural changes in the body that may be indicative of an inherited disease.
4. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of an inherited disease, such as unusual physical features or abnormalities.

Inherited diseases can be treated in various ways, depending on the specific condition and its causes. Some treatments include:

1. Medications: These can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or repair damaged tissues.
3. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to treat or prevent inherited diseases.
4. Rehabilitation: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation can help individuals with inherited diseases manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Inherited diseases are a significant public health concern, as they affect millions of people worldwide. However, advances in genetic research and medical technology have led to the development of new treatments and management strategies for these conditions. By working with healthcare providers and advocacy groups, individuals with inherited diseases can access the resources and support they need to manage their conditions and improve their quality of life.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

There are several types of chromosome aberrations, including:

1. Chromosomal deletions: Loss of a portion of a chromosome.
2. Chromosomal duplications: Extra copies of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
3. Chromosomal translocations: A change in the position of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
4. Chromosomal inversions: A reversal of a segment of a chromosome.
5. Chromosomal amplifications: An increase in the number of copies of a particular chromosome or gene.

Chromosome aberrations can be detected through various techniques, such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). These tests can help identify changes in the chromosomal makeup of cells and provide information about the underlying genetic causes of disease.

Chromosome aberrations are associated with a wide range of diseases, including:

1. Cancer: Chromosome abnormalities are common in cancer cells and can contribute to the development and progression of cancer.
2. Birth defects: Many birth defects are caused by chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
3. Neurological disorders: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to various neurological disorders, including autism and intellectual disability.
4. Immunodeficiency diseases: Some immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
5. Infectious diseases: Chromosome aberrations can increase the risk of infection with certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
6. Ageing: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to the ageing process and may contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
7. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can cause chromosome abnormalities, which can increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
8. Genetic disorders: Many genetic disorders are caused by chromosome aberrations, such as Turner syndrome (45,X), which is caused by a missing X chromosome.
9. Rare diseases: Chromosome aberrations can cause rare diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), which is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome.
10. Infertility: Chromosome abnormalities can contribute to infertility in both men and women.

Understanding the causes and consequences of chromosome aberrations is important for developing effective treatments and improving human health.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

The symptoms of chromosome duplication vary depending on the location and number of extra chromosomes present. Some common symptoms include:

* Delayed development and growth
* Intellectual disability
* Speech and language delays
* Physical abnormalities, such as heart defects or facial dysmorphism
* Increased risk of developing certain health problems, such as autism or epilepsy

Chromosome duplication can be diagnosed through a blood test or by analyzing cells from the body. Treatment is based on the specific symptoms and may include speech therapy, physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

Prognosis for individuals with chromosome duplication varies depending on the location and number of extra chromosomes present, as well as the presence of any other genetic conditions. Some individuals with chromosome duplication may have a good prognosis and lead normal lives, while others may experience significant health problems and developmental delays.

In some cases, chromosome duplication can be inherited from one or both parents, who may be carriers of the condition but do not exhibit any symptoms themselves. In other cases, chromosome duplication can occur spontaneously due to a mistake during cell division.

There is currently no cure for chromosome duplication, but early diagnosis and appropriate interventions can help manage symptoms and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

Types of Adenovirus Infections:

There are over 50 different serotypes of adenoviruses, and each one can cause a specific type of infection. Some of the most common types of adenovirus infections include:

1. Respiratory infections: Adenoviruses can cause upper respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia.
2. Gastrointestinal infections: Adenoviruses can cause gastroenteritis, which is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
3. Eye infections: Adenoviruses can cause conjunctivitis, which is an infection of the eye that can lead to redness, swelling, and discharge.
4. Urinary tract infections: Adenoviruses can cause urinary tract infections (UTIs) such as cystitis and pyelonephritis.
5. Inflammatory diseases: Adenoviruses have been linked to certain inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, asthma, and dermatitis.

Symptoms of Adenovirus Infections:

The symptoms of adenovirus infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the age of the individual. Some common symptoms include:

1. Fever
2. Runny nose
3. Sore throat
4. Coughing
5. Diarrhea
6. Vomiting
7. Abdominal pain
8. Headache
9. Fatigue
10. Muscle aches

Diagnosis of Adenovirus Infections:

Adenovirus infections are typically diagnosed based on the symptoms and medical history of the individual. In some cases, a healthcare provider may perform laboratory tests to confirm the presence of the virus. These tests can include:

1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): This test detects the genetic material of the virus in a sample of body fluid or tissue.
2. Viral culture: This test involves growing the virus in a laboratory setting to confirm its presence.
3. Serology tests: These tests measure the levels of antibodies against the virus in the blood.

Treatment and Prevention of Adenovirus Infections:

There is no specific treatment for adenovirus infections, but supportive care can help manage symptoms. This can include:

1. Rest and hydration: Drinking plenty of fluids and getting enough rest can help the body recover from the infection.
2. Medications: Over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen can help relieve fever and pain.
3. Antiviral medications: In severe cases, antiviral medications may be prescribed to help reduce the severity of the infection.

Prevention is key to avoiding adenovirus infections. Here are some ways to prevent the spread of the virus:

1. Hand washing: Frequent hand washing, especially after coming into contact with someone who is sick or touching surfaces that may have the virus on them, can help prevent the spread of the virus.
2. Avoiding close contact: Avoiding close contact with people who are sick can help prevent the spread of the virus.
3. Disinfecting surfaces: Regularly disinfecting surfaces and objects that may have the virus on them can help reduce the risk of infection.
4. Vaccination: There is currently no licensed vaccine available to protect against adenovirus infections, but research is ongoing to develop one.


