The external and internal organs related to reproduction.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
An erectile structure homologous with the penis, situated beneath the anterior labial commissure, partially hidden between the anterior ends of the labia minora.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
A birth defect due to malformation of the URETHRA in which the urethral opening is below its normal location. In the male, the malformed urethra generally opens on the ventral surface of the PENIS or on the PERINEUM. In the female, the malformed urethral opening is in the VAGINA.
Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.
The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
A type of defective gonadal development in patients with a wide spectrum of chromosomal mosaic variants. Their karyotypes are of partial sex chromosome monosomy resulting from an absence or an abnormal second sex chromosome (X or Y). Karyotypes include 45,X/46,XX; 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX; 46,XXp-; 45,X/46,XY; 45,X/47,XYY; 46,XYpi; etc. The spectrum of phenotypes may range from phenotypic female to phenotypic male including variations in gonads and internal and external genitalia, depending on the ratio in each gonad of 45,X primordial germ cells to those with normal 46,XX or 46,XY constitution.
Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.
Pathological processes of the VULVA.
Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
The 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis may be sporadic or familial. Familial XX gonadal dysgenesis is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait and its locus was mapped to chromosome 2. Mutation in the gene for the FSH receptor (RECEPTORS, FSH) was detected. Sporadic XX gonadal dysgenesis is heterogeneous and has been associated with trisomy-13 and trisomy-18. These phenotypic females are characterized by a normal stature, sexual infantilism, bilateral streak gonads, amenorrhea, elevated plasma LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH concentration.
Development of female secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the MALE. It is due to the effects of estrogenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.
A disorder of sexual development transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait. These patients have a karyotype of 46,XY with end-organ resistance to androgen due to mutations in the androgen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANDROGEN) gene. Severity of the defect in receptor quantity or quality correlates with their phenotypes. In these genetic males, the phenotypic spectrum ranges from those with normal female external genitalia, through those with genital ambiguity as in Reifenstein Syndrome, to that of a normal male with INFERTILITY.
Abnormal number or structure of the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Some sex chromosome aberrations are associated with SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS and SEX CHROMOSOME DISORDERS OF SEX DEVELOPMENT.
Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.
All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.
A tube that transports URINE from the URINARY BLADDER to the outside of the body in both the sexes. It also has a reproductive function in the male by providing a passage for SPERM.
'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term referring to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual, which may be genetic or environmental in origin, and can affect various systems and organs of the body.
A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
The primary testis-determining gene in mammalians, located on the Y CHROMOSOME. It codes for a high mobility group box transcription factor (TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS) which initiates the development of the TESTES from the embryonic GONADS.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Congenital structural abnormalities of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.
A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.
Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An ester of TESTOSTERONE with a propionate substitution at the 17-beta position.
The body region lying between the genital area and the ANUS on the surface of the trunk, and to the shallow compartment lying deep to this area that is inferior to the PELVIC DIAPHRAGM. The surface area is between the VULVA and the anus in the female, and between the SCROTUM and the anus in the male.
Cutaneous lesions arising from infection with Treponema pallidum. In the primary stage, 18-21 days following infection, one or more chancres appear. If untreated, the subsequent stages of the disease appear as syphilids. These eruptions are superficial, nondestructive, exanthematic, transient, macular roseolas that may later be maculopapular or papular polymorphous or scaly, pustular, pigmented eruptions.(Arnold, Odom, and James, Andrew's Diseases of the Skin, 8th ed, p409)
Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge of electricity.
Sexual activities of animals.
A foul-smelling accumulation of SEBUM and desquaminated epidermal cells, especially the cheesy substance found under the foreskin of the penis and at the base of the labia minor near the clitoris.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of TESTOSTERONE to 5-ALPHA DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE.
Inflammation of the EPIDIDYMIS. Its clinical features include enlarged epididymis, a swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.
Peculiarities associated with the internal structure, form, topology, or architecture of organisms that distinguishes them from others of the same species or group.
A complex neoplasm composed of a mixture of gonadal elements, such as large primordial GERM CELLS, immature SERTOLI CELLS or GRANULOSA CELLS of the sex cord, and gonadal stromal cells. Gonadoblastomas are most often associated with gonadal dysgenesis, 46, XY.
The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.
An inherited condition characterized by multiple malformations of CARTILAGE and bone including CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS; midface hypoplasia; radiohumeral SYNOSTOSIS; CHOANAL ATRESIA; femoral bowing; neonatal fractures; and multiple joint CONTRACTURES and, occasionally, urogenital, gastrointestinal or cardiac defects. In utero exposure to FLUCONAZOLE, as well as mutations in at least two separate genes are associated with this condition - POR (encoding P450 (cytochrome) oxidoreductase (NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE)) and FGFR2 (encoding FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2).
A syndrome characterized by abdominal wall musculature deficiency, cryptorchism, and urinary tract abnormalities. The syndrome derives its name from its characteristic distended abdomen with wrinkled skin.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Congenital structural deformities of the upper and lower extremities collectively or unspecified.
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
A "smooth brain" malformation of the CEREBRAL CORTEX resulting from abnormal location of developing neurons during corticogenesis. It is characterized by an absence of normal convoluted indentations on the surface of the brain (agyria), or fewer and shallower indentations (pachygryia). There is a reduced number of cortical layers, typically 4 instead of 6, resulting in a thickened cortex, and reduced cerebral white matter that is a reversal of the normal ratio of cerebral white matter to cortex.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Eating other individuals of one's own species.
The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.
A syndrome characterized by CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE and GONADAL DYSGENESIS in phenotypic females with karyotype of 46,XY or female individual with a normal 46,XX karyotype. It is caused by donor splice-site mutations of Wilms tumor suppressor gene (GENES, WILMS TUMOR) on chromosome 11.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A family of large terrestrial carnivores possessing long legs, coarse guard hairs and a busy tail. It is comprised of hyenas and aardwolves.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Inherited disorders that are characterized by subcutaneous and submucosal EDEMA in the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT and GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Excessive pigmentation of the skin, usually as a result of increased epidermal or dermal melanin pigmentation, hypermelanosis. Hyperpigmentation can be localized or generalized. The condition may arise from exposure to light, chemicals or other substances, or from a primary metabolic imbalance.
A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.
Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.
An acute necrotic infection of the SCROTUM; PENIS; or PERINEUM. It is characterized by scrotum pain and redness with rapid progression to gangrene and sloughing of tissue. Fournier gangrene is usually secondary to perirectal or periurethral infections associated with local trauma, operative procedures, or urinary tract disease.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
A congenital abnormality characterized by the persistence of the anal membrane, resulting in a thin membrane covering the normal ANAL CANAL. Imperforation is not always complete and is treated by surgery in infancy. This defect is often associated with NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS; MENTAL RETARDATION; and DOWN SYNDROME.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A chronic inflammatory mucocutaneous disease usually affecting the female genitalia (VULVAR LICHEN SCLEROSUS) and BALANITIS XEROTICA OBLITERANS in males. It is also called white spot disease and Csillag's disease.
The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.
A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.
A transcription factor that plays an essential role in the development of the TESTES. It is encoded by a gene on the Y chromosome and contains a specific HMG-BOX DOMAIN that is found within members of the SOX family of transcription factors.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.
A general term encompassing three types of excision of the external female genitalia - Sunna, clitoridectomy, and infibulation. It is associated with severe health risks and has been declared illegal in many places, but continues to be widely practiced in a number of countries, particularly in Africa.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
A pair of excretory ducts of the middle kidneys (MESONEPHROI) of an embryo, also called mesonephric ducts. In higher vertebrates, Wolffian ducts persist in the male forming VAS DEFERENS, but atrophy into vestigial structures in the female.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The recording of images in three-dimensional form on a photographic film by exposing it to a laser beam reflected from the object under study.
An antiandrogen with about the same potency as cyproterone in rodent and canine species.
An autosomal dominant disorder with an acronym of its seven features (LENTIGO; ELECTROCARDIOGRAM abnormalities; ocular HYPERTELORISM; PULMONARY STENOSIS; abnormal genitalia; retardation of growth; and DEAFNESS or SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS). This syndrome is caused by mutations of PTPN11 gene encoding the non-receptor PROTEIN TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE, type 11, and is an allelic to NOONAN SYNDROME. Features of LEOPARD syndrome overlap with those of NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 which is caused by mutations in the NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1 GENES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.
Formation of differentiated cells and complicated tissue organization to provide specialized functions.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
A birth defect in which the URINARY BLADDER is malformed and exposed, inside out, and protruded through the ABDOMINAL WALL. It is caused by closure defects involving the top front surface of the bladder, as well as the lower abdominal wall; SKIN; MUSCLES; and the pubic bone.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The terminal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, beginning from the ampulla of the RECTUM and ending at the anus.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
'Bicyclo compounds' in medicinal chemistry refer to organic molecules containing two fused rings, where each ring shares two common atoms, creating a topological structure that resembles two overlapping circles or bicycle tires.
A fibroblast growth factor that preferentially activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 4. It was initially identified as an androgen-induced growth factor and plays a role in regulating growth of human BREAST NEOPLASMS and PROSTATIC NEOPLASMS.

A Wnt5a pathway underlies outgrowth of multiple structures in the vertebrate embryo. (1/467)

Morphogenesis depends on the precise control of basic cellular processes such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Wnt5a may regulate these processes since it is expressed in a gradient at the caudal end of the growing embryo during gastrulation, and later in the distal-most aspect of several structures that extend from the body. A loss-of-function mutation of Wnt5a leads to an inability to extend the A-P axis due to a progressive reduction in the size of caudal structures. In the limbs, truncation of the proximal skeleton and absence of distal digits correlates with reduced proliferation of putative progenitor cells within the progress zone. However, expression of progress zone markers, and several genes implicated in distal outgrowth and patterning including Distalless, Hoxd and Fgf family members was not altered. Taken together with the outgrowth defects observed in the developing face, ears and genitals, our data indicates that Wnt5a regulates a pathway common to many structures whose development requires extension from the primary body axis. The reduced number of proliferating cells in both the progress zone and the primitive streak mesoderm suggests that one function of Wnt5a is to regulate the proliferation of progenitor cells.  (+info)

Value of scintigraphy in chronic peritoneal dialysis patients. (2/467)

BACKGROUND: A variety of factors can adversely impact chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) as an effective renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal disease. These factors include peritonitis, poor clearances, loss of ultrafiltration, and a variety of anatomic problems, such as hernias, peritoneal fluid leaks, loculations, and catheter-related problems caused by omental blockage. This study reviews our experience with peritoneal scintigraphy for the evaluation of some of these difficulties. METHODS: From 1991 to 1996, 50 peritoneal scintigraphy scans were obtained in 48 CPD patients. Indications for scintigraphy were evaluated, and the patients were placed into four groups: group I, abdominal wall swelling; group II, inguinal or genital swelling; group III, pleural fluid; and group IV, poor drainage and/or poor ultrafiltration. A peritoneal scintigraphy protocol was established and the radiotracer isotope that was used was 2.0 mCi of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid placed in two liters of 2.5% dextrose peritoneal dialysis solution. RESULTS: Ten scans were obtained to study abdominal wall swelling, with seven scans demonstrating leaks; six of these episodes improved with low-volume exchanges. Twenty scans were obtained to evaluate inguinal or genital swelling, and 10 of these had scintigraphic evidence for an inguinal hernia leak (9 of these were surgically corrected). One of four scans obtained to evaluate a pleural fluid collection demonstrated a peritoneal-pleural leak that corrected with a temporary discontinuation of CPD. Sixteen scans were obtained to assess poor drainage and/or ultrafiltration. Five of these scans demonstrated peritoneal location, and all of these patients required transfer to hemodialysis. The other 11 scans were normal; four patients underwent omentectomies, allowing three patients to continue with CPD. CONCLUSION: Peritoneal scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation and assessment of CPD patients who develop anatomical problems (such as anterior abdominal, pleural-peritoneal, inguinal, and genital leaks) and problems with ultrafiltration and/or drainage.  (+info)

Morphogenesis of the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail tip. (3/467)

Using electron microscopy and immunofluorescent labeling of adherens junctions, we have reconstructed the changes in cell architecture and intercellular associations that occur during morphogenesis of the nematode male tail tip. During late postembryonic development, the Caenorhabditis elegans male tail is reshaped to form a copulatory structure. The most posterior hypodermal cells in the tail define a specialized, sexually dimorphic compartment in which cells fuse and retract in the male, changing their shape from a tapered cone to a blunt dome. Developmental profiles using electron microscopy and immunofluorescent staining suggest that cell fusions are initiated at or adjacent to adherens junctions. Anterior portions of the tail tip cells show the first evidence of retractions and fusions, consistent with our hypothesis that an anterior event triggers these morphogenetic events. Available mutations that interfere with morphogenesis implicate particular regulatory pathways and suggest loci at which evolutionary changes could have produced morphological diversity.  (+info)

Mucosal immune system of the human genital tract. (4/467)

In contrast to the pronounced dominance of secretory IgA over other immunoglobulin isotypes in human saliva, tears, milk, and gastrointestinal fluids, secretions of both female and male genital tracts contain more IgG than secretory IgA. Both IgG and IgA are derived, to a variable degree, from the systemic immunoglobulin pool as well as from local synthesis. The origin of IgG- and IgA-plasma cell precursors destined for the genital tract is unknown, but indirect evidence suggests that mucosal inductive sites localized in the rectum, small intestine, and especially in the nasal cavity contribute such precursors to the female genital tract. Several studies indicated that intranasal immunization of various species, including humans, was efficient at inducing antigen-specific antibody responses in the female genital tract; however, whether this route is also effective in males has not been explored.  (+info)

