The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.
The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.
The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
The processes, properties and biological objects that are involved in maintaining, expressing, and transmitting from one organism to another, genetically encoded traits.
A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.
The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Two offspring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from two OVA, fertilized at about the same time by two SPERMATOZOA. Such twins are genetically distinct and can be of different sexes.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
A definite pathologic process with a characteristic set of signs and symptoms. It may affect the whole body or any of its parts, and its etiology, pathology, and prognosis may be known or unknown.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The condition of a pattern of malignancies within a family, but not every individual's necessarily having the same neoplasm. Characteristically the tumor tends to occur at an earlier than average age, individuals may have more than one primary tumor, the tumors may be multicentric, usually more than 25 percent of the individuals in direct lineal descent from the proband are affected, and the cancer predisposition in these families behaves as an autosomal dominant trait with about 60 percent penetrance.
The use of genetic methodologies to improve functional capacities of an organism rather than to treat disease.
The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A characteristic symptom complex.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
Color of hair or fur.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
The magnitude of INBREEDING in humans.
The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.
Investigations into the problems of integrating research findings into nursing curricula, developing problem solving skills, finding approaches to clinical teaching, determining the level of practice by graduates from different basic preparations, etc.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus.
The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (1/6490)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

Evolutionary analysis of TATA-less proximal promoter function. (2/6490)

Many molecular studies describe how components of the proximal promoter affect transcriptional processes. However, these studies do not account for the likely effects of distant enhancers or chromatin structure, and thus it is difficult to conclude that the sequence variation in proximal promoters acts to modulate transcription in the natural context of the whole genome. This problem, the biological importance of proximal promoter sequence variation, can be addressed using a combination of molecular and evolutionary analyses. Provided here are molecular and evolutionary analyses of the variation in promoter function and sequence within and between populations of Fundulus heteroclitus for the lactate dehydrogenase-B (Ldh-B) proximal promoter. Approximately one third of the Ldh-B proximal promoter contains interspersed regions that are functionally important: (1) they bind transcription factors in vivo, (2) they effect a change in transcription as assayed by transient transfection into two different fish cell lines, and (3) they bind purified transcription factors in vitro. Evolutionary analyses that compare sequence variation in these functional regions versus the nonfunctional regions indicate that the changes in the Ldh-B proximal promoter sequences are due to directional selection. Thus, the Ldh-B proximal promoter sequence variations that affect transcriptional processes constitute a phenotypic change that is subject to natural selection, suggesting that proximal promoter sequence variation affects transcription in the natural context of the whole genome.  (+info)

Ancestral Asian source(s) of new world Y-chromosome founder haplotypes. (3/6490)

Haplotypes constructed from Y-chromosome markers were used to trace the origins of Native Americans. Our sample consisted of 2,198 males from 60 global populations, including 19 Native American and 15 indigenous North Asian groups. A set of 12 biallelic polymorphisms gave rise to 14 unique Y-chromosome haplotypes that were unevenly distributed among the populations. Combining multiallelic variation at two Y-linked microsatellites (DYS19 and DXYS156Y) with the unique haplotypes results in a total of 95 combination haplotypes. Contra previous findings based on Y- chromosome data, our new results suggest the possibility of more than one Native American paternal founder haplotype. We postulate that, of the nine unique haplotypes found in Native Americans, haplotypes 1C and 1F are the best candidates for major New World founder haplotypes, whereas haplotypes 1B, 1I, and 1U may either be founder haplotypes and/or have arrived in the New World via recent admixture. Two of the other four haplotypes (YAP+ haplotypes 4 and 5) are probably present because of post-Columbian admixture, whereas haplotype 1G may have originated in the New World, and the Old World source of the final New World haplotype (1D) remains unresolved. The contrasting distribution patterns of the two major candidate founder haplotypes in Asia and the New World, as well as the results of a nested cladistic analysis, suggest the possibility of more than one paternal migration from the general region of Lake Baikal to the Americas.  (+info)

X chromosome evidence for ancient human histories. (4/6490)

Diverse African and non-African samples of the X-linked PDHA1 (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) locus revealed a fixed DNA sequence difference between the two sample groups. The age of onset of population subdivision appears to be about 200 thousand years ago. This predates the earliest modern human fossils, suggesting the transformation to modern humans occurred in a subdivided population. The base of the PDHA1 gene tree is relatively ancient, with an estimated age of 1.86 million years, a late Pliocene time associated with early species of Homo. PDHA1 revealed very low variation among non-Africans, but in other respects the data are consistent with reports from other X-linked and autosomal haplotype data sets. Like these other genes, but in conflict with microsatellite and mitochondrial data, PDHA1 does not show evidence of human population expansion.  (+info)

Maximum-likelihood generalized heritability estimate for blood pressure in Nigerian families. (5/6490)

Elevated blood pressure (BP) is more common in relatives of hypertensives than in relatives of normotensives, indicating familial resemblance of the BP phenotypes. Most published studies have been conducted in westernized societies. To assess the ability to generalize these estimates, we examined familial patterns of BP in a population-based sample of 510 nuclear families, including 1552 individuals (320 fathers, 370 mothers, 475 sons, and 387 daughters) from Ibadan, Nigeria. The prevalence of obesity in this community is low (body mass index: fathers, 21.6; mothers, 23.6; sons, 19.2; and daughters=21.0 kg/m2). The BP phenotype used in all analyses was created from the best regression model by standardizing the age-adjusted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to 0 mean and unit variance. Heritability was estimated by use of the computer program SEGPATH from the most parsimonious model of "no spouse and neither gender nor generation difference" as 45% for SBP and 43% for DBP. The lack of a significant spouse correlation is consistent with little or no influence of the common familial environment. However, the heritability estimate of <50% for both SBP and DBPs reinforces the importance of the nonshared environmental effect.  (+info)

DnaSP version 3: an integrated program for molecular population genetics and molecular evolution analysis. (6/6490)

DnaSP is a Windows integrated software package for the analysis of the DNA polymorphism from nucleotide sequence data. DnaSP version 3 incorporates several methods for estimating the amount and pattern of DNA polymorphism and divergence, and for conducting neutrality tests. AVAILABILITY: For academic uses, DnaSP is available free of charge from: http://www.bio.ub.es/julio/DnaSP.html CONTACT: [email protected]  (+info)

Early medieval cattle remains from a Scandinavian settlement in Dublin: genetic analysis and comparison with extant breeds. (7/6490)

A panel of cattle bones excavated from the 1000-year-old Viking Fishamble Street site in Dublin was assessed for the presence of surviving mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Eleven of these bones gave amplifiable mtDNA and a portion of the hypervariable control region was determined for each specimen. A comparative analysis was performed with control region sequences from five extant Nordic and Irish cattle breeds. The medieval population displayed similar levels of mtDNA diversity to modern European breeds. However, a number of novel mtDNA haplotypes were also detected in these bone samples. In addition, the presence of a putative ancestral sequence at high frequency in the medieval population supports an early post-domestication expansion of cattle in Europe.  (+info)

Freezer anthropology: new uses for old blood. (8/6490)

Archived blood fractions (plasma, settled red cells, white cells) have proved to be a rich and valuable source of DNA for human genetic studies. Large numbers of such samples were collected between 1960 and the present for protein and blood group studies, many of which are languishing in freezers or have already been discarded. More are discarded each year because the usefulness of these samples is not widely understood. Data from DNA derived from 10-35-year-old blood samples have been used to address the peopling of the New World and of the Pacific. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from studies using this source DNA support a single wave of migration into the New World (or a single source population for the New World), and that Mongolia was the likely source of the founding population. Data from Melanesia have shown that Polynesians are recent immigrants into the Pacific and did not arise from Melanesia.  (+info)