Adenovirus infections are common and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe. While there is no specific treatment for the infection, supportive care can help manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding adenovirus infections, and this can be achieved through frequent hand washing, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, regularly disinfecting surfaces, and avoiding sharing personal items. Research is ongoing to develop a vaccine against adenovirus infections.

Explanation: Neoplastic cell transformation is a complex process that involves multiple steps and can occur as a result of genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. The process typically begins with a series of subtle changes in the DNA of individual cells, which can lead to the loss of normal cellular functions and the acquisition of abnormal growth and reproduction patterns.

Over time, these transformed cells can accumulate further mutations that allow them to survive and proliferate despite adverse conditions. As the transformed cells continue to divide and grow, they can eventually form a tumor, which is a mass of abnormal cells that can invade and damage surrounding tissues.

In some cases, cancer cells can also break away from the primary tumor and travel through the bloodstream or lymphatic system to other parts of the body, where they can establish new tumors. This process, known as metastasis, is a major cause of death in many types of cancer.

It's worth noting that not all transformed cells will become cancerous. Some forms of cellular transformation, such as those that occur during embryonic development or tissue regeneration, are normal and necessary for the proper functioning of the body. However, when these transformations occur in adult tissues, they can be a sign of cancer.

See also: Cancer, Tumor

Word count: 190 › Medical Dictionary › G

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

Genetic Translocation | Definition & Facts | Britannica › science › Genetic-tr...

Genetic translocation, also called chromosomal translocation, a type of chromosomal aberration in which a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material. Genetic translocations are often found in cancer cells and may play a role in the development and progression of cancer.

Translocation, Genetic | health Encyclopedia - UPMC › health-library › gene...

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

Genetic Translocation | Genetics Home Reference - NIH › condition › ge...

A genetic translocation is a change in the number or arrangement of the chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome. This can result in a gain or loss of genetic material, which can have significant effects on the individual.

In conclusion, Genetic Translocation is an abnormality in the number or arrangement of chromosomes in a cell. It occurs when a portion of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome, resulting in a gain or loss of genetic material that can have significant effects on the individual.