Exposure to female hormone drugs during pregnancy: effect on malformations and cancer. (5/467)

This study aimed to investigate whether the use of female sex hormone drugs during pregnancy is a risk factor for subsequent breast and other oestrogen-dependent cancers among mothers and their children and for genital malformations in the children. A retrospective cohort of 2052 hormone-drug exposed mothers, 2038 control mothers and their 4130 infants was collected from maternity centres in Helsinki from 1954 to 1963. Cancer cases were searched for in national registers through record linkage. Exposures were examined by the type of the drug (oestrogen, progestin only) and by timing (early in pregnancy, only late in pregnancy). There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to mothers' cancer, either in total or in specified hormone-dependent cancers. The total number of malformations recorded, as well as malformations of the genitals in male infants, were higher among exposed children. The number of cancers among the offspring was small and none of the differences between groups were statistically significant. The study supports the hypothesis that oestrogen or progestin drug therapy during pregnancy causes malformations among children who were exposed in utero but does not support the hypothesis that it causes cancer later in life in the mother; the power to study cancers in offspring, however, was very low. Non-existence of the risk, negative confounding, weak exposure or low study-power may explain the negative findings.  (+info)

Ontogeny of LH receptor gene expression in the pig reproductive tract. (6/467)

In view of the recently documented expression of the LH receptor gene in several nongonadal reproductive tissues, the aim of this study was to analyse further the ontogeny of expression of this gene in the pig reproductive tract in fetal and neonatal life. RT-PCR was used to investigate the expression of the extracellular and transmembrane receptor domains, and to identify the time of onset of transcription of the full-length LH receptor mRNA and its shorter splice variants. Expression of the LH receptor gene was first detected around day 30 of fetal life in both ovary and testis, coinciding with morphological differentiation. The pattern of expression of LH receptor splice variants did not change during postnatal gonadal maturation. Expression of the LH receptor gene in the pig non-gonadal reproductive tract started during fetal life and continued during sexual maturation. A novel pig LH receptor spliced variant, lacking exon 10, was detected for the first time. The transmembrane receptor domain was expressed in fetal tissues, but not in neonatal control tissues. On the basis of the transmembrane domain of the LH receptor mRNA, it is concluded that the ovary and extragonadal tissues of the pig reproductive tract, like the pig testis, synthesize functional LH receptors during fetal life. The presence of LH receptor mRNA in extragonadal reproductive tissues indicates that LH is involved in the control and regulation of reproductive tract maturation.  (+info)

Mammalian reproductive tract mucins. (7/467)

Mucin glycoproteins are major constituents of the glycocalyx that covers mucosal epithelium. Two broad classes of mucins exist: membrane-associated and secretory. Of the secreted mucins, those with cysteine-rich regions are thought to polymerize through disulphide bonds. Among these gel-forming mucins are MUC2, MUC5AC, MUC5B and possibly MUC6. MUC7 lacks cysteine-rich domains and is thought to be secreted as a soluble monomer. Incomplete sequence information prevents classification of other mucins. Tandem repeats of amino acids rich in serine, threonine and proline are a common element in mucin core proteins, giving rise to relatively rigid, linear molecules with great potential for glycosylation. Ten distinct mucin genes have been identified in humans so far. Patterns of expression vary greatly. While MUC9, or oviductin, appears to be restricted to oviduct, the transmembrane mucin MUC1 is widely expressed. Proven functions for the different mucins are largely unknown, although potential functions are addressed in this review. Genetic and protein sequence information and expression profiles are also summarized, followed by a description of mucin assembly. Special attention is given to mucin expression in male and female reproductive tracts.  (+info)

A novel syndrome of diabetes mellitus, renal dysfunction and genital malformation associated with a partial deletion of the pseudo-POU domain of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta. (8/467)

Mutations in the homeodomain-containing transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1beta are the cause of one form of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), type 5 (MODY5). We have studied a Norwegian family, N5, with a syndrome of mild diabetes, progressive non-diabetic renal disease and severe genital malformations. The sequence of the HNF-1beta gene ( TCF2 ) revealed a 75 bp deletion in exon 2 (409-483del) which would result in the synthesis of a protein lacking amino acids Arg137 to Lys161 (R137-K161del). This deletion is located in the pseudo-POU region of HNF-1beta, a region implicated in the specificity of DNA binding. Functional studies of R137-K161del HNF-1beta revealed that it could not bind an HNF-1 target sequence or stimulate transcription of a reporter gene indicating that this is a loss-of-function mutation. The R137-K161del allele co-segregated with diabetes and renal disease in pedigree N5. In addition, two of four female carriers with this mutation had vaginal aplasia and rudimentary uterus (Mullerian aplasia). These studies strongly suggest that heterozygous mutations in the HNF-1beta gene are associated with a syndrome characterized by MODY and severe, non-diabetic renal disease. Moreover, the presence of internal genital malformations in two females suggests that additional clinical features may be associated with HNF-1beta mutations.  (+info)

Genitalia, also known as the genitals, refer to the reproductive organs located in the pelvic region. In males, these include the penis and testicles, while in females, they consist of the vulva, vagina, clitoris, and ovaries. Genitalia are essential for sexual reproduction and can also be associated with various medical conditions, such as infections, injuries, or congenital abnormalities.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

The clitoris is an important female sex organ that is primarily responsible for sexual arousal and pleasure. It is a small, highly sensitive piece of tissue located at the front of the vulva, where the labia minora meet. The clitoris is made up of two parts: the visible part, known as the glans clitoris, and the hidden part, called the corpora cavernosa and crura.

The glans clitoris is a small knob-like structure that is covered by a hood, or prepuce, and is located at the top of the vulva. It contains a high concentration of nerve endings, making it highly sensitive to touch and stimulation. The corpora cavernosa and crura are the internal parts of the clitoris, which are made up of sponge-like erectile tissue that becomes engorged with blood during sexual arousal, leading to clitoral erection.

The clitoris plays a crucial role in female sexual response and pleasure. During sexual arousal, the clitoris swells and becomes more sensitive to touch, which can lead to orgasm. The clitoris is also an important source of sexual pleasure during masturbation and partnered sexual activity. Despite its importance in female sexuality, the clitoris has historically been overlooked or stigmatized in many cultures, leading to a lack of understanding and education about this vital organ.

Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are a group of conditions that occur when there is a difference in the development and assignment of sex characteristics. These differences may be apparent at birth, at puberty, or later in life. DSD can affect chromosomes, gonads, genitals, or secondary sexual characteristics, and can result from genetic mutations or environmental factors during fetal development.

DSDs were previously referred to as "intersex" conditions, but the term "Disorders of Sex Development" is now preferred in medical settings because it is more descriptive and less stigmatizing. DSDs are not errors or abnormalities, but rather variations in human development that require sensitive and individualized care.

The diagnosis and management of DSD can be complex and may involve a team of healthcare providers, including endocrinologists, urologists, gynecologists, psychologists, and genetic counselors. Treatment options depend on the specific type of DSD and may include hormone therapy, surgery, or other interventions to support physical and emotional well-being.

Hypospadias is a congenital condition in males where the urethral opening (meatus), which is the end of the urethra through which urine exits, is not located at the tip of the penis but instead appears on the underside of the penis. The severity of hypospadias can vary, with some cases having the meatus located closer to the tip and others further down on the shaft or even at the scrotum or perineum (the area between the scrotum and the anus). This condition affects about 1 in every 200-250 male newborns. The exact cause of hypospadias is not fully understood, but it's believed to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Surgical correction is usually recommended during infancy or early childhood to prevent complications such as difficulty urinating while standing, problems with sexual function, and psychological issues related to body image.

Virilism is a condition that results from excessive exposure to androgens (male hormones) such as testosterone. It can occur in both males and females, but it is more noticeable in women and children. In females, virilism can cause various masculinizing features like excess body hair, deepened voice, enlarged clitoris, and irregular menstrual cycles. In children, it can lead to premature puberty and growth abnormalities. Virilism is often caused by conditions that involve the adrenal glands or ovaries, including tumors, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and certain medications.

The penis is a part of the male reproductive and urinary systems. It has three parts: the root, the body, and the glans. The root attaches to the pelvic bone and the body makes up the majority of the free-hanging portion. The glans is the cone-shaped end that protects the urethra, the tube inside the penis that carries urine from the bladder and semen from the testicles.

The penis has a dual function - it acts as a conduit for both urine and semen. During sexual arousal, the penis becomes erect when blood fills two chambers inside its shaft. This process is facilitated by the relaxation of the smooth muscles in the arterial walls and the trappping of blood in the corpora cavernosa. The stiffness of the penis enables sexual intercourse. After ejaculation, or when the sexual arousal passes, the muscles contract and the blood flows out of the penis back into the body, causing it to become flaccid again.

The foreskin, a layer of skin that covers the glans, is sometimes removed in a procedure called circumcision. Circumcision is often performed for religious or cultural reasons, or as a matter of family custom. In some countries, it's also done for medical reasons, such as to treat conditions like phimosis (an inability to retract the foreskin) or balanitis (inflammation of the glans).

It's important to note that any changes in appearance, size, or function of the penis should be evaluated by a healthcare professional, as they could indicate an underlying medical condition.

"Sex differentiation" is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in reproductive endocrinology and genetics. It refers to the biological development of sexual characteristics that distinguish males from females. This process is regulated by hormones and genetic factors.

There are two main stages of sex differentiation: genetic sex determination and gonadal sex differentiation. Genetic sex determination occurs at fertilization, where the combination of X and Y chromosomes determines the sex of the individual (typically, XX = female and XY = male). Gonadal sex differentiation then takes place during fetal development, where the genetic sex signals the development of either ovaries or testes.

Once the gonads are formed, they produce hormones that drive further sexual differentiation, leading to the development of internal reproductive structures (such as the uterus and fallopian tubes in females, and the vas deferens and seminal vesicles in males) and external genitalia.

It's important to note that while sex differentiation is typically categorized as male or female, there are individuals who may have variations in their sexual development, leading to intersex conditions. These variations can occur at any stage of the sex differentiation process and can result in a range of physical characteristics that do not fit neatly into male or female categories.

The scrotum is a part of the external male genitalia. It's a sac-like structure made up of several layers of skin and smooth muscle, which hangs down behind and beneath the penis. The primary function of the scrotum is to maintain the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature, which is optimal for sperm production.

The scrotum contains two compartments, each one housing a testicle. It's located in the pubic region and is usually visible externally. The skin of the scrotum is thin and wrinkled, which allows it to expand and contract depending on the temperature, accommodating the shrinking or swelling of the testicles.

Please note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice.

Gonadal dysgenesis, mixed is a medical condition that refers to the abnormal development and function of the gonads (ovaries or testes). In this form of gonadal dysgenesis, both ovarian and testicular tissues are present in the same individual, but they are not properly organized or functioning. This can lead to ambiguous genitalia, infertility, and an increased risk of developing gonadal tumors. The condition is often associated with genetic disorders such as Turner, Klinefelter, or other sex chromosome abnormalities.

'46, XY Disorders of Sex Development' (DSD) is a term used to describe conditions in which individuals are born with chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that do not fit typical definitions of male or female. In these cases, the individual has 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome (46, XY), which would typically result in the development of male characteristics. However, for various reasons, the sexual differentiation process may be disrupted, leading to atypical development of the internal and/or external sex organs.

There are several possible causes of 46, XY DSD, including genetic mutations, hormonal imbalances, or anatomical abnormalities. These conditions can range from mild to severe in terms of their impact on physical health and sexual function, and they may also have psychological and social implications.

Examples of 46, XY DSD include complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and disorders of gonadal development such as Swyer syndrome. Treatment for 46, XY DSD may involve surgical intervention, hormone replacement therapy, and/or psychological support.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of inherited genetic disorders that affect the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands located on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands are responsible for producing several essential hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens.

CAH is caused by mutations in genes that code for enzymes involved in the synthesis of these hormones. The most common form of CAH is 21-hydroxylase deficiency, which affects approximately 90% to 95% of all cases. Other less common forms of CAH include 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.

The severity of the disorder can vary widely, depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. In severe cases, the lack of cortisol production can lead to life-threatening salt wasting and electrolyte imbalances in newborns. The excess androgens produced due to the enzyme deficiency can also cause virilization, or masculinization, of female fetuses, leading to ambiguous genitalia at birth.

In milder forms of CAH, symptoms may not appear until later in childhood or even adulthood. These may include early puberty, rapid growth followed by premature fusion of the growth plates and short stature, acne, excessive hair growth, irregular menstrual periods, and infertility.

Treatment for CAH typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications such as hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone, and/or sex hormones. Regular monitoring of hormone levels and careful management of medication doses is essential to prevent complications such as adrenal crisis, growth suppression, and osteoporosis.

In severe cases of CAH, early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or minimize the risk of serious health problems and improve quality of life. Genetic counseling may also be recommended for affected individuals and their families to discuss the risks of passing on the disorder to future generations.

