The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.
Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
A type of defective gonadal development in patients with a wide spectrum of chromosomal mosaic variants. Their karyotypes are of partial sex chromosome monosomy resulting from an absence or an abnormal second sex chromosome (X or Y). Karyotypes include 45,X/46,XX; 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX; 46,XXp-; 45,X/46,XY; 45,X/47,XYY; 46,XYpi; etc. The spectrum of phenotypes may range from phenotypic female to phenotypic male including variations in gonads and internal and external genitalia, depending on the ratio in each gonad of 45,X primordial germ cells to those with normal 46,XX or 46,XY constitution.
Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
Pathological processes of the VULVA.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
The 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis may be sporadic or familial. Familial XX gonadal dysgenesis is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and its locus was mapped to chromosome 2. Mutation in the gene for the FSH receptor (RECEPTORS, FSH) was detected. Sporadic XX gonadal dysgenesis is heterogeneous and has been associated with trisomy-13 and trisomy-18. These phenotypic females are characterized by a normal stature, sexual infantilism, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea, elevated plasma LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH concentration.
Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.
The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.
Cutaneous lesions arising from infection with Treponema pallidum. In the primary stage, 18-21 days following infection, one or more chancres appear. If untreated, the subsequent stages of the disease appear as syphilids. These eruptions are superficial, nondestructive, exanthematic, transient, macular roseolas that may later be maculopapular or papular polymorphous or scaly, pustular, pigmented eruptions.(Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p409)
Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge of electricity.
Sexual activities of animals.
A foul-smelling accumulation of SEBUM and desquaminated epidermal cells, especially the cheesy substance found under the foreskin of the penis and at the base of the labia minor near the clitoris.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
Peculiarities associated with the internal structure, form, topology, or architecture of organisms that distinguishes them from others of the same species or group.
A complex neoplasm composed of a mixture of gonadal elements, such as large primordial GERM CELLS, immature SERTOLI CELLS or GRANULOSA CELLS of the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells. Gonadoblastomas are most often associated with gonadal dysgenesis, 46, XY.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
An inherited condition characterized by multiple malformations of CARTILAGE and bone including CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS; midface hypoplasia; radiohumeral SYNOSTOSIS; CHOANAL ATRESIA; femoral bowing; neonatal fractures; and multiple joint CONTRACTURES and, occasionally, urogenital, gastrointestinal or cardiac defects. In utero exposure to FLUCONAZOLE, as well as mutations in at least two separate genes are associated with this condition - POR (encoding P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE)) and FGFR2 (encoding FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2).
A syndrome characterized by abdominal wall musculature deficiency, cryptorchism, and urinary tract abnormalities. The syndrome derives its name from its characteristic distended abdomen with wrinkled skin.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
A "smooth brain" malformation of the CEREBRAL CORTEX resulting from abnormal location of developing neurons during corticogenesis. It is characterized by an absence of normal convoluted indentations on the surface of the brain (agyria), or fewer and shallower indentations (pachygryia). There is a reduced number of cortical layers, typically 4 instead of 6, resulting in a thickened cortex, and reduced cerebral white matter that is a reversal of the normal ratio of cerebral white matter to cortex.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Eating other individuals of one's own species.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A family of large terrestrial carnivores possessing long legs, coarse guard hairs and a busy tail. It is comprised of hyenas and aardwolves.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Inherited disorders that are characterized by subcutaneous and submucosal EDEMA in the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT and GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.
A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.
Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.
An acute necrotic infection of the SCROTUM; PENIS; or PERINEUM. It is characterized by scrotum pain and redness with rapid progression to gangrene and sloughing of tissue. Fournier gangrene is usually secondary to perirectal or periurethral infections associated with local trauma, operative procedures, or urinary tract disease.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting the female genitalia (VULVAR LICHEN SCLEROSUS) and BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS in males. It is also called white spot disease and Csillag's disease.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.
A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.
An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
'Bicyclo compounds' in medicinal chemistry refer to organic molecules containing two fused rings, where each ring shares two common atoms, creating a topological structure that resembles two overlapping circles or bicycle tires.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.

A zinc finger truncation of murine WT1 results in the characteristic urogenital abnormalities of Denys-Drash syndrome. (1/850)

The Wilms tumor-suppressor gene, WT1, plays a key role in urogenital development, and WT1 dysfunction is implicated in both neoplastic (Wilms tumor, mesothelioma, leukemias, and breast cancer) and nonneoplastic (glomerulosclerosis) disease. The analysis of diseases linked specifically with WT1 mutations, such as Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), can provide valuable insight concerning the role of WT1 in development and disease. DDS is a rare childhood disease characterized by a nephropathy involving mesangial sclerosis, XY pseudohermaphroditism, and/or Wilms tumor (WT). DDS patients are constitutionally heterozygous for exonic point mutations in WT1, which include mutations predicted to truncate the protein within the C-terminal zinc finger (ZF) region. We report that heterozygosity for a targeted murine Wt1 allele, Wt1(tmT396), which truncates ZF3 at codon 396, induces mesangial sclerosis characteristic of DDS in adult heterozygous and chimeric mice. Male genital defects also were evident and there was a single case of Wilms tumor in which the transcript of the nontargeted allele showed an exon 9 skipping event, implying a causal link between Wt1 dysfunction and Wilms tumorigenesis in mice. However, the mutant WT1(tmT396) protein accounted for only 5% of WT1 in both heterozygous embryonic stem cells and the WT. This has implications regarding the mechanism by which the mutant allele exerts its effect.  (+info)

The Drosophila Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) homolog is required for adult survival and male genital formation. (2/850)

We isolated a Drosophila fickleP (ficP) mutant with a shortened copulatory duration and reduced adult-stage life span. The reduced copulatory duration is ascribable to incomplete fusion of the left and right halves of the apodeme that holds the penis during copulation. ficP is an intronic mutation occurring in the Btk gene, a gene which encodes two forms (type 1 and type 2) of a Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) family cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase as a result of alternative exon usage. The ficP mutation prevents the formation of the type 2 isoform but leaves expression of the type 1 transcript intact. Ubiquitous overexpression of the wild-type cDNA by using a heat shock 70 promoter during the late larval or pupal stages rescued the life span and genital defects in the mutant, respectively, establishing the causal relationship between the ficP phenotypes and the Btk gene mutation. The stage specificity of the rescuing ability suggests that the Btk gene is required for the development of male genitalia and substrates required for adult survival.  (+info)

Influence of capacitation and fluids from the male and female genital tract on the zona binding ability of bull spermatozoa. (3/850)

Before fertilization, inseminated spermatozoa acquire the ability to fertilize an egg, a phenomenon called capacitation. Bovine sperm capacitation is influenced by factors originating from both the male and female genital tract, and results in intracellular and membrane changes of the spermatozoa that facilitate the induction of the acrosome reaction. However, the effects of reproductive tract secretions and capacitation on the binding of spermatozoa to the zona pellucida have not been investigated. In this study, a sperm-egg binding assay was used to determine whether the ability of bull spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida was altered during in vitro capacitation by heparin or oviductal fluid, or by treatment of spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis with accessory sex gland fluid. In addition, biotinylated solubilized zona pellucida proteins were used to visualize zona binding on spermatozoa. The ability of bull spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida was increased after both heparin and oviductal fluid induced in vitro capacitation. Exposure of spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis to accessory sex gland fluid resulted in a direct increase in zona binding ability, followed by a further increase during capacitation in vitro. Binding of solubilized zona proteins was restricted to the acrosomal cap of bull spermatozoa. It is suggested that the observed increased ability of bull spermatozoa to bind to the zona pellucida enables optimal sperm-egg attachment, which also relates to the induction of the acrosome reaction by the zona pellucida. Thus, increased zona binding ability is likely to be an essential part of the process of capacitation.  (+info)

Apc1638T: a mouse model delineating critical domains of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein involved in tumorigenesis and development. (4/850)

The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is considered as the true gatekeeper of colonic epithelial proliferation: It is mutated in the majority of colorectal tumors, and mutations occur at early stages of tumor development in mouse and man. These mutant proteins lack most of the seven 20-amino-acid repeats and all SAMP motifs that have been associated with down-regulation of intracellular beta-catenin levels. In addition, they lack the carboxy-terminal domains that bind to DLG, EB1, and microtubulin. APC also appears to be essential in development because homozygosity for mouse Apc mutations invariably results in early embryonic lethality. Here, we describe the generation of a mouse model carrying a targeted mutation at codon 1638 of the mouse Apc gene, Apc1638T, resulting in a truncated Apc protein encompassing three of the seven 20 amino acid repeats and one SAMP motif, but missing all of the carboxy-terminal domains thought to be associated with tumorigenesis. Surprisingly, homozygosity for the Apc1638T mutation is compatible with postnatal life. However, homozygous mutant animals are characterized by growth retardation, a reduced postnatal viability on the B6 genetic background, the absence of preputial glands, and the formation of nipple-associated cysts. Most importantly, Apc1638T/1638T animals that survive to adulthood are tumor free. Although the full complement of Apc1638T is sufficient for proper beta-catenin signaling, dosage reductions of the truncated protein result in increasingly severe defects in beta-catenin regulation. The SAMP motif retained in Apc1638T also appears to be important for this function as shown by analysis of the Apc1572T protein in which its targeted deletion results in a further reduction in the ability of properly controlling beta-catenin/Tcf signaling. These results indicate that the association with DLG, EB1, and microtubulin is less critical for the maintenance of homeostasis by APC than has been suggested previously, and that proper beta-catenin regulation by APC appears to be required for normal embryonic development and tumor suppression.  (+info)

Sex difference in target seeking behavior of developing cremaster muscles and the resulting first visible sign of somatic sexual differentiation in marsupial mammals. (5/850)

Cremaster muscles are present in both male and female developing and adult marsupial mammals. They are complex structures and composed of several distinct bundles of striated muscle fibers provided with: (1) a distinct and extensive innervation; (2) a distinct blood vascular supply; (3) a distinct tendineous origin on the anterosuperior iliac spine; and (4) distinct target structures. The muscles thus seem to be separate anatomical entities and not a part of one or more of the layers of the ventral abdominal wall musculature. Cremaster muscles in males are elongated, are larger than in females, and for the most part are a component of the funiculus spermaticus. They insert on the distal part of the tunica vaginalis. The distal parts of the muscles in females are flattened ("fan shaped") and insert over a broad area on the dorsal borders of the mammary glands. Muscles in males have no relation whatsoever to the male mammary glandular rudiments. Muscles in females are attached at the base of the uterine round ligament. The remarkable sex difference in target structures of marsupial cremaster muscles becomes noticeable during perinatal life when outgrowing muscles take a different path in males and females. The initial appearance of this sexually dimorphic trait precedes the sexual differentiation of the genital ducts and external genitalia. In fetal males, the cremaster muscles grow in the direction of the site where scrotal bulges initially appear in the subcutaneous layers and later on the inguinal skin surface. They also take the gubernacular core of the ventral abdominal wall and the attached peritoneal epithelium with them during this outgrowth process. Consequently, this results in the development of a slitlike evagination of the abdominal lumen as the primary step to development of the processus vaginalis, while the testis and adjacent mesonephros and its duct are still attached to the posterior abdominal wall. In fetal females, the outgrowing cremaster muscles pass along the gubernacular core and, subsequently, this structure develops further as the tip (attached to the tubo-uterine junction) of the intra-abdominally protruding and further developing uterine round ligament. The female cremaster muscles grow further into caudal direction to shape a dorsal border of the developing mammary glands. The early onset of this sexually dimorphic outgrowth of cremaster muscles indicates that the "classical hormones" of sexual differentiation (anti-Mullerian hormone [AMH] and steroidal androgens) are not involved in this process. It could thus depend on primary genetic control with male development associated with the male-limited activity of genes on the Y-chromosomes and female development as the default process. Alternatively, the process in males could be under the control of an as yet unidentified third fetal testicular hormone involved in sexual differentiation processes which must then show an unexpectely early (i.e., perinatal) onset of its secretion.  (+info)

Monodactylous limbs and abnormal genitalia are associated with hemizygosity for the human 2q31 region that includes the HOXD cluster. (6/850)

Vertebrates have four clusters of Hox genes (HoxA, HoxB, HoxC, and HoxD). A variety of expression and mutation studies indicate that posterior members of the HoxA and HoxD clusters play an important role in vertebrate limb development. In humans, mutations in HOXD13 have been associated with type II syndactyly or synpolydactyly, and, in HOXA13, with hand-foot-genital syndrome. We have investigated two unrelated children with a previously unreported pattern of severe developmental defects on the anterior-posterior (a-p) limb axis and in the genitalia, consisting of a single bone in the zeugopod, either monodactyly or oligodactyly in the autopod of all four limbs, and penoscrotal hypoplasia. Both children are heterozygous for a deletion that eliminates at least eight (HOXD3-HOXD13) of the nine genes in the HOXD cluster. We propose that the patients' phenotypes are due in part to haploinsufficiency for HOXD-cluster genes. This hypothesis is supported by the expression patterns of these genes in early vertebrate embryos. However, the involvement of additional genes in the region could explain the discordance, in severity, between these human phenotypes and the milder, non-polarized phenotypes present in mice hemizygous for HoxD cluster genes. These cases represent the first reported examples of deficiencies for an entire Hox cluster in vertebrates and suggest that the diploid dose of human HOXD genes is crucial for normal growth and patterning of the limbs along the anterior-posterior axis.  (+info)