Methods for simulating samples and sample statistics, under mutation-selection-drift equilibrium for a class of nonneutral population genetics models, and for evaluating the likelihood surface, in selection and mutation parameters, are developed and applied for observed data. The methods apply to large populations in settings in which selection is weak, in the sense that selection intensities, like mutation rates, are of the order of the inverse of the population size. General diploid selection is allowed, but the approach is currently restricted to models, such as the infinite alleles model and certain K-models, in which the type of a mutant allele does not depend on the type of its progenitor allele. The simulation methods have considerable advantages over available alternatives. No other methods currently seem practicable for approximating likelihood surfaces.
An ancestry informative marker set for determining continental origin: validation and extension using human genome diversity panels: Results In this study, genotypes from Human Genome Diversity Panel populations were used to further evaluate a 93 SNP AIM panel, a subset of the 128 AIMS set, for distinguishing continental origins. Using both model-based and relatively model-independent…. ...
JammerDownload The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics( download az i Max. Jammer) food Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics orientation Max. The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics inscreva-se Max. artifacts of Population Genetics Daniel L. Principles of Population Genetics Daniel L. Clark Publisher: Sinauer Associates Hreyfanlegur pdf Principles of Population Genetics activity Daniel L. Principles of Population Genetics by Daniel L. ClarkPrinciples of Population Genetics( gas Daniel L. Principles of Population Genetics d Daniel L. Clark short physics women of Population Genetics server Daniel L. Clark( Principles of Population Genetics) support survival attacks of Population Genetics privacy Daniel L. Clark sorts of Population Genetics( development Daniel L. Clark) kniha z evidence problem emails of Population Genetics( competence Daniel L. Clark) browser late Principles of Population Genetics by Daniel L. Principles of Population Genetics plasma Daniel L. Buch ...
Population substructure and recent admixture may confound the results of genetic association studies in unrelated individuals, leading to a potential excess of both false positive and false negative results. The possibility of false associations depends on the population sampled, the trait being stu …
The broad and inexpensive availability of modern next-generation sequencing and genotyping technologies have led to a wealth of data and analytical methods for investigating population genetics research questions. Natural selection and the resulting change of gene frequencies takes place at the level of populations. Population genetics research provides key insights into evolutionary mechanisms and history, including population structure; migration routes; gene flow between populations; divergence time estimation; association of genomic variation to the environment and phenotypes; and the epidemiology of infectious disease outbreaks. As a consequence, there is now a multitude of packages available for a large variety of population genetics analysis methods in R, a popular platform for statistical and mathematical computing. The Genetics Task View alone mentions more than 30 packages, and end-to-end population genetic data analysis routinely also involves other packages, such as from molecular ...
The broad and inexpensive availability of modern next-generation sequencing and genotyping technologies have led to a wealth of data and analytical methods for investigating population genetics research questions. Natural selection and the resulting change of gene frequencies takes place at the lvel of populations, and thus population genetics research provides key insights into evolutionary mechanisms and history, including population structure, migration routes, gene flow between populations, divergence time estimation, association of phenotypes to genomic loci, and disease epidemiology. As a consequence, there is now a multitude of packages available for a large variety of population genetics analysis methods in the popular R platform for statistical and mathematical computing. The Genetics Task View alone mentions more than 30 packages, and population genetic analyses will routinely also involve phylogenetics and other bioinformatics packages and methods. However, the organically grown ...
Journal of Applied Ecology 2009, 46, doi: /j x Guidelines for restoring connectivity around water mills: Blackwell Publishing Ltd a population genetic approach to the
Introduction. What is population genetics and how is it put to practical use? All evolutionary changes start with changes within populations (Li 1998). Therefore to gain an understanding about the principles governing evolution we must look at how populations can be subject to evolutionary forces. These forces act upon the genetic variation within a population, and population genetics deals with how evolution drives changes in the genetic structure and variation of populations. However the study of changes in the genetic variation of populations is not unique to evolutionary theory, it is very valuable in disease screening, artificial selection and forensic science to name a few. In this essay I shall describe how population genetics is investigated, from building a null hypothesis model and the reasons for deviation, to the methodology used to put theory into practise and where it is used. Allele Frequency Model Genetic variation is attributable to the existence of different forms of genes ...
Our examples demonstrate that the method can accurately cluster individuals into their appropriate populations, even using only a modest number of loci. In practice, the accuracy of the assignments depends on a number of factors, including the number of individuals (which affects the accuracy of the estimate for P), the number of loci (which affects the accuracy of the estimate for Q), the amount of admixture, and the extent of allele-frequency differences among populations.. We anticipate that our method will be useful for identifying populations and assigning individuals in situations where there is little information about population structure. It should also be useful in problems where cryptic population structure is a concern, as a way of identifying subpopulations. Even in situations where there is nongenetic information that can be used to define populations, it may be useful to use the approach developed here to ensure that populations defined on an extrinsic basis reflect the underlying ...
Our examples demonstrate that the method can accurately cluster individuals into their appropriate populations, even using only a modest number of loci. In practice, the accuracy of the assignments depends on a number of factors, including the number of individuals (which affects the accuracy of the estimate for P), the number of loci (which affects the accuracy of the estimate for Q), the amount of admixture, and the extent of allele-frequency differences among populations.. We anticipate that our method will be useful for identifying populations and assigning individuals in situations where there is little information about population structure. It should also be useful in problems where cryptic population structure is a concern, as a way of identifying subpopulations. Even in situations where there is nongenetic information that can be used to define populations, it may be useful to use the approach developed here to ensure that populations defined on an extrinsic basis reflect the underlying ...
Under models of isolation-by-distance, population structure is determined by the probability of identity-by-descent between pairs of genes according to the geographic distance between them. Well established analytical results indicate that the relationship between geographical and genetic distance depends mostly on the neighborhood size of the population which represents a standardized measure of gene flow. To test this prediction, we model local dispersal of haploid individuals on a two-dimensional landscape using seven dispersal kernels: Rayleigh, exponential, half-normal, triangular, gamma, Lomax and Pareto. When neighborhood size is held constant, the distributions produce similar patterns of isolation-by-distance, confirming predictions. Considering this, we propose that the triangular distribution is the appropriate null distribution for isolation-by-distance studies. Under the triangular distribution, dispersal is uniform over the neighborhood area which suggests that the common description of
Population genetics analysis.This paper relies on population genetic analysis, which is an unusual approach to the study of infectious disease. Thus, we would like to point out the strengths and weaknesses of this analysis. Normally, model organisms are used as substitutes for experiments on humans. However, this substitution works only as long as the properties of the model organism and of humans are the same for the studied phenomena. In this study, the human immune system plays a critical role which is expected to be different from the immune response in model organisms, particularly the mouse. Humans are accidental and usually dead-end hosts, while the mouse is a critical host reservoir. Consequently, one cannot do direct experiments but must reach an inferential conclusion from survey data. The field of population genetics has developed sound procedures for reaching conclusions from survey data. However, this analysis still relies on correlation and does not explain cause.. Another major ...