Sexual development is a multidimensional process that includes physical, cognitive, emotional, and social aspects. It refers to the changes and growth that occur in an individual from infancy to adulthood related to sexuality, reproduction, and gender identity. This process involves the maturation of primary and secondary sex characteristics, the development of sexual attraction and desire, and the acquisition of knowledge about sexual health and relationships.

Physical aspects of sexual development include the maturation of reproductive organs, hormonal changes, and the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development in females and facial hair growth in males. Cognitive aspects involve the development of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and values. Emotional aspects refer to the emergence of sexual feelings, desires, and fantasies, as well as the ability to form intimate relationships. Social aspects include the development of gender roles and identities, communication skills related to sexuality, and the ability to navigate social norms and expectations around sexual behavior.

Sexual development is a complex and ongoing process that is influenced by various factors such as genetics, hormones, environment, culture, and personal experiences. It is important to note that sexual development varies widely among individuals, and there is no one "normal" or "correct" way for it to unfold.

Copulation is the act of sexual reproduction in animals, achieved through the process of mating and engaging in sexual intercourse. It involves the insertion of the male's reproductive organ (the penis) into the female's reproductive organ (vagina), followed by the ejaculation of semen, which contains sperm. The sperm then travels up through the cervix and into the uterus, where they may fertilize an egg or ovum that has been released from one of the ovaries.

In a broader sense, copulation can also refer to the act of reproduction in other organisms, such as plants, fungi, and protists, which may involve different processes such as pollination, fusion of gametes, or vegetative reproduction.

Sex determination analysis is a medical or biological examination used to establish the genetic or phenotypic sex of an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: Examination of an individual's DNA to identify the presence of specific sex chromosomes (XX for females and XY for males). This is typically performed through a blood or tissue sample.
2. Chromosomal analysis: Microscopic examination of an individual's chromosomes to determine their number and structure. In humans, females typically have 46 chromosomes, including two X chromosomes (46,XX), while males typically have 46 chromosomes, including one X and one Y chromosome (46,XY).
3. Phenotypic analysis: Observation of an individual's physical characteristics, such as the presence or absence of certain sex organs or secondary sexual characteristics, to determine their phenotypic sex.

Sex determination analysis is used in various medical and research contexts, including prenatal testing, diagnosis of disorders of sex development (DSDs), forensic investigations, and population studies. It's important to note that while sex determination analysis can provide information about an individual's genetic or phenotypic sex, it does not necessarily reflect their gender identity, which is a personal sense of being male, female, or something else.

Vulvar diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the vulva, which is the external female genital area including the mons pubis, labia majora and minora, clitoris, and the vaginal opening. These conditions can cause various symptoms such as itching, burning, pain, soreness, irritation, or abnormal growths or lesions. Some common vulvar diseases include:

1. Vulvitis: inflammation of the vulva that can be caused by infection, allergies, or irritants.
2. Lichen sclerosus: a chronic skin condition that causes thin, white patches on the vulva.
3. Lichen planus: an inflammatory condition that affects the skin and mucous membranes, including the vulva.
4. Vulvar cancer: a rare type of cancer that develops in the tissues of the vulva.
5. Genital warts: caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, these are small growths or bumps on the vulva.
6. Pudendal neuralgia: a nerve condition that causes pain in the vulvar area.
7. Vestibulodynia: pain or discomfort in the vestibule, the area surrounding the vaginal opening.

It is important to consult a healthcare professional if experiencing any symptoms related to vulvar diseases for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Genital diseases in males refer to various medical conditions that affect the male reproductive and urinary systems, including the penis, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and urethra. These conditions can be infectious, inflammatory, degenerative, or neoplastic (cancerous) in nature. Some common examples of male genital diseases include:

1. Balanitis: Inflammation of the foreskin and glans penis, often caused by infection, irritants, or poor hygiene.
2. Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, which can be acute or chronic, bacterial or non-bacterial in origin.
3. Epididymitis: Inflammation of the epididymis, a coiled tube at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. It is often caused by infection.
4. Orchitis: Inflammation of the testicle, usually resulting from infection or autoimmune disorders.
5. Testicular torsion: A surgical emergency characterized by twisting of the spermatic cord, leading to reduced blood flow and potential tissue damage in the testicle.
6. Varicocele: Dilated veins in the scrotum that can cause pain, discomfort, or fertility issues.
7. Peyronie's disease: A connective tissue disorder causing scarring and curvature of the penis during erections.
8. Penile cancer: Malignant growths on the penis, often squamous cell carcinomas, which can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
9. Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland that can cause lower urinary tract symptoms such as difficulty initiating or maintaining a steady stream of urine.
10. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Infectious diseases, like chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and human papillomavirus (HPV), that can be transmitted through sexual contact and affect the male genital region.

Gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XX is a medical condition where an individual with a 46,XX karyotype has underdeveloped or absent gonads (ovaries). Normally, individuals with a 46,XX karyotype have ovaries that produce female sex hormones and develop into reproductive organs. However, in cases of gonadal dysgenesis, the gonads do not develop properly and may appear as streak gonads, which lack germ cells and are incapable of producing sex hormones or gametes (eggs).

Individuals with 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis often have female external genitalia but may have primary amenorrhea (absence of menstruation) due to the underdeveloped or absent ovaries. They may also have other features such as short stature, webbed neck, and intellectual disability, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

The underlying causes of 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis can vary, including genetic mutations, chromosomal abnormalities, or exposure to environmental factors during fetal development. Some individuals with this condition may have an increased risk of developing gonadal tumors, so regular monitoring and follow-up care are essential.

Feminization is a process or condition in which typically male characteristics are diminished or absent, and female characteristics become more prominent. This term is often used in the context of transgender health to describe hormone therapy that helps individuals align their physical appearance with their gender identity. The goal of feminizing hormone therapy is to promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics such as breast development, softer skin, reduced muscle mass and body hair, and fat redistribution to create a more typically female body shape. It's important to note that every individual's experience with feminization is unique, and the specific changes experienced may vary depending on factors such as age, genetics, and the duration of hormone therapy.

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) is a genetic condition that occurs in individuals who are genetically male (have one X and one Y chromosome) but are resistant to androgens, which are hormones that play a role in male sexual development. This resistance is caused by changes (mutations) in the gene for the androgen receptor.

There are three main types of AIS: complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS), and mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS).

In CAIS, individuals are completely resistant to androgens, which results in the development of female external genitalia at birth. Despite having testes, these individuals do not have a functioning male reproductive system and typically have a female gender identity. They may be diagnosed during adolescence when they do not begin to menstruate or experience other signs of puberty.

In PAIS and MAIS, the degree of androgen insensitivity varies, resulting in a range of physical characteristics that can include both male and female features. These individuals may have ambiguous genitalia at birth, and their gender identity may not align with their genetic sex.

It's important to note that people with AIS are typically healthy and do not have an increased risk of medical conditions beyond those related to their hormonal differences. However, they may face challenges related to their gender identity, sexual development, and fertility. It is recommended that individuals with AIS receive comprehensive medical care and support from a team of healthcare professionals who specialize in this condition.

Sex chromosome aberrations refer to structural and numerical abnormalities in the sex chromosomes, which are typically represented as X and Y chromosomes in humans. These aberrations can result in variations in the number of sex chromosomes, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), Turner syndrome (45,X), and Jacobs/XYY syndrome (47,XYY). They can also include structural changes, such as deletions, duplications, or translocations of sex chromosome material.

Sex chromosome aberrations may lead to a range of phenotypic effects, including differences in physical characteristics, cognitive development, fertility, and susceptibility to certain health conditions. The manifestation and severity of these impacts can vary widely depending on the specific type and extent of the aberration, as well as individual genetic factors and environmental influences.

It is important to note that while sex chromosome aberrations may pose challenges and require medical management, they do not inherently define or limit a person's potential, identity, or worth. Comprehensive care, support, and education can help individuals with sex chromosome aberrations lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

Penile diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the penis, including infections, inflammatory conditions, and structural abnormalities. Some common penile diseases include:

1. Balanitis: an infection or inflammation of the foreskin and/or head of the penis.
2. Balanoposthitis: an infection or inflammation of both the foreskin and the head of the penis.
3. Phimosis: a condition in which the foreskin is too tight to be pulled back over the head of the penis.
4. Paraphimosis: a medical emergency in which the foreskin becomes trapped behind the head of the penis and cannot be returned to its normal position.
5. Peyronie's disease: a condition characterized by the development of scar tissue inside the penis, leading to curvature during erections.
6. Erectile dysfunction: the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse.
7. Penile cancer: a rare form of cancer that affects the skin and tissues of the penis.

These conditions can have various causes, including bacterial or fungal infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), skin conditions, trauma, or underlying medical conditions. Treatment for penile diseases varies depending on the specific condition and its severity, but may include medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The urogenital system is a part of the human body that includes the urinary and genital systems. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, which work together to produce, store, and eliminate urine. On the other hand, the genital system, also known as the reproductive system, is responsible for the production, development, and reproduction of offspring. In males, this includes the testes, epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, and penis. In females, it includes the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, and external genitalia.

The urogenital system is closely related anatomically and functionally. For example, in males, the urethra serves as a shared conduit for both urine and semen, while in females, the urethra and vagina are separate but adjacent structures. Additionally, some organs, such as the prostate gland in males and the Skene's glands in females, have functions that overlap between the urinary and genital systems.

Disorders of the urogenital system can affect both the urinary and reproductive functions, leading to a range of symptoms such as pain, discomfort, infection, and difficulty with urination or sexual activity. Proper care and maintenance of the urogenital system are essential for overall health and well-being.

The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. In males, it also serves as the conduit for semen during ejaculation. The male urethra is longer than the female urethra and is divided into sections: the prostatic, membranous, and spongy (or penile) urethra. The female urethra extends from the bladder to the external urethral orifice, which is located just above the vaginal opening.

'Abnormalities, Multiple' is a broad term that refers to the presence of two or more structural or functional anomalies in an individual. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or can develop later in life (acquired). They can affect various organs and systems of the body and can vary greatly in severity and impact on a person's health and well-being.

Multiple abnormalities can occur due to genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. Chromosomal abnormalities, gene mutations, exposure to teratogens (substances that cause birth defects), and maternal infections during pregnancy are some of the common causes of multiple congenital abnormalities.

Examples of multiple congenital abnormalities include Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and VATER/VACTERL association. Acquired multiple abnormalities can result from conditions such as trauma, infection, degenerative diseases, or cancer.

The medical evaluation and management of individuals with multiple abnormalities depend on the specific abnormalities present and their impact on the individual's health and functioning. A multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals is often involved in the care of these individuals to address their complex needs.

Gonadal dysgenesis is a condition characterized by the abnormal development of the gonads, which are the reproductive organs that produce sex hormones and gametes (sperm or eggs). In individuals with gonadal dysgenesis, the gonads may be underdeveloped, structurally abnormal, or completely absent. This condition can affect people of any gender and is often associated with other genetic disorders, such as Turner or Klinefelter syndromes.

The clinical presentation of gonadal dysgenesis varies widely depending on the severity of the disorder and the presence of other associated conditions. Some individuals may have normal sexual development and fertility, while others may experience delayed puberty, infertility, or ambiguous genitalia. Gonadal dysgenesis can also increase the risk of developing gonadal tumors, particularly in individuals with complete or partial absence of the gonads.

The diagnosis of gonadal dysgenesis is typically made through a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment may include hormone replacement therapy to support sexual development and prevent complications associated with hormonal imbalances. In some cases, surgical removal of the gonads may be recommended to reduce the risk of tumor development.

"SRY" (Sex Determining Region Y) is not a gene itself but a specific region on the Y chromosome that contains the genetic information necessary to initiate male sex determination. The SRY region encodes a protein called the testis-determining factor (TDF), which plays a crucial role in the development of the male phenotype by triggering the differentiation of the gonadal ridge into testes.

The SRY gene is typically found only on the Y chromosome and is considered one of the primary genetic factors that distinguish males from females in many mammalian species, including humans. Mutations or abnormalities in the SRY region can lead to sex chromosome-related disorders of sexual development (DSDs), such as Swyer syndrome or XY female disorder of sex development, where individuals with a 46,XY karyotype develop female phenotypes due to the absence or dysfunction of the SRY protein.

Cryptorchidism is a medical condition in which one or both of a male infant's testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the scrotum before birth or within the first year of life. Normally, the testicles descend from the abdomen into the scrotum during fetal development in the second trimester. If the testicles do not descend on their own, medical intervention may be necessary to correct the condition.

Cryptorchidism is a common birth defect, affecting about 3-5% of full-term and 30% of preterm male infants. In most cases, the testicle will descend on its own within the first six months of life. If it does not, treatment may be necessary to prevent complications such as infertility, testicular cancer, and inguinal hernia.

Treatment for cryptorchidism typically involves surgery to bring the testicle down into the scrotum. This procedure is called orchiopexy and is usually performed before the age of 2. In some cases, hormonal therapy may be used as an alternative to surgery. However, this approach has limited success and is generally only recommended in certain situations.

Overall, cryptorchidism is a treatable condition that can help prevent future health problems if addressed early on. Regular check-ups with a pediatrician or healthcare provider can help ensure timely diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

Urogenital abnormalities refer to structural or functional anomalies that affect the urinary and genital systems. These two systems are closely linked during embryonic development, and sometimes they may not develop properly, leading to various types of congenital defects. Urogenital abnormalities can range from minor issues like a bifid scrotum (a condition where the scrotum is split into two parts) to more severe problems such as bladder exstrophy (where the bladder develops outside the body).