Bacterial genome size Cryoconservation of animal genetic resources Genome Browser Genome Compiler Genome topology Genome-wide ... Whereas a genome sequence lists the order of every DNA base in a genome, a genome map identifies the landmarks. A genome map is ... Genomes OnLine Database The Genome News Network NCBI Entrez Genome Project database NCBI Genome Primer GeneCards-an integrated ... Genome size is the total number of the DNA base pairs in one copy of a haploid genome. Genome size varies widely across species ...
Genome reduction, also known as genome degradation, is the process by which an organism's genome shrinks relative to that of ... Animal Genome Size Database Bacterial genome size C-value Cell nucleus Comparative genomics Comparison of different genome ... Genome size is the total amount of DNA contained within one copy of a single complete genome. It is typically measured in terms ... The genome of the endosymbiont B. aphidicola is characterized by a genome size that is seven times smaller than E. coli (643 kb ...
Genome may also refer to: Human genome Bovine genome Mitochondrial genome BBC Genome Project, a digitised searchable database ... Kentucky Genome size Genome project Genomics All pages with titles containing Genome Category:Genome projects This ... Look up genome in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Genome refers to a complex biochemical system devised within living ... 1999 nonfiction book by Matt Ridley Genome (novel), science fiction novel by Sergey Lukyanenko Genome (journal), a scientific ...
An additional genome assembly of the Hanfu apple (HFTH1) was compared to the Golden Delicious (GDDH13) genome and showed ... The apple genome has approximately 57,000 genes, which was the highest number of any plant genome studied at the time, and more ... The genome sequence also provided proof that Malus sieversii was the wild ancestor of the domestic apple-an issue that had been ... "The Apple Genome and Epigenome". Retrieved 14 April 2020. Daccord, N.; Celton, J.; Linsmith, G. "High-quality de novo assembly ...
... aru tensai kagakusha no itsukakan at IMDb Genome Hazard at the Korean Movie Database Genome Hazard at HanCinema v t e v t e ( ... Genome Hazard (ゲノムハザード ある天才科学者の5日間) (Korean: 무명인; RR: Mumyeongin; lit. "Nameless") is a 2013 Japanese-South Korean action ... Kim Hee-eun (23 May 2014). "Murder, memory blur in Genome". Korea JoongAng Daily. Retrieved 23 May 2014. Jean Noh (8 October ...
The key to genome editing is creating a DSB at a specific point within the genome. Commonly used restriction enzymes are ... Genome editing, or genome engineering, or gene editing, is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, ... There can be up to 50 genome edits, from single nucleotide base pairs to whole genome or gene networks simultaneously with ... They consist of short sequences that originate from viral genomes and have been incorporated into the bacterial genome. Cas ( ...
Fungal genomes are among the smallest genomes of eukaryotes. The sizes of fungal genomes range from less than 10 Mbp to ... Genome sequences can be used to expand the number of genes used in phylogenetic analyses, but many publicly available genomes ... Due to their compact size fungal genomes can be sequenced with less resources than most other eukaryotic genomes and are thus ... Wallemia mellicola or Malassezia restricta are comparable to bacterial genomes. The genome of the extensively researched yeast ...
Genome (Russian: Геном, Genom) is a science fiction/detective novel by the popular Russian sci-fi writer Sergei Lukyanenko. The ... While the Dances on the Snow was written as a prequel (albeit later than Genome), according to the author, it should be read ... Reviewer Patrick L. McGuire praises many aspects of Genome in an essay in The New York Review of Science Fiction: It " ... novel began a series also called Genome, consisting of Dances on the Snow (a prequel, although written later) and Cripples (a ...
"Viruses - Complete Genomes". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. "Human Adenovirus E Genome". NCBI. Retrieved 2013-01-17. "Human ... Adenovirus genomes are linear, non-segmented double-stranded (ds) DNA molecules that are typically 26-46 Kbp long, containing ... The example used for the following description is Human adenovirus E, a mastadenovirus with a 36 Kbp genome containing 38 ... While the precise number and identity of genes varies among adenoviruses, the basic principles of genome organization and the ...
This scope includes genome structure and function, comparative genomics, molecular evolution, genome-scale quantitative and ... "Genome Research". 2020 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2020. Official website v t e ( ... Genome Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Disregarding review ... The focus of the journal is on research that provides novel insights into the genome biology of all organisms, including ...
The horse genome is larger than the dog genome, but smaller than the human genome or the bovine genome. It encompasses 31 pairs ... "2007 Release: Horse Genome Assembled". National Human Genome Research Institute. Retrieved 2013-04-01. "Quarter Horse Genome ... The horse genome was first sequenced in 2006. The Horse Genome Project mapped 2.7 billion DNA base pairs, and released the full ... Bowling Genome project Equine coat color genetics "Sequenced horse genome expands understanding of equine, human diseases". ...
The genome of a female Hereford cow was published in 2009. It was sequenced by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis ... The Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium worked to sequence the genome over a six-year period, and included 300 ... Elsik, C.G. # (2009). Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. "The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ... Cattle Hereford cattle DNA Genome International HapMap Project List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes Composite SINE transposons ...
The Human Genome Project is a well known example of a genome project. Genome assembly refers to the process of taking a large ... taurus Bovine genome Honey Bee Genome Sequencing Consortium Horse genome Human microbiome project International Grape Genome ... assembly Wikimedia Commons has media related to Genome projects. GOLD:Genomes OnLine Database Genome Project Database The ... Genome projects are scientific endeavours that ultimately aim to determine the complete genome sequence of an organism (be it ...
The Movie Genome concept is borrowed from the Human Genome Project, a scientific project to identify and map all human genes. ... Movie Genome attributes might include mood, tone, plot, and structure. Jinni's Movie Genome has a taxonomy created by film ... The Movie Genome is an approach to indexing movies based on attributes in order to create movie catalogs with extensive, ... The Movie Genome has several applications in the area of movie discovery. It can power search engines, notably semantic search ...
In cancer, genome instability can occur prior to or as a consequence of transformation. Genome instability can refer to the ... Genome instability (also genetic instability or genomic instability) refers to a high frequency of mutations within the genome ... Genome instability does occur in bacteria. In multicellular organisms genome instability is central to carcinogenesis, and in ... The protein coding regions of the human genome, collectively called the exome, constitutes only 1.5% of the total genome. As ...