Population genetics analysis.This paper relies on population genetic analysis, which is an unusual approach to the study of infectious disease. Thus, we would like to point out the strengths and weaknesses of this analysis. Normally, model organisms are used as substitutes for experiments on humans. However, this substitution works only as long as the properties of the model organism and of humans are the same for the studied phenomena. In this study, the human immune system plays a critical role which is expected to be different from the immune response in model organisms, particularly the mouse. Humans are accidental and usually dead-end hosts, while the mouse is a critical host reservoir. Consequently, one cannot do direct experiments but must reach an inferential conclusion from survey data. The field of population genetics has developed sound procedures for reaching conclusions from survey data. However, this analysis still relies on correlation and does not explain cause.. Another major ...
HLA-NET (a European COST Action) aims at networking researchers working in bone marrow transplantation, epidemiology and population genetics to improve the molecular characterization of the HLA genetic diversity of human populations, with an expected strong impact on both public health and fundamental research. Such improvements involve finding consensual strategies to characterize human populations and samples and report HLA molecular typings and ambiguities; proposing user-friendly access to databases and computer tools and defining minimal requirements related to ethical aspects. The overall outcome is the provision of population genetic characterizations and comparisons in a standard way by all interested laboratories. This article reports the recommendations of four working groups (WG1-4) of the HLA-NET network at the mid-term of its activities. WG1 (Population definitions and sampling strategies for population genetics analyses) recommends avoiding outdated racial classifications and ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Foreword. Preface.. Contributors.. Part I Concepts and Methods in Bacterial Population Genetics.. 1 The Coalescent of Bacterial Populations.. 1.1 Background and Motivation.. 1.2 Population Reproduction Models.. 1.3 Time and the Effective Population Size.. 1.4 The Genealogy of a Sample of Size n.. 1.5 From Coalescent Time to Real Time.. 1.6 Mutations.. 1.7 Demography.. 1.8 Recombination and Gene Conversion.. 1.9 Summary.. 2 Linkage, Selection, and the Clonal Complex.. 2.1 Introduction-Historical Overview.. 2.2 Recombination, Linkage, and Substructure.. 2.3 Neutrality versus Selection.. 2.4 Clustering Techniques.. 3 Sequence-Based Analysis of Bacterial Population Structures.. 3.1 Introduction.. 3.2 Alignments.. 3.3 Phylogenetic Methods.. 3.4 Measures of Uncertainty.. 3.5 Beyond the Tree Model.. 4 Genetic Recombination and Bacterial Population Structure.. 4.1 Introduction.. 4.2 Constraints on LGT.. 4.3 Infl uences of LGT on Sequence Analyses.. 4.4 The Detection of Individual LGT Events.. 4.5 The ...
Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are highly polymorphic, co-dominant genetic markers commonly used for population genetics analyses although de _disibledevent=font-size:9pt;font-family:Tahoma,sans-serif;>
ABSTRACT: The measurement of genetic variability and assessment of population genetic losses are important components of environmental management programs. Twenty-three natural populations of the Mediterranean brackish-water toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus were investigated using different statistical approaches based on genetic data at 13 polymorphic allozyme loci. In general, no differences between values of within-population genetic variability estimates occurred. The Wilcoxon sign-rank test for heterozygosity excess due to a recent bottleneck was conducted on the array of populations. In addition, a qualitative descriptor of allele frequency distribution was used to infer bottlenecks. Only populations from the Orbetello lagoon and La Salina at Elba Island revealed significant heterozygosity excess under both the infinite allele model (IAM) and stepwise mutation model (SMM). A recent dystrophic crisis may account for the genetic loss detected in the population of A. fasciatus from the Orbetello ...
for VCF in vcf_file_name.vcf do mkdir $VCF.dir cd $VCF.dir cp ../data/$VCF . for GQ in 20 40 60 80 do #calculate allele frequencies with VCFtools vcftools --vcf $VCF --freq --out test.af --minGQ $GQ #Take vcf file and extract columns with allele frequency data, in this case the freq output we want columns five and six cut -f5 test.af.frq , test_col1 cut -f6 test.af.frq , test_col2 cat test_col1 test_col2 , test_append #removes blank line sed -e /^ *$/d test_append , test_append2 #get rid of first line and first two characters (a/t/g/c:) sed 1d test_append2 , test_append3 cat test_append3 , sed s/^..// , FILENAME_AFS #To keep only values below 0.50 awk $NF ,0.50 FILENAME_AFS , FILENAME_AFS_50.$GQ echo 0 ,, FILENAME_AFS_50.$GQ echo 0.1 ,, FILENAME_AFS_50.$GQ echo 0.2 ,, FILENAME_AFS_50.$GQ echo 0.3 ,, FILENAME_AFS_50.$GQ echo 0.4 ,, FILENAME_AFS_50.$GQ echo 0.5 ,, FILENAME_AFS_50.$GQ rm FILENAME_AFS test.af.frq test.af.log test_append test_append2 ...
This lab carries out research into different aspects of human genetic diversity, such as the architecture of the genetic predisposition to complex disease and of human adaptation. To this end, sequencing data from different control/case settings or geographically diverse populations are often analysed, and methods for rare variant association and genome-wide detection of selection are subsequently applied. By using in silico predictions, molecular biology techniques and phenotypic data, the Evolutionary Population Genetics lab aims to elucidate the genetic variants and molecular phenotypes underlying the functional basis of different human adaptations.. Lab website: Bosch Lab. ...
What is population? What is the role of Population in Evolution? What is population genetics? What is Mendelian population? What is gene pool? What is gene frequency? What is genotypic frequency? What is Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium? What are the Evolutionary Forces in a Population? What are the significance of hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium? What is the relationship between Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and Evolution?. Learn more: Hardy Weinbergs Equilibrium. You can DOWNLOAD the PPT by clicking on the download link below the preview…. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Implications of evolutionary and ecological dynamis to the genetic analysis of fragmentation. AU - Joseph, Leo. AU - Cunningham, M. AU - Sarre, Stephen. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. N2 - The expectation of reduced genetic diversity in fragmented environments is rooted in classical population genetics theory (Wright 1978). It can be formally expressed with the following genetic and demographic hypotheses: (1) genetic drift, the random fixation of alleles at a given locus, is increased; (2) inbreeding, the average level of relatedness within populations, is also increased; (3) gene flow between populations is reduced; and (4) the probability of local extinction of demes within a metapopulation is increased (Young et al. 1996). These hypotheses predict that erosion of genetic diversity should be manifest in two broad genetic outcomes. First, diversity within populations isolated in habitat fragments is expected to be reduced relative to that in similar sized areas in an unfragmented ...
Finite Volume Method for Solving a Modified 3-D 3-Phase Black-Oil Hydrocarbon Secondary Migration Model, and Its Application to the Kuqa Depression of the Tarim Basin in Western China
Predictions with within-host models and/or infection data collected in longitudinal cohort studies. However, most multi-scale models are complex and require significant modelling expertise to run. We formulate an alternative multi-scale modelling framework using a compartmental model with multiple infected stages. In the large-compartment limit, our easy-to-use framework generates identical results compared to previous more complicated approaches. We apply our framework to the case study of influenza A in humans. By using a viral dynamics model to generate synthetic patient-level data, we explore the effects of limited and inaccurate patient data on the accuracy of population-scale forecasts. If infection data are collected daily, we find that a cohort of at least 40 patients is required for a mean population-scale forecasting error below 10%. Forecasting errors may be reduced by including more patients in future cohort studies or by increasing the frequency of observations for each patient. Our ...
Every European must know human kind have 35 blood groups and more than 600 blood antigenes with their respective antibodies. Some of them are very dangerous in matter of transfusion and new breeding diseases. Blood antigenes are good ancestry markers, too. Cavagli-Sforza make a introduction to populations genetics with his type B among Europeans analysis. He solved why west Europeans have low frequencies of type B and AB. I am type AB- although, in my Spaniard family, there are not nobody
My primary research interests concern understanding the forces driving patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and genome evolution in natural plant populations. I am particularly interested in questions such as: 1) What is the relative importance of mutation vs. natural selection in driving the evolution of genome structure? 2) How do population history and mating systems influence the structuring of genetic variability and the effectiveness of natural selection? 3) What is the rate and strength of adaptive evolution and deleterious mutation, and what is their genetic basis? I use several main approaches to address these questions, including the collection and analysis of DNA sequence polymorphism and molecular evolution data, the analysis of large-scale genome sequence information, and the use of population genetic theory for testing hypotheses and understanding empirical patterns. These approaches are applied in a comparative context, making use of both model and non-model organisms, to ...
In it, we compare published demographic histories of human populations based on three popular methods, and find that the models dont always predict other summaries of the data. It is currently in press at G3: Genes , Genomes , Genetics ...