These conditions may affect urination, reproduction, and sexual function. They can also increase the risk of infections and other complications. Urogenital abnormalities can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests, or genetic testing. Treatment options depend on the specific condition but may include surgery, medication, or lifestyle changes.

A cloaca is a common cavity or channel in some animals, including many birds and reptiles, that serves as the combined endpoint for the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems. Feces, urine, and in some cases, eggs are all expelled through this single opening. In humans and other mammals, these systems have separate openings. Anatomical anomalies can result in a human born with a cloaca, which is very rare and typically requires surgical correction.

Sex chromosome disorders are genetic conditions that occur due to an atypical number or structure of the sex chromosomes, which are X and Y. Normally, females have two X chromosomes (XX), and males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). However, in sex chromosome disorders, there is a variation in the number or composition of these chromosomes.

The most common sex chromosome disorders include:

1. Turner syndrome (Monosomy X): Occurs when a female has only one X chromosome (45,X). This condition affects about 1 in every 2,500 female births and can lead to short stature, infertility, heart defects, and learning disabilities.
2. Klinefelter syndrome (XXY): Occurs when a male has an extra X chromosome (47,XXY). This condition affects about 1 in every 500-1,000 male births and can lead to tall stature, infertility, breast development, and learning disabilities.
3. Jacobs syndrome (XYY): Occurs when a male has an extra Y chromosome (47,XYY). This condition affects about 1 in every 1,000 male births and can lead to tall stature, learning disabilities, and behavioral issues.
4. Triple X syndrome (XXX): Occurs when a female has an extra X chromosome (47,XXX). This condition affects about 1 in every 1,000 female births and can lead to mild developmental delays and learning disabilities.
5. Other rare sex chromosome disorders: These include conditions like 48,XXXX, 49,XXXXY, and mosaicism (a mixture of cells with different chromosome compositions).

Sex chromosome disorders can have varying degrees of impact on an individual's physical and cognitive development. While some individuals may experience significant challenges, others may have only mild or no symptoms at all. Early diagnosis and appropriate interventions can help improve outcomes for those affected by sex chromosome disorders.

Heteroptera is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in zoology. It refers to a suborder of insects within the order Hemiptera, also known as true bugs. This group includes a wide variety of species, such as bed bugs, assassin bugs, and stink bugs. While Heteroptera is not directly related to human health or medicine, some species can have medical importance as disease vectors or pests.

Testosterone Propionate is a synthetic form of testosterone, an androgenic hormone naturally produced in the human body. The propionate ester is attached to the testosterone molecule to regulate its release into the bloodstream after injection. This results in a slower release and longer duration of action compared to unesterified testosterone.

Testosterone Propionate is primarily used in medical treatments for conditions associated with low testosterone levels, such as hypogonadism or delayed puberty in males. It helps to stimulate the development of male sexual characteristics, maintain bone density, and support red blood cell production.

It's important to note that Testosterone Propionate is available only through a prescription and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

The perineum is the region between the anus and the genitals. In anatomical terms, it refers to the diamond-shaped area located in the lower part of the pelvis and extends from the coccyx (tailbone) to the pubic symphysis, which is the joint in the front where the two pubic bones meet. This region contains various muscles that support the pelvic floor and contributes to maintaining urinary and fecal continence. The perineum can be further divided into two triangular regions: the urogenital triangle (anterior) and the anal triangle (posterior).

Cutaneous syphilis refers to the manifestation of the sexually transmitted infection syphilis on the skin. This can occur in various stages of the disease. In the primary stage, it may appear as a painless chancre (ulcer) at the site of infection, usually appearing 3 weeks after exposure. In the secondary stage, a widespread rash can develop, often affecting the palms and soles, along with other symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, and hair loss. Later stages of syphilis can also cause skin issues, including condylomata lata (broad, flat warts) and gummatous lesions (large, destructive ulcers). It's important to note that if left untreated, syphilis can lead to serious complications affecting the heart, brain, and other organs.

Electric burns are injuries to the skin and underlying tissues caused by exposure to electrical current. The damage can be both internal and external, and it depends on the voltage, amperage, type of current (alternating or direct), duration of exposure, and the pathway the current takes through the body.

Electric burns can cause extensive tissue damage, including deep burns, nerve damage, muscle damage, and fractures. They may also result in cardiac arrest, irregular heart rhythms, and respiratory failure. In some cases, electric burns may not appear severe on the surface of the skin, but they can still cause significant internal injuries.

Treatment for electric burns typically involves wound care, pain management, and monitoring for complications such as infection or organ damage. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue and repair injured muscles, nerves, and blood vessels.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

Smegma is a naturally occurring substance that accumulates under the foreskin in uncircumcised males and around the clitoris in females. It's a mixture of dead skin cells, oil, and moisture. While it serves a lubrication function, an excessive buildup can lead to irritation, infection, or other medical issues. It's important to maintain good personal hygiene to prevent such problems.

3-Oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase is an enzyme that plays a role in steroid metabolism. It is involved in the conversion of certain steroids into others by removing hydrogen atoms and adding oxygen to create double bonds in the steroid molecule. Specifically, this enzyme catalyzes the dehydrogenation of 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroids at the 4th position, which results in the formation of a 4,5-double bond.

The enzyme is found in various tissues throughout the body and is involved in the metabolism of several important steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. It helps to regulate the levels of these hormones in the body by converting them into their active or inactive forms as needed.

Deficiencies or mutations in the 3-oxo-5-alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase enzyme can lead to various medical conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which is characterized by abnormal hormone levels and development of sexual characteristics.

Epididymitis is defined as the inflammation of the epididymis, a curved tube-like structure located at the back of the testicle that stores and transports sperm. The inflammation can result from infection, trauma, or other causes, and may cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and tenderness in the scrotum. In some cases, epididymitis may also be associated with urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections, or other medical conditions. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat any underlying infection, as well as pain relief measures and supportive care to help reduce symptoms and promote healing.

An anatomic variation refers to a deviation from the typical or normal anatomical structure, position, or configuration of organs, tissues, or bodily parts. These variations can occur in any part of the body and can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (develop later in life).

Anatomic variations are relatively common and usually do not cause any symptoms or problems. However, in some cases, they may affect the function of adjacent structures, predispose to injury or disease, or complicate medical procedures or surgeries. Therefore, it is essential for healthcare professionals to be aware of these variations during diagnoses, treatment planning, and surgical interventions.

Examples of anatomic variations include:

* Variations in the course or number of blood vessels, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or an accessory renal artery.
* Variations in the position or shape of organs, such as a mobile cecum or a horseshoe kidney.
* Variations in the number or configuration of bones, such as an extra rib or a bifid uvula.
* Variations in the innervation or sensory distribution of nerves, such as a variant course of the brachial plexus or a cross-innervated hand.

Anatomic variations can be detected through various imaging techniques, such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound examinations. Sometimes, they are discovered during surgical procedures or autopsies. Understanding anatomic variations is crucial for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and optimal patient outcomes.

Gonadoblastoma is a rare, typically benign, slow-growing tumor that primarily affects the gonads (ovaries or testes). It most commonly occurs in individuals with disorders of sexual development, particularly those with gonadal dysgenesis and a 46,XY karyotype. The tumor is composed of germ cells and sex cord stromal cells, which differentiate into various cell types found within the gonads.

Gonadoblastomas are usually asymptomatic and are often discovered incidentally during imaging studies or surgical procedures for other conditions. In some cases, they may produce hormones leading to precocious puberty or virilization. Although typically benign, there is a risk of malignant transformation into germ cell tumors such as dysgerminoma, seminoma, or teratoma. Regular follow-up and monitoring are essential for early detection and management of potential complications. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the affected gonad.

The vulva refers to the external female genital area. It includes the mons pubis (the pad of fatty tissue covered with skin and hair that's located on the front part of the pelvis), labia majora (the outer folds of skin that surround and protect the vaginal opening), labia minora (the inner folds of skin that surround the vaginal and urethral openings), clitoris (a small, sensitive organ located at the front of the vulva where the labia minora join), the external openings of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body) and vagina (the passageway leading to the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus).

It's important to note that understanding the anatomy and terminology related to one's own body can help facilitate effective communication with healthcare providers, promote self-awareness, and support overall health and well-being.

Antley-Bixler syndrome phenotype is a medical term used to describe a set of physical features that are characteristic of Antley-Bixler syndrome, a rare genetic disorder. The syndrome is caused by mutations in the genes that provide instructions for making proteins involved in the development of bones and other tissues in the body.

The Antley-Bixler syndrome phenotype typically includes:

1. Craniosynostosis: This is a condition where the bones in the skull fuse together prematurely, leading to an abnormally shaped head.
2. Abnormalities of the face and skull: These may include a prominent forehead, wide-set eyes, a beaked nose, and low-set ears.
3. Bone abnormalities: These may include bowed or bent limbs, fusion of bones in the hands and feet, and other skeletal malformations.
4. Respiratory problems: Some individuals with Antley-Bixler syndrome may have narrow airways, which can lead to breathing difficulties.
5. Genital abnormalities: In some cases, males with Antley-Bixler syndrome may have undescended testicles.

It is important to note that not all individuals with Antley-Bixler syndrome will have all of these features, and the severity of the condition can vary widely from person to person. If you suspect that your child may have Antley-Bixler syndrome, it is important to consult with a medical professional for further evaluation and diagnosis.

Prune Belly Syndrome, also known as Eagle-Barrett syndrome, is a rare congenital disorder that primarily affects the urinary and digestive systems, as well as the abdominal wall. The condition is named for its most distinctive feature - a wrinkled, shrunken appearance of the abdomen, similar to a prune.

The medical definition of Prune Belly Syndrome includes the following major characteristics:

1. Absence or severe deficiency of the abdominal muscles: This results in the characteristic "prune belly" appearance and may also lead to respiratory issues due to weakened breathing muscles.
2. Urinary tract abnormalities: These can include dilated urinary tracts, undescended testes, and various kidney defects such as dysplastic (abnormally developed) or hypoplastic (underdeveloped) kidneys. Approximately 1 in 3 patients with Prune Belly Syndrome will develop chronic kidney disease.
3. Gastrointestinal abnormalities: These may include intestinal malrotation, constipation, and a higher risk of developing inguinal hernias.

Prune Belly Syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males, with an estimated incidence of 1 in 30,000 to 40,000 live births. The exact cause of the condition is unknown, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors during fetal development. Treatment typically involves a multidisciplinary approach, addressing both surgical interventions for urinary tract abnormalities and supportive care for respiratory and gastrointestinal issues.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Congenital limb deformities refer to abnormalities in the structure, position, or function of the arms or legs that are present at birth. These deformities can vary greatly in severity and may affect any part of the limb, including the bones, muscles, joints, and nerves.

Congenital limb deformities can be caused by genetic factors, exposure to certain medications or chemicals during pregnancy, or other environmental factors. Some common types of congenital limb deformities include:

1. Clubfoot: A condition in which the foot is twisted out of shape, making it difficult to walk normally.
2. Polydactyly: A condition in which a person is born with extra fingers or toes.
3. Radial clubhand: A rare condition in which the radius bone in the forearm is missing or underdeveloped, causing the hand to turn inward and the wrist to bend.
4. Amniotic band syndrome: A condition in which strands of the amniotic sac wrap around a developing limb, restricting its growth and leading to deformities.
5. Agenesis: A condition in which a limb or part of a limb is missing at birth.

Treatment for congenital limb deformities may include surgery, bracing, physical therapy, or other interventions depending on the severity and nature of the deformity. In some cases, early intervention and treatment can help to improve function and reduce the impact of the deformity on a person's daily life.

Genital diseases in females refer to various medical conditions that affect the female reproductive system, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, and ovaries. These conditions can be caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, hormonal imbalances, or structural abnormalities. Some common examples of genital diseases in females include bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus (HPV), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, and vulvar or vaginal cancer. Symptoms of genital diseases in females can vary widely depending on the specific condition but may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain or discomfort during sex, irregular menstrual bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain. It is important for women to receive regular gynecological care and screenings to detect and treat genital diseases early and prevent complications.

Lissencephaly is a rare neurological disorder characterized by the absence or significant reduction of normal folds (gyri) and sulci (grooves) in the cerebral cortex of the brain. The cerebral cortex, which is responsible for higher brain functions such as thinking, learning, and language, usually has a smooth, flat appearance in individuals with lissencephaly. This condition results from abnormal neuronal migration during fetal development, where nerve cells fail to migrate to their proper positions in the brain.

There are several types of lissencephaly, each with distinct genetic causes and associated symptoms. The most common form is Type I (Classic) Lissencephaly, which affects both hemispheres of the brain and is characterized by a smooth brain surface with four bands of shallow grooves. Other forms include Type II (Cobblestone) Lissencephaly, Miller-Dieker Syndrome, and X-linked Lissencephaly with Ambiguous Genitalia (XLAG).