Detection of human papillomavirus types 6 and 11 in pubic and perianal hair from patients with genital warts. (7/850)

Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11 are of clinical importance due to their role in the development of anogenital warts. A pilot study was performed to investigate whether DNAs from HPV types 6 and 11 are present in hairs plucked from the pubic and perianal regions and eyebrows of patients with genital warts at present and patients with a recent history of genital warts. Genital HPV DNA was detected in 9 of 25 (36%) pubic hair samples and in 11 of 22 (50%) perianal hair samples by the CPI/CPIIg PCR. After sequencing of 17 of 20 samples, HPV type 6 or 11 was detected in 6 of 25 (24%) hair samples from the pubis and 8 of 22 (36%) hair samples from the perianal region. These types were not detected in plucked eyebrow hairs. In contrast, the HPV types associated with epidermodysplasia verruciformis were detected in similar proportions (62%) in both samples of pubic and eyebrow hairs. Moreover, HPV type 6 and 11 DNAs were detected in pubic hairs plucked from two patients who had been successfully treated and who did not show any lesion at the time of hair collection; this finding is an argument that HPV DNA may persist in this region. The presence of genital HPV types in plucked pubic and perianal hair suggests that there is an endogenous reservoir for HPV which may play a role in the recurrences of genital warts.  (+info)

The sonographic identification of fetal gender from 11 to 14 weeks of gestation. (8/850)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of correctly identifying fetal gender from 11 to 14 weeks' gestation. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study in a university Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, London. A total of 524 women from an unselected population underwent a detailed assessment of fetal anatomy at 11-14 weeks of gestation (confirmed by crown-rump length) by means of transabdominal sonography, and transvaginal sonography (26%) when necessary. Fetal gender was identified in the transverse and sagittal planes, and was confirmed at birth. RESULTS: The overall success of correctly assigning fetal gender increased with gestational age from 46% to 75%, 79% and 90% at 11, 12, 13 and 14 weeks, respectively. The ability of the operator to assign fetal gender significantly improved with increasing gestational age (p < 0.0001), being 59%, 87%, 92% and 98% at 11, 12, 13 and 14 weeks, respectively. The accuracy of correctly identifying fetal gender when attempted did not change with gestational age. Fetal gender or the performance of the scan by different operators did not affect the results. CONCLUSION: Whilst the accuracy of sonographic determination of fetal gender at 11-14 weeks is good, it still falls significantly short of invasive karyotyping tests.  (+info)

Genitalia, also known as the genitals, refer to the reproductive organs located in the pelvic region. In males, these include the penis and testicles, while in females, they consist of the vulva, vagina, clitoris, and ovaries. Genitalia are essential for sexual reproduction and can also be associated with various medical conditions, such as infections, injuries, or congenital abnormalities.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

The clitoris is an important female sex organ that is primarily responsible for sexual arousal and pleasure. It is a small, highly sensitive piece of tissue located at the front of the vulva, where the labia minora meet. The clitoris is made up of two parts: the visible part, known as the glans clitoris, and the hidden part, called the corpora cavernosa and crura.

The glans clitoris is a small knob-like structure that is covered by a hood, or prepuce, and is located at the top of the vulva. It contains a high concentration of nerve endings, making it highly sensitive to touch and stimulation. The corpora cavernosa and crura are the internal parts of the clitoris, which are made up of sponge-like erectile tissue that becomes engorged with blood during sexual arousal, leading to clitoral erection.

The clitoris plays a crucial role in female sexual response and pleasure. During sexual arousal, the clitoris swells and becomes more sensitive to touch, which can lead to orgasm. The clitoris is also an important source of sexual pleasure during masturbation and partnered sexual activity. Despite its importance in female sexuality, the clitoris has historically been overlooked or stigmatized in many cultures, leading to a lack of understanding and education about this vital organ.

Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are a group of conditions that occur when there is a difference in the development and assignment of sex characteristics. These differences may be apparent at birth, at puberty, or later in life. DSD can affect chromosomes, gonads, genitals, or secondary sexual characteristics, and can result from genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development.

DSDs were previously referred to as "intersex" conditions, but the term "Disorders of Sex Development" is now preferred in medical settings because it is more descriptive and less stigmatizing. DSDs are not errors or abnormalities, but rather variations in human development that require sensitive and individualized care.

The diagnosis and management of DSD can be complex and may involve a team of healthcare providers, including endocrinologists, urologists, gynecologists, psychologists, and genetic counselors. Treatment options depend on the specific type of DSD and may include hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions to support physical and emotional well-being.

Hypospadias is a congenital condition in males where the urethral opening (meatus), which is the end of the urethra through which urine exits, is not located at the tip of the penis but instead appears on the underside of the penis. The severity of hypospadias can vary, with some cases having the meatus located closer to the tip and others further down on the shaft or even at the scrotum or perineum (the area between the scrotum and the anus). This condition affects about 1 in every 200-250 male newborns. The exact cause of hypospadias is not fully understood, but it's believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Surgical correction is usually recommended during infancy or early childhood to prevent complications such as difficulty urinating while standing, problems with sexual function, and psychological issues related to body image.

Virilism is a condition that results from excessive exposure to androgens (male hormones) such as testosterone. It can occur in both males and females, but it is more noticeable in women and children. In females, virilism can cause various masculinizing features like excess body hair, deepened voice, enlarged clitoris, and irregular menstrual cycles. In children, it can lead to premature puberty and growth abnormalities. Virilism is often caused by conditions that involve the adrenal glands or ovaries, including tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and certain medications.

The penis is a part of the male reproductive and urinary systems. It has three parts: the root, the body, and the glans. The root attaches to the pelvic bone and the body makes up the majority of the free-hanging portion. The glans is the cone-shaped end that protects the urethra, the tube inside the penis that carries urine from the bladder and semen from the testicles.

The penis has a dual function - it acts as a conduit for both urine and semen. During sexual arousal, the penis becomes erect when blood fills two chambers inside its shaft. This process is facilitated by the relaxation of the smooth muscles in the arterial walls and the trappping of blood in the corpora cavernosa. The stiffness of the penis enables sexual intercourse. After ejaculation, or when the sexual arousal passes, the muscles contract and the blood flows out of the penis back into the body, causing it to become flaccid again.

The foreskin, a layer of skin that covers the glans, is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. Circumcision is often performed for religious or cultural reasons, or as a matter of family custom. In some countries, it's also done for medical reasons, such as to treat conditions like phimosis (an inability to retract the foreskin) or balanitis (inflammation of the glans).

It's important to note that any changes in appearance, size, or function of the penis should be evaluated by a healthcare professional, as they could indicate an underlying medical condition.

"Sex differentiation" is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in reproductive endocrinology and genetics. It refers to the biological development of sexual characteristics that distinguish males from females. This process is regulated by hormones and genetic factors.

There are two main stages of sex differentiation: genetic sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Genetic sex determination occurs at fertilization, where the combination of X and Y chromosomes determines the sex of the individual (typically, XX = female and XY = male). Gonadal sex differentiation then takes place during fetal development, where the genetic sex signals the development of either ovaries or testes.

Once the gonads are formed, they produce hormones that drive further sexual differentiation, leading to the development of internal reproductive structures (such as the uterus and fallopian tubes in females, and the vas deferens and seminal vesicles in males) and external genitalia.

It's important to note that while sex differentiation is typically categorized as male or female, there are individuals who may have variations in their sexual development, leading to intersex conditions. These variations can occur at any stage of the sex differentiation process and can result in a range of physical characteristics that do not fit neatly into male or female categories.

The scrotum is a part of the external male genitalia. It's a sac-like structure made up of several layers of skin and smooth muscle, which hangs down behind and beneath the penis. The primary function of the scrotum is to maintain the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature, which is optimal for sperm production.

The scrotum contains two compartments, each one housing a testicle. It's located in the pubic region and is usually visible externally. The skin of the scrotum is thin and wrinkled, which allows it to expand and contract depending on the temperature, accommodating the shrinking or swelling of the testicles.

Please note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice.

Gonadal dysgenesis, mixed is a medical condition that refers to the abnormal development and function of the gonads (ovaries or testes). In this form of gonadal dysgenesis, both ovarian and testicular tissues are present in the same individual, but they are not properly organized or functioning. This can lead to ambiguous genitalia, infertility, and an increased risk of developing gonadal tumors. The condition is often associated with genetic disorders such as Turner, Klinefelter, or other sex chromosome abnormalities.

'46, XY Disorders of Sex Development' (DSD) is a term used to describe conditions in which individuals are born with chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that do not fit typical definitions of male or female. In these cases, the individual has 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome (46, XY), which would typically result in the development of male characteristics. However, for various reasons, the sexual differentiation process may be disrupted, leading to atypical development of the internal and/or external sex organs.

There are several possible causes of 46, XY DSD, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, or anatomical abnormalities. These conditions can range from mild to severe in terms of their impact on physical health and sexual function, and they may also have psychological and social implications.

Examples of 46, XY DSD include complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and disorders of gonadal development such as Swyer syndrome. Treatment for 46, XY DSD may involve surgical intervention, hormone replacement therapy, and/or psychological support.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

CAH is caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of these hormones. The most common form of CAH is 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which affects approximately 90% to 95% of all cases. Other less common forms of CAH include 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.

The severity of the disorder can vary widely, depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. In severe cases, the lack of cortisol production can lead to life-threatening salt wasting and electrolyte imbalances in newborns. The excess androgens produced due to the enzyme deficiency can also cause virilization, or masculinization, of female fetuses, leading to ambiguous genitalia at birth.

In milder forms of CAH, symptoms may not appear until later in childhood or even adulthood. These may include early puberty, rapid growth followed by premature fusion of the growth plates and short stature, acne, excessive hair growth, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility.

Treatment for CAH typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and/or sex hormones. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and careful management of medication doses is essential to prevent complications such as adrenal crisis, growth suppression, and osteoporosis.

In severe cases of CAH, early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the risk of serious health problems and improve quality of life. Genetic counseling may also be recommended for affected individuals and their families to discuss the risks of passing on the disorder to future generations.

Sexual development is a multidimensional process that includes physical, cognitive, emotional, and social aspects. It refers to the changes and growth that occur in an individual from infancy to adulthood related to sexuality, reproduction, and gender identity. This process involves the maturation of primary and secondary sex characteristics, the development of sexual attraction and desire, and the acquisition of knowledge about sexual health and relationships.

Physical aspects of sexual development include the maturation of reproductive organs, hormonal changes, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development in females and facial hair growth in males. Cognitive aspects involve the development of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and values. Emotional aspects refer to the emergence of sexual feelings, desires, and fantasies, as well as the ability to form intimate relationships. Social aspects include the development of gender roles and identities, communication skills related to sexuality, and the ability to navigate social norms and expectations around sexual behavior.

Sexual development is a complex and ongoing process that is influenced by various factors such as genetics, hormones, environment, culture, and personal experiences. It is important to note that sexual development varies widely among individuals, and there is no one "normal" or "correct" way for it to unfold.

Copulation is the act of sexual reproduction in animals, achieved through the process of mating and engaging in sexual intercourse. It involves the insertion of the male's reproductive organ (the penis) into the female's reproductive organ (vagina), followed by the ejaculation of semen, which contains sperm. The sperm then travels up through the cervix and into the uterus, where they may fertilize an egg or ovum that has been released from one of the ovaries.

In a broader sense, copulation can also refer to the act of reproduction in other organisms, such as plants, fungi, and protists, which may involve different processes such as pollination, fusion of gametes, or vegetative reproduction.

Sex determination analysis is a medical or biological examination used to establish the genetic or phenotypic sex of an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: Examination of an individual's DNA to identify the presence of specific sex chromosomes (XX for females and XY for males). This is typically performed through a blood or tissue sample.
2. Chromosomal analysis: Microscopic examination of an individual's chromosomes to determine their number and structure. In humans, females typically have 46 chromosomes, including two X chromosomes (46,XX), while males typically have 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY).
3. Phenotypic analysis: Observation of an individual's physical characteristics, such as the presence or absence of certain sex organs or secondary sexual characteristics, to determine their phenotypic sex.

Sex determination analysis is used in various medical and research contexts, including prenatal testing, diagnosis of disorders of sex development (DSDs), forensic investigations, and population studies. It's important to note that while sex determination analysis can provide information about an individual's genetic or phenotypic sex, it does not necessarily reflect their gender identity, which is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else.

Vulvar diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the vulva, which is the external female genital area including the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, and the vaginal opening. These conditions can cause various symptoms such as itching, burning, pain, soreness, irritation, or abnormal growths or lesions. Some common vulvar diseases include:

1. Vulvitis: inflammation of the vulva that can be caused by infection, allergies, or irritants.
2. Lichen sclerosus: a chronic skin condition that causes thin, white patches on the vulva.
3. Lichen planus: an inflammatory condition that affects the skin and mucous membranes, including the vulva.
4. Vulvar cancer: a rare type of cancer that develops in the tissues of the vulva.
5. Genital warts: caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, these are small growths or bumps on the vulva.
6. Pudendal neuralgia: a nerve condition that causes pain in the vulvar area.
7. Vestibulodynia: pain or discomfort in the vestibule, the area surrounding the vaginal opening.