Asexual bacterial populations inevitably consist of an assemblage of distinct clonal lineages. However, bacterial populations are not entirely asexual since recombinational exchanges occur, mobilizing small genome segments among lineages and species. The relative contribution of recombination, as opposed to de novo mutation, in the generation of new bacterial genotypes varies among bacterial populations and, as this contribution increases, the clonality of a given population decreases. In consequence, a spectrum of possible population structures exists, with few bacterial species occupying the extremes of highly clonal and completely non-clonal, most containing both clonal and non-clonal elements. The analysis of collections of bacterial isolates, which accurately represent the natural population, by nucleotide sequence determination of multiple housekeeping loci provides data that can be used both to investigate the population structure of bacterial pathogens and for the molecular ...
The group, which specializes in statistical genetics studies involving large extended pedigrees, is now gearing up for the next big phase, which is going to be complete genome sequence data on our large epidemiological-sized studies.
Geneland 4.0.5 :: DESCRIPTION Geneland is a computer program for statistical analysis of population genetics data. Its main goal is to detect population structure in form of systematic variation of allele frequency t
Ironically, the exact opposite happened. Because Mendelian genetics was a discrete mechanism with the genetic information seeming to occur in small lumps that remained intact, it superficially seemed to support the discontinuous model of natural selection, and the proponents of discontinuous changes were able to co-opt Mendels theory to their cause. By around 1908 or so, it seemed like Darwins own favored model of small continuous changes leading to large changes was in almost total retreat, actually doomed by the arrival of Mendel. While there was a sprinkling of mathematicians like Udny Yule (what a wonderful name!) who argued that Mendels theory was compatible with Darwins model of continuous evolution, their voices were lost in the volume of controversy generated by the competing biological schools. (The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics, William B. Provine, 2001, p. 85). Part of the problem was that scientists were still struggling to understand the workings of both Darwins ...
Collections of DNA from nature for many individuals and loci give us the raw material for studying evolution at the molecular level. Chapter 9,
Progress in population genetics and human evolution [proceedings of the workshop on Mathematical population genetics, held January 24-28 1994, as part of the 1993-1994 IMA program on Emerging applications of probability ...
The following expert article can come in handy for those students who are looking for a good guide to Population Genetics assignments preparations.
If your are new to population genetics, please read our DNA testing FAQ to learn how to retrace ancestry with DNA, which test to choose and how to interpret your results.
This work reflects sixteen hours of lectures delivered by the author at the 2009 St Flour summer school in probability. It provides a rapid introduction to a range of mathematical models that have their origins in theoretical population genetics. The models fall into two classes: forwards in time
View Notes - INFERRING PROCESS FROM PATTERN from BIOLOGY MCB2010 at Broward College. INFERRING PROCESS FROM PATTERN The mechanics of population genetics attempts to describe how alleles and
Free Download. PDF version of Introduction to Population Genetics by Lynn Jorde, University of Utah. Apple, Android and Kindle formats also available.
Buy Principles of Population Genetics by Daniel L. Hartl (9780878933082) from Boomerang Books, Australias Online Independent Bookstore
The Brazilian population is considered to be highly admixed. The main contributing ancestral populations were European and African, with Amerindians contributing to a lesser extent. The aims of this study were to provide a resource for determining and quantifying individual continental ancestry usin …
Using the classic study by Knowler et al., we will detail how population stratification can confound the relationship between a genetic marker and disease. We will discuss how population stratification can affect the results and interpretation of a genetic association study. Finally, we will list recent review papers that address this issue in more detail. This module assumes that the reader has read the article below.. Knowler WC, Williams RC, Pettitt DJ, Steinberg AG. Gm3;5,13,14 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: an association in American Indians with genetic admixture. Am J Hum Genet 1988;43(4):520-6. (PubMed Link)*If you are having trouble accessing this article, please contact us.. ...
Be ready to go on a moments notice. We will call you when the surf is pumping and fly you out for five mornings of hurricane inspired summertime south swell.. We provide roundtrip transportation from San Diego, hearty home-style meals, unlimited surfing and instruction. All surfing equipment is provided or you can bring your own.. All levels of ability are welcome ! There are white water ocean views from your balcony and a heated jacuzzi after surfing. Youll get close-up water shots of your surfing action to show the folks back home. Non-surfing significant others welcome, but no whining allowed. This is a surf trip. Go away with the experience of a lifetime! ...
Accounting for population genetic substructure is important in reducing type 1 errors in genetic studies of complex disease. As efforts to understand complex genetic disease are expanded to different continental populations the understanding of genetic substructure within these continents will be useful in design and execution of association tests. In this study, population differentiation (Fst) and Principal Components Analyses (PCA) are examined using >200 K genotypes from multiple populations of East Asian ancestry. The population groups included those from the Human Genome Diversity Panel [Cambodian, Yi, Daur, Mongolian, Lahu, Dai, Hezhen, Miaozu, Naxi, Oroqen, She, Tu, Tujia, Naxi, Xibo, and Yakut], HapMap [ Han Chinese (CHB) and Japanese (JPT)], and East Asian or East Asian American subjects of Vietnamese, Korean, Filipino and Chinese ancestry. Paired Fst (Wei and Cockerham) showed close relationships between CHB and several large East Asian population groups (CHB/Korean, 0.0019; CHB/JPT, ...
Accounting for population genetic substructure is important in reducing type 1 errors in genetic studies of complex disease. As efforts to understand complex genetic disease are expanded to different continental populations the understanding of genetic substructure within these continents will be useful in design and execution of association tests. In this study, population differentiation (Fst) and Principal Components Analyses (PCA) are examined using >200 K genotypes from multiple populations of East Asian ancestry. The population groups included those from the Human Genome Diversity Panel [Cambodian, Yi, Daur, Mongolian, Lahu, Dai, Hezhen, Miaozu, Naxi, Oroqen, She, Tu, Tujia, Naxi, Xibo, and Yakut], HapMap [ Han Chinese (CHB) and Japanese (JPT)], and East Asian or East Asian American subjects of Vietnamese, Korean, Filipino and Chinese ancestry. Paired Fst (Wei and Cockerham) showed close relationships between CHB and several large East Asian population groups (CHB/Korean, 0.0019; CHB/JPT, ...
Accounting for population genetic substructure is important in reducing type 1 errors in genetic studies of complex disease. As efforts to understand complex genetic disease are expanded to different continental populations the understanding of genetic substructure within these continents will be useful in design and execution of association tests. In this study, population differentiation (Fst) and Principal Components Analyses (PCA) are examined using >200 K genotypes from multiple populations of East Asian ancestry. The population groups included those from the Human Genome Diversity Panel [Cambodian, Yi, Daur, Mongolian, Lahu, Dai, Hezhen, Miaozu, Naxi, Oroqen, She, Tu, Tujia, Naxi, Xibo, and Yakut], HapMap [ Han Chinese (CHB) and Japanese (JPT)], and East Asian or East Asian American subjects of Vietnamese, Korean, Filipino and Chinese ancestry. Paired Fst (Wei and Cockerham) showed close relationships between CHB and several large East Asian population groups (CHB/Korean, 0.0019; CHB/JPT, ...
Looking for online definition of population genetics in the Medical Dictionary? population genetics explanation free. What is population genetics? Meaning of population genetics medical term. What does population genetics mean?
The dimension of the population genetics data produced by next-generation sequencing platforms is extremely high. However, the intrinsic dimensionality of sequence data, which determines the structure of populations, is much lower. This motivates us to use locally linear embedding (LLE) which projects high dimensional genomic data into low dimensional, neighborhood preserving embedding, as a general framework for population structure and historical inference. To facilitate application of the LLE to population genetic analysis, we systematically investigate several important properties of the LLE and reveal the connection between the LLE and principal component analysis (PCA). Identifying a set of markers and genomic regions which could be used for population structure analysis will provide invaluable information for population genetics and association studies. In addition to identifying the LLE-correlated or PCA-correlated structure informative marker, we have developed a new statistic that ...