Symptoms of lissencephaly can vary but often include severe intellectual disability, developmental delays, muscle spasticity or hypotonia, seizures, difficulty swallowing, and problems with vision and hearing. The severity of the condition depends on the extent of the brain malformation. Lissencephaly is a lifelong condition, and individuals with this disorder usually require extensive care and support throughout their lives.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Cannibalism is defined in medical terms as the act or practice of consuming flesh or organs of one's own species as food. It is a term that is often used to describe situations where humans consume the flesh or organs of other humans. Cannibalism can occur in various contexts, including survival situations, cultural practices, and criminal activities.

It is important to note that cannibalism is generally considered taboo in most societies and cultures today. In medical and psychological terms, cannibalism can be associated with a range of negative consequences, such as the transmission of infectious diseases, ethical concerns, and psychological distress. However, it is essential to approach this topic with sensitivity and cultural relativism, recognizing that cultural practices and beliefs may vary widely across different societies and historical periods.

Mosaicism, in the context of genetics and medicine, refers to the presence of two or more cell lines with different genetic compositions in an individual who has developed from a single fertilized egg. This means that some cells have one genetic makeup, while others have a different genetic makeup. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as errors during cell division after fertilization.

Mosaicism can involve chromosomes (where whole or parts of chromosomes are present in some cells but not in others) or it can involve single genes (where a particular gene is present in one form in some cells and a different form in others). The symptoms and severity of mosaicism can vary widely, depending on the type and location of the genetic difference and the proportion of cells that are affected. Some individuals with mosaicism may not experience any noticeable effects, while others may have significant health problems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Frasier Syndrome" is not a recognized medical condition or syndrome in the standard medical literature. It seems like it might be a term that is specific to a certain context or fictional work. In popular culture, "Frasier" is a television show about a character named Frasier Crane, and it's possible that "Frasier Syndrome" could refer to something within the realm of that fiction. However, without more specific information about where you encountered this term, I cannot provide an accurate definition.

Androgens are a class of hormones that are primarily responsible for the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. Testosterone is the most well-known androgen, but other androgens include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone (DHT).

Androgens are produced primarily by the testes in men and the ovaries in women, although small amounts are also produced by the adrenal glands in both sexes. They play a critical role in the development of male secondary sexual characteristics during puberty, such as the growth of facial hair, deepening of the voice, and increased muscle mass.

In addition to their role in sexual development and function, androgens also have important effects on bone density, mood, and cognitive function. Abnormal levels of androgens can contribute to a variety of medical conditions, including infertility, erectile dysfunction, acne, hirsutism (excessive hair growth), and prostate cancer.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Insemination, in a medical context, refers to the introduction of semen into the reproductive system of a female for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This can be done through various methods including intracervical insemination (ICI), intrauterine insemination (IUI), and in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Intracervical insemination involves placing the semen at the cervix, the opening to the uterus. Intrauterine insemination involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. In vitro fertilization is a more complex process where the egg and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish and then transferred to the uterus.

Insemination is often used in cases of infertility, either because of male or female factors, or unexplained infertility. It can also be used for those who wish to become pregnant but do not have a partner, such as single women and same-sex female couples.

Hyaenidae is not a medical term, but a biological term related to zoology and taxonomy. It refers to the family of mammals that includes hyenas. Hyenas are often mistakenly classified as members of the canid (dog) or felid (cat) families, but they are actually more closely related to herons, eagles, and other members of the order Carnivora.

There are four extant species in the Hyaenidae family: the striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena), the brown hyena (Parahyaena brunnea), the spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), and the aardwolf (Proteles cristata). These animals are known for their strong social structures, hunting skills, and powerful jaws.

While Hyaenidae is not directly related to medical terminology, understanding the classification of animals can be important in fields such as epidemiology and public health, where knowledge of animal behavior and ecology can help inform disease surveillance and control efforts.

A syndrome, in medical terms, is a set of symptoms that collectively indicate or characterize a disease, disorder, or underlying pathological process. It's essentially a collection of signs and/or symptoms that frequently occur together and can suggest a particular cause or condition, even though the exact physiological mechanisms might not be fully understood.

For example, Down syndrome is characterized by specific physical features, cognitive delays, and other developmental issues resulting from an extra copy of chromosome 21. Similarly, metabolic syndromes like diabetes mellitus type 2 involve a group of risk factors such as obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels that collectively increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

It's important to note that a syndrome is not a specific diagnosis; rather, it's a pattern of symptoms that can help guide further diagnostic evaluation and management.

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of swelling in various parts of the body, including the face, lips, tongue, throat, hands, feet, and/or genitals. The swelling can also affect the gastrointestinal tract, causing abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

HAE is caused by a deficiency or dysfunction of the C1 inhibitor protein, which is a part of the body's immune system that helps regulate inflammation and blood vessel dilation. As a result, people with HAE have uncontrolled activation of the complement system and increased levels of bradykinin, a potent vasodilator that causes the characteristic swelling.

There are three types of HAE: type I, type II, and type III. Type I and type II are caused by mutations in the gene that codes for the C1 inhibitor protein, resulting in low levels or dysfunctional C1 inhibitor protein. Type III is caused by a mutation in the coagulation factor XII gene, leading to overactivation of the contact system and increased bradykinin production.

HAE is an inherited disorder, typically passed down from parent to child in an autosomal dominant pattern. This means that a person has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent and developing HAE. However, up to 25% of cases may occur spontaneously due to new mutations in the gene.

Treatment for HAE includes medications to prevent or reduce the severity and frequency of attacks, such as C1 inhibitor replacement therapy, attenuated androgens, and monoclonal antibodies against kallikrein. In addition, acute attacks can be treated with on-demand therapies, such as plasma-derived C1 inhibitor, icatibant, and ecallantide.

"Panstrongylus" is a genus of kissing bugs (triatomines), which are insects that feed on the blood of mammals, including humans. They are called "kissing bugs" because they often bite humans around the mouth and eyes. The most well-known species in this genus is "Panstrongylus megistus," which is a vector for Chagas disease, a potentially life-threatening illness endemic to Central and South America.

Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to humans through the feces of infected triatomines. The infection can lead to serious cardiac and gastrointestinal complications if left untreated.

It's important to note that while "Panstrongylus" species are vectors for Chagas disease, not all kissing bugs transmit the disease. Furthermore, Chagas disease is primarily a concern in endemic areas of Central and South America, and it's rare for travelers to contract the infection elsewhere.

Hyperpigmentation is a medical term that refers to the darkening of skin areas due to an increase in melanin, the pigment that provides color to our skin. This condition can affect people of all races and ethnicities, but it's more noticeable in those with lighter skin tones.

Hyperpigmentation can be caused by various factors, including excessive sun exposure, hormonal changes (such as during pregnancy), inflammation, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions like Addison's disease or hemochromatosis. It can also result from skin injuries, such as cuts, burns, or acne, which leave dark spots known as post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

There are several types of hyperpigmentation, including:

1. Melasma: This is a common form of hyperpigmentation that typically appears as symmetrical, blotchy patches on the face, particularly the forehead, cheeks, and upper lip. It's often triggered by hormonal changes, such as those experienced during pregnancy or while taking birth control pills.
2. Solar lentigos (age spots or liver spots): These are small, darkened areas of skin that appear due to prolonged sun exposure over time. They typically occur on the face, hands, arms, and decolletage.
3. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation: This type of hyperpigmentation occurs when an injury or inflammation heals, leaving behind a darkened area of skin. It's more common in people with darker skin tones.

Treatment for hyperpigmentation depends on the underlying cause and may include topical creams, chemical peels, laser therapy, or microdermabrasion. Preventing further sun damage is crucial to managing hyperpigmentation, so wearing sunscreen with a high SPF and protective clothing is recommended.

Müllerian ducts are a pair of embryonic structures found in female mammals, including humans. They give rise to the female reproductive system during fetal development. In females, the Müllerian ducts develop into the fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and upper part of the vagina.

In males, the regression of Müllerian ducts is induced by a hormone called anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), produced by the developing testes. In the absence of AMH or if it fails to function properly, the Müllerian ducts may persist and lead to conditions known as persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) or Müllerian remnants in males.

In summary, Müllerian ducts are essential structures for female reproductive system development, and their regression is crucial for male reproductive organ formation.

Gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY is a medical condition where the gonads (testes) fail to develop or function properly in an individual with a 46,XY karyotype (a normal male chromosomal composition). This means that the person has one X and one Y chromosome, but their gonads do not develop into fully functional testes. As a result, the person may have ambiguous genitalia or female external genitalia, and they will typically not produce enough or any male hormones. The condition can also be associated with an increased risk of developing germ cell tumors in the dysgenetic gonads.

The severity of gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY can vary widely, and it may be accompanied by other developmental abnormalities or syndromes. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the dysgenetic gonads to reduce the risk of tumor development, as well as hormone replacement therapy to support normal sexual development and reproductive function. The underlying cause of gonadal dysgenesis, 46,XY is not always known, but it can be associated with genetic mutations or chromosomal abnormalities.

Fournier gangrene is a type of necrotizing fasciitis, which is a severe soft tissue infection that involves the fascia (the layer of connective tissue covering the muscle). Fournier gangrene specifically affects the genital region and can spread to the abdominal wall or thighs. It's characterized by rapid progression, extensive tissue damage, and a high mortality rate if not treated promptly with surgical debridement (removal of dead tissue) and antibiotics. The infection typically involves multiple types of bacteria, both aerobic and anaerobic, and can arise from various sources such as urinary tract infections, anal abscesses, or trauma to the genital area.

A chromosome is a thread-like structure that contains genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, in the nucleus of a cell. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, in each cell of the body, with the exception of the sperm and egg cells which contain only 23 chromosomes.

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans. Females typically have two X chromosomes (XX), while males have one X and one Y chromosome (XY). The X chromosome contains hundreds of genes that are responsible for various functions in the body, including some related to sexual development and reproduction.

Humans inherit one X chromosome from their mother and either an X or a Y chromosome from their father. In females, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated during embryonic development, resulting in each cell having only one active X chromosome. This process, known as X-inactivation, helps to ensure that females have roughly equal levels of gene expression from the X chromosome, despite having two copies.

Abnormalities in the number or structure of the X chromosome can lead to various genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome (X0), Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), and fragile X syndrome (an X-linked disorder caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene).

"Beetles" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to insects belonging to the order Coleoptera, which is one of the largest orders in the class Insecta. Beetles are characterized by their hardened forewings, known as elytra, which protect their hind wings and body when not in use for flying.

There are many different species of beetles found all over the world, and some can have an impact on human health. For example, certain types of beetles, such as bed bugs and carpet beetles, can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people. Other beetles, like the Colorado potato beetle, can damage crops and lead to economic losses for farmers. However, it is important to note that most beetles are not harmful to humans and play an essential role in ecosystems as decomposers and pollinators.

Imperforate anus is a congenital condition in which the opening of the anus is absent or abnormally closed or narrowed, preventing the normal passage of stool. This results in a blockage in the digestive tract and can lead to serious health complications if not treated promptly.

The anus is the external opening of the rectum, which is the lower end of the digestive tract. During fetal development, the rectum and anus normally connect through a canal called the anal canal or the recto-anal canal. In imperforate anus, this canal may be completely closed or narrowed, or it may not form properly.

Imperforate anus can occur as an isolated condition or as part of a genetic syndrome or other congenital abnormalities. The exact cause is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Treatment for imperforate anus typically involves surgery to create an opening in the anus and restore normal bowel function. In some cases, additional procedures may be necessary to correct related abnormalities or complications. The prognosis for individuals with imperforate anus depends on the severity of the condition and any associated abnormalities. With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with imperforate anus can lead normal lives.

Entomology is the scientific study of insects, including their behavior, classification, and evolution. It is a branch of zoology that deals with the systematic study of insects and their relationship with humans, animals, and the environment. Entomologists may specialize in various areas such as medical entomology, agricultural entomology, or forensic entomology, among others. Medical entomology focuses on the study of insects that can transmit diseases to humans and animals, while agricultural entomology deals with insects that affect crops and livestock. Forensic entomology involves using insects found in crime scenes to help determine the time of death or other relevant information for legal investigations.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus (LSEA) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that can affect both males and females, but it's most commonly found in women after menopause. It can occur at any age, including children. The condition typically affects the genital and anal areas, though it can appear elsewhere on the body as well.

The medical definition of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus is:

A skin disorder characterized by white patches (plaques) that can be smooth or wrinkled, thickened, and easily bruised. These patches may merge to form larger areas of affected skin. The condition can cause itching, burning, pain, and blistering. In women, the vulva is often affected, and sexual intercourse may become painful. In men, it can affect the foreskin and glans penis, leading to difficulty urinating or having sex.

The exact cause of Lichen Sclerosus et Atrophicus remains unknown, but it's believed that hormonal imbalances, genetics, and an overactive immune system may play a role in its development. Treatment usually involves topical corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and alleviate symptoms. In some cases, other medications or phototherapy might be recommended. It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

"Sex determination processes" refer to the series of genetic and biological events that occur during embryonic and fetal development which lead to the development of male or female physical characteristics. In humans, this process is typically determined by the presence or absence of a Y chromosome in the fertilized egg. If the egg has a Y chromosome, it will develop into a male (genetically XY) and if it does not have a Y chromosome, it will develop into a female (genetically XX).

The sex determination process involves the activation and repression of specific genes on the sex chromosomes, which direct the development of the gonads (ovaries or testes) and the production of hormones that influence the development of secondary sexual characteristics. This includes the development of internal and external genitalia, as well as other sex-specific physical traits.