It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing any symptoms related to vulvar diseases for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Genital diseases in males refer to various medical conditions that affect the male reproductive and urinary systems, including the penis, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and urethra. These conditions can be infectious, inflammatory, degenerative, or neoplastic (cancerous) in nature. Some common examples of male genital diseases include:

1. Balanitis: Inflammation of the foreskin and glans penis, often caused by infection, irritants, or poor hygiene.
2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be acute or chronic, bacterial or non-bacterial in origin.
3. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. It is often caused by infection.
4. Orchitis: Inflammation of the testicle, usually resulting from infection or autoimmune disorders.
5. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency characterized by twisting of the spermatic cord, leading to reduced blood flow and potential tissue damage in the testicle.
6. Varicocele: Dilated veins in the scrotum that can cause pain, discomfort, or fertility issues.
7. Peyronie's disease: A connective tissue disorder causing scarring and curvature of the penis during erections.
8. Penile cancer: Malignant growths on the penis, often squamous cell carcinomas, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause lower urinary tract symptoms such as difficulty initiating or maintaining a steady stream of urine.
10. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Infectious diseases, like chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and human papillomavirus (HPV), that can be transmitted through sexual contact and affect the male genital region.

Gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XX is a medical condition where an individual with a 46,XX karyotype has underdeveloped or absent gonads (ovaries). Normally, individuals with a 46,XX karyotype have ovaries that produce female sex hormones and develop into reproductive organs. However, in cases of gonadal dysgenesis, the gonads do not develop properly and may appear as streak gonads, which lack germ cells and are incapable of producing sex hormones or gametes (eggs).

Individuals with 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis often have female external genitalia but may have primary amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) due to the underdeveloped or absent ovaries. They may also have other features such as short stature, webbed neck, and intellectual disability, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

The underlying causes of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis can vary, including genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, or exposure to environmental factors during fetal development. Some individuals with this condition may have an increased risk of developing gonadal tumors, so regular monitoring and follow-up care are essential.

Feminization is a process or condition in which typically male characteristics are diminished or absent, and female characteristics become more prominent. This term is often used in the context of transgender health to describe hormone therapy that helps individuals align their physical appearance with their gender identity. The goal of feminizing hormone therapy is to promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development, softer skin, reduced muscle mass and body hair, and fat redistribution to create a more typically female body shape. It's important to note that every individual's experience with feminization is unique, and the specific changes experienced may vary depending on factors such as age, genetics, and the duration of hormone therapy.

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is a genetic condition that occurs in individuals who are genetically male (have one X and one Y chromosome) but are resistant to androgens, which are hormones that play a role in male sexual development. This resistance is caused by changes (mutations) in the gene for the androgen receptor.

There are three main types of AIS: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS).

In CAIS, individuals are completely resistant to androgens, which results in the development of female external genitalia at birth. Despite having testes, these individuals do not have a functioning male reproductive system and typically have a female gender identity. They may be diagnosed during adolescence when they do not begin to menstruate or experience other signs of puberty.

In PAIS and MAIS, the degree of androgen insensitivity varies, resulting in a range of physical characteristics that can include both male and female features. These individuals may have ambiguous genitalia at birth, and their gender identity may not align with their genetic sex.

It's important to note that people with AIS are typically healthy and do not have an increased risk of medical conditions beyond those related to their hormonal differences. However, they may face challenges related to their gender identity, sexual development, and fertility. It is recommended that individuals with AIS receive comprehensive medical care and support from a team of healthcare professionals who specialize in this condition.

Sex chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical abnormalities in the sex chromosomes, which are typically represented as X and Y chromosomes in humans. These aberrations can result in variations in the number of sex chromosomes, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Turner syndrome (45,X), and Jacobs/XYY syndrome (47,XYY). They can also include structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations of sex chromosome material.

Sex chromosome aberrations may lead to a range of phenotypic effects, including differences in physical characteristics, cognitive development, fertility, and susceptibility to certain health conditions. The manifestation and severity of these impacts can vary widely depending on the specific type and extent of the aberration, as well as individual genetic factors and environmental influences.

It is important to note that while sex chromosome aberrations may pose challenges and require medical management, they do not inherently define or limit a person's potential, identity, or worth. Comprehensive care, support, and education can help individuals with sex chromosome aberrations lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Penile diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the penis, including infections, inflammatory conditions, and structural abnormalities. Some common penile diseases include:

1. Balanitis: an infection or inflammation of the foreskin and/or head of the penis.
2. Balanoposthitis: an infection or inflammation of both the foreskin and the head of the penis.
3. Phimosis: a condition in which the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back over the head of the penis.
4. Paraphimosis: a medical emergency in which the foreskin becomes trapped behind the head of the penis and cannot be returned to its normal position.
5. Peyronie's disease: a condition characterized by the development of scar tissue inside the penis, leading to curvature during erections.
6. Erectile dysfunction: the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.
7. Penile cancer: a rare form of cancer that affects the skin and tissues of the penis.

These conditions can have various causes, including bacterial or fungal infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), skin conditions, trauma, or underlying medical conditions. Treatment for penile diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The urogenital system is a part of the human body that includes the urinary and genital systems. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, which work together to produce, store, and eliminate urine. On the other hand, the genital system, also known as the reproductive system, is responsible for the production, development, and reproduction of offspring. In males, this includes the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, and penis. In females, it includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, and external genitalia.

The urogenital system is closely related anatomically and functionally. For example, in males, the urethra serves as a shared conduit for both urine and semen, while in females, the urethra and vagina are separate but adjacent structures. Additionally, some organs, such as the prostate gland in males and the Skene's glands in females, have functions that overlap between the urinary and genital systems.

Disorders of the urogenital system can affect both the urinary and reproductive functions, leading to a range of symptoms such as pain, discomfort, infection, and difficulty with urination or sexual activity. Proper care and maintenance of the urogenital system are essential for overall health and well-being.

The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. In males, it also serves as the conduit for semen during ejaculation. The male urethra is longer than the female urethra and is divided into sections: the prostatic, membranous, and spongy (or penile) urethra. The female urethra extends from the bladder to the external urethral orifice, which is located just above the vaginal opening.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

Gonadal dysgenesis is a condition characterized by the abnormal development of the gonads, which are the reproductive organs that produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm or eggs). In individuals with gonadal dysgenesis, the gonads may be underdeveloped, structurally abnormal, or completely absent. This condition can affect people of any gender and is often associated with other genetic disorders, such as Turner or Klinefelter syndromes.

The clinical presentation of gonadal dysgenesis varies widely depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of other associated conditions. Some individuals may have normal sexual development and fertility, while others may experience delayed puberty, infertility, or ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal dysgenesis can also increase the risk of developing gonadal tumors, particularly in individuals with complete or partial absence of the gonads.

The diagnosis of gonadal dysgenesis is typically made through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment may include hormone replacement therapy to support sexual development and prevent complications associated with hormonal imbalances. In some cases, surgical removal of the gonads may be recommended to reduce the risk of tumor development.

"SRY" (Sex Determining Region Y) is not a gene itself but a specific region on the Y chromosome that contains the genetic information necessary to initiate male sex determination. The SRY region encodes a protein called the testis-determining factor (TDF), which plays a crucial role in the development of the male phenotype by triggering the differentiation of the gonadal ridge into testes.

The SRY gene is typically found only on the Y chromosome and is considered one of the primary genetic factors that distinguish males from females in many mammalian species, including humans. Mutations or abnormalities in the SRY region can lead to sex chromosome-related disorders of sexual development (DSDs), such as Swyer syndrome or XY female disorder of sex development, where individuals with a 46,XY karyotype develop female phenotypes due to the absence or dysfunction of the SRY protein.

Cryptorchidism is a medical condition in which one or both of a male infant's testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth or within the first year of life. Normally, the testicles descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal development in the second trimester. If the testicles do not descend on their own, medical intervention may be necessary to correct the condition.

Cryptorchidism is a common birth defect, affecting about 3-5% of full-term and 30% of preterm male infants. In most cases, the testicle will descend on its own within the first six months of life. If it does not, treatment may be necessary to prevent complications such as infertility, testicular cancer, and inguinal hernia.

Treatment for cryptorchidism typically involves surgery to bring the testicle down into the scrotum. This procedure is called orchiopexy and is usually performed before the age of 2. In some cases, hormonal therapy may be used as an alternative to surgery. However, this approach has limited success and is generally only recommended in certain situations.

Overall, cryptorchidism is a treatable condition that can help prevent future health problems if addressed early on. Regular check-ups with a pediatrician or healthcare provider can help ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

Urogenital abnormalities refer to structural or functional anomalies that affect the urinary and genital systems. These two systems are closely linked during embryonic development, and sometimes they may not develop properly, leading to various types of congenital defects. Urogenital abnormalities can range from minor issues like a bifid scrotum (a condition where the scrotum is split into two parts) to more severe problems such as bladder exstrophy (where the bladder develops outside the body).

These conditions may affect urination, reproduction, and sexual function. They can also increase the risk of infections and other complications. Urogenital abnormalities can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests, or genetic testing. Treatment options depend on the specific condition but may include surgery, medication, or lifestyle changes.

A cloaca is a common cavity or channel in some animals, including many birds and reptiles, that serves as the combined endpoint for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Feces, urine, and in some cases, eggs are all expelled through this single opening. In humans and other mammals, these systems have separate openings. Anatomical anomalies can result in a human born with a cloaca, which is very rare and typically requires surgical correction.

Sex chromosome disorders are genetic conditions that occur due to an atypical number or structure of the sex chromosomes, which are X and Y. Normally, females have two X chromosomes (XX), and males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). However, in sex chromosome disorders, there is a variation in the number or composition of these chromosomes.

The most common sex chromosome disorders include:

1. Turner syndrome (Monosomy X): Occurs when a female has only one X chromosome (45,X). This condition affects about 1 in every 2,500 female births and can lead to short stature, infertility, heart defects, and learning disabilities.
2. Klinefelter syndrome (XXY): Occurs when a male has an extra X chromosome (47,XXY). This condition affects about 1 in every 500-1,000 male births and can lead to tall stature, infertility, breast development, and learning disabilities.
3. Jacobs syndrome (XYY): Occurs when a male has an extra Y chromosome (47,XYY). This condition affects about 1 in every 1,000 male births and can lead to tall stature, learning disabilities, and behavioral issues.
4. Triple X syndrome (XXX): Occurs when a female has an extra X chromosome (47,XXX). This condition affects about 1 in every 1,000 female births and can lead to mild developmental delays and learning disabilities.
5. Other rare sex chromosome disorders: These include conditions like 48,XXXX, 49,XXXXY, and mosaicism (a mixture of cells with different chromosome compositions).

Sex chromosome disorders can have varying degrees of impact on an individual's physical and cognitive development. While some individuals may experience significant challenges, others may have only mild or no symptoms at all. Early diagnosis and appropriate interventions can help improve outcomes for those affected by sex chromosome disorders.

Heteroptera is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in zoology. It refers to a suborder of insects within the order Hemiptera, also known as true bugs. This group includes a wide variety of species, such as bed bugs, assassin bugs, and stink bugs. While Heteroptera is not directly related to human health or medicine, some species can have medical importance as disease vectors or pests.

Testosterone Propionate is a synthetic form of testosterone, an androgenic hormone naturally produced in the human body. The propionate ester is attached to the testosterone molecule to regulate its release into the bloodstream after injection. This results in a slower release and longer duration of action compared to unesterified testosterone.

Testosterone Propionate is primarily used in medical treatments for conditions associated with low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism or delayed puberty in males. It helps to stimulate the development of male sexual characteristics, maintain bone density, and support red blood cell production.

It's important to note that Testosterone Propionate is available only through a prescription and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

The perineum is the region between the anus and the genitals. In anatomical terms, it refers to the diamond-shaped area located in the lower part of the pelvis and extends from the coccyx (tailbone) to the pubic symphysis, which is the joint in the front where the two pubic bones meet. This region contains various muscles that support the pelvic floor and contributes to maintaining urinary and fecal continence. The perineum can be further divided into two triangular regions: the urogenital triangle (anterior) and the anal triangle (posterior).

Cutaneous syphilis refers to the manifestation of the sexually transmitted infection syphilis on the skin. This can occur in various stages of the disease. In the primary stage, it may appear as a painless chancre (ulcer) at the site of infection, usually appearing 3 weeks after exposure. In the secondary stage, a widespread rash can develop, often affecting the palms and soles, along with other symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, and hair loss. Later stages of syphilis can also cause skin issues, including condylomata lata (broad, flat warts) and gummatous lesions (large, destructive ulcers). It's important to note that if left untreated, syphilis can lead to serious complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs.

Electric burns are injuries to the skin and underlying tissues caused by exposure to electrical current. The damage can be both internal and external, and it depends on the voltage, amperage, type of current (alternating or direct), duration of exposure, and the pathway the current takes through the body.

Electric burns can cause extensive tissue damage, including deep burns, nerve damage, muscle damage, and fractures. They may also result in cardiac arrest, irregular heart rhythms, and respiratory failure. In some cases, electric burns may not appear severe on the surface of the skin, but they can still cause significant internal injuries.

Treatment for electric burns typically involves wound care, pain management, and monitoring for complications such as infection or organ damage. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue and repair injured muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

Smegma is a naturally occurring substance that accumulates under the foreskin in uncircumcised males and around the clitoris in females. It's a mixture of dead skin cells, oil, and moisture. While it serves a lubrication function, an excessive buildup can lead to irritation, infection, or other medical issues. It's important to maintain good personal hygiene to prevent such problems.