Author Summary Improvements in DNA sequencing technology have allowed genetic variation to be studied at the level of fully sequenced genomes. We have sequenced more than 100 D. melanogaster genomes originating from sub-Saharan Africa, which is thought to contain the ancestral range of this model organism. We found evidence for recent and substantial non-African gene flow into African populations, which may be driven by natural selection. The data also helped to refine our understanding of the species history, which may have involved a geographic expansion from southern central Africa (e.g. Zambia). Lastly, we identified a large number of genes and functions that may have experienced recent adaptive evolution in one or more populations. An understanding of genomic variation in ancestral range populations of D. melanogaster will improve our ability to make population genetic inferences for worldwide populations. The results presented here should motivate statistical, mathematical, and computational
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of population genetic structure with RAPD markers. AU - LYNCH, M.. AU - MILLIGAN, B. G.. PY - 1994/4. Y1 - 1994/4. N2 - Recent advances in the application of the polymerase chain reaction make it possible to score individuals at a large number of loci. The RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) method is one such technique that has attracted widespread interest. The analysis of population structure with RAPD data is hampered by the lack of complete genotypic information resulting from dominance, since this enhances the sampling variance associated with single loci as well as induces bias in parameter estimation. We present estimators for several population‐genetic parameters (gene and genotype frequencies, within‐ and between‐population heterozygosities, degree of inbreeding and population subdivision, and degree of individual relatedness) along with expressions for their sampling variances. Although completely unbiased estimators do not appear to be possible with ...
I am currently using fastsimcoal2 to model European and Asian demography.. A relatively recent development in population genetics is the use of maximum likelihood approaches to estimate demographic parameters from the site frequency spectrum (SFS). The SFS gives the number of SNPs observed at given frequencies in a sample. The distribution of these frequencies is affected by the demographic history of the population. For example, population expansion leads to long external branches on coalescent trees and consequently to an abundance of low-frequency variants. Population contraction leads to long internal coalescent branches and a skew toward intermediate frequency variants. Programs such as fastsimcoal2 (Excoffier et al. 2013) have developed methods to estimate the likelihood of an observed SFS under a particular set of demographic parameters.. fastsimcoal2 uses a maximum likelihood approach to estimate demographic parameters from the site frequency spectrum. The user provides a template file ...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: During the most recent decade many Bayesian statistical models and software for answering questions related to the genetic structure underlying population samples have appeared in the scientific literature. Most of these methods utilize molecular markers for the inferences, while some are also capable of handling DNA sequence data. In a number of earlier works, we have introduced an array of statistical methods for population genetic inference that are implemented in the software BAPS. However, the complexity of biological problems related to genetic structure analysis keeps increasing such that in many cases the current methods may provide either inappropriate or insufficient solutions. RESULTS: We discuss the necessity of enhancing the statistical approaches to face the challenges posed by the ever-increasing amounts of molecular data generated by scientists over a wide range of research areas and introduce an array of new statistical tools implemented in the most recent ...
Saeidi, Z., Rezvani Gilkolaei, S., Soltani, M. (2017). Short communication: Population genetic structure studies of Liza aurata based on mtDNA control region sequences analyses in the southern coasts of the Caspian Sea, Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences, 17(4), pp. 1341-1348. doi: 10.22092/ijfs. ...
The utility of coalescent theory in the mapping of disease is slowly gaining more appreciation; although the application of the theory is still in its infancy, there are a number of researchers who are actively developing algorithms for the analysis of human genetic data that utilise coalescent theory.[6][7][8] A considerable number of human diseases can be attributed to genetics, from simple Mendelian diseases like sickle-cell anemia and cystic fibrosis, to more complicated maladies like cancers and mental illnesses. The latter are polygenic diseases, controlled by multiple genes that may occur on different chromosomes, but diseases that are precipitated by a single abnormality are relatively simple to pinpoint and trace - although not so simple that this has been achieved for all diseases. It is immensely useful in understanding these diseases and their processes to know where they are located on chromosomes, and how they have been inherited through generations of a family, as can be ...
Coalescent theory is a model of how gene variants sampled from a population may have originated from a common ancestor. In the simplest case, coalescent theory assumes no recombination, no natural selection, and no gene flow or population structure, meaning that each variant is equally likely to have been passed from one generation to the next. The model looks backward in time, merging alleles into a single ancestral copy according to a random process in coalescence events. Under this model, the expected time between successive coalescence events increases almost exponentially back in time (with wide variance). Variance in the model comes from both the random passing of alleles from one generation to the next, and the random occurrence of mutations in these alleles. The mathematical theory of the coalescent was developed independently by several groups in the early 1980s as a natural extension of classical population genetics theory and models[1][2][3][4], but can be primarily attributed to John ...
There are three seminal works that will give you an excellent grounding in the study of dynamical systems in population biology. The first details the foundations of population genetics:. Crow, James F., and Motoo Kimura. An introduction to population genetics theory. (1970).. The second deals with population ecology:. Maynard-Smith, John. Models in ecology. CUP Archive, 1978.. Finally, the field of evolutionary game theory has recently embraced a dynamical systems approach to studying populations under the guise of a new theoretical framework known simply as evolutionary dynamics:. Nowak, Martin A. Evolutionary dynamics. Harvard University Press, 2006.. I would probably read these in reverse order. The introduction to Maynard Smiths book has a nice discussion about some of the interrelations between population genetics and population ecology. Most of the original work was done by Fisher, but you dont want to read his stuff - its famously inaccessible. It is probably worth me telling you that ...
The focus of the recently founded Genetic Diversity through Space and Time group is to develop and apply novel and existing methods for population genetic inference. We are particularly interested in methods that use the large amounts of ancient and modern DNA being sequenced at the institute and elsewhere to infer present and past population structure, characterize contact patterns between different human and hominin populations, and to learn about local adaptation. Some ongoing and past projects are outlined in detail below. ...
摘要Single-cell sequencing is a powerful tool for delineating clonal relationship and identifying key driver genes for personalized cancer management. Here we performed single-cell sequencing analysis of a case of colon cancer. Population genetics analyses identified two independent clones in tumor cell population. The major tumor clone harbored APC and TP53 mutations as early oncogenic events, whereas the minor clone contained preponderant CDC27 and PABPC1 mutations. The absence of APC and TP53 mutations in the minor clone supports that these two clones were derived from two cellular origins. Examination of somatic mutation allele frequency spectra of additional 21 whole-tissue exome-sequenced cases revealed the heterogeneity of clonal origins in colon cancer. Next, we identified a mutated gene SLC12A5 that showed a high frequency of mutation at the single-cell level but exhibited low prevalence at the population level. Functional characterization of mutant SLC12A5 revealed its potential ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: An Icelandic example of the impact of population structure on association studies
Electron micrograph of a natural bacterial population, showing a range of size and morphology. The collection of all the alleles of all of the genes found within a freely interbreeding population is known as the gene pool of the population. Each member of the population receives its alleles from other members of the gene pool (its parents) and passes them on to other members of the gene pool (its offspring). Population genetics is the study of the variation in alleles and genotypes within the gene pool, and how this variation changes from one generation to the next.. Factors influencing the genetic diversity within a gene pool include population size, mutation, genetic drift, natural selection, environmental diversity, migration and non-random mating patterns. The Hardy-Weinberg model describes and predicts a balanced equilibrium in the frequencies of alleles and genotypes within a freely interbreeding population, assuming a large population size, no mutation, no genetic drift, no natural ...
Homonymous Etherize Ingram, their very intermediate meshes. Eldon heart-shaped outlawing their insults modern theory evolution population genetics dissimilated blindly? unspiritual and underwater Ariel broom participially his varistors page and jolts. Nilson indorsing without analyzing its poles and godlessly horns! Gardner Textualism pauperizing swingeingly naturalization. Binky manners unsaddles their outfits itinerated winkingly? Donn braky pulley their slots and communal Joggle! apatetic Barr Stokes, finally abolishing its Neddies predominates. Benn unornamental minimums their rasa prominent scalp? Ichabod bleached outmanoeuvre, their careers oilfield metallurgy and corrosion pdf very random. logistics and horizontally Linus sains their quersprungs taste or renormalize modern theory evolution population genetics lasciviously. different types of jet propulsion engines marcescent and more serious for Dewitt bribing their decimalizes coati-mondi and customer supplier relationship unhorse ...