"Genome Reference Consortium". Retrieved 2022-08-18. "UCSC Genome Bioinformatics: FAQ". ... "1000 Fungal Genomes Project". Retrieved 2022-08-18. Genome Reference Consortium (Genome projects, ... by de novo assembling genomes from african and asian populations with the NCBI reference genome (version NCBI36), these genomes ... Reference genomes are typically used as a guide on which new genomes are built, enabling them to be assembled much more quickly ...
"Genome Medicine". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2018-07-15. "Source details: Genome ... "Genome Medicine Editorial Board". Genome Medicine. Retrieved 2018-07-15. "Master Journal List". Intellectual Property & Science ... Norton, Melissa L. (2009-01-20). "Genome Medicine: the future of medicine". Genome Medicine. 1 (1): 1. doi:10.1186/gm1. ISSN ... Genome Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal with a focus on medical genetics. It was established in 2009 as ...
Genome British Columbia Genome Alberta Genome Prairie Ontario Genomics Genome Québec Genome Atlantic Between 2000 and 2017, ... Genome Canada researchers generate policy briefs on these and other topics. Currently, there are six regional genome centres in ... Genome Canada is a non-profit organization that aims to use genomics-based technologies to improve the lives of Canadians. It ... Genome Canada also funds research on the ethical, environmental, economic, legal and social aspects of genomics, which they ...
The name "second genome" comes from the notion that humans have, effectively, two genomes: the native human genome, and the ... Second Genome is a venture capital funded, life sciences research company based in South San Francisco. The company's focus is ... Second Genome was founded in 2010 by Corey Goodman, a venture capitalist and former Pfizer executive, and Todd DeSantis, the ... Second Genome's product is essentially a platform that combines genomics technologies, computational biology, and phenotypic ...
Incorporating Mouse Genome". Mammalian Genome. 9 (1): 1. doi:10.1007/s003359900669. PMID 9435276. "Mammalian Genome: Copyright ... In 1998 the journal Mouse Genome was merged into Mammalian Genome. Authors are allowed to self-archive, and can pay extra for ... "Mammalian Genome: Editorial Board". Springer. Retrieved 30 July 2009. "Mammalian Genome". Entrez NLM Catalog. Retrieved 30 July ... "Mammalian Genome: Description". Springer. Retrieved 30 July 2009. "Mammalian Genome: Instructions for Authors". Springer. ...
These are usually treated separately as the nuclear genome and the mitochondrial genome. Human genomes include both protein- ... The human genome was the first of all vertebrates to be sequenced to such near-completion, and as of 2018, the diploid genomes ... Since individual genomes vary in sequence by less than 1% from each other, the variations of a given human's genome from a ... The first human genome sequences were published in nearly complete draft form in February 2001 by the Human Genome Project and ...
... was run by the Pande Lab. Following the Human Genome Project, scientists needed to know the biological and medical ... Genome@home directly studied genomes and proteins by virtually designing new sequences for existing 3-D protein structures, ... "Genome@home Updates". 2004-03-04. Archived from the original on 2012-10-02. Retrieved 2011-11-30. Pande lab. "Genome@home ... Genome@home was a volunteer computing project run by Stefan Larson of Stanford University, and a sister project to Folding@home ...
Genome project Structural genomics "DataSoft Systems Bangladesh Ltd". Retrieved 19 May 2015. "Jute genome ... More than 50X coverage (over 100 billions of A, C, G, and Ts) of Jute genome-sequencing data were used for the draft assembly. ... Jute genome Homepage (CS1 uses Bengali-language script (bn), CS1 Bengali-language sources (bn), Articles needing additional ... Several open-source and commercial genome assembly and annotation pipelines were used to assemble and analyze the raw data. To ...
Ridley concludes that the Human Genome Project is largely based on the inaccurate belief that there is one single human genome ... reviewing Genome in The New York Times, argues that the book's theme is that each individual's genome contains "echoes" ( ... Genome was shortlisted for the Samuel Johnson Prize in 2000. Kealey, Terence (2000). "Book Review Genome:The Autobiography of a ... Genome: The Autobiography of a Species in 23 Chapters is a 1999 popular science book by the science writer Matt Ridley, ...
These genome skims contain information about the high-copy fraction of the genome. The high-copy fraction of the genome ... Although genome skimming is usually chosen as a cost-effective method to sequence organellar genomes, genome skimming can be ... Genome skimming has been demonstrated to simplify organellar genome assembly by subsampling the reads of the nuclear genome via ... Using genome skimming, the sequencing of the entire plastid genome, or plastome, can be done at a fraction of the cost and time ...
The minimal genome correlates to small genome sizes, given the consistent relationship between genome size and number of ... Much of the research mainly focuses on the ancestral genome and less on the minimal genome. Studies of these existing genomes ... which is otherwise part of the minimal genome of current cells. This minimal genome concept assumes that genomes can be reduced ... The smallest known genome of a free-living bacterium is 1.3 Mb with ~1100 genes. However, significantly more reduced genomes ...
... is an analogy to genomes in biology, but in a conceptual sense: the many important phases, defects, and ... discussing about the possibilities and limitations of a Nanomaterials Genome, expanding concept of the Materials Genome by ... The name Materials Genome was coined in December 2002 by Dr. Zi-Kui Liu who incorporated the company "MaterialsGenome, Inc." in ... The Materials Genome Initiative (MGI) is an effort to design, manufacture, and deploy materials and materials-based ...
"Genome Biology". NLM Catalog. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2018-12-05. "Source details: Genome ... Genome Biology is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal covering research in genomics. It was established in 2000 and ... "Genome Biology". 2019 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Clarivate Analytics. 2020. Official website v t e ...
... there is relatively little variation in genome size when compared with the genome sizes of other major groups of life. Genome ... The descendant small genome content depends on the content of chromosomal deletions that occur in the early stages of genome ... The genome sequences reveal much diversity in bacteria. Analysis of over 2000 Escherichia coli genomes reveals an E. coli core ... Bacterial genomes are generally smaller and less variant in size among species when compared with genomes of eukaryotes. ...
Genome is affiliated with the Canadian Society for Molecular Biosciences, and is co-edited by Melania Cristescu of McGill ... Genome, formerly known as the Canadian Journal of Genetics and Cytology (1959-1986), is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific ... Genome prints articles in the fields of genetics and genomics, including cytogenetics, molecular and evolutionary genetics, ...