3-Oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase is an enzyme that plays a role in steroid metabolism. It is involved in the conversion of certain steroids into others by removing hydrogen atoms and adding oxygen to create double bonds in the steroid molecule. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroids at the 4th position, which results in the formation of a 4,5-double bond.

The enzyme is found in various tissues throughout the body and is involved in the metabolism of several important steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. It helps to regulate the levels of these hormones in the body by converting them into their active or inactive forms as needed.

Deficiencies or mutations in the 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase enzyme can lead to various medical conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which is characterized by abnormal hormone levels and development of sexual characteristics.

Epididymitis is defined as the inflammation of the epididymis, a curved tube-like structure located at the back of the testicle that stores and transports sperm. The inflammation can result from infection, trauma, or other causes, and may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tenderness in the scrotum. In some cases, epididymitis may also be associated with urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, or other medical conditions. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, as well as pain relief measures and supportive care to help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

An anatomic variation refers to a deviation from the typical or normal anatomical structure, position, or configuration of organs, tissues, or bodily parts. These variations can occur in any part of the body and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life).

Anatomic variations are relatively common and usually do not cause any symptoms or problems. However, in some cases, they may affect the function of adjacent structures, predispose to injury or disease, or complicate medical procedures or surgeries. Therefore, it is essential for healthcare professionals to be aware of these variations during diagnoses, treatment planning, and surgical interventions.

Examples of anatomic variations include:

* Variations in the course or number of blood vessels, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or an accessory renal artery.
* Variations in the position or shape of organs, such as a mobile cecum or a horseshoe kidney.
* Variations in the number or configuration of bones, such as an extra rib or a bifid uvula.
* Variations in the innervation or sensory distribution of nerves, such as a variant course of the brachial plexus or a cross-innervated hand.

Anatomic variations can be detected through various imaging techniques, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound examinations. Sometimes, they are discovered during surgical procedures or autopsies. Understanding anatomic variations is crucial for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and optimal patient outcomes.

Gonadoblastoma is a rare, typically benign, slow-growing tumor that primarily affects the gonads (ovaries or testes). It most commonly occurs in individuals with disorders of sexual development, particularly those with gonadal dysgenesis and a 46,XY karyotype. The tumor is composed of germ cells and sex cord stromal cells, which differentiate into various cell types found within the gonads.

Gonadoblastomas are usually asymptomatic and are often discovered incidentally during imaging studies or surgical procedures for other conditions. In some cases, they may produce hormones leading to precocious puberty or virilization. Although typically benign, there is a risk of malignant transformation into germ cell tumors such as dysgerminoma, seminoma, or teratoma. Regular follow-up and monitoring are essential for early detection and management of potential complications. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the affected gonad.

The vulva refers to the external female genital area. It includes the mons pubis (the pad of fatty tissue covered with skin and hair that's located on the front part of the pelvis), labia majora (the outer folds of skin that surround and protect the vaginal opening), labia minora (the inner folds of skin that surround the vaginal and urethral openings), clitoris (a small, sensitive organ located at the front of the vulva where the labia minora join), the external openings of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body) and vagina (the passageway leading to the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus).

It's important to note that understanding the anatomy and terminology related to one's own body can help facilitate effective communication with healthcare providers, promote self-awareness, and support overall health and well-being.

Antley-Bixler syndrome phenotype is a medical term used to describe a set of physical features that are characteristic of Antley-Bixler syndrome, a rare genetic disorder. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the genes that provide instructions for making proteins involved in the development of bones and other tissues in the body.

The Antley-Bixler syndrome phenotype typically includes:

1. Craniosynostosis: This is a condition where the bones in the skull fuse together prematurely, leading to an abnormally shaped head.
2. Abnormalities of the face and skull: These may include a prominent forehead, wide-set eyes, a beaked nose, and low-set ears.
3. Bone abnormalities: These may include bowed or bent limbs, fusion of bones in the hands and feet, and other skeletal malformations.
4. Respiratory problems: Some individuals with Antley-Bixler syndrome may have narrow airways, which can lead to breathing difficulties.
5. Genital abnormalities: In some cases, males with Antley-Bixler syndrome may have undescended testicles.

It is important to note that not all individuals with Antley-Bixler syndrome will have all of these features, and the severity of the condition can vary widely from person to person. If you suspect that your child may have Antley-Bixler syndrome, it is important to consult with a medical professional for further evaluation and diagnosis.

Prune Belly Syndrome, also known as Eagle-Barrett syndrome, is a rare congenital disorder that primarily affects the urinary and digestive systems, as well as the abdominal wall. The condition is named for its most distinctive feature - a wrinkled, shrunken appearance of the abdomen, similar to a prune.

The medical definition of Prune Belly Syndrome includes the following major characteristics:

1. Absence or severe deficiency of the abdominal muscles: This results in the characteristic "prune belly" appearance and may also lead to respiratory issues due to weakened breathing muscles.
2. Urinary tract abnormalities: These can include dilated urinary tracts, undescended testes, and various kidney defects such as dysplastic (abnormally developed) or hypoplastic (underdeveloped) kidneys. Approximately 1 in 3 patients with Prune Belly Syndrome will develop chronic kidney disease.
3. Gastrointestinal abnormalities: These may include intestinal malrotation, constipation, and a higher risk of developing inguinal hernias.

Prune Belly Syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 30,000 to 40,000 live births. The exact cause of the condition is unknown, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors during fetal development. Treatment typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, addressing both surgical interventions for urinary tract abnormalities and supportive care for respiratory and gastrointestinal issues.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Congenital limb deformities refer to abnormalities in the structure, position, or function of the arms or legs that are present at birth. These deformities can vary greatly in severity and may affect any part of the limb, including the bones, muscles, joints, and nerves.

Congenital limb deformities can be caused by genetic factors, exposure to certain medications or chemicals during pregnancy, or other environmental factors. Some common types of congenital limb deformities include:

1. Clubfoot: A condition in which the foot is twisted out of shape, making it difficult to walk normally.
2. Polydactyly: A condition in which a person is born with extra fingers or toes.
3. Radial clubhand: A rare condition in which the radius bone in the forearm is missing or underdeveloped, causing the hand to turn inward and the wrist to bend.
4. Amniotic band syndrome: A condition in which strands of the amniotic sac wrap around a developing limb, restricting its growth and leading to deformities.
5. Agenesis: A condition in which a limb or part of a limb is missing at birth.

Treatment for congenital limb deformities may include surgery, bracing, physical therapy, or other interventions depending on the severity and nature of the deformity. In some cases, early intervention and treatment can help to improve function and reduce the impact of the deformity on a person's daily life.

Genital diseases in females refer to various medical conditions that affect the female reproductive system, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, and ovaries. These conditions can be caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, hormonal imbalances, or structural abnormalities. Some common examples of genital diseases in females include bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus (HPV), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, and vulvar or vaginal cancer. Symptoms of genital diseases in females can vary widely depending on the specific condition but may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain or discomfort during sex, irregular menstrual bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain. It is important for women to receive regular gynecological care and screenings to detect and treat genital diseases early and prevent complications.

Lissencephaly is a rare neurological disorder characterized by the absence or significant reduction of normal folds (gyri) and sulci (grooves) in the cerebral cortex of the brain. The cerebral cortex, which is responsible for higher brain functions such as thinking, learning, and language, usually has a smooth, flat appearance in individuals with lissencephaly. This condition results from abnormal neuronal migration during fetal development, where nerve cells fail to migrate to their proper positions in the brain.

There are several types of lissencephaly, each with distinct genetic causes and associated symptoms. The most common form is Type I (Classic) Lissencephaly, which affects both hemispheres of the brain and is characterized by a smooth brain surface with four bands of shallow grooves. Other forms include Type II (Cobblestone) Lissencephaly, Miller-Dieker Syndrome, and X-linked Lissencephaly with Ambiguous Genitalia (XLAG).

Symptoms of lissencephaly can vary but often include severe intellectual disability, developmental delays, muscle spasticity or hypotonia, seizures, difficulty swallowing, and problems with vision and hearing. The severity of the condition depends on the extent of the brain malformation. Lissencephaly is a lifelong condition, and individuals with this disorder usually require extensive care and support throughout their lives.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Cannibalism is defined in medical terms as the act or practice of consuming flesh or organs of one's own species as food. It is a term that is often used to describe situations where humans consume the flesh or organs of other humans. Cannibalism can occur in various contexts, including survival situations, cultural practices, and criminal activities.

It is important to note that cannibalism is generally considered taboo in most societies and cultures today. In medical and psychological terms, cannibalism can be associated with a range of negative consequences, such as the transmission of infectious diseases, ethical concerns, and psychological distress. However, it is essential to approach this topic with sensitivity and cultural relativism, recognizing that cultural practices and beliefs may vary widely across different societies and historical periods.

Mosaicism, in the context of genetics and medicine, refers to the presence of two or more cell lines with different genetic compositions in an individual who has developed from a single fertilized egg. This means that some cells have one genetic makeup, while others have a different genetic makeup. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as errors during cell division after fertilization.

Mosaicism can involve chromosomes (where whole or parts of chromosomes are present in some cells but not in others) or it can involve single genes (where a particular gene is present in one form in some cells and a different form in others). The symptoms and severity of mosaicism can vary widely, depending on the type and location of the genetic difference and the proportion of cells that are affected. Some individuals with mosaicism may not experience any noticeable effects, while others may have significant health problems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Frasier Syndrome" is not a recognized medical condition or syndrome in the standard medical literature. It seems like it might be a term that is specific to a certain context or fictional work. In popular culture, "Frasier" is a television show about a character named Frasier Crane, and it's possible that "Frasier Syndrome" could refer to something within the realm of that fiction. However, without more specific information about where you encountered this term, I cannot provide an accurate definition.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Insemination, in a medical context, refers to the introduction of semen into the reproductive system of a female for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This can be done through various methods including intracervical insemination (ICI), intrauterine insemination (IUI), and in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Intracervical insemination involves placing the semen at the cervix, the opening to the uterus. Intrauterine insemination involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. In vitro fertilization is a more complex process where the egg and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish and then transferred to the uterus.

Insemination is often used in cases of infertility, either because of male or female factors, or unexplained infertility. It can also be used for those who wish to become pregnant but do not have a partner, such as single women and same-sex female couples.

Hyaenidae is not a medical term, but a biological term related to zoology and taxonomy. It refers to the family of mammals that includes hyenas. Hyenas are often mistakenly classified as members of the canid (dog) or felid (cat) families, but they are actually more closely related to herons, eagles, and other members of the order Carnivora.

There are four extant species in the Hyaenidae family: the striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena), the brown hyena (Parahyaena brunnea), the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), and the aardwolf (Proteles cristata). These animals are known for their strong social structures, hunting skills, and powerful jaws.

While Hyaenidae is not directly related to medical terminology, understanding the classification of animals can be important in fields such as epidemiology and public health, where knowledge of animal behavior and ecology can help inform disease surveillance and control efforts.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of swelling in various parts of the body, including the face, lips, tongue, throat, hands, feet, and/or genitals. The swelling can also affect the gastrointestinal tract, causing abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

HAE is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of the C1 inhibitor protein, which is a part of the body's immune system that helps regulate inflammation and blood vessel dilation. As a result, people with HAE have uncontrolled activation of the complement system and increased levels of bradykinin, a potent vasodilator that causes the characteristic swelling.

There are three types of HAE: type I, type II, and type III. Type I and type II are caused by mutations in the gene that codes for the C1 inhibitor protein, resulting in low levels or dysfunctional C1 inhibitor protein. Type III is caused by a mutation in the coagulation factor XII gene, leading to overactivation of the contact system and increased bradykinin production.

HAE is an inherited disorder, typically passed down from parent to child in an autosomal dominant pattern. This means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent and developing HAE. However, up to 25% of cases may occur spontaneously due to new mutations in the gene.

Treatment for HAE includes medications to prevent or reduce the severity and frequency of attacks, such as C1 inhibitor replacement therapy, attenuated androgens, and monoclonal antibodies against kallikrein. In addition, acute attacks can be treated with on-demand therapies, such as plasma-derived C1 inhibitor, icatibant, and ecallantide.

"Panstrongylus" is a genus of kissing bugs (triatomines), which are insects that feed on the blood of mammals, including humans. They are called "kissing bugs" because they often bite humans around the mouth and eyes. The most well-known species in this genus is "Panstrongylus megistus," which is a vector for Chagas disease, a potentially life-threatening illness endemic to Central and South America.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans through the feces of infected triatomines. The infection can lead to serious cardiac and gastrointestinal complications if left untreated.

It's important to note that while "Panstrongylus" species are vectors for Chagas disease, not all kissing bugs transmit the disease. Furthermore, Chagas disease is primarily a concern in endemic areas of Central and South America, and it's rare for travelers to contract the infection elsewhere.

Hyperpigmentation is a medical term that refers to the darkening of skin areas due to an increase in melanin, the pigment that provides color to our skin. This condition can affect people of all races and ethnicities, but it's more noticeable in those with lighter skin tones.

Hyperpigmentation can be caused by various factors, including excessive sun exposure, hormonal changes (such as during pregnancy), inflammation, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions like Addison's disease or hemochromatosis. It can also result from skin injuries, such as cuts, burns, or acne, which leave dark spots known as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

There are several types of hyperpigmentation, including:

1. Melasma: This is a common form of hyperpigmentation that typically appears as symmetrical, blotchy patches on the face, particularly the forehead, cheeks, and upper lip. It's often triggered by hormonal changes, such as those experienced during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills.
2. Solar lentigos (age spots or liver spots): These are small, darkened areas of skin that appear due to prolonged sun exposure over time. They typically occur on the face, hands, arms, and decolletage.
3. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation: This type of hyperpigmentation occurs when an injury or inflammation heals, leaving behind a darkened area of skin. It's more common in people with darker skin tones.