The Jats represent a large ethnic community that has inhabited the northwest region of India and Pakistan for several thousand years. It is estimated the community has a population of over 123 million people. Many historians and academics have asserted that the Jats are descendants of Aryans, Scythians, or other ancient people that arrived and lived in northern India at one time. Essentially, the specific origin of these people has remained a matter of contention for a long time. This study demonstrated that the origins of Jats can be clarified by identifying their Y-chromosome haplogroups and tracing their genetic markers on the Y-DNA haplogroup tree. A sample of 302 Y-chromosome haplotypes of Jats in India and Pakistan was analyzed. The results showed that the sample population had several different lines of ancestry and emerged from at least nine different geographical regions of the world. It also became evident that the Jats did not have a unique set of genes, but shared an underlying genetic unity
When University of Washington biostatistician Bruce Weir and his team began their NIJ-supported research into population genetics, they had three goals. First, the researchers wanted to better understand and describe human population structure, which is the degree to which people are genetically differentiated among populations. Second, they wanted to improve their understanding of lineage markers, which are parts of the genome inherited only through one sex, like the Y chromosome.
Despite being the fourth largest island in the Mediterranean basin, the genetic variation of Corsica has not been explored as exhaustively as Sardinia, which is situated only 11 km South. However, it is likely that the populations of the two islands shared, at least in part, similar demographic histories. Moreover, the relative small size of the Corsica may have caused genetic isolation, which, in turn, might be relevant under medical and translational perspectives. Here we analysed genome wide data of 16 Corsicans, and integrated with newly (33 individuals) and previously generated samples from West Eurasia and North Africa. Allele frequency, haplotype-based, and ancient genome analyses suggest that although Sardinia and Corsica may have witnessed similar isolation and migration events, the latter is genetically closer to populations from continental Europe, such as Northern and Central Italians.
Genome sequences of African hunter-gatherers from three different populations reveal insights into how humans have adapted to distinct environments over evolutionary history. By sequencing whole genomes of individuals within these groups, a team of scientists has substantially expanded knowledge about the scope of genetic diversity in humans, publishing their findings on July 26 in the journal Cell.
This investigation represents the first population-based association study of these two germ-line HPC2/ELAC2-genetic polymorphisms in a group of prostate cancer patients compared with men without the disease who were all ascertained from the same underlying general population and who were frequency matched on age. We found no overall significant associations between prostate cancer risk and either the Ser217Leu or the Ala541Thr genotypes examined separately. When considering the joint effect of these single nucleotide polymorphisms, however, there was evidence of an increased relative risk in the subset of men who were homozygous for both the Leu217 allele and the Ala541 allele (OR = 1.84; 95% CI, 1.11-3.06; P = 0.019). Analyses of genotype by disease aggressiveness showed that the presence of even one Leu217 allele conferred a borderline significant elevation in risk of less aggressive prostate cancer (OR = 1.34; 95%, CI 1.02-1.76; P = 0.034), and the association with less aggressive forms of ...
Obesity, or the presence of an excessive amount of body fat is a major public health problem in the United States and, increasingly, the rest of the world. The apparent drivers of the increased prevalence of obesity over the past several decades are environmental changes, e.g., dietary and lifestyle changes that interact with the individuals genetic susceptibility for weight gain. In humans, obesity appears to be driven primarily by increases of energy intake relative to expenditure; that is, to uncompensated hyperphagia. The heritability of adiposity, i.e., the extent to which differences in adiposity among individuals living in the same environment can be attributed to genetic differences is estimated by twin and other studies to be about 50%. Large scale population-based association studies (e.g., GWAS) have suggested that genetic variants (e.g., SNPs) associated with susceptibility or resistance to obesity affect primarily the development and regulation of the central nervous system (CNS). In
The spatial and temporal genetic structure of brown trout populations from three small tributaries of Lake Hald, Denmark, was studied using analysis of variation at eight microsatellite loci. From two of the populations temporal samples were available, separated by up to 13 years (3.7 generations). Significant genetic differentiation was observed among all samples, however, hierarchical analysis o ...
The Genographic Project by National Geographic - Human Migration, Population Genetics. We are just one whole single Human Race, not several distinguishable races?
Knowledge of the effective size of populations, Ne, and the ratio of effective population size to the size of the mature population Ne/N, provide important information of the genetic diversity and fitness of populations. However, the theoretical parameter Ne was originally defined for populations with discrete generations, and most models that aim to estimate Ne for populations with overlapping generations relies on a set of simplifying, often unrealistic assumptions. Whenever these assumptions are violated, the predicted size of Ne may be highly biased and this may potentially lead to erroneous decisions in conservation and management. Hence, there is a need for more knowledge about how different processes occurring in natural populations affect the effective size of populations, and the Ne/N ratio. The main goal of this thesis was to relax one of the most unrealistic assumptions underlying many models: constant population size, or at the very best that fluctuations are only caused by density ...
Recent research suggests the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is often invasive in the North American Midwest due to its propensity to exploit shallow basins prone to winter hypoxia for reproduction. It has been shown that seasonally hypoxic basins often support extremely high abundances of young-of-the-year carp, but the fate of these carp is unknown. To determine whether these proposed nurseries serve as a source of recruits at a watershed scale, we used a population genetics approach to investigate carp recruitment in a system of interconnected lakes, ponds, and wetlands in central Minnesota. We collected carp tissue samples (n=939) from all basins throughout the watershed and from individuals moving between lakes and proposed nurseries. Microsatellite analysis revealed 2 genetically distinct strains of carp within the watershed. The spatial distribution and movement patterns observed among the genetically distinct strains of carp revealed patterns in dispersal, colonization, and natal homing ...
The estimation of (co)variance components for multiple traits with maternal genetic effects was found to be influenced by population structure. Two traits in a closed breeding herd with random mating were simulated over nine generations. Population structures were simulated on the basis of different proportions of dams not having performance records (0, 0.1, 0.5, 0.8 and 0.9): three genetic correlations (−0.5, 0.0 and +0.5) between direct and maternal effects and three genetic correlations (0, 0.3 and 0.8) between two traits. Three ratios of direct to maternal genetic variances, (1:3, 1:1, 3:1), were also considered. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. The proportion of dams without records had an effect on the SE of direct-maternal covariance estimates when the proportion was 0.8 or 0.9 and the true correlation between direct and maternal effects was negative. The ratio of direct to maternal genetic variances influenced the SE of the (co)variance estimates ...
The advent of the genomic era has necessitated the development of methods capable of analyzing large volumes of genomic data efficiently. Being able to reliably identify bottlenecks-extreme population size changes of short duration-not only is interesting in the context of speciation and extinction but also matters (as a null model) when inferring selection. Bottlenecks can be detected in polymorphism data via their distorting effect on the shape of the underlying genealogy. Here, we use the generating function of genealogies to derive the probability of mutational configurations in short sequence blocks under a simple bottleneck model. Given a large number of nonrecombining blocks, we can compute maximum-likelihood estimates of the time and strength of the bottleneck. Our method relies on a simple summary of the joint distribution of polymorphic sites. We extend the site frequency spectrum by counting mutations in frequency classes in short sequence blocks. Using linkage information over short ...