Furthermore, a genome-wide comparison of selection rates between large and small-bodied baleen whales revealed a small set of ... Their genomes have been used to investigate their complex evolutionary history and to decipher the molecular mechanisms that ... Here, we present a first de novo genome of the species and test its potential in phylogenomics and cancer research. To do so, ... This placement makes the pygmy right whale genome an interesting target to update the complex phylogenetic past of baleen ...
Whole genome sequencing will improve the efficiency of surveillance and help solve foodborne outbreaks sooner. ... How does whole genome sequencing work?. Scientists conduct whole genome sequencing by following these four main steps:. *DNA ... Whole genome sequencing is a laboratory procedure that determines the order of bases in the genome of an organism in one ... What is whole genome sequencing (WGS)?. All organisms (bacteria, vegetable, mammal) have a unique genetic code, or genome, that ...
grcworkshop grc grch38 referenceassembly genome giab #grc ashg2016 ashg2019 pangenome variation graphgenome agbt2016 goldgenome ... The Genome Reference Consortium works to improve reference assemblies for human and select model organisms. ... genome centromere denovoassembly assembl imgc2019 telomere annotation asgh2017 ashg2017 clinvar ncbi ...
Arabidopsis Genome Initiative: Links. * NSF PR 00-94: First-Ever Complete Plant Genome Sequence Is Announced. * Arabidopsis ... Genome Initiative Fact Sheet. * Video B-roll. *Webcast of Press Conference, December 13, 2000. * Slides from Press Conference ...
This resource organizes information on genomes including sequences, maps, chromosomes, assemblies, and annotations. ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Ludwig van Beethovens genome has been sequenced for the first time by an international team of scientists using five ... Beethovens genome offers clues to composers health and family history Peer-Reviewed Publication University of Cambridge ... Beethovens genome offers clues to composers health and family history. ... It is therefore possible that Beethovens genome will reveal hints for the cause of his hearing loss in the future." ...
The diploid human genome has 46 chromosomes. See also: haploid Directed evolution A laboratory process used on isolated ... See also: gene, genome Double helix The twisted-ladder shape that two linear strands of DNA assume when complementary ... The relative order of base pairs, whether in a DNA fragment, gene, chromosome, or an entire genome. See also: base sequence ... A description of a specific chromosome that uses defined mutations --specific deleted areas in the genome-- as biochemical ...
Learn more about the xenotransplant genome therapy core within the Division of Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology at ... Xenotransplant and Genome Editing Core. Contact the Co-Directors. Daniel Starczynowski, PhD. [email protected] ...
The first wave of information from the analysis of the human genome revealed SNPs to be the main source of genetic and ... However, the advent of genome-scanning technologies has now uncovered an unexpectedly large extent of what we term structural ... These variants are predicted to comprise millions of nucleotides of heterogeneity within every genome, with important ... evidence indicates that structural variants can comprise millions of nucleotides of heterogeneity within every genome, and are ...
An international mammoth collaboration has catalogued mutations in the coding and noncoding regions of more than 2600 genomes ... "The reasons are written in the genome. The striking finding is just how different one persons cancer genome is from another ... The PCAWG built on the work of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and the Cancer Genome Atlas Cancer sequencing ... Entire Cancer Genome Analyzed ― Coding and Noncoding Regions At a Nature press conference, Lincoln D. Stein, MD, PhD, member of ...
ARS Home » News & Events » News Articles » Research News » 2011 » Analyzing the Sheep Genome for Parasite Resistance ... Analyzing the Sheep Genome for Parasite Resistance. By Sandra Avant. October 18, 2011 Genetic resistance to a parasitic ... ARS geneticist Tad Sonstegard, here preparing to load a genome analyzer, leads an international team that has found genetic ... In one study, researchers mapped the regions of the genome that control resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in a ...
Genome Instability. Genome Instability 2022-23. MSE-3023. 2022-23. School Of Medical And Health Sciences. Module - Semester 2. ... Critically evaluate how genome instability contributes to human diseases at a molecular level. ... focusing on the latest development in an important area in genome stability research. ...
The Broad Institute has completed a deep coverage (7x) draft of the rabbit genome. The rabbit genome project will not only ... In November 2022, Broads Genomics Platform sequenced its 500,000th whole human genome, a mere four years after sequencing its ... Working with Addgene, Broad Institute has shared CRISPR genome-editing reagents with researchers at more than 3,200 ... but will also help with the annotation of the human genome. ... Genome Assembly. 6.51x Complete, Anchored. Improved Annotation ...
Das Deutsche Krebsforschungszentrum hat die Aufgabe, die Mechanismen der Krebsentstehung systematisch zu erforschen und Risikofaktoren f r Krebserkrankungen zu erfassen. Aus den Ergebnissen dieser grundlegenden Arbeiten sollen neue Ans tze zur Vorbeugung, Diagnostik und Therapie entwickelt werden.
... Realizing the social and economic benefits of genome science. ... The genomes of four spruce trees native to North America Sequencing, assembly and comparative analysis of four spruce giga- ... Whole Genome and Transcriptome Analysis Benefits Clinical Cancer Care A prospective study of 570 Personalized OncoGenomic (POG ... Canadas Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre (GSC) at BC Cancer is an international leader in genomics, proteomics and ...
Genome Graphs is a tool for displaying genome-wide data sets such as the results of genome-wide SNP association studies, ... browse regions: Takes you to a page with a list of all regions above the significance threshold on the left, and a Genome ... assembly: Specifies which version of the organisms genome sequence to use. *graph ... in ...: Selects which graph(s) to ... For more detailed instructions, see the Genome Graphs Users Guide. *clade: Specifies which clade the organism is in. ...
I bet her a six-pack of Diet Coke that it was probably going to be a lot like our experience with the other genome-editing ... In the early ages of genome editing, I picked up some of the first tools-zinc fingers among them-and while we could get them to ... When she compared it to the TALENs at 10 different places in the genome, there was-hands-down-no competition. The CRISPR-Cas ... Serves as a director, officer, partner, employee, advisor, or consultant for: Apple; Cypher Genomics; Dexcom; Edico Genome; ...
With the help of a new draft genome assembly, researchers have found that a Southeast Asian gliding mammal called the colugo is ... With this genome sequence, and targeted sequencing on samples from dozens of colugo museum specimens, the team concluded that ... An analysis in Genome Biology compares the lengths of proteins across more than 2,300 species, finding similar length ... With these reads, they put together a 3.2 billion-base draft genome assembly for the colugo, annotated with the help of colugo ...