Treatment for hyperpigmentation depends on the underlying cause and may include topical creams, chemical peels, laser therapy, or microdermabrasion. Preventing further sun damage is crucial to managing hyperpigmentation, so wearing sunscreen with a high SPF and protective clothing is recommended.

Müllerian ducts are a pair of embryonic structures found in female mammals, including humans. They give rise to the female reproductive system during fetal development. In females, the Müllerian ducts develop into the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina.

In males, the regression of Müllerian ducts is induced by a hormone called anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), produced by the developing testes. In the absence of AMH or if it fails to function properly, the Müllerian ducts may persist and lead to conditions known as persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) or Müllerian remnants in males.

In summary, Müllerian ducts are essential structures for female reproductive system development, and their regression is crucial for male reproductive organ formation.

Gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY is a medical condition where the gonads (testes) fail to develop or function properly in an individual with a 46,XY karyotype (a normal male chromosomal composition). This means that the person has one X and one Y chromosome, but their gonads do not develop into fully functional testes. As a result, the person may have ambiguous genitalia or female external genitalia, and they will typically not produce enough or any male hormones. The condition can also be associated with an increased risk of developing germ cell tumors in the dysgenetic gonads.

The severity of gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY can vary widely, and it may be accompanied by other developmental abnormalities or syndromes. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the dysgenetic gonads to reduce the risk of tumor development, as well as hormone replacement therapy to support normal sexual development and reproductive function. The underlying cause of gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY is not always known, but it can be associated with genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.

Fournier gangrene is a type of necrotizing fasciitis, which is a severe soft tissue infection that involves the fascia (the layer of connective tissue covering the muscle). Fournier gangrene specifically affects the genital region and can spread to the abdominal wall or thighs. It's characterized by rapid progression, extensive tissue damage, and a high mortality rate if not treated promptly with surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) and antibiotics. The infection typically involves multiple types of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, and can arise from various sources such as urinary tract infections, anal abscesses, or trauma to the genital area.

A chromosome is a thread-like structure that contains genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, in the nucleus of a cell. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, in each cell of the body, with the exception of the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 chromosomes.

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans. Females typically have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for various functions in the body, including some related to sexual development and reproduction.

Humans inherit one X chromosome from their mother and either an X or a Y chromosome from their father. In females, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated during embryonic development, resulting in each cell having only one active X chromosome. This process, known as X-inactivation, helps to ensure that females have roughly equal levels of gene expression from the X chromosome, despite having two copies.

Abnormalities in the number or structure of the X chromosome can lead to various genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome (X0), Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), and fragile X syndrome (an X-linked disorder caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene).

"Beetles" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to insects belonging to the order Coleoptera, which is one of the largest orders in the class Insecta. Beetles are characterized by their hardened forewings, known as elytra, which protect their hind wings and body when not in use for flying.

There are many different species of beetles found all over the world, and some can have an impact on human health. For example, certain types of beetles, such as bed bugs and carpet beetles, can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Other beetles, like the Colorado potato beetle, can damage crops and lead to economic losses for farmers. However, it is important to note that most beetles are not harmful to humans and play an essential role in ecosystems as decomposers and pollinators.

Imperforate anus is a congenital condition in which the opening of the anus is absent or abnormally closed or narrowed, preventing the normal passage of stool. This results in a blockage in the digestive tract and can lead to serious health complications if not treated promptly.

The anus is the external opening of the rectum, which is the lower end of the digestive tract. During fetal development, the rectum and anus normally connect through a canal called the anal canal or the recto-anal canal. In imperforate anus, this canal may be completely closed or narrowed, or it may not form properly.

Imperforate anus can occur as an isolated condition or as part of a genetic syndrome or other congenital abnormalities. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Treatment for imperforate anus typically involves surgery to create an opening in the anus and restore normal bowel function. In some cases, additional procedures may be necessary to correct related abnormalities or complications. The prognosis for individuals with imperforate anus depends on the severity of the condition and any associated abnormalities. With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with imperforate anus can lead normal lives.

Entomology is the scientific study of insects, including their behavior, classification, and evolution. It is a branch of zoology that deals with the systematic study of insects and their relationship with humans, animals, and the environment. Entomologists may specialize in various areas such as medical entomology, agricultural entomology, or forensic entomology, among others. Medical entomology focuses on the study of insects that can transmit diseases to humans and animals, while agricultural entomology deals with insects that affect crops and livestock. Forensic entomology involves using insects found in crime scenes to help determine the time of death or other relevant information for legal investigations.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus (LSEA) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that can affect both males and females, but it's most commonly found in women after menopause. It can occur at any age, including children. The condition typically affects the genital and anal areas, though it can appear elsewhere on the body as well.

The medical definition of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus is:

A skin disorder characterized by white patches (plaques) that can be smooth or wrinkled, thickened, and easily bruised. These patches may merge to form larger areas of affected skin. The condition can cause itching, burning, pain, and blistering. In women, the vulva is often affected, and sexual intercourse may become painful. In men, it can affect the foreskin and glans penis, leading to difficulty urinating or having sex.

The exact cause of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus remains unknown, but it's believed that hormonal imbalances, genetics, and an overactive immune system may play a role in its development. Treatment usually involves topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms. In some cases, other medications or phototherapy might be recommended. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

"Sex determination processes" refer to the series of genetic and biological events that occur during embryonic and fetal development which lead to the development of male or female physical characteristics. In humans, this process is typically determined by the presence or absence of a Y chromosome in the fertilized egg. If the egg has a Y chromosome, it will develop into a male (genetically XY) and if it does not have a Y chromosome, it will develop into a female (genetically XX).

The sex determination process involves the activation and repression of specific genes on the sex chromosomes, which direct the development of the gonads (ovaries or testes) and the production of hormones that influence the development of secondary sexual characteristics. This includes the development of internal and external genitalia, as well as other sex-specific physical traits.

It is important to note that while sex is typically determined by genetics and biology, gender identity is a separate construct that can be self-identified and may not align with an individual's biological sex.

Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females, caused by complete or partial absence of one X chromosome. The typical karyotype is 45,X0 instead of the normal 46,XX in women. This condition leads to distinctive physical features and medical issues in growth, development, and fertility. Characteristic features include short stature, webbed neck, low-set ears, and swelling of the hands and feet. Other potential symptoms can include heart defects, hearing and vision problems, skeletal abnormalities, kidney issues, and learning disabilities. Not all individuals with Turner Syndrome will have every symptom, but most will require medical interventions and monitoring throughout their lives to address various health concerns associated with the condition.

The Sex-Determining Region Y (SRY) protein is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in male sex determination. It is encoded by the SRY gene, which is located on the Y chromosome in humans and many other mammal species. The primary function of the SRY protein is to initiate the development of the testes during embryonic development.

In the absence of a functional SRY protein, the gonads will develop into ovaries. With a functional SRY protein, the gonads will develop into testes, which then produce androgens, including testosterone, that are necessary for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics. Mutations in the SRY gene can lead to sex reversal, where an individual with a Y chromosome develops as a female due to non-functional or absent SRY protein.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a sex hormone and androgen that plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It is synthesized from testosterone through the action of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. DHT is essential for the normal development of the male genitalia during fetal development and for the maturation of the sexual organs at puberty.

In addition to its role in sexual development, DHT also contributes to the growth of hair follicles, the health of the prostate gland, and the maintenance of bone density. However, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness).

DHT exerts its effects by binding to androgen receptors in various tissues throughout the body. Once bound, DHT triggers a series of cellular responses that regulate gene expression and influence the growth and differentiation of cells. In some cases, these responses can lead to unwanted side effects, such as hair loss or prostate enlargement.

Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase, such as finasteride and dutasteride, are sometimes used to treat conditions associated with excess DHT production. These drugs work by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors, thereby alleviating symptoms and slowing disease progression.

In summary, dihydrotestosterone is a potent sex hormone that plays a critical role in male sexual development and function. While it is essential for normal growth and development, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as BPH and androgenetic alopecia. Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase are sometimes used to treat these conditions by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors.

Mating preference in animals refers to the selection of specific individuals as mates based on certain characteristics or traits. These preferences can be influenced by various factors such as genetic compatibility, physical attributes (e.g., size, color, health), behavioral traits (e.g., dominance, aggression), and environmental conditions.

Mating preferences play a crucial role in the process of sexual selection, which is one of the main mechanisms driving evolutionary change. They can lead to assortative mating, where similar individuals are more likely to mate with each other, or disassortative mating, where dissimilar individuals are more likely to mate.

Mating preferences can also contribute to reproductive isolation between different populations or species, ultimately leading to speciation. In some cases, these preferences may be hard-wired into an animal's behavior, while in others, they might be more flexible and influenced by learning and experience.

Ectromelia is a medical term that refers to the congenital absence or malformation of a limb or extremity. It is also known as "congenital amputation" or "limb reduction defect." This condition can affect any extremity, including arms, legs, hands, or feet, and can range from mild, such as a missing finger or toe, to severe, such as the absence of an entire limb.

Ectromelia can be caused by various factors, including genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Treatment options for ectromelia depend on the severity and location of the malformation and may include prosthetics, physical therapy, or surgery.

Female circumcision, also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), refers to the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injuries to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The procedure can cause serious physical and psychological harm, and it is widely recognized by medical organizations as a violation of human rights.

There are several types of FGM, classified into four categories by the World Health Organization:

* Type I: partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy)
* Type II: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision)
* Type III: narrowing of the vaginal opening by creating a covering seal, which is formed by cutting and repositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without removal of the clitoris (infibulation)
* Type IV: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, such as pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, and cauterizing the genital area

FGM is practiced in many parts of the world, including Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It is usually carried out on young girls, often before the age of 15, and it is often motivated by cultural, religious, or social reasons. The practice is illegal in many countries, including the United States, and international organizations have called for its elimination.

Penile neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the penis. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common type of penile cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which begins in the flat cells that line the surface of the penis. Other types of penile cancer include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Benign penile neoplasms include conditions such as papillomas, condylomas, and peyronie's disease. These growths are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort, pain, or other symptoms that may require medical treatment.

It is important to note that any unusual changes in the penis, such as lumps, bumps, or sores, should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

"Gryllidae" is not a medical term. It is the family designation for crickets in the order Orthoptera, which includes various species of insects that are characterized by their long antennae and ability to produce chirping sounds. The misinterpretation might have arisen from the fact that some scientific research or studies may reference these creatures; however, it is not a medical term or concept.

The Wolffian ducts, also known as the mesonephric ducts, are a pair of embryological structures present in the developing urinary system of male fetuses. They originate from the intermediate mesoderm and descend towards the posterior end of the developing kidney, or the metanephros.

The Wolffian ducts play a crucial role in the formation of the male reproductive system. In males, these ducts give rise to the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts. They also contribute to the development of the kidneys, specifically the pronephros and mesonephros, which are transient structures that eventually give way to the permanent kidney, or metanephros.

In females, the Wolffian ducts regress due to the absence of testicular hormones, as they do not contribute to the formation of female reproductive organs. Instead, the paramesonephric ducts, also known as the Mullerian ducts, develop into the female reproductive structures such as the fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

The Y chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans and many other animals, along with the X chromosome. The Y chromosome contains the genetic information that helps to determine an individual's sex as male. It is significantly smaller than the X chromosome and contains fewer genes.

The Y chromosome is present in males, who inherit it from their father. Females, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, one inherited from each parent. The Y chromosome includes a gene called SRY (sex-determining region Y), which initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

It is worth noting that the Y chromosome has a relatively high rate of genetic mutation and degeneration compared to other chromosomes, leading to concerns about its long-term viability in human evolution. However, current evidence suggests that the Y chromosome has been stable for at least the past 25 million years.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "holography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Holography is a technique used to create 3D images, typically using laser light. It is commonly used in non-medical fields such as data storage, art, and security features on credit cards and banknotes. I'm here to help with medical information, so please feel free to ask me about any medical topics or questions you might have!

Flutamide is an anti-androgen medication, which is primarily used to treat prostate cancer. It works by blocking the action of androgens (male hormones), such as testosterone, on cancer cells. This helps to slow down or stop the growth of prostate cancer cells. Flutamide may be given in combination with other medications, such as a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, to enhance its effectiveness. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets.

Flutamide can have side effects, including breast tenderness and enlargement, hot flashes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of sexual desire. In rare cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as liver damage. It is important to be monitored by a healthcare professional while taking this medication to ensure that it is working properly and to manage any potential side effects.

LEOPARD syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by multiple lentigines (freckle-like spots), electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism (wide-set eyes), pulmonic stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve opening), abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth, and deafness. It is caused by mutations in the PTPN11 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called SHP-2. This protein plays important roles in signaling pathways that control various cellular functions, such as cell growth and division. The signs and symptoms of LEOPARD syndrome can vary widely among affected individuals, even among members of the same family. Treatment is typically focused on managing the specific features of the condition in each individual.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

17-α-Hydroxyprogesterone is a naturally occurring hormone produced by the adrenal glands and, in smaller amounts, by the ovaries and testes. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

In a medical context, 17-α-Hydroxyprogesterone may also refer to a synthetic form of this hormone that is used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, a medication called 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHP) is used to reduce the risk of preterm birth in women who have previously given birth prematurely. It works by suppressing uterine contractions and promoting fetal lung maturity.