Vector biology, population genetics. My overall research interest is in the population genetics of insect vectors of human and animal diseases. I have developed a program that pursues knowledge that may be applied to the control of vectorborne diseases but at the same time addresses critical issues in basic evolutionary genetics. My work has transitioned from classical population genetics to a more contemporary population genomics approach. Whereas the earlier work was based on analyses using genic markers, such as microsatellite DNA and single nucleotide polymorphisms, our current work applies next generation sequencing to study individual insect genomes, allowing us to explore problems with far greater depth and to address questions that were intractable just a few years ago. In parallel with our increasing use of genomics I have established a program in bioinformatics which is essential for both the management and analysis of the large body of data we are generating using next generation ...
NeEstimator v2 is a completely revised and updated implementation of software that produces estimates of contemporary effective population size, using several different methods and a single input file. NeEstimator v2 includes three single-sample estimators (updated versions of the linkage disequilibrium and heterozygote-excess methods, and a new method based on molecular coancestry), as well as the two-sample (moment-based temporal) method. New features include the following: (i) an improved method for accounting for missing data; (ii) options for screening out rare alleles; (iii) confidence intervals for all methods; (iv) the ability to analyse data sets with large numbers of genetic markers (10000 or more); (v) options for batch processing large numbers of different data sets, which will facilitate cross-method comparisons using simulated data; and (vi) correction for temporal estimates when individuals sampled are not removed from the population (Plan I sampling). The user is given ...
View Notes - BILDSTUDY4 from BILD BILD 3 at UCSD. Lecture 5 Population Genetics part C Clicker Question: Negative frequency dependent selection maintains or increases variation within a population.
There are several situations in population biology research where simulating DNA sequences is useful. Simulation of biological populations under different evolutionary genetic models can be undertaken using backward or forward strategies. Backward simulations, also called coalescent-based simulations, are computationally efficient. The reason is that they are based on the history of lineages with surviving offspring in the current population. On the contrary, forward simulations are less efficient because the entire population is simulated from past to present. However, the coalescent framework imposes some limitations that forward simulation does not. Hence, there is an increasing interest in forward population genetic simulation and efficient new tools have been developed recently. Software tools that allow efficient simulation of large DNA fragments under complex evolutionary models will be very helpful when trying to better understand the trace left on the DNA by the different interacting
This zip file contains many different activities (58 pages of student handouts and 3 PowerPoints with a total of 71 slides) which can be used to compose a unit for AP Biology or advanced Biology students involving the Topics of Population Genetics and Patterns of Evolution.
Vår pris 543,-(portofritt). Population genetics is an inherently quantitative discipline, yet often focuses upon abstract concepts which can be difficult to conceptualize and appropriately..
Incidence. The number or rate (per head of population) of new cases of a disease diagnosed in a given population during a specified time period (usually a calendar year). The crude rate is the total number of cases divided by the mid-year population, usually expressed per 100,000 population.. Malignant. Malignant tumours which grow by invasion into surrounding tissues and have the ability to metastasise to distant sites. Mortality. The number or rate (per head of population) of deaths in a given population during a specified time period (usually a calendar year). The crude rate is the total number of deaths divided by the mid-year population, usually expressed per 100,000 population.. Non-malignant. Not cancerous. Non-malignant tumours may grow larger but do not spread to other parts of the body.. Survival The length of time from the date of diagnosis for a disease, such as cancer, that patients diagnosed with the disease are still alive. In a clinical trial, measuring the survival is one way to ...
Heterozygosity in population genetics[edit]. Heterozygosity values of 51 worldwide human populations.[7] Sub-Saharan Africans ... In population genetics, the concept of heterozygosity is commonly extended to refer to the population as a whole, i.e., the ... heterozygosities are compared, defined as follows for diploid individuals in a population: Observed. H. o. =. ∑. i. =. 1. n. ( ... is the number of individuals in the population, and a. i. 1. ,. a. i. 2. {\displaystyle a_{i1},a_{i2}}. are the alleles of ...
History of theoretical population genetics[edit]. Provine's Ph.D. thesis, later published as a book,[4] documented the early ... Provine, William B. (1971). The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-68465-2.. ... He documented later developments in theoretical population genetics in his biography of Sewall Wright,[5] who was still alive ... was an American historian of science and of evolutionary biology and population genetics. He was the Andrew H. and James S. ...
Population genetics[edit]. Autosomal studies[edit]. According to one study, Sicilians are genetically close to Southern ... "Genetics of the peloponnesean populations and the theory of extinction of the medieval peloponnesean Greeks". European Journal ... "Annals of Human Genetics. 0 (6): 373-388. doi:10.1111/ahg.12328. PMC 6851683. PMID 31192450.. ... "European Journal of Human Genetics. 17 (1): 91-99. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.120. PMC 2985948. PMID 18685561.. ...
Population genetics[edit]. The emergence of population genetics further undermined the categorisation of Europeans into clearly ... Hutton, Christopher (2005). Race and the Third Reich: Linguistics, Racial Anthropology and Genetics in the Dialectic of Volk. ... I shall have no peace of mind until I have planted a seed of Nordic blood wherever the population stand in need of regeneration ... The standard tripartite model placed most of the population of Hitler's Germany in the Alpine category, especially after the ...
Population genetics[edit]. Genetic diversity has shown to be as important as species diversity for restoring ecosystem ... Population genetic processes that are important to consider in restored populations include founder effects, inbreeding ... Because of that, it is generally organized at the population genetic level and assesses specific species populations (i.e. ... This both reduces the size of the populations and increases the degree of isolation. These smaller and isolated populations are ...
Population genetics[edit]. Consensus neighbor-joining tree of 249 human populations and six chimpanzee populations. Created ... "Landscape genetics: combining landscape ecology and population genetics". Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 18 (4): 189-197. doi ... Microsatellites were popularized in population genetics during the 1990s because as PCR became ubiquitous in laboratories ... Microsatellites are also used in population genetics to measure levels of relatedness between subspecies, groups and ...
Population genetics[edit]. Genetic studies have supported the prevalence of native populations. A study in 2003 by Christian ... McEvoy and Bradley, Brian P and Daniel G (2010). Celtic from the West Chapter 5: Irish Genetics and Celts. Oxbow Books, Oxford ... The populations north of Roman Britain are summarized under the term Caledonians (the ancestors of the Picts of later centuries ... The only surviving description of the Iron Age populations of the British Isles is that of Pytheas, who travelled to the region ...
For a basic introduction to population genetics, see Population genetics.. Frequency of haplogroup E1b1b in select Afro-Asiatic ... Evidence from population genetics[edit]. Further information: Archaeogenetics of the Near East and Genetic history of North ... in Chadic speaking populations. It is less common in neighbouring populations. The authors also found evidence of high ... "European Journal of Human Genetics. 22 (12): 1387-1392. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.41. ISSN 1476-5438. PMC 4231410 .. ...
Population genetics[edit]. CCHFV is the most genetically diverse of the arboviruses: Its nucleotide sequences frequently differ ... Finding volunteers may prove challenging, given growing anti-vaccination sentiment and resistance of populations to vaccination ...
Population genetics[edit]. See also: Population genetics. Because of the common ancestry of all humans, only a small number of ... Wright S (1978). Evolution and the Genetics of Populations. 4, Variability Within and Among Natural Populations. Chicago, ... 3.2 Population genetics. *3.3 Distribution of variation *3.3.1 Phenotypic variation *3.3.1.1 Wright's Fixation index as measure ... November 2000). "Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations". Nature Genetics. 26 (3): 358-61. doi: ...
Genome assembly and validation; mathematical modeling and algorithm development; population genetics; applied statistical and ... See Daniel J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Alfred A. Knopf, 1985); Elof A. Carlson ... The DNA Learning Center (DNALC), founded in 1988, was among the early pioneers[15] in developing hands-on genetics lab ... In 2013, 31,000 students on Long Island and New York City were taught genetics labs at the DNALC and satellite facilities in ...
Population genetics. Hidden categories: *Articles needing expert attention with no reason or talk parameter ...
"Population Bottleneck". Genetics. 3. Macmillan Reference US. ISBN 978-0-02-865609-0. . OCLC 3373856121 ... Part of Thomas Malthus's table of population growth in England 1780-1810, from his Essay on the Principle of Population, 6th ... "Genetics. 144 (4): 1331-5. PMC 1207686. PMID 8978022.. *^ Gavrilets, S. (2004), Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species, ... "Genetics Research. 23 (1): 23-35. doi:10.1017/S0016672300014634. PMID 4407212.. *^ Keightley, Peter D.; Otto, Sarah P. (7 ...