The encoded genome is a set of DNA. The expressed genome is the RNA thats translated from it and then made into proteins. That ... It doesnt change the code of the gene, and it doesnt change the encoded genome. Sure, you can change your encoded genome by ... Whats next? Lots of other genomes. Its going to be very important to get the chimpanzee genome. The dog is going to be ... Then we can start talking about individual genomes, and Craig Venter foresees the day when you or I can have our genome done ...
Isolated from traditional Korean fermented clams (jogae-jeotgal) purchased in Sorae port, Inchon, Republic of Korea ...
Analysis of the genome has shed light on the genetic diversity of the human population that lived on the Italian Peninsula, ... Scientists have successfully sequenced the genome of a man who died after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD for the first ... While scientists could obtain ancient DNA from both individuals, they were only able to sequence the entire genome from the ...
Genome Notes are the DNA sequences of the reference genomes of the 70,000 UK species of Britain and Ireland as they are ... Genome Notes - Darwin Tree of Life. Genome Notes are the DNA sequences of the reference genomes of the 70,000 UK species of ... Genome Notes for each completed reference genome are published on the Tree of Life Programmes gateway on the Wellcome Open ... The Genome Reference Informatics Team analyses genome assemblies to reveal and correct quality issues and to identify and add ...
The sequencing of the castor bean genome to 4.5 X coverage was conducted at JCVI. The results of this work show that the genome ... While the castor bean genome is the first to be sequenced and published from this family, the jatropha genome has been ... Chan stated, "The availability of the castor bean genome will encourage more research into the positive aspects of this oilseed ... Castor Bean Genome Published by Research Team Including Scientists from the Venter Institute ...
Genes QTLs Strains Markers Genome Information Ontologies Cell Lines References Download Submit Data ... OntoMate (Literature Search) JBrowse (Genome Browser) Synteny Browser (VCMap) (beta) Variant Visualizer Multi-Ontology ...
Official website of the National Human Genome Research Institute. The Forefront of Genomics. ... About the National Human Genome Research Institute. At NHGRI, we are focused on advances in genomics research. Building on our ... leadership role in the initial sequencing of the human genome, we collaborate with the worlds scientific and medical ...
Assessing the Value for Money of Using Genome Sequencing in Child Health. If you have a child with a neurodevelopmental ... genome sequencing - Genomics and Precision Health Blog ...
  • What is whole genome sequencing (WGS)? (
  • Whole genome sequencing is a laboratory procedure that determines the order of bases in the genome of an organism in one process. (
  • How does whole genome sequencing work? (
  • How has whole genome sequencing improved disease detection? (
  • Since 2019, whole genome sequencing has been the standard PulseNet method for detecting and investigating foodborne outbreaks associated with bacteria such as Campylobacter , Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Salmonella , Vibrio , and Listeria . (
  • Since being launched, whole genome sequencing of pathogens in public health laboratories has improved surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks and enhanced our ability to detect trends in foodborne infections and antimicrobial resistance. (
  • Whole genome sequencing provides detailed and precise data for identifying outbreaks sooner. (
  • As the use of whole genome sequencing expands, CDC's national surveillance systems and laboratory infrastructure must keep pace with the changing technology. (
  • Whole genome sequencing is a fast and affordable way to obtain detailed information about bacteria using just one test. (
  • The implementation of whole genome sequencing of pathogens for detecting and tracking foodborne outbreaks was made possible through collaborations with CDC's Advanced Molecular Detection (AMD) Office, Food Safety Office , and Antimicrobial Resistance Solutions Initiative . (
  • Stein explained that although the portrait of sequences that emerged from exome sequencing was a gold mine that provided insights into cancer biology and advanced precision treatment through targeted therapy, it represented a mere 1% of the genome. (
  • The PCAWG built on the work of the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and the Cancer Genome Atlas Cancer sequencing projects to uniformly analyze more than 2500 whole-cancer genomes - 100% of the cancer genome. (
  • In November 2022, Broad's Genomics Platform sequenced its 500,000th whole human genome, a mere four years after sequencing its 100,000th. (
  • Harnessing cutting-edge genome sequencing and analytical techniques. (
  • By developing and deploying cutting-edge genome sequencing, computational and analytical technology, we are creating novel strategies to prevent and diagnose cancers and other diseases, uncovering new therapeutic targets and helping the world realize the social and economic benefits of genome science. (
  • Through the Personalized OncoGenomics (POG) program , the GSC deploys whole genome and transcriptome sequencing to inform therapeutic and management strategies for late-stage cancer patients in real time. (
  • Sequencing, assembly and comparative analysis of four spruce giga-genomes completed as part of the SpruceUp project, which aims to enhance the genomic knowledge and accelerate spruce breeding programs across the nation. (
  • With this genome sequence, and targeted sequencing on samples from dozens of colugo museum specimens, the team concluded that colugos are primates' closest living relatives, despite their physical resemblance to treeshrews. (
  • Genome sequencing at the laboratory in the Kenya Medical Research Institute in the coastal Kilifi town previously focused on research projects, sequencing about two dozen samples a week. (
  • Now serving five countries and part of the continent-wide 12 laboratory network set up by WHO and the Africa Centres for Disease Control to upscale the region's pathogen surveillance through genome sequencing, the Kilifi laboratory sequences up to 200 samples weekly, although it has a capacity of up to 700. (
  • Genome sequencing is central to combatting COVID-19, allowing governments and health authorities to take swift and informed public health decisions such as measures to bolster preparedness for potential surges owing to more infectious variants or stepping up vaccination, diagnostics and treatment. (
  • Dr Gumede-Moeletsi points out that sending samples from one country to another for sequencing is a "stop-gap solution," adding that "ultimately, countries have to be able to sequence and analyse genomes without relying on outside support. (
  • African countries are making great strides towards self-sufficiency in genome sequencing. (
  • Genome sequencing can revolutionize public health and transform responses to other major health threats beyond COVID-19. (