It is important to note that while sex is typically determined by genetics and biology, gender identity is a separate construct that can be self-identified and may not align with an individual's biological sex.

Turner Syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects females, caused by complete or partial absence of one X chromosome. The typical karyotype is 45,X0 instead of the normal 46,XX in women. This condition leads to distinctive physical features and medical issues in growth, development, and fertility. Characteristic features include short stature, webbed neck, low-set ears, and swelling of the hands and feet. Other potential symptoms can include heart defects, hearing and vision problems, skeletal abnormalities, kidney issues, and learning disabilities. Not all individuals with Turner Syndrome will have every symptom, but most will require medical interventions and monitoring throughout their lives to address various health concerns associated with the condition.

The Sex-Determining Region Y (SRY) protein is a transcription factor that plays a critical role in male sex determination. It is encoded by the SRY gene, which is located on the Y chromosome in humans and many other mammal species. The primary function of the SRY protein is to initiate the development of the testes during embryonic development.

In the absence of a functional SRY protein, the gonads will develop into ovaries. With a functional SRY protein, the gonads will develop into testes, which then produce androgens, including testosterone, that are necessary for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics. Mutations in the SRY gene can lead to sex reversal, where an individual with a Y chromosome develops as a female due to non-functional or absent SRY protein.

Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a sex hormone and androgen that plays a critical role in the development and maintenance of male characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It is synthesized from testosterone through the action of the enzyme 5-alpha reductase. DHT is essential for the normal development of the male genitalia during fetal development and for the maturation of the sexual organs at puberty.

In addition to its role in sexual development, DHT also contributes to the growth of hair follicles, the health of the prostate gland, and the maintenance of bone density. However, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and androgenetic alopecia (male pattern baldness).

DHT exerts its effects by binding to androgen receptors in various tissues throughout the body. Once bound, DHT triggers a series of cellular responses that regulate gene expression and influence the growth and differentiation of cells. In some cases, these responses can lead to unwanted side effects, such as hair loss or prostate enlargement.

Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase, such as finasteride and dutasteride, are sometimes used to treat conditions associated with excess DHT production. These drugs work by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors, thereby alleviating symptoms and slowing disease progression.

In summary, dihydrotestosterone is a potent sex hormone that plays a critical role in male sexual development and function. While it is essential for normal growth and development, an excess of DHT has been linked to certain medical conditions, such as BPH and androgenetic alopecia. Medications that block the action of 5-alpha reductase are sometimes used to treat these conditions by reducing the amount of DHT available to bind to androgen receptors.

Mating preference in animals refers to the selection of specific individuals as mates based on certain characteristics or traits. These preferences can be influenced by various factors such as genetic compatibility, physical attributes (e.g., size, color, health), behavioral traits (e.g., dominance, aggression), and environmental conditions.

Mating preferences play a crucial role in the process of sexual selection, which is one of the main mechanisms driving evolutionary change. They can lead to assortative mating, where similar individuals are more likely to mate with each other, or disassortative mating, where dissimilar individuals are more likely to mate.

Mating preferences can also contribute to reproductive isolation between different populations or species, ultimately leading to speciation. In some cases, these preferences may be hard-wired into an animal's behavior, while in others, they might be more flexible and influenced by learning and experience.

Ectromelia is a medical term that refers to the congenital absence or malformation of a limb or extremity. It is also known as "congenital amputation" or "limb reduction defect." This condition can affect any extremity, including arms, legs, hands, or feet, and can range from mild, such as a missing finger or toe, to severe, such as the absence of an entire limb.

Ectromelia can be caused by various factors, including genetic mutations, environmental factors, or a combination of both. In some cases, the cause may be unknown. Treatment options for ectromelia depend on the severity and location of the malformation and may include prosthetics, physical therapy, or surgery.

Female circumcision, also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), refers to the partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injuries to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. The procedure can cause serious physical and psychological harm, and it is widely recognized by medical organizations as a violation of human rights.

There are several types of FGM, classified into four categories by the World Health Organization:

* Type I: partial or total removal of the clitoris and/or the prepuce (clitoridectomy)
* Type II: partial or total removal of the clitoris and the labia minora, with or without excision of the labia majora (excision)
* Type III: narrowing of the vaginal opening by creating a covering seal, which is formed by cutting and repositioning the labia minora and/or the labia majora, with or without removal of the clitoris (infibulation)
* Type IV: all other harmful procedures to the female genitalia for non-medical purposes, such as pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, and cauterizing the genital area

FGM is practiced in many parts of the world, including Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It is usually carried out on young girls, often before the age of 15, and it is often motivated by cultural, religious, or social reasons. The practice is illegal in many countries, including the United States, and international organizations have called for its elimination.

Penile neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the penis. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common type of penile cancer is squamous cell carcinoma, which begins in the flat cells that line the surface of the penis. Other types of penile cancer include melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Benign penile neoplasms include conditions such as papillomas, condylomas, and peyronie's disease. These growths are usually not life-threatening, but they can cause discomfort, pain, or other symptoms that may require medical treatment.

It is important to note that any unusual changes in the penis, such as lumps, bumps, or sores, should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment.

"Gryllidae" is not a medical term. It is the family designation for crickets in the order Orthoptera, which includes various species of insects that are characterized by their long antennae and ability to produce chirping sounds. The misinterpretation might have arisen from the fact that some scientific research or studies may reference these creatures; however, it is not a medical term or concept.

The Wolffian ducts, also known as the mesonephric ducts, are a pair of embryological structures present in the developing urinary system of male fetuses. They originate from the intermediate mesoderm and descend towards the posterior end of the developing kidney, or the metanephros.

The Wolffian ducts play a crucial role in the formation of the male reproductive system. In males, these ducts give rise to the vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts. They also contribute to the development of the kidneys, specifically the pronephros and mesonephros, which are transient structures that eventually give way to the permanent kidney, or metanephros.

In females, the Wolffian ducts regress due to the absence of testicular hormones, as they do not contribute to the formation of female reproductive organs. Instead, the paramesonephric ducts, also known as the Mullerian ducts, develop into the female reproductive structures such as the fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

The Y chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes in humans and many other animals, along with the X chromosome. The Y chromosome contains the genetic information that helps to determine an individual's sex as male. It is significantly smaller than the X chromosome and contains fewer genes.

The Y chromosome is present in males, who inherit it from their father. Females, on the other hand, have two X chromosomes, one inherited from each parent. The Y chromosome includes a gene called SRY (sex-determining region Y), which initiates the development of male sexual characteristics during embryonic development.

It is worth noting that the Y chromosome has a relatively high rate of genetic mutation and degeneration compared to other chromosomes, leading to concerns about its long-term viability in human evolution. However, current evidence suggests that the Y chromosome has been stable for at least the past 25 million years.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "holography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Holography is a technique used to create 3D images, typically using laser light. It is commonly used in non-medical fields such as data storage, art, and security features on credit cards and banknotes. I'm here to help with medical information, so please feel free to ask me about any medical topics or questions you might have!

Flutamide is an anti-androgen medication, which is primarily used to treat prostate cancer. It works by blocking the action of androgens (male hormones), such as testosterone, on cancer cells. This helps to slow down or stop the growth of prostate cancer cells. Flutamide may be given in combination with other medications, such as a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, to enhance its effectiveness. It is usually taken by mouth in the form of tablets.

Flutamide can have side effects, including breast tenderness and enlargement, hot flashes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and loss of sexual desire. In rare cases, it may cause more serious side effects such as liver damage. It is important to be monitored by a healthcare professional while taking this medication to ensure that it is working properly and to manage any potential side effects.

LEOPARD syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that is characterized by multiple lentigines (freckle-like spots), electrocardiographic abnormalities, ocular hypertelorism (wide-set eyes), pulmonic stenosis (narrowing of the pulmonary valve opening), abnormal genitalia, retardation of growth, and deafness. It is caused by mutations in the PTPN11 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein called SHP-2. This protein plays important roles in signaling pathways that control various cellular functions, such as cell growth and division. The signs and symptoms of LEOPARD syndrome can vary widely among affected individuals, even among members of the same family. Treatment is typically focused on managing the specific features of the condition in each individual.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

17-α-Hydroxyprogesterone is a naturally occurring hormone produced by the adrenal glands and, in smaller amounts, by the ovaries and testes. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

In a medical context, 17-α-Hydroxyprogesterone may also refer to a synthetic form of this hormone that is used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, a medication called 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHP) is used to reduce the risk of preterm birth in women who have previously given birth prematurely. It works by suppressing uterine contractions and promoting fetal lung maturity.

It's important to note that 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Carnivora is an order of mammals that consists of animals whose primary diet consists of flesh. The term "Carnivora" comes from the Latin words "caro", meaning flesh, and "vorare", meaning to devour. This order includes a wide variety of species, ranging from large predators such as lions, tigers, and bears, to smaller animals such as weasels, otters, and raccoons.

While members of the Carnivora order are often referred to as "carnivores," it is important to note that not all members exclusively eat meat. Some species, such as raccoons and bears, have an omnivorous diet that includes both plants and animals. Additionally, some species within this order have evolved specialized adaptations for their specific diets, such as the elongated canines and carnassial teeth of felids (cats) and canids (dogs), which are adapted for tearing and shearing meat.

Overall, the medical definition of Carnivora refers to an order of mammals that have a diet primarily consisting of flesh, although not all members exclusively eat meat.

Organogenesis is the process of formation and development of organs during embryonic growth. It involves the complex interactions of cells, tissues, and signaling molecules that lead to the creation of specialized structures in the body. This process begins in the early stages of embryonic development, around week 4-8, and continues until birth. During organogenesis, the three primary germ layers (ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm) differentiate into various cell types and organize themselves into specific structures that will eventually form the functional organs of the body. Abnormalities in organogenesis can result in congenital disorders or birth defects.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

Androgen receptors (ARs) are a type of nuclear receptor protein that are expressed in various tissues throughout the body. They play a critical role in the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function. ARs are activated by binding to androgens, which are steroid hormones such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Once activated, ARs function as transcription factors that regulate gene expression, ultimately leading to various cellular responses.

In the context of medical definitions, androgen receptors can be defined as follows:

Androgen receptors are a type of nuclear receptor protein that bind to androgens, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, and mediate their effects on gene expression in various tissues. They play critical roles in the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics and reproductive function, and are involved in the pathogenesis of several medical conditions, including prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and androgen deficiency syndromes.

Bladder exstrophy is a congenital birth defect that affects the urinary and reproductive systems, as well as the abdominal wall. In this condition, the bladder is not fully formed and is turned inside out and exposed on the outside of the body at birth. This results in the inability to control urination and can also lead to other complications such as infection and kidney damage if left untreated.

Bladder exstrophy occurs due to a problem with the development of the fetus during pregnancy, specifically during the formation of the lower abdominal wall. It is more common in boys than girls, and can occur on its own or as part of a spectrum of defects known as the exstrophy-epispadias complex.

Treatment for bladder exstrophy typically involves surgical reconstruction to repair the bladder and lower abdominal wall. This may be done in stages, starting with the closure of the abdominal wall and then followed by bladder reconstruction at a later time. In some cases, additional surgeries may be necessary to address other associated defects or complications. With proper treatment, most children with bladder exstrophy can lead normal lives, although they may require ongoing medical management and monitoring throughout their lives.

Prenatal diagnosis is the medical testing of fetuses, embryos, or pregnant women to detect the presence or absence of certain genetic disorders or birth defects. These tests can be performed through various methods such as chorionic villus sampling (CVS), amniocentesis, or ultrasound. The goal of prenatal diagnosis is to provide early information about the health of the fetus so that parents and healthcare providers can make informed decisions about pregnancy management and newborn care. It allows for early intervention, treatment, or planning for the child's needs after birth.

The term "extremities" in a medical context refers to the most distant parts of the body, including the hands and feet (both fingers and toes), as well as the arms and legs. These are the farthest parts from the torso and head. Medical professionals may examine a patient's extremities for various reasons, such as checking circulation, assessing nerve function, or looking for injuries or abnormalities.

The anal canal is the terminal portion of the digestive tract, located between the rectum and the anus. It is a short tube-like structure that is about 1 to 1.5 inches long in adults. The main function of the anal canal is to provide a seal for the elimination of feces from the body while also preventing the leakage of intestinal contents.

The inner lining of the anal canal is called the mucosa, which is kept moist by the production of mucus. The walls of the anal canal contain specialized muscles that help control the passage of stool during bowel movements. These muscles include the internal and external sphincters, which work together to maintain continence and allow for the voluntary release of feces.

The anal canal is an important part of the digestive system and plays a critical role in maintaining bowel function and overall health.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Developmental gene expression regulation refers to the processes that control the activation or repression of specific genes during embryonic and fetal development. These regulatory mechanisms ensure that genes are expressed at the right time, in the right cells, and at appropriate levels to guide proper growth, differentiation, and morphogenesis of an organism.

Developmental gene expression regulation is a complex and dynamic process involving various molecular players, such as transcription factors, chromatin modifiers, non-coding RNAs, and signaling molecules. These regulators can interact with cis-regulatory elements, like enhancers and promoters, to fine-tune the spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development.

Dysregulation of developmental gene expression can lead to various congenital disorders and developmental abnormalities. Therefore, understanding the principles and mechanisms governing developmental gene expression regulation is crucial for uncovering the etiology of developmental diseases and devising potential therapeutic strategies.