It's important to note that 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Carnivora is an order of mammals that consists of animals whose primary diet consists of flesh. The term "Carnivora" comes from the Latin words "caro", meaning flesh, and "vorare", meaning to devour. This order includes a wide variety of species, ranging from large predators such as lions, tigers, and bears, to smaller animals such as weasels, otters, and raccoons.

While members of the Carnivora order are often referred to as "carnivores," it is important to note that not all members exclusively eat meat. Some species, such as raccoons and bears, have an omnivorous diet that includes both plants and animals. Additionally, some species within this order have evolved specialized adaptations for their specific diets, such as the elongated canines and carnassial teeth of felids (cats) and canids (dogs), which are adapted for tearing and shearing meat.

Overall, the medical definition of Carnivora refers to an order of mammals that have a diet primarily consisting of flesh, although not all members exclusively eat meat.

Organogenesis is the process of formation and development of organs during embryonic growth. It involves the complex interactions of cells, tissues, and signaling molecules that lead to the creation of specialized structures in the body. This process begins in the early stages of embryonic development, around week 4-8, and continues until birth. During organogenesis, the three primary germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) differentiate into various cell types and organize themselves into specific structures that will eventually form the functional organs of the body. Abnormalities in organogenesis can result in congenital disorders or birth defects.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Androgen receptors (ARs) are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are expressed in various tissues throughout the body. They play a critical role in the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. ARs are activated by binding to androgens, which are steroid hormones such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Once activated, ARs function as transcription factors that regulate gene expression, ultimately leading to various cellular responses.

In the context of medical definitions, androgen receptors can be defined as follows:

Androgen receptors are a type of nuclear receptor protein that bind to androgens, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, and mediate their effects on gene expression in various tissues. They play critical roles in the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function, and are involved in the pathogenesis of several medical conditions, including prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and androgen deficiency syndromes.

Bladder exstrophy is a congenital birth defect that affects the urinary and reproductive systems, as well as the abdominal wall. In this condition, the bladder is not fully formed and is turned inside out and exposed on the outside of the body at birth. This results in the inability to control urination and can also lead to other complications such as infection and kidney damage if left untreated.

Bladder exstrophy occurs due to a problem with the development of the fetus during pregnancy, specifically during the formation of the lower abdominal wall. It is more common in boys than girls, and can occur on its own or as part of a spectrum of defects known as the exstrophy-epispadias complex.

Treatment for bladder exstrophy typically involves surgical reconstruction to repair the bladder and lower abdominal wall. This may be done in stages, starting with the closure of the abdominal wall and then followed by bladder reconstruction at a later time. In some cases, additional surgeries may be necessary to address other associated defects or complications. With proper treatment, most children with bladder exstrophy can lead normal lives, although they may require ongoing medical management and monitoring throughout their lives.

Prenatal diagnosis is the medical testing of fetuses, embryos, or pregnant women to detect the presence or absence of certain genetic disorders or birth defects. These tests can be performed through various methods such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, or ultrasound. The goal of prenatal diagnosis is to provide early information about the health of the fetus so that parents and healthcare providers can make informed decisions about pregnancy management and newborn care. It allows for early intervention, treatment, or planning for the child's needs after birth.

The term "extremities" in a medical context refers to the most distant parts of the body, including the hands and feet (both fingers and toes), as well as the arms and legs. These are the farthest parts from the torso and head. Medical professionals may examine a patient's extremities for various reasons, such as checking circulation, assessing nerve function, or looking for injuries or abnormalities.

The anal canal is the terminal portion of the digestive tract, located between the rectum and the anus. It is a short tube-like structure that is about 1 to 1.5 inches long in adults. The main function of the anal canal is to provide a seal for the elimination of feces from the body while also preventing the leakage of intestinal contents.

The inner lining of the anal canal is called the mucosa, which is kept moist by the production of mucus. The walls of the anal canal contain specialized muscles that help control the passage of stool during bowel movements. These muscles include the internal and external sphincters, which work together to maintain continence and allow for the voluntary release of feces.

The anal canal is an important part of the digestive system and plays a critical role in maintaining bowel function and overall health.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Puberty is the period of sexual maturation, generally occurring between the ages of 10 and 16 in females and between 12 and 18 in males. It is characterized by a series of events including rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. Puberty is initiated by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to the secretion of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone that drive the physical changes associated with this stage of development.

In females, puberty typically begins with the onset of breast development (thelarche) and the appearance of pubic hair (pubarche), followed by the start of menstruation (menarche). In males, puberty usually starts with an increase in testicular size and the growth of pubic hair, followed by the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the development of muscle mass.

It's important to note that the onset and progression of puberty can vary widely among individuals, and may be influenced by genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.

Bicyclic compounds are organic molecules that contain two rings in their structure, with at least two common atoms shared between the rings. These compounds can be found in various natural and synthetic substances, including some medications and bioactive molecules. The unique structure of bicyclic compounds can influence their chemical and physical properties, which may impact their biological activity or reactivity.

Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 (FGF-8) is a growth factor that belongs to the fibroblast growth factor family. It plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and cancer progression. Specifically, FGF-8 has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival.

During embryonic development, FGF-8 is involved in the formation of the nervous system, limbs, and other organs. It acts as a signaling molecule that helps to establish patterns of gene expression and cell behavior during development. In tissue repair, FGF-8 can stimulate the proliferation and migration of cells involved in wound healing, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells.

In cancer, FGF-8 has been shown to promote tumor growth, angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), and metastasis. It can do this by activating signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Overexpression of FGF-8 has been found in various types of cancer, including breast, lung, prostate, and ovarian cancer.

In summary, Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 (FGF-8) is a signaling molecule that plays important roles in embryonic development, tissue repair, and cancer progression by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival.