  • Over the past two decades, genome sequencing has been pivotal in the efforts to tackle HIV, tuberculosis, Ebola, polio, measles, hepatitis B and C among others in Africa. (
  • The sequencing of the castor bean genome to 4.5 X coverage was conducted at JCVI. (
  • Rapid whole-genome sequencing identifies a novel homozygous NPC1 variant associated with Niemann-Pick type C1 disease in a 7-week-old male with cholestasis. (
  • We report a 7-wk-old infant who was admitted with neonatal cholestasis , and who was diagnosed with a novel homozygous stop-gain variant in NPC1 by rapid whole- genome sequencing (WGS). (
  • This study examined the added value of whole genome sequencing (WGS) for investigating a non-point source outbreak of Salmonella ser. (
  • 2016) Whole genome sequencing of Salmonella Typhimurium illuminates distinct outbreaks caused by an endemic multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis type in Australia, 2014. (
  • 2016) Expert opinion on whole genome sequencing for public health surveillance. (
  • 2017) Examples of How FDA Has Used Whole Genome Sequencing of Foodborne Pathogens For Regulatory Purposes. (
  • 2016) Identification of Salmonella for public health surveillance using whole genome sequencing. (
  • 7) Octavia S, Wang Q, Tanaka MM, Kaur S, Sintchenko V, Lan R. (2015) Delineating community outbreaks of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium by use of whole-genome sequencing: insights into genomic variability within an outbreak. (
  • 10) Carleton HA, Gerner-Smidt P. (2016) Whole-genome sequencing is taking over foodborne disease surveillance. (
  • Furthermore, a genome-wide comparison of selection rates between large and small-bodied baleen whales revealed a small set of conserved candidate genes with potential connections to cancer resistance. (
  • The genome of the smallest baleen whale was used to update the rorqual phylogeny and to identify genes related to cancer resistance. (
  • Within a genome, genes are connected to each other through a complex network of interactions. (
  • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) help scientists identify genes associated with a particular disease (or another trait). (
  • The key lies in the dynamic ever-changing structure of the chromatin, which is the underlying complex of protein and DNA making up the chromosomes in which almost all genes are housed within the genome. (
  • The team identified 23,081 predicted protein-coding genes in the genome, which they compared to sequences from several other mammals and to a lower-coverage genome assembly for a male Philippine colugo. (
  • Permission of the principal investigator should be obtained before publishing analyses of the sequence/open reading frames/genes on a chromosome or genome scale. (
  • The results of this work show that the genome is 350 Mb and has an estimated 31,237 genes. (
  • The Human Genome Project began in 1990 with the task of mapping the genes that would compose the human genetic code. (
  • Recently, the general coordinator of the Cancer Genome Project in Brazil, suggested the existence of a set of genes responsible for criminal behavior, discarding the relevant role of environmental variables (ontogenetic and cultural). (
  • The S. alopecuroides chloroplast genome consists of 132 genes, including 83 protein-coding genes, 41 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. (
  • The rabbit genome project will not only greatly aid the study of immunology, and biomedical research in general, but will also help with the annotation of the human genome. (
  • 2020 Curt Stern Award address: a more perfect clinical genome-how consanguineous populations contribute to the medical annotation of the human genome. (
  • All organisms (bacteria, vegetable, mammal) have a unique genetic code, or genome, that is composed of nucleotide bases (A, T, C, and G). If you know the sequence of the bases in an organism, you have identified its unique DNA fingerprint, or pattern. (
  • 1. Marthaler D, Jiang Y, Otterson T, Goyal S, Rossow K, Collins J. Complete genome sequence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strain USA/Colorado/2013 from the United States. (
  • For the pan-cancer analysis , whole-genome sequence data were available for 2605 primary tumors and 173 metastases or local recurrences, which corresponded with 2658 cancer genomes with matched normal tissues. (
  • Specifies which version of the organism's genome sequence to use. (
  • The researchers used Illumina instruments to sequence DNA from a male Sunda colugo from West Java, covering the genome to an average 55-fold coverage. (
  • With these reads, they put together a 3.2 billion-base draft genome assembly for the colugo, annotated with the help of colugo RNA sequences from a sequence read archive. (
  • A genome sequence is like a fingerprint for the virus," says Dr George Githinji, Team Lead of Genomic Surveillance at the Kenya Medical Research Institute in Kilifi. (
  • While scientists could obtain ancient DNA from both individuals, they were only able to sequence the entire genome from the man's remains because there were gaps in the sequences extracted from the woman's remains. (
  • ROCKVILLE, Md. , Aug. 22 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- A research team co-led by scientists from the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) and the Institute for Genome Sciences (IGS), University of Maryland School of Medicine , today published the sequence and analysis of the castor bean ( Ricinus communis ) genome in Nature Biotechnology . (
  • Another meaningful measure is the sequence compositional complexity (SCC), which has been used for genome structure comparisons. (
  • Broad Genomics Platform sequences a whole human genome every four minutes. (
  • Canada's Michael Smith Genome Sciences Centre (GSC) at BC Cancer is an international leader in genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics for precision medicine. (
  • While the castor bean genome is the first to be sequenced and published from this family, the jatropha genome has been sequenced by JCVI and the company Synthetic Genomics Inc. Jatropha is also an oilseed crop. (
  • However, only a few reports are available on the genomic information of S. alopecuroides, especially the chloroplast genome, which greatly limits the study of the evolutionary relationship between other species of Papilionoideae. (
  • Here, we present a first de novo genome of the species and test its potential in phylogenomics and cancer research. (
  • To do so, we constructed a multi-species coalescent tree from fragments of a whole-genome alignment and quantified the amount of introgression in the early evolution of rorquals. (
  • An analysis in Genome Biology compares the lengths of proteins across more than 2,300 species, finding similar length distributions. (
  • As the genome carries the historical information of a species' biotic and environmental interactions, analyzing changes in genome structure over time by using powerful statistical physics methods (such as entropic segmentation algorithms , fluctuation analysis in DNA walks, or measures of compositional complexity) provides valuable insights into genome evolution. (
  • Lastly, we review the recent genome comparisons in species of the ancient phylum Cyanobacteria , conducted by phylogenetic regression of SCC against time , which have revealed positive trends towards higher genome complexity. (