Puberty is the period of sexual maturation, generally occurring between the ages of 10 and 16 in females and between 12 and 18 in males. It is characterized by a series of events including rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. Puberty is initiated by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to the secretion of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone that drive the physical changes associated with this stage of development.

In females, puberty typically begins with the onset of breast development (thelarche) and the appearance of pubic hair (pubarche), followed by the start of menstruation (menarche). In males, puberty usually starts with an increase in testicular size and the growth of pubic hair, followed by the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the development of muscle mass.

It's important to note that the onset and progression of puberty can vary widely among individuals, and may be influenced by genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.

Bicyclic compounds are organic molecules that contain two rings in their structure, with at least two common atoms shared between the rings. These compounds can be found in various natural and synthetic substances, including some medications and bioactive molecules. The unique structure of bicyclic compounds can influence their chemical and physical properties, which may impact their biological activity or reactivity.

Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 (FGF-8) is a growth factor that belongs to the fibroblast growth factor family. It plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including embryonic development, tissue repair, and cancer progression. Specifically, FGF-8 has been implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival.

During embryonic development, FGF-8 is involved in the formation of the nervous system, limbs, and other organs. It acts as a signaling molecule that helps to establish patterns of gene expression and cell behavior during development. In tissue repair, FGF-8 can stimulate the proliferation and migration of cells involved in wound healing, such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells.

In cancer, FGF-8 has been shown to promote tumor growth, angiogenesis (the formation of new blood vessels), and metastasis. It can do this by activating signaling pathways that promote cell proliferation, survival, and migration. Overexpression of FGF-8 has been found in various types of cancer, including breast, lung, prostate, and ovarian cancer.

In summary, Fibroblast Growth Factor 8 (FGF-8) is a signaling molecule that plays important roles in embryonic development, tissue repair, and cancer progression by regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival.