... males that have normal internal and external genitalia, 2) males with external ambiguities, and 3) males that have both ... ambiguous genitalia). Affected children are typically raised as males and are likely to have a male gender identity. The degree ... the appearance of XX males differs from that of an XY male in that they are smaller in height and weight. Most XX males have ... Some XX males, however, do not have the SRY gene (SRY-negative) and the male phenotype may be caused by another gene on one of ...
Male genitalia. Uncus moderately long, stout, with a broad, rounded tip; beyond the uncus a weak structure of hair-like setae; ... Phylogeny: In the male genitalia, M. aglaella has distinct lobes with long, hair-like setae on the posterior margin of the ... The male genitalia resemble somewhat those of Micropterix aureatella (Scopoli, 1763), but can be easily distinguished. Also, ... Female genitalia. Tergite IX missing, only indicated by a group of setae; sternite IX strongly reduced, weakly sclerotized, ...
Male abdomen with pre-genital segment very large and conspicuous. Genitalia large. Yellow spots reach the side margin of ... The male genitalia and the larva are figured described by Dusek & Laska (1961) Habitat: grassland, dune systems, dry river beds ... Males and females have different marking on the abdomen; males have square commas on tergites 3 and 4, whereas females have ...
As a consequence, children with XY genes may exhibit female genitalia, while those with XX genes may display male genitalia, ... A comprehensive assessment of the male genitals assesses the pubic hair based on Sexual Maturity Rating and the size of the ... In some instances (ex: Peyronie's disease) where a physical examination of the male genitals is not sufficient to diagnose an ... As part of pediatric medical evaluations, a comprehensive examination of the male genitalia plays a crucial role in identifying ...
The male genitalia contain some of the most distinguishing characteristics when differentiating bumble bee species. The ... "Psithyrus male genitalia". Bumblebee ID. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M. (2009). "Chemical ecology involved ...
Jesus with erased genitalia; Jesus minus erotic body." Instead, she speaks about the bi-sexuality of Christ as an inclusive ... She explains that "[Jesus] has been dressed theologically as a heterosexually oriented (celibate) man. ...
The male external genitalia consist of the penis, the male urethra, and the scrotum, while the male internal genitalia consist ... A man is an adult male human. Prior to adulthood, a male human is referred to as a boy (a male child or adolescent). Like most ... Lists of men Men's studies Patriarchy Sex differences in humans Sexism Male may refer to sex or gender. The plural men is ... The English term "man" is derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *man- (see Sanskrit/Avestan manu-, Slavic mǫž "man, male ...
The male genitalia are described by Nayar. Wings Wings are yellowish basally with the front edge dark smoky black, filling out ... Nayar, J.L. (1968). "Male Genitalia of Eristalinae". The Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 44: 153-167. Williston, S.W. (1887). " ...
Male genitalia: Tegumen delicate; socii proportionately very large, coalescent, tapering terminally, with very short free ends ...
Male genitalia Beccaloni, G.; Scoble, M.; Kitching, I.; Simonsen, T.; Robinson, G.; Pitkin, B.; Hine, A.; Lyal, C., eds. (2003 ...
... underdeveloped genitalia undescended testis (males) micropenis (males) small testis (males) Note: it is possible that males ... "Hypoplastic male external genitalia". National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine. ... McKusick, Victor A. (1998). Mendelian Inheritance in Man: A Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders. JHU Press. p. 2066. ... ovarian dysgenesis in females or primary testicular failure in males, mental retardation, broad nasal base, blepharoptosis, ...
Male Genitalia System: m. History of major abnormalities or defects of the genitalia such as hermaphroditism, ... Female Genitalia System: f. History of major abnormalities or defects of the genitalia, such as hermaphroditism, ... and 15r," here it was listed as "major abnormalit[y] or defect of genitalia." The amendments made for transgender people were ... Section 5 focuses on disqualifying conditions of the male and female reproductive system, on the female page the subheader 13 ...
"What Males Will Do". PBS. 2012-03-14. Archived from the original on 2014-12-05. "Animalia genitalia : Patty Brennan". Science. ... Zimmer, Carl (2007-05-01). "In Ducks, War of the Sexes Plays Out in the Evolution of Genitalia". The New York Times. ISSN 0362- ... In 2012, Brennan made an appearance in a PBS miniseries on sexual selection in the episode "What Males Will Do". In 2017, ... "Clash of the Duck Genitalia". Scientific American. 2007-05-02. Archived from the original on 2021-12-02. Wu, Katherine J. (2022 ...
... males or females; genitals'. The Latin term is derived from Proto-Indo-European *séksus, from *sek-, "to cut", thus meaning ... wie man nicht cissexuell sein könnte, gäbe es keine Transsexuellen, so könnte man auch nicht endosexuell sein, gäbe es keine ... Surya Monro states that the term is used to "indicate a person born with sex characteristics that are seen as typically male or ... An endosex person is someone whose innate sex characteristics fit normative medical or social ideas for female or male bodies. ...
In this piece, sex is the socially agreed upon criteria for being male or female, usually based on an individual's genitalia at ... The authors also discovered how the hypermasculine representation of Asian men allow white men to be viewed as less oppressive ... On the other end, men have been shown images of being extremely fit and muscular, usually in a pose that expresses power, and ... "In contemporary media and culture, women's and men's social desirability and gender often been defined in terms of their bodies ...
Metcalf, C.L. (1921). "The Genitalia of Male Syrphidae". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 14: 169-266. This ... narrowly in the male, more broadly in the female. The triangles are covered with abundant yellow pile. Genitalia described by ...
... though not so in males. The male genitalia are distinctive. Three species belong to the genus Pyrrhoscolia: Pyrrhoscolia fax ( ... 4 in males). Two species of Scolia are similarly coloured, but have swarthy wings and a red spot in each ocular sinus (or sini ...
... shaped like male genitalia; binabaye, shaped like breasts; sinaop, shaped like two hands clasped together; tinicod, shaped like ...
It has distinct male genitalia. The genital part has a pair of extended stick-like projections. G. belae Miller and Wheeler, ... But it has sharp lateral margin, and large median lobe in male. G. cognatum (Matthews, 1887) was the first species discovered. ...
Refers to the male genitalia. Also "ku ku bird". la(h) - (From Chinese/Cantonese 啦) Interjection. Tagged at the end of a ... lan jiao - (From Hokkien/Teochew 𨶙鳥/𨶙鸟 or 卵鳥/卵鸟 lān-chiáu) Refers to male genitalia (crude). See also Si mi lan jiao. lao lan ... Mat - a Malay man. "Mat" is a short form of the name Muhammad, which is a very common name among Muslim Malay men. Mat Salleh ... puki - (From Malay) - Vulgar term for female genitalia. pundek- (From Tamil) - Vulgar term for female genitalia. rabak - (From ...
2. Derogatory term used for female genitalia. gassed 1. Drunk. 2. excited geezer (informal) Man. Particularly an old one. get ... hardman or hard man A man who is ruthless and/or violent. helmet The glans of the penis. henry A henry is (or was) an eighth of ... bloke any man or sometimes a man in authority such as the boss. blooming, blummin' euphemism for bloody. Used as an intensifier ... euphemistically the male external genitalia. Is sometimes also used to mean something unremarkable or ordinary. mental Crazy or ...
The external genitalia of the male is distinct from those of the female by the end of the ninth week. Prior to that, the ... The external genitalia are completely formed by the end of the 12th week. At birth, the development of the prepubertal male ... At six weeks post conception, the differentiation of the external genitalia in the male and female has not taken place. At ... By the 10th-12th week, the genitalia are distinctly male or female being and derived from their homologous structures. At 16 ...
Metcalf, C.L. (1921). "The Genitalia of Male Syrphidae". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 14: 169-266. This ... from original description The male genitalia were figured by Metcalf. Canada, United States. Shannon, Raymond Corbett (1916). " ...
Male genitalia are orangish brown. Thompson, F. Christian. "A key to the genera of the flower flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) of the ... The following description is of a male specimen. Its face is black except for a brownish tubercle. Its thorax is black except ...
Metcalf, C.L. (1921). "The Genitalia of Male Syrphidae". Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 14: 169-266. v t e ( ... Genitalia The genitalia were described by Metcalf in 1921 Wings The wings are cinereous hyaline, somewhat yellowish on the ... The eyes are contiguous Holoptic in the male. The occiput is greyish yellow pollinose, with bright yellow pile. Thorax The ...
But the genitals of an extra was fully, if dimly, exposed in the background. Viewers protested on the drama's online message ... Lee Soon-ae is a recently widowed traffic cop who finds herself in over her head after she stops a man for committing a routine ... "MBC in Second Male Nudity Shock" Archived January 4, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. The Chosun Ilbo. November 15, 2005. ... Bae, Keun-min (November 15, 2005). "Genitalia Exposed in TV Drama". The Korea Times via Hancinema. Archived from the original ...
Reemer (2000) figures the male genitalia. The larva is figured by Hartley (1961) See references for determination. Palearctic ...
"Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia." Seminars in plastic surgery. Vol. 25. No. 3. Thieme Medical Publishers, 2011. ...
The male generally has a slightly hardened plate (scutum) on the upper surface of the abdomen. The genitalia vary considerably ... between species; for example, the male palpal bulb has either a long or short embolus, which may or may not be coiled. The ...
Male has huge lobe on the valva, which is the largest of the genus. Uncus simple. In female genitalia, ovipositor lobes angular ... Antennae bipectinate (comb like on both sides) in the male. Female with filiform (thread like) and ciliate (hair like) antennae ... Forewing costa straight in male. Hindwings off white which gradually becomes grayish toward the outer edges. Transverse line ...
Most malignant cutaneous neoplasms that involve the male genitalia are squamous in origin and associated with human ... Malignant Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia) and Malignant Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia What to Read ... Malignant Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia. Updated: Jul 28, 2021 * Author: Douglas C Parker, MD, DDS; Chief Editor ... Patients with melanoma of the male genitalia generally have a poor prognosis due to presentation at an advanced stage. [43] ...
testes (cryptorchidism) in males. Some affected individuals have external genitalia that do not appear clearly female or male. ... but they have external genitalia that do not look clearly male or clearly female or other abnormalities of the genitals and ... any type of 3β-HSD deficiency, problems with male sex hormones lead to abnormalities of the external genitalia. These ... into two lobes (bifid scrotum). Because of these abnormalities, the external genitalia may not look clearly male or clearly ...
For curing excessive sweating around the male genitals ensure to dry up groin area by wiping it, drink a lot of water and ... Excessive sweating around the male genitals can also be controlled by using anti-fungal sprays as well anti-per spirant sprays ... Excessive sweating around the male genitals can cause much discomfort and embarrassment especially if there is a bad body odor ... How to stop excessive sweating around the male genitals?. (Last Updated: Nov 10, 2008) ...
Hylemya vagans Male?. Diptera (adults). 2. 03-12-2023 23:34. teneral Phaonia subventa Male verified by eklans. Diptera (adults) ... A biting male mosquito from Lebanese amber. What is new?. 1. 07-12-2023 13:24. ...
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A Florida man was rushed to the hospital on Friday after suffering an accidental gunshot wound to the penis. ... A Florida man was rushed to the hospital on Friday after suffering an accidental gunshot wound to the penis. ... Jelks girlfriend, Shanekia Roberts, quickly saw that Jelks had suffered a gunshot wound to his genitals and immediately rushed ...
Man Poured Drano on genitals to not be gay. "Ex-gay" conversion programs are pathological and dangerous. They promote self- ... cut his genitals with a razor and poured Drano on the wounds to stop his homosexual feelings. There are no happy endings with " ...
Home » Clemenger Melbourne Applauds Meet Grant: The White Man With Small Genitals ... As well as this, Grant has smaller than average genitals; giving him something to compensate for, a completely removable spine ... for client meetings and of course, Grant is a white male.. Now, B&T spoke to the team behind Meet Graham, Clemenger BBDO ...
But as the man laid unconscious, the suspect took a Bic lighter and set the mans genitals on fire. The victim eventually ... Chicago man finds girlfriend having sex and burns the other mans genitals. ... A Chicago man became enraged when he discovered his girlfriend having sex with another man. According to the Chicago Tribune, ... Police discovered the man applying Vaseline to the burned area and rushed him to the burn unit at the University of Chicago. ...
... byTibi Puiu ... A male Gambusia quadruncus. (c) Brian Langerhans, NC State University. Females of the llanos mosquitofish, or Gambusia ... A magnified view of the four hooked genitalia of the newly identified fish species Gambusia quadruncus. (c) Brian Langerhans, ... Apparently, to fight off the females selective reproduction blocking mechanism, the male has evolved an… interesting, lets ...
What is necessary for the development of male external genitalia?. Testosterone is required to develop male external genitalia ... Ambiguous genitalia is a rare condition in which an infants external genitals dont appear to be clearly either male or female ... What is a mans private area called?. genital organ, genitalia, genitals, private parts, privates - external sex organ. scrotum ... The male genitals have several functions. These include sperm production, making male sex hormones, and depositing sperm into ...
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... is a condition that affects the development of the brain and genitalia. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this ... or external genitalia that do not look clearly male or clearly female (ambiguous genitalia). ... Another key feature of XLAG in males is abnormal genitalia that can include an unusually small penis (micropenis), undescended ... X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia (XLAG) is a condition that affects the development of the brain and genitalia. ...
Second man charged in 2022 Rockford murder of Deontay … 2 hours ago. ... Rockford man charged with sexual assault of a juvenile 2 hours ago. ... A rare sexually transmitted disease, which causes flesh eating ulcers to develop on a patients genitalia, is reportedly making ... Flesh eating STD causes genitals to rot away making the rounds by: Staff ...
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The ASU Library acknowledges the twenty-three Native Nations that have inhabited this land for centuries. Arizona State Universitys four campuses are located in the Salt River Valley on ancestral territories of Indigenous peoples, including the Akimel Oodham (Pima) and Pee Posh (Maricopa) Indian Communities, whose care and keeping of these lands allows us to be here today. ASU Library acknowledges the sovereignty of these nations and seeks to foster an environment of success and possibility for Native American students and patrons. We are advocates for the incorporation of Indigenous knowledge systems and research methodologies within contemporary library practice. ASU Library welcomes members of the Akimel Oodham and Pee Posh, and all Native nations to the Library.. ...
Moon, M. H., Moon, K. C., Ku, J. H., Kim, M., & Kim, J. H. (2017). Tumors of the male genitalia. In Oncologic Imaging: Urology ... Tumors of the male genitalia. / Moon, Min Hoan; Moon, Kyung Chul; Ku, Ja Hyeon et al. Oncologic Imaging: Urology. Springer ... Moon, MH, Moon, KC, Ku, JH, Kim, M & Kim, JH 2017, Tumors of the male genitalia. in Oncologic Imaging: Urology. Springer Berlin ... Tumors of the male genitalia. In Oncologic Imaging: Urology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 2017. p. 169-197 doi: 10.1007/978-3- ...
Positive family history of ambiguous genitalia was noted in 4 patients. ... This study aimed to determine the possible etiology of ambiguous genitalia in 41 newborn infants at a referral hospital in ... Ambiguous genitalia, 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype, and Y chromosome microdeletions in a 17-year-old man. Fertility and sterility ... All cases were raised as males.. Table 2 Clinical data and likely causes of ambiguous genitalia in 46,XY karyotype children (n ...
Male external genitalia:. penis + scrotum. Female external genitalia:. vulva (mons pubis, labia, clitoris, structures ... General: genitalia. Primary sex organs: gonads, which produce gametes (eggs or sperm).. Primary male sex organs (gonads): ... Present in males and females (functional only in females).. Divided into lobes and smaller lobules. Lobules have alveoli that ... In males, urethra carries both urine and sperm. Three parts:. 1. Prostatic urethra, surrounded by prostate. 2. Membranous ...
... but a quick look at their genitalia can distinguish one species from the other. ... male U. trilobata genitals, stained with purple dye). Thats because for many years, studying the genitalia of lepidoptera ( ... Here, a male of the newly-discovered species Urodeta trilobata is shown. All three of the new moths, collected and described by ... Genitalia analysis is a very old-fashioned technique, over 100 years old. The tools and chemicals havent changed much in that ...
I have been having pain in my genitals. On the left side on the shaft, right below the head of the penis, Ive been ... Come on i really need help :( Im 24 man. I dont feel any pain anywhere. No pain in urinating. Even when the last part of pee ... For possibly over a year or so, I have been having pain in my genitals. On the left side on the shaft, right below the head ... Come on i really need help :( Im 24 man. I dont feel any pain anywhere. No pain in urinating. Even when the last part of pee ...
... A look into phalloplasty, a procedure that more trans men are opting for ... Keiles recounts how a 2017 incident in a bars mens bathroom-Simpsons transition had included top surgery by this time- ...
... males that have normal internal and external genitalia, 2) males with external ambiguities, and 3) males that have both ... ambiguous genitalia). Affected children are typically raised as males and are likely to have a male gender identity. The degree ... the appearance of XX males differs from that of an XY male in that they are smaller in height and weight. Most XX males have ... Some XX males, however, do not have the SRY gene (SRY-negative) and the male phenotype may be caused by another gene on one of ...
  • Females of the llanos mosquitofish, or Gambusia quadruncus, have developed a defense mechanism against overly zealous males who don't know to take no for an answer by essentially growing a ball-shaped tissue blocking most of the genital pore - restricting entry of the male's gonopodial tip. (zmescience.com)
  • That's why moth genital differences are actually an important adaptation, says Chris Grinter, an entomologist at the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, because male bugs "tend not to be very discriminating once they find something that kind of looks similar to mate with. (livescience.com)
  • The appearance of XX males can fall into one of three categories: 1) males that have normal internal and external genitalia, 2) males with external ambiguities, and 3) males that have both internal and external genital ambiguities. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is thought that X inactivation in XX males may account for the genital ambiguities and incomplete masculinization seen in SRY-positive XX males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here are some tips for you that will help in removing genital hair in men. (waynewonder.com)
  • The male genital system consists of both external and internal parts.The external male genitalia include the penis, urethra, and scrotum. (healthline.com)
  • Unfortunately, the genitalia of all species from Primorskiy Kray, Sakhalin, and the Kuril Islands were described from temporary slides in glycerol, and therefore, the drawings do not always show all details of genital armature or may be confusing. (myspecies.info)