  • International team of scientists deciphers renowned composer's genome from locks of hair. (
  • Ludwig van Beethoven's genome has been sequenced for the first time by an international team of scientists using five genetically matching locks of the well-known composer's hair. (
  • Scientists from the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG) project have released unprecedented data from their analyses of mutational events of more than 2600 cancer genomes. (
  • Scientists have successfully sequenced the genome of a man who died after the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD for the first time. (
  • Researchers hope that future genome-wide association studies will identify additional SNPs associated with chronic diseases and drug effects. (
  • Researchers can use information learned from genome-wide association studies to predict more accurately which prevention and treatment strategies will work in which groups of people, an important step in precision medicine . (
  • In one study, researchers mapped the regions of the genome that control resistance to gastrointestinal nematode parasites in a sheep population bred by ILRI. (
  • Working with Addgene, Broad Institute has shared CRISPR genome-editing reagents with researchers at more than 3,200 institutions in 76 countries. (
  • Researchers from Texas A&M University, the National Museum of Natural History's Smithsonian Institution, and elsewhere put together a draft genome assembly for a colugo representative from West Java, in an effort to resolve the creature's place in the animal family tree. (
  • In this way, interested researchers can use T2T isochore data, as well as the annotations for different genome elements , to check a specific hypothesis about genome structure. (
  • The study of genome structure involves interaction between various disciplines including cell biology, molecular physics, biomechanics and bioinformatics, as well as access to a wide range of expensive equipment such as electron microscopes, supercomputers, and scanners for simultaneous profiling of RNA expression across the whole genome. (
  • A description of a specific chromosome that uses defined mutations --specific deleted areas in the genome-- as 'biochemical signposts,' or markers for specific areas. (
  • Reference data, which are mandatory to interpret individual genomes, are steadily improving. (
  • For more technical information, the NCBI's Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP) contains data from genome-wide association studies. (
  • Assembling an accurate portrait of the cancer genome using just the exome data is like putting together a 100,000 piece jigsaw puzzle when you're missing 99% of the pieces and there is no picture box with the completed picture to guide you," he said. (
  • Subscribers to this list will receive emails about new and updated genomes, data, and software. (
  • Genome Graphs is a tool for displaying genome-wide data sets such as the results of genome-wide SNP association studies, linkage studies and homozygosity mapping. (
  • These findings provide the first evidence for a driven progressive evolution of genome compositional structure. (
  • Their genomes have been used to investigate their complex evolutionary history and to decipher the molecular mechanisms that allowed them to reach these dimensions. (
  • Critically evaluate how genome instability contributes to human diseases at a molecular level. (
  • They will also write a critical analysis of an external seminar, focusing on the latest development in an important area in genome stability research. (
  • Analysis of the genome has shed light on the genetic diversity of the human population that lived on the Italian Peninsula, when Pompeii was destroyed nearly 2,000 years ago. (
  • They catalogued and assembled a broad and comprehensive portrait of cancer-related mutations in both the coding and the noncoding regions of the genome across 38 major tumor types and applied this information to determine the biologic pathways that are implicated. (
  • Takes you to a page with a list of all regions above the significance threshold on the left, and a Genome Browser on the right. (
  • Similarly to other levels of biological organization , a hierarchical compositional structure is prevalent in the genome . (
  • The Broad Institute has completed a deep coverage (7x) draft of the rabbit genome. (
  • The distribution of segment G+C content has recently been proposed as a new genome signature that proves to be useful for comparing complete genomes . (
  • Because genome-wide association studies examine SNPs across the genome, they represent a promising way to study complex, common diseases in which many genetic variations contribute to a person's risk. (
  • Introduction: The Human Genome Project (HGP) has allowed for advances in diagnosis and prevention of diseases. (
  • About five driver mutations were identified across each cancer genome (5% had no driver mutations). (
  • Most driver mutations were found to be in the coding-region of the genome. (
  • ARS geneticist Tad Sonstegard, here preparing to load a genome analyzer, leads an international team that has found genetic resistance to a parasitic nematode that infects sheep and causes significant economic and production losses in Africa each year. (
  • Together, we apply our knowledge to advance the global understanding of cancer and other diseases with an ultimate aim toward improving human health through disease prevention, the development of novel diagnostic strategies and by uncovering new therapeutic approaches, all the while helping the world to realize the social and economic benefits of genome research . (
  • That's what led me by the nose to genetics-because if you're going to focus on something, the best lens to use initially is human genetics, and from human genetics to IPSC and the genome editing tools that we use today in the lab. (
  • The Genome Reference Consortium works to improve reference assemblies for human and select model organisms. (
  • The OvineSNP50 is a powerful tool that can examine more than 50,000 locations in the genome. (
  • Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome of S. alopecuroides. (
  • Compositional Structure of the Genome: A Review. (
  • Once the compositional structure of a genome is identified, various measures can be derived to quantify the heterogeneity of such structure. (
  • The National Human Genome Research Institute provides a detailed explanation of genome-wide association studies . (
  • In addition, the National Human Genome Research Institute and the European Bioinformatics Institute jointly provide a Catalog of Published Genome-Wide Association Studies . (
  • Genome Notes for each completed reference genome are published on the Tree of Life Programme's gateway on the Wellcome Open Research website. (
  • Dr. Chan stated, "The availability of the castor bean genome will encourage more research into the positive aspects of this oilseed crop as a potential biofuel. (
  • What are genome-wide association studies? (
  • Through genome-wide association studies, individual SNPs are identified that account for only a small percentage of disease risk. (
  • They also provide a list of genome-wide association studies that are accepting (or will accept) participants. (
  • The availability of the castor bean genome also has important biodefense implications since the plant produces the powerful toxin, ricin. (