The uniqueness of genitalia of a species led to the use of the morphological study of genitalia as one of the most important ... Genitalia in male and female of any particular Lepidopteran species are adapted to fit each other like a lock (female) and key ... The genitalia are attached onto the tenth or most distal segment of the abdomen. Lepidoptera have some of the most complex ... The genitalia are complex and provide the basis for species discrimination in most families and also in family identification. ...
"Mutilated Genitals - Dog Fashion Disco". "Dog Fashion Disco - Mutilated Genitals (2001, CD)". Discogs. v t e (Articles with ... Mutilated Genitals is a promotional EP by Dog Fashion Disco released in 2001. It has since been deleted and is quite rare, but ... ", "Don't fall asleep or we'll mutilate your genitals". The versions of tracks 4 and 5 are re-recordings; they would appear on ...
"C" Is for (Please Insert Sophomoric Genitalia Reference Here) is an EP by the Maynard James Keenan side project Puscifer, which ... "C" Is for (Please Insert Sophomoric Genitalia Reference Here) has sold 10,000 copies. Prior to the album's release, "The ... "Puscifer "C" is for (Please Insert Sophomoric Genitalia Reference Here) Review @ Antiquiet". Antiquiet.com. 2009-11-15. ... Please Insert Sophomoric Genitalia Reference Here) Review". IGN.com. Archived from the original on 2014-02-22. Retrieved 2013- ...
This a list of species, genera, and other taxa named after human genitals. Orchidaceae. The type genus is Orchis, whose name ...
Genitalia. Penis are standard gonyleptoid and very conservative, with rectangular ventral plate, puffed sac-glans, well- ...
A small number of affected people have external genitalia that do not look clearly male or clearly female (ambiguous genitalia ... In some cases, gonadal surgery can be performed to remove partial or whole female genitalia. This may be followed by plastic ... The appearance of XX males can fall into one of three categories: 1) males that have normal internal and external genitalia, 2 ... Individuals with SRY-negative 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development are more likely to have ambiguous genitalia than are ...
Simpson, J.L. (2014). "Disorders of the Gonads, Genital Tract, and Genitalia". Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences: ... "Ambiguous genitalia". Pediatric Endocrinology. pp. 107-156.e1. doi:10.1016/B978-1-4557-4858-7.00014-7. ISBN 9781455748587. ...
Male genitalia. Uncus moderately long, stout, with a broad, rounded tip; beyond the uncus a weak structure of hair-like setae; ... Also, the female genitalia can be recognized quite well. In particular, the degree of sclerotization of sternite IX and of the ... Female genitalia. Tergite IX missing, only indicated by a group of setae; sternite IX strongly reduced, weakly sclerotized, ... Phylogeny: In the male genitalia, M. aglaella has distinct lobes with long, hair-like setae on the posterior margin of the ...
"External Genitalia , SEER Training". www.training.seer.cancer.gov. Retrieved 7 August 2021. "Ovaries , SEER Training". www. ...
... genitalia yellow. Wingspan Expanse of wings 1 inch 1 line. Episcepsis at Markku Savela's Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms ...
... burning genitalia; forcing objects into the rectum; beatings while the victim is suspended from the ceiling and on the soles of ...
Genitalia large. Yellow spots reach the side margin of tergites 3 and 4.Scutellum mainly yellow-haired. Female frons with white ... The male genitalia and the larva are figured described by Dusek & Laska (1961) Habitat: grassland, dune systems, dry river beds ...
... burning genitalia; beating, sometimes while the victim was suspended from the ceiling; dousing victims with freezing water and ...
Volume IV The spleen; the liver and gall bladder; the kidneys and the bladder; the genitalia; pregnancy; the muscles. The ...
Osman Hill, W. C. (1958). "External genitalia". In Hofer, H.; Schultz, A. H.; Starck, D. (eds.). Primatologia. Vol. 3. Basel: ...
In this piece, sex is the socially agreed upon criteria for being male or female, usually based on an individual's genitalia at ... gender with genitalia; class with paycheques. The authors acknowledge that class appears less prone to ideas about natural ...
As a consequence, children with XY genes may exhibit female genitalia, while those with XX genes may display male genitalia, ... Ambiguous genitalia can manifest as a result of various factors, such as abnormal chromosomes, gonadal complications, or ... A comprehensive assessment of the male genitals assesses the pubic hair based on Sexual Maturity Rating and the size of the ... In some instances (ex: Peyronie's disease) where a physical examination of the male genitals is not sufficient to diagnose an ...
The male genitalia contain some of the most distinguishing characteristics when differentiating bumble bee species. The ... "Psithyrus male genitalia". Bumblebee ID. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Sramkova, A.; Ayasse, M. (2009). "Chemical ecology involved ...
Female genitalia, barren. Nekeva: female Saris: castrated or naturally infertile male (often translated as "eunuch") Tumtum: ... In old Israel[when?] there were: Androgynos: both male and female genitalia (eternal doubt of legal gender) Aylonit: Barren ... genitalia concealed by skin (unknown gender, unless skin removed) Zachar: male In Plato's Symposium, written around the 4th ... Joyce notes that many figures of Mesoamerican art are depicted with male genitalia and female breasts, while she suggests that ...
The genitalia differ. They are on wing from April to May in western Europe. The larvae feed on Italian poplar (Populus x ...
As long as the skin covers their genitals, they are considered doubtful men and women. As long as the skin is present, they are ... It usually refers to a person whose sex is unknown because their genitalia are hidden, undeveloped, or difficult to determine. ... Steinberg, Avraham (2003). "Ambiguous genitalia (tumtum)". Encyclopedia of Jewish Medical Ethics. Translated by Rosner, Fred. ... explains their genitals being uncovered and remade. The eleventh century dictionary, the Aruch, says the word tumtum came from ...
With images of genitalia. Altervista.org Illustration from original description v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
Jesus with erased genitalia; Jesus minus erotic body." Instead, she speaks about the bi-sexuality of Christ as an inclusive ...
The male external genitalia consist of the penis, the male urethra, and the scrotum, while the male internal genitalia consist ... all internal and external genitalia develop following the male pathway. When no testes are present, the genitalia develop along ... "Definition of Male genitalia". MedicineNet. Archived from the original on 6 November 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2019. Clement, ... The existence of ovaries has no effect on fetal differentiation of the genitalia. The paramount importance of testicular ...
ISBN 0-7817-5309-0. "Chapter 35: Female genitalia". Archived from the original on 2017-12-06. Retrieved 2007-12-09. Anatomy ...
The male genitalia are described by Nayar. Wings Wings are yellowish basally with the front edge dark smoky black, filling out ... Nayar, J.L. (1968). "Male Genitalia of Eristalinae". The Pan-Pacific Entomologist. 44: 153-167. Williston, S.W. (1887). " ...
All have similar genitalia. The pattern is black with white marks above and with brick-red areas beneath. In G. endochus the ...
Male genitalia: Tegumen delicate; socii proportionately very large, coalescent, tapering terminally, with very short free ends ...
Lost, Cosmos The In (2014-09-04). "Nudus Nudum Christum Sequi: On Christ's Genitalia". Cosmos The In Lost. Retrieved 2019-06-15 ... his genitalia). The phrase originated from Saint Jerome who wrote in four letters to embrace a life in the mold of Jesus of ... produced a large body of devotional images in which the genitalia of the Christ Child, or of the dead Christ, receive such ... of Christ in Renaissance Art and in Modern Oblivion as a blunt overlook of how many depictions of Jesus and his genitalia are " ...
Male genitalia Beccaloni, G.; Scoble, M.; Kitching, I.; Simonsen, T.; Robinson, G.; Pitkin, B.; Hine, A.; Lyal, C., eds. (2003 ...
The uniqueness of genitalia of a species led to the use of the morphological study of genitalia as one of the most important ... Genitalia in male and female of any particular Lepidopteran species are adapted to fit each other like a lock (female) and key ... The genitalia are attached onto the tenth or most distal segment of the abdomen. Lepidoptera have some of the most complex ... The genitalia are complex and provide the basis for species discrimination in most families and also in family identification. ...
Ambiguous genitalia is a birth defect where the outer genitals do not have the typical appearance of either a boy or a girl. ... Ambiguous genitalia is a birth defect where the outer genitals do not have the typical appearance of either a boy or a girl. ... Ambiguous genitalia is a birth defect where the outer genitals do not have the typical appearance of either a boy or a girl. ... Causes for ambiguous genitalia includes:. *Pseudohermaphroditism. The genitalia are of one sex, but some physical ...
... but a quick look at their genitalia can distinguish one species from the other. ... trilobata genitals, stained with purple dye). Thats because for many years, studying the genitalia of lepidoptera (butterflies ... Genitalia analysis is a very old-fashioned technique, over 100 years old. The tools and chemicals havent changed much in that ... Female U. trilobata genitalia, stained with black dye, appear like bizarre alien flowers on these slides, prepared by de Prins. ...
Arguments dont have genitals. Human rights begin when the human being begins, or we are simply choosing some random point at ... We are not at all convinced by the feminist argument that people should think with their reproductive organs or genitals. We ... Arguments dont have genitals, feminists. Its a stupid argument trying to protect a bloody ideology. ... Apparently, you see, male genitals disqualify people from speaking out on various human rights issues deemed by women who ...
A project looking at whether size and self-esteem are linked is dropped after things turn bizarre and researcher is threatened. Andrew Masterson reports.
Most malignant cutaneous neoplasms that involve the male genitalia are squamous in origin and associated with human ... Malignant Dermatologic Diseases of the Male Genitalia. Updated: Jul 28, 2021 * Author: Douglas C Parker, MD, DDS; Chief Editor ... Patients with melanoma of the male genitalia generally have a poor prognosis due to presentation at an advanced stage. [43] ... Given the paucity of ultraviolet radiation exposure in the male genitalia, the tumors are uncommon at this site. In addition to ...
SafetyLit is produced by the SafetyLit Foundation in cooperation with San Diego State University and the World Health Organization.
... can prevent a person from being informed of different genitals which can prevent a person being aware that different genitals ...
... but they have external genitalia that do not look clearly male or clearly female or other abnormalities of the genitals and ... any type of 3β-HSD deficiency, problems with male sex hormones lead to abnormalities of the external genitalia. These ... into two lobes (bifid scrotum). Because of these abnormalities, the external genitalia may not look clearly male or clearly ... into two lobes (bifid scrotum). Because of these abnormalities, the external genitalia may not look clearly male or clearly ...
Trans Student Exposes Genitalia To Freshmen Girls In School Locker Room Shower. ... but later turned toward them at one point and completely exposed his male genitalia. ...
In November 2017, two U.S. Navy lieutenants flying as "Zapper 21" were caught drawing male genitalia with contrails from their ...
The Prepubertal Girl , Ambiguous Genitalia in the Newborn: Diagnosis, Etiology , Etiology of Ambiguous Genitalia in the Newborn ... Etiology of Ambiguous Genitalia in the Newborn. Generally, the medical team has a final diagnosis and has determined the ... Patients with ambiguous genitalia require meticulous assessment to determine the optimal sex of rearing. In the absence of ... CAH is the most frequent cause of androgen excess and ambiguous genitalia in the female newborn and the various forms of CAH ...
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The tribe members eat every part of the human body except the hair, nails, and genitals. Children under 13 are not allowed to ... Tribe of cannibals eats robbers as punishment - except their genitals. An American adventurer encounters the Korowai tribe that ...
Portal to information on the insect order Diptera (flies and midges) and a forum for researchers on the insect group. The site enables, for example, link submission and identification queries. Registration required for submissions.
It was learned that she struck and stunned the victim multiple times in various places, including the genitalia. ...
... as well as my genitalia. TW: genitalia. So I got progesterone for my health issues and I said to my doctor that it gives me ... tbh average FtM genitalia on T look like mine, so I thought... its just my T. Plus there is something that resembles a ...
"He suddenly reached over and put his hand on my leg...under my skirt and reached for my genitals," she said. Bialek says Cain ...
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I have been having pain in my genitals. On the left side on the shaft, right below the head of the penis, Ive been ... For possibly over a year or so, I have been having pain in my genitals. On the left side on the shaft, right below the head ... Ongoing pain in genitals and perenium, what can it possibly be? Noop279 ... numbness off and on in genitals - tip of penis often times cold to touch - i also do have anxiety ...
|p xmlns=http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml|January 22, 2021: Jamil Syed, MD; Marianne Casilla-Lennon, MD|/p|
Jelks girlfriend, Shanekia Roberts, quickly saw that Jelks had suffered a gunshot wound to his genitals and immediately rushed ...
A Saudi man used a hot iron to burn the genitals of his little son to stop his involuntary urination while asleep, a newspaper ... The wife said she had filed a compliant to police against her divorced husband for burning the genitals of her four-year-old ...
Cyberflashing is the sending of unsolicited images or video recordings of genitals without consent ... Sending unwanted pictures of genitals could become a crime. Sign up to our free email newsletter to receive the latest breaking ... Bumble is calling on the Government to recognise the need for a new law to criminalise sending unsolicited images of genitals. ... Sending unwanted pictures of genitals could become a crime. Cyberflashing is the sending of unsolicited images or video ...
Petaloid dermatosis affecting the scalp and genitalia. Taylor A. Bullock, MD, Shruti Agrawal, MD and Wilma Bergfeld, MD ... Petaloid dermatosis affecting the scalp and genitalia Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Cleveland Clinic ... 5 Secondary syphilis typically presents without lymphadenopathy and often affects the genitalia.5 ...
Histology slide courtesy of William L. Todt, Ph.D. at Concordia College, Moorhead, Minnesota ...
Review: Snatch Adams and Tainty McCrackens Raunchy Lesson on Genitals and Gender. Becca Blackwell and Amanda Duarte star in ... Genitals and gender are complicated, and often imperfect, much like this piece. However, they are very worth exploring, and ... Instead of hiding or being ashamed, this show invites us to be open, understanding, and even comedic about our genitals and ... If it wasnt clear, almost everything about the show revolves around genitalia. However, in an impressive feat, Blackwell and ...
Pelvic genitalia, unilateral vesiculitis, dairy bull. Pelvic genitalia of a yearling dairy bull with unilateral vesiculitis. ...
todays ad thatll make art directors touch their genitals. (click ad, via) Oooooh, look at that intricate Photoshop work. Oh ...
  • Ambiguous genitalia is a birth defect where the outer genitals do not have the typical appearance of either a boy or a girl. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ambiguous genitalia can develop if the process that causes this fetal tissue to become "male" or "female" is disrupted. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Undescended testicles commonly occur with ambiguous genitalia. (medlineplus.gov)
  • With a few exceptions, ambiguous genitalia is most often not life-threatening. (medlineplus.gov)
  • CAH is the most frequent cause of androgen excess and ambiguous genitalia in the female newborn and the various forms of CAH are due to defects in the biosynthesis of cortisol, with the subsequent excessive ACTH production leading to an accumulation of adrenal androgens and steroid precursors. (health.am)
  • The association of ambiguous genitalia and salt loss at birth signals on enzymatic block of the adrenal glands. (health.am)
  • This study aimed to determine the possible etiology of ambiguous genitalia in 41 newborn infants at a referral hospital in Hofuf city, Saudi Arabia. (who.int)
  • Positive family history of ambiguous genitalia was noted in 4 patients. (who.int)
  • The diagnosis of ambiguous genitalia in a newborn infant is an emergency that can be difficult to manage, not only because salt-wasting entities must be ruled out, but also due to the importance of gender assignment before psychological gender is established [1]. (who.int)
  • Ambiguous genitalia is a rare condition in which an infant's external genitals don't appear to be clearly either male or female. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • In a baby with ambiguous genitalia, the genitals may be incompletely developed or the baby may have characteristics of both sexes. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • Among an audito-rium of 2,000 U.S. citizens, 20 were born with "ambiguous genitalia. (clinicalposters.com)
  • An individual with ambiguous genitalia (herma-phro-dite misnomer, now termed Ovotestis) falls within the larger category of intersex, estimated to comprise nearly 3.3 million persons in the United States. (clinicalposters.com)
  • Ambiguous Genitalia & Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia has been discussed in this video. (bisabo.com)
  • While the layout of internal genital ducts and openings of the female genitalia depends upon the taxonomic group that insect belongs to, the internal female reproductive system of all Lepidopterans consists of paired ovaries and accessory glands which produce the yolks and shells of the eggs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The male and female reproductive organs and genitals both come from the same tissue in the fetus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We are not at all convinced by the feminist argument that people should think with their reproductive organs or genitals. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Affected individuals may have external genitalia that do not look clearly male or clearly female or other abnormalities of the genitals and reproductive organs. (nih.gov)
  • The study of the genitalia of Lepidoptera is important for Lepidoptera taxonomy in addition to development, anatomy and natural history. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three basic configurations of genitalia in the majority of the Lepidoptera based on how the arrangement in females of openings for copulation, fertilisation and egg-laying has evolved: Exoporian : Hepialidae and related families have an external groove that carries sperm from the copulatory opening (gonopore) to the (ovipore) and are termed Exoporian. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lepidoptera genitalia. (wikipedia.org)
  • That's because for many years, studying the genitalia of lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) has been "the best indicator to diagnose a species," de Prins said. (livescience.com)
  • Therefore, a working knowledge of the anatomy of the male lower urinary tract and external genitalia is critical for the clinician treating a patient with Fournier gangrene. (medscape.com)
  • Type III - excision of part or all of the external genitalia and stitching/narrowing of the vaginal opening (infibulation). (who.int)
  • Genitalia in male and female of any particular Lepidopteran species are adapted to fit each other like a lock (female) and key (male). (wikipedia.org)
  • The child may have parts of both male and female genitals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Female U. trilobata genitalia, stained with black dye, appear like bizarre alien flowers on these slides, prepared by de Prins. (livescience.com)
  • Because of these abnormalities , the external genitalia may not look clearly male or clearly female. (nih.gov)
  • In the absence of aromatase, androgens cannot be converted to estrone, estradiol or estriol, and large quantities of androstenedione and testosterone are transferred to the maternal and fetal circulation, resulting in masculinization of the urogenital sinus and external genitalia of the female fetus. (health.am)
  • What leads the embryo to develop male or female genitalia? (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • In the male, the external genitalia are more evident and better known than in the female. (definithing.com)
  • A small number of human anatomy posters and models on this website depict average male genitals and female genitalia. (clinicalposters.com)
  • Female genital mutilation comprises all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. (who.int)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the painless disease causes progressive ulcerative lesions on the genitals or perineum, which are prone to heavy bleeding. (mystateline.com)
  • A 2-month-old girl presented with infantile hemangioma on her perineum and genitalia with imperforate anus , rectovaginal fistula and perineal skin tag at birth . (bvsalud.org)
  • We examined the association between lead and pubertal stages of breast, pubic hair and genitalia using ordinal regression. (cdc.gov)
  • Abnormalities of external genitalia are seen less often in affected females. (nih.gov)
  • The ICD-10 code range for Injuries to the abdomen, lower back, lumbar spine, pelvis and external genitals S30-S39 is medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). (aapc.com)
  • Why do male have external genitalia? (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • What is necessary for the development of male external genitalia? (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • Testosterone is required to develop male external genitalia. (cravencountryjamboree.com)
  • Until the ninth week of development the external genitals appear the same for both sexes (Figures 37.8 and 37.9). (pediagenosis.com)
  • However, patient AB reports a painless "bump" on her external genitalia. (bestnursingwritingservices.com)
  • A Case of Perineal Hemangioma, External Genitalia Malformations, Lipomyelomeningocele, Vesicorenal Abnormalities, Imperforate Anus, and Skin Tag (PELVIS) Syndrome with Extensive Perineal Infantile Hemangioma. (bvsalud.org)
  • The complex anatomy of the male external genitalia influences the initiation and progression of Fournier gangrene. (medscape.com)
  • But as the man laid unconscious, the suspect took a Bic lighter and set the man's genitals on fire. (rollingout.com)
  • The labia minora also don't look very much like labia either, but I always thought it's because my erectile tissue is pretty big and stiff, tbh average FtM genitalia on T look like mine, so I thought. (susans.org)
  • In 1764, Baurienne originally described an idiopathic, rapidly progressive soft-tissue necrotizing process that led to gangrene of the male genitalia. (medscape.com)
  • The genitalia are attached onto the tenth or most distal segment of the abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • ORGANA GENITALIA FEMININA EXTERNA INTERNA Mons pubis Clitoris Ovarium Labia majora Tuba uterina Labia minora Uterus Vestibulum vaginae Vagina Bulbus vestibuli. (slideserve.com)
  • Most malignant cutaneous neoplasms that involve the male genitalia are squamous in origin and associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. (medscape.com)
  • This review focuses on cutaneous diseases that are either specific to the male genitalia or frequently involve this body region. (medscape.com)
  • It was learned that she struck and stunned the victim multiple times in various places, including the genitalia. (kalb.com)
  • Timur Laut District Police chief ACP Soffian Santong said the police received information regarding the incident at about 7.55 am from the 47-year-old man, who informed that his genitals were injured before the victim was sent to Penang Hospital (HPP) for treatment. (merdeka.org)
  • Disclaimer: Male internal genitalia definition / meaning should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. (definithing.com)
  • The genitalia are complex and provide the basis for species discrimination in most families and also in family identification. (wikipedia.org)
  • The uniqueness of genitalia of a species led to the use of the morphological study of genitalia as one of the most important keys in taxonomic identification of taxa below family level. (wikipedia.org)
  • Especially in savanna areas, a lot of species have the same wing pattern, but genitalia are like lock and key," she said. (livescience.com)
  • The tribe members eat every part of the human body except the hair, nails, and genitals. (jpost.com)
  • You can use it and quickly get the hair removed smoothly on your genitals. (waynewonder.com)
  • Warm your genitals and the hair so that the area can be softened. (waynewonder.com)
  • You can adjust the amount of hair you want to remove from your genitals. (waynewonder.com)
  • Waxing- If you have decided to remove the complete hair on the genitals, the n it is the best option for you to choose waxing. (waynewonder.com)
  • Jelks' girlfriend, Shanekia Roberts, quickly saw that Jelks had suffered a gunshot wound to his genitals and immediately rushed him to the hospital, where he underwent surgery . (ktnv.com)
  • A man suffered cuts to his genitals after they were scraped by his girlfriend while both of them were under the influence of drugs. (merdeka.org)
  • GEORGE TOWN, Nov 14 ― A man suffered cuts to his genitals after they were scraped by his girlfriend while both of them were under the influence of drugs in an incident at the Bandar Baru Farlim market area, here yesterday. (merdeka.org)
  • The man, who was previously a freelance photographer, only realised that his genitals were bleeding once he woke up, while his girlfriend had disappeared. (merdeka.org)
  • Our findings highlight the complex dynamics of genitalia evolution in Trinidadian guppies. (datadryad.org)
  • Cyberflashing is the sending of unsolicited images or video recordings of genitals without consent, which disproportionately impacts women. (cambridge-news.co.uk)
  • In this video, former Exodus co-founder Michael Bussee recounts how one of his clients, who was trying to "change", cut his genitals with a razor and poured Drano on the wounds to stop his homosexual feelings. (truthwinsout.org)
  • Apparently, you see, male genitals disqualify people from speaking out on various human rights issues deemed by women who define themselves by their uteruses while protesting angrily against being defined by their uteruses as "women's issues. (lifesitenews.com)
  • Male genitalia present an extraordinary pattern of rapid divergence in animals with internal fertilization, which is usually attributed to sexual selection. (datadryad.org)
  • MMSC is defined as cisgender male-to-cisgender male sexual (e.g., oral or anal sex) or intimate contact (e.g., cuddling, kissing, touching partner's genitals or anus, or sharing sex toys) within 3 weeks of symptom onset. (medscape.com)
  • The arrangement of genitalia is important in the courtship and mating as they prevent cross-specific mating and hybridisation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, the piece does an excellent job differentiating between the two and showcasing that while gender doesn't equal genitals, it is still important to talk about genitals and all the associated problems and joys of them. (theatermania.com)
  • 3. Something about how modern dress does not preclude a person from being a person but can prevent a person from being informed of different genitals which can prevent a person being aware that different genitals exist. (htmlgiant.com)
  • The wife said she had filed a compliant to police against her divorced husband for burning the genitals of her four-year-old son to prevent him from urination during his night sleep, Okaz Arabic language daily said in a report from the western Red Sea port of Yanbu. (emirates247.com)
  • With the advent of DNA analysis, the study of genitalia has now become just one of the techniques used in taxonomy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genitalia analysis is a very old-fashioned technique, over 100 years old. (livescience.com)