  • Two men in Kenya are rallying against the myths that perpetuate the violation of women's and girls' human rights through the centuries-old cultural tradition of female circumcision, more commonly known as female genital mutilation. (who.int)
  • Says Tony Mwebia, "Men believe that girls who have undergone female genital mutilation will attract more dowry in terms of cows. (who.int)
  • They work separately, but both men are ardent campaigners against female genital mutilation and promoting the rights of girls and women. (who.int)
  • Elias is an activist with the Kenya Men Engage Alliance , which uses contemporary channels to reach out to boys and men to fight the acceptance of female genital mutilation, which is banned in Kenya and 24 other African countries. (who.int)
  • Men can foster positive beliefs and attitudes and raise awareness on the impact of female genital mutilation to the health of women and girls, which can promote behaviour change in men and boys through the identification and promotion of positive notions of masculinities," explains Elias. (who.int)
  • That boy we ignored 15 years ago while sensitizing the community is possibly a young man who now supports female genital mutilation," says Tony of the need to overlook no one. (who.int)
  • Dr Joyce Lavussa, a reproductive health expert with the World Health Organization (WHO), is optimistic that the increased high-level advocacy efforts by such men as Tony and Elias will greatly broaden the needed awareness on the damaging effects of female genital mutilation. (who.int)
  • During the first stage of male puberty, the scrotum and testes grow larger. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • The scrotum (or scrotal sac) is a part of the external male genitalia located behind and underneath the penis. (healthline.com)
  • Most commonly on the scrotum in males and the vulva in females. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The testis is a paired, ovoid male reproductive organ that sits in the scrotum, separated from its mate by a scrotal septum. (medscape.com)
  • A Florida man was rushed to the hospital on Friday after suffering an accidental gunshot wound to the penis. (ktnv.com)
  • Alicia Walker set up an anonymised data-gathering exercise designed to probe whether a link existed in men between self-confidence and penis size. (cosmosmagazine.com)
  • Another key feature of XLAG in males is abnormal genitalia that can include an unusually small penis (micropenis), undescended testes (cryptorchidism), or external genitalia that do not look clearly male or clearly female (ambiguous genitalia). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Clitoris of female is homologous to penis in male, contains erectile tissue including corpora cavernosa. (assignguru.com)
  • In men, gonorrhea and chlamydia can cause a discharge from the penis and pain with urination. (skinsight.com)
  • The male penis is not under voluntary control and may become enlarged for a number of reasons. (wikimedia.org)
  • Surgery may be done to reduce breasts, repair undescended testicles, or reshape the penis to provide a more male appearance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ambiguous genitalia is a rare condition in which an infant's external genitals don't appear to be clearly either male or female. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • In a baby with ambiguous genitalia, the genitals may be incompletely developed or the baby may have characteristics of both sexes. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • This study aimed to determine the possible etiology of ambiguous genitalia in 41 newborn infants at a referral hospital in Hofuf city, Saudi Arabia. (who.int)
  • Positive family history of ambiguous genitalia was noted in 4 patients. (who.int)
  • The diagnosis of ambiguous genitalia in a newborn infant is an emergency that can be difficult to manage, not only because salt-wasting entities must be ruled out, but also due to the importance of gender assignment before psychological gender is established [1]. (who.int)
  • A small number of affected people have external genitalia that do not look clearly male or clearly female (ambiguous genitalia). (wikipedia.org)
  • CAH is the most frequent cause of androgen excess and ambiguous genitalia in the female newborn and the various forms of CAH are due to defects in the biosynthesis of cortisol, with the subsequent excessive ACTH production leading to an accumulation of adrenal androgens and steroid precursors. (health.am)
  • The association of ambiguous genitalia and salt loss at birth signals on enzymatic block of the adrenal glands. (health.am)
  • At birth, the baby may have ambiguous external genitals . (medlineplus.gov)
  • The 2022 includes cuddling, kissing, touching a partner's genitals or anus, or sharing mpox outbreak disproportionately affected adult gay, bisexual, sex toys. (cdc.gov)
  • MMSC is defined as cisgender male-to-cisgender male sexual (e.g., oral or anal sex) or intimate contact (e.g., cuddling, kissing, touching partner's genitals or anus, or sharing sex toys) within 3 weeks of symptom onset. (medscape.com)
  • Most men have two testes. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • The testes are responsible for making testosterone, the primary male sex hormone, and for producing sperm. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • The testes are linked to the rest of the male reproductive organs by the vas deferens, which extends over the base of the pelvic bone or ilium, and wraps around to the ampulla, seminal vesicle, and prostate. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • In addition to impairing normal brain development, a lack of functional ARX protein disrupts cell differentiation during the formation of the testes, leading to abnormal genitalia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Primary male sex organs (gonads): testes. (assignguru.com)
  • Most XX males have small testes, and have an increase in maldescended testicles compared to XY males. (wikipedia.org)
  • The testes are two oval-shaped organs in the male reproductive system. (healthline.com)
  • We evaluated three measures of pubertal onset: testicular volume (TV)>3 mL in either testis, or stage 2 or greater for genitalia (G2+), or pubic hair (P2+). (cdc.gov)
  • But as the man laid unconscious, the suspect took a Bic lighter and set the man's genitals on fire. (rollingout.com)
  • The alternative name for XX male syndrome refers to Finnish scientist Albert de la Chapelle, who studied the condition and its etiology. (wikipedia.org)
  • A controversial concept reflecting the belief that the decline in testosterone levels observed in men as they age causes a clinically significant and potentially treatable set of symptoms, including sexual dysfunction, mood changes, weight gain, fatigue, and other nonspecific symptoms. (definithing.com)
  • To know whether you're experiencing irritable male syndrome, and how you might treat it and improve your relationships, it's important to recognize some of the more obvious symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • What are the symptoms of irritable male syndrome? (healthline.com)
  • In the adult, the conditions that can affect the areas of the genitals and the anus can be a delicate subject, such as those conditions that are the result of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). (skinsight.com)
  • It is important to note that not all conditions affecting the anus and genitals are sexually transmitted, however. (skinsight.com)
  • and cancers of the anus and back of the throat, including the base of the tongue and tonsils (oropharynx) in men and women. (cdc.gov)
  • Because of these abnormalities , the external genitalia may not look clearly male or clearly female. (nih.gov)
  • Affected individuals may have external genitalia that do not look clearly male or clearly female or other abnormalities of the genitals and reproductive organs. (nih.gov)
  • look clearly male or female. (nih.gov)
  • These include sperm production, making male sex hormones, and depositing sperm into the female reproductive tract during sex. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • What leads the embryo to develop male or female genitalia? (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • In the male, the external genitalia are more evident and better known than in the female. (definithing.com)
  • The male pelvis is more robust, narrower, and taller than the female pelvis. (definithing.com)
  • Female U. trilobata genitalia, stained with black dye, appear like bizarre alien flowers on these slides, prepared by de Prins. (livescience.com)
  • The female then approached them and struck the other man across the face with a fish. (emirates247.com)
  • Treatment is medically unnecessary, although some individuals choose to undergo treatments to make them appear more male or female. (wikipedia.org)
  • What happens when a biological male who identifies as a female uses the women's restroom? (philberger.org)
  • Interchangeable male and female genitalia allow for complete urinary catheterization. (laerdal.com)
  • In the absence of aromatase, androgens cannot be converted to estrone, estradiol or estriol, and large quantities of androstenedione and testosterone are transferred to the maternal and fetal circulation, resulting in masculinization of the urogenital sinus and external genitalia of the female fetus. (health.am)
  • Male and female genitalia and the larval stage are figured. (bioone.org)
  • Muscles of female organ of genitalia. (ursusbooks.com)
  • In the human reproductive process, two kinds of sex cells ( gametes), are involved: the male gamete (sperm), and the female gamete (egg or ovum). (wikibooks.org)
  • The reproductive systems of the male and female have some basic similarities and some specialized differences. (wikibooks.org)
  • The differences between the female and male reproductive systems are based on the functions of each individual's role in the reproduction cycle. (wikibooks.org)
  • As a baby grows inside the womb, male or female genitals develop depending on the pair of sex chromosomes the baby has from the parents (XY for male, XX for female). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This baby will develop female genitals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This means that they do not look typically either male or female. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with PAIS may have both male and female physical characteristics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Surgery may be done to remove the testicles and reshape the genitals to provide a more female appearance. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Please see Appendix 1 (for male) and Appendix 2 (for female) for detailed information on variables included in the SXQ section in the latest seven release cycles. (cdc.gov)
  • Information was collected using two-part (number and unit) questions for both SXD630 (last performed oral sex on a new male partner) and SXD642 (last performed oral sex on a new female partner). (cdc.gov)
  • Tony spearheads the Men End FGM campaign from his web page and writes a blog on the need to end the damaging practice of female circumcision often performed without informed consent on girls up to age 15, although younger girls, even infants, and older women are subjected to the procedure. (who.int)
  • Using films, role models and Twitter, under the tagline #MenENDFGM, both men are demonstrating the harmfulness of female circumcision through candid discussions with boys and men, including religious leaders. (who.int)
  • Abnormalities of external genitalia are seen less often in affected females. (nih.gov)
  • Why do male have external genitalia? (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • What is necessary for the development of male external genitalia? (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • Testosterone is required to develop male external genitalia. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • A completely male phenotype usually develops in the presence of the SRY gene but, in some cases, the presence of the SRY gene can result in internal and/or external genitalia ambiguities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skin manifestations of the external male genitals]. (bvsalud.org)
  • This syndrome is diagnosed through various detection methods and occurs in approximately 1:20,000 newborn males, making it much less common than Klinefelter syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the fetus develops, the functioning testis produces the male hormone testosterone to allow development of male genitalia. (medscape.com)
  • Puberty can be incomplete or delayed in affected males and females. (nih.gov)
  • Breast development in males at the time of puberty. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Testosterone produced by Leydig cells in the embryonic testis stimulates the development of male sexual organs. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • The testis (from the Greek word orchis ) is the male gland important for both reproductive (exocrine) and endocrine functions. (medscape.com)
  • Most malignant cutaneous neoplasms that involve the male genitalia are squamous in origin and associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. (medscape.com)
  • Invasive squamous cell carcinoma is an uncommon tumor that usually develops in older uncircumcised men. (medscape.com)
  • The glans is an extension of the highly vascular corpus spongiosum and is covered by squamous epithelium that is keratinized in the circumcised male. (medscape.com)
  • Besides this, the females also exhibit a colorful anal spot, which scientists aren't yet sure if it's used to signal the location of the gonopore to the male or flag fish of their own species from fish of other species to reduce costly cross-breeding (hybridization is always costly and genetically bad). (zmescience.com)
  • Experienced taxonomists can match males and females of the same species simply by looking at how their private parts fit together, since each species has evolved a different "lock and key" mechanism, with males serving as the "key" and females as the "lock. (livescience.com)
  • XX male syndrome, also known as de la Chapelle syndrome, is a rare congenital intersex condition in which an individual with a 46,XX karyotype (otherwise associated with females) has phenotypically male characteristics that can vary among cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • this gene causes them to develop a male phenotype despite having chromosomes more typical of females. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Mobile Examination Center (MEC) interview section on sexual behavior (variable name prefix SXQ) provides information on lifetime and current sexual behavior for both males and females. (cdc.gov)
  • That's because for many years, studying the genitalia of lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) has been "the best indicator to diagnose a species," de Prins said. (livescience.com)
  • The primary hormones involved in the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • What Is The Best Testosterone Booster For Men? (waynewonder.com)
  • Testosterone is a naturally occurring hormone that's key to male reproductive development. (healthline.com)
  • Levels of testosterone tend to decline gradually in men starting in their 30s. (healthline.com)
  • If your irritable male syndrome is caused by a decrease in testosterone levels, one of the main treatment options is testosterone replacement therapy. (healthline.com)
  • Testosterone is a male sex hormone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This review focuses on cutaneous diseases that are either specific to the male genitalia or frequently involve this body region. (medscape.com)
  • Major items in this section include age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, circumcision status (males), and history of sexually transmitted diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Excessive sweating around the male genitals can cause much discomfort and embarrassment especially if there is a bad body odor that accompanies it. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
  • Masculinization of SRY-negative XX males is dependent upon which genes have mutations and at what point in development these mutations occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • A magnified view of the four hooked genitalia of the newly identified fish species Gambusia quadruncus. (zmescience.com)
  • Here, a male of the newly-discovered species Urodeta trilobata is shown. (livescience.com)
  • Especially in savanna areas, a lot of species have the same wing pattern, but genitalia are like lock and key," she said. (livescience.com)
  • The key for the males switched the species until 20/08/2015. (hccnet.nl)
  • In 90 percent of these individuals, the syndrome is caused by the Y chromosome's SRY gene, which triggers male reproductive development, being atypically included in the crossing over of genetic information that takes place between the pseudoautosomal regions of the X and Y chromosomes during meiosis in the father. (wikipedia.org)
  • In about 80 percent of XX males, the SRY gene is present on one of the X chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It will take out all the hairs from your genitals easily. (waynewonder.com)
  • Male with abdominal hairs predominantly silver. (hccnet.nl)
  • Male with abdominal hairs brown to black (not predominantly silver). (hccnet.nl)
  • Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) is a genetic (inherited) condition that occurs when the body can't respond to male sex hormones (androgens). (medlineplus.gov)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the painless disease causes progressive ulcerative lesions on the genitals or perineum, which are prone to heavy bleeding. (mystateline.com)
  • What are the male reproductive hormones? (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • In PAIS, there is a change in the gene on the X chromosome that helps the body recognize and use male hormones properly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia (XLAG) is a condition that affects the development of the brain and genitalia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In males (who have only one X chromosome), one altered copy of the gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the X with the SRY gene combines with a normal X from the mother during fertilization, the result is an XX male. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less common are SRY-negative XX males, which can be caused by a mutation in an autosomal or X chromosomal gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The X chromosome with the SRY gene is preferentially chosen to be the active X chromosome 90% of the time, which explains complete male phenotype being observed often in SRY-positive XX males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some XX males, however, do not have the SRY gene (SRY-negative) and the male phenotype may be caused by another gene on one of the autosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Males who inherit the gene from their mothers will have the condition. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is a 50% chance that a male child of a mother with the gene will be affected. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The extent to which the 2022 mpox outbreak has affected persons without a recent history of male-to-male sexual contact (MMSC) is not well understood. (medscape.com)
  • A man suffered cuts to his genitals after they were scraped by his girlfriend while both of them were under the influence of drugs. (merdeka.org)
  • GEORGE TOWN, Nov 14 ― A man suffered cuts to his genitals after they were scraped by his girlfriend while both of them were under the influence of drugs in an incident at the Bandar Baru Farlim market area, here yesterday. (merdeka.org)
  • A rare sexually transmitted disease, which causes flesh eating ulcers to develop on a patient's genitalia, is reportedly making the rounds. (mystateline.com)
  • A male who is healthy, and sexually mature, continuously produces sperm. (wikibooks.org)
  • Males typically have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome in each diploid cell of their bodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disclaimer: Male internal genitalia definition / meaning should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. (definithing.com)
  • Contact your provider if you, your son, or a male family member has infertility or incomplete development of male genitals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hairiness In men, the amount of body hair varies greatly (see also Overview of Hair Growth), but very few men are concerned enough about excess hair to see a doctor. (msdmanuals.com)
  • adults are found on the foliage, the males possibly been sitting on the bare sand. (hccnet.nl)
  • The lower part of the abdomen that is located between the hip bones in a male. (definithing.com)
  • Timur Laut District Police chief ACP Soffian Santong said the police received information regarding the incident at about 7.55 am from the 47-year-old man, who informed that his genitals were injured before the victim was sent to Penang Hospital (HPP) for treatment. (merdeka.org)
  • Based on preliminary information, the man informed that his girlfriend had come to see him at his office at 6.30 am, before they both took drugs, and the victim, who is unemployed, passed out after becoming high. (merdeka.org)