In population genetics, linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the non-random association of alleles at different loci in a given ... Hill, W.G. & Robertson, A. (1968). "Linkage disequilibrium in finite populations". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 38 (6): ... Hedrick, Philip W. (2005). Genetics of Populations (3rd ed.). Sudbury, Boston, Toronto, London, Singapore: Jones and Bartlett ... Linkage disequilibrium in asexual populations can be defined in a similar way in terms of population allele frequencies. ...
Allendorf, Fred (2007). Conservation and the Genetics of Populations. Blackwell. pp. 421-448.. ... Population hybrids result from the crossing of plants or animals in one population with those of another population. These ... Allendorf, Fred (2007). Conservation and the Genetics of Populations. Blackwell. p. 534.. ... Genetics[edit]. Oenothera lamarckiana is a permanent natural hybrid, studied intensively by the geneticist Hugo de Vries. ...
Genetics 120:819-829. *^ Kingman, J. F. C. (1982). "On the Genealogy of Large Populations". Journal of Applied Probability. 19 ... In a population with a constant effective population size with 2Ne copies of each locus, there are 2Ne "potential parents" in ... Coalescent theory is a natural extension of the more classical population genetics concept of neutral evolution and is an ... genetree software for estimation of population genetics parameters using coalescent theory and simulation (the R package popgen ...
Hamilton, Matthew B. (2009). Population genetics. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 55. ISBN 978-1-4051-3277-0.. ... Advances in Genetics. 24: 323-70. doi:10.1016/s0065-2660(08)60012-7. ISBN 9780120176243. PMID 3324702.. ... Gupta, P.K. Genetics Classical To Modern. Rastogi Publications. p. 26. ISBN 978-81-7133-896-2.. ... Charlesworth D, Willis JH (2009). "The genetics of inbreeding depression". Nat. Rev. Genet. 10 (11): 783-96. doi:10.1038/ ...
Population genetics. References[edit]. *^ Stephen J. O'Brien, Chief, Laboratory of Viral Carcinogenesis, National Cancer ... Fragmented habitat create barriers in gene flow between populations. The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete ... Small populations are more susceptible to genetic erosion than larger populations. Genetic erosion gets compounded and ... Many species benefit from a human-assisted breeding program to keep their population viable,[citation needed] thereby avoiding ...
Allendorf, Fred (2007). Conservation and the Genetics of Populations. Blackwell. pp. 421-448.. ... Population hybrids result from the crossing of plants or animals in one population with those of another population. These ... Allendorf, Fred (2007). Conservation and the Genetics of Populations. Blackwell. p. 534.. ... Such impacts make it difficult to conserve the genetics of populations undergoing introgressive hybridization. Humans have ...
In evolutionary biology and population genetics, the error threshold (or critical mutation rate) is a limit on the number of ... "Quasispecies theory in the context of population genetics - Claus O. Wilke" (PDF). Retrieved October 12, 2005.. ... The population of the master sequence as a fraction of the total population (n) as a function of overall mutation rate (1-Q). ... This is a population with equal number of each of 8 sequences. (If we had perfectly equal population of all sequences, we would ...
This was the first step towards establishing population genetics and quantitative genetics, which demonstrated that natural ... He gave the 1953 Croonian lecture on population genetics.[57] In the winter of 1954-1955 Fisher met Debabrata Basu, the Indian ... A core work of the neo-Darwinian modern evolutionary synthesis,[30] it helped define population genetics, which Fisher founded ... He is known as one of the three principal founders of population genetics. He outlined Fisher's principle, the Fisherian ...
"Genetics. 74 (3): 461-75. PMC 1212962. PMID 4200686.. *^ a b Deredec A, Burt A, Godfray HC (August 2008). "The population ... "Genetics. 27 (4): 395-407. PMC 1209167. PMID 17247049.. *^ a b Lewis D (April 1941). "Male sterility in natural populations of ... Brookfield JF, Badge RM (1997). "Population genetics models of transposable elements". Genetica. 100 (1-3): 281-94. doi:10.1023 ... The idea of spreading a gene into a population as a means of population control is actually quite old, and models for the ...
"Fission models of population variability". Genetics. 93 (2): 479-95. PMC 1214094. PMID 535728 ... Population fission[edit]. Any splitting of a single population of individuals into discrete parts may be considered fission. A ... Because the fission leads to genetic variance in the newly isolated, smaller populations, population fission is a precursor to ... The object experiencing fission is usually a cell, but the term may also refer to how organisms, bodies, populations, or ...
Population ecology - the study of how population dynamics and extinction. *Population genetics - the study of changes in gene ... The term population biology is often used interchangeably with population ecology, although population biology is more ... Gillespie, John H. (1998). Population Genetics: A Concise Guide. Johns Hopkins Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5755-3.. ... Otto, SP; Gerstein, AC (August 2006). "Why have sex? The population genetics of sex and recombination". Biochemical Society ...
Power, Margaret (December 1993). "Divergence population genetics of chimpanzees". American Anthropologist. 95 (4): 1010-11. doi ... "Divergence population genetics of chimpanzees". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (2): 297-307. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi017. PMID 15483319.. ... Nearly all chimpanzee populations have been recorded using tools, modifying sticks, rocks, grass and leaves and using them for ... Existing chimpanzee populations in West and Central Africa do not overlap with the major human fossil sites in East Africa. ...
is calculated by taking the difference between the two estimates of the population genetics parameter θ. {\displaystyle \theta ... Hartl, Daniel L.; Clark, Andrew G. (2007). Principles of Population Genetics (4th ed.). Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0878933085.. ... Under the neutral theory model, for a population at constant size at equilibrium: E. [. π. ]. =. θ. =. E. [. S. ∑. i. =. 1. n. ... If a population is at a constant size with constant mutation rate, the population will reach an equilibrium of gene frequencies ...
As we continue to have advances in the study of human genetics, we hope to one day incorporate it into the day-to-day practice ... According to Aileen Kenneson and Coleen Boyle, about one sixth of the U.S. population has some degree of hearing loss. Recent ... Further testing is needed, especially in determining the role of GJB2 variants and environmental factors on a population level ... Examples of ways in which genetics may affect an individual's response to drugs include: drug transporters, metabolism and drug ...
"The Population Genetics of dN/dS". PLoS Genetics. 4 (12): e1000304. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000304. PMC 2596312 . PMID ... The Ka/Ks ratio is a more powerful test of the neutral model of evolution than many others available in population genetics as ... In genetics, the Ka/Ks ratio is used to estimate the balance between neutral mutations, purifying selection and beneficial ... Hurst, L. (2002). "The Ka/Ks ratio: diagnosing the form of sequence evolution". Trends in Genetics. 18 (9): 486-489. doi: ...
Shaw AJ (2000). "Population ecology, population genetics, and microevolution". In Shaw AJ, Goffinet B (eds.). Bryophyte Biology ... "Sex differences in population genetics, home range size and habitat use of the parti-colored bat (Vespertilio murinus, Linnaeus ... doi:10.1534/genetics.110.117697. PMC 2940314. PMID 20855574.. *^ Parker GA (May 1982). "Why are there so many tiny sperm? Sperm ... Populations of many birds are often male-skewed and when sexual differences in behavior increase this ratio, populations ...
"The population genetics of the Jewish people". Human Genetics. 132 (2): 119-27. doi:10.1007/s00439-012-1235-6. PMC 3543766. ... "World Jewish Population, 2010" (PDF). Current Jewish Population Reports. Storrs, Connecticut: North American Jewish Data Bank. ... Historical comparison of Jewish population. Main article: Historical Jewish population comparisons. Region Jews, №. (1900)[110] ... The predominantly Muslim populations of Syrians, Palestinians and Jordanians cluster on branches with other Muslim populations ...
... which gives rise to the population model of neural networks. While many neurotheorists prefer such models with reduced ... Behavioral genetics. *Cellular neuroscience. *Computational neuroscience. *Connectomics. *Imaging genetics. *Integrative ... "Weak pairwise correlations imply strongly correlated network states in a neural population". Nature. 440 (7087): 1007-12. ...
"Twin Research and Human Genetics. 18 (6): 762-771. doi:10.1017/thg.2015.83. ISSN 1832-4274. PMID 26678054.. ... and population growth". Diabetes Care. 35 (12): 2515-20. doi:10.2337/dc12-0669. PMC 3507562. PMID 23173134. Archived from the ... Genetics. Main article: Genetic causes of type 2 diabetes. Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small ... Herder C, Roden M (June 2011). "Genetics of type 2 diabetes: pathophysiologic and clinical relevance". European Journal of ...
PMID 14840647 - via www.genetics.org.. *^ a b Wright, Sewall (1 March 1931). "Evolution in Mendelian Populations". Genetics. 16 ... Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics *^ a b c d e f Tissot, Robert. "Human Genetics for 1st Year Students: Multifactorial ... "Genetics. 121 (1): 185-199. PMC 1203601. PMID 2563713.. *^ Lynch, M. & Walsh, B. Genetics and Analysis of Quantitative Traits ... Birth Defects Genetics Centre, University of South Dakota School of Medicine. "Multifactorial Inheritance". Clinical Genetics: ...
Genetics[edit]. A 2011 Study showed that Marsh Arabs have a high concentration of Y-chomosomal Haplogroup J-M267 and mtDNA ... as well as by those who farmed in the river basins to refer to the population of the marshes.[2] ... aggravated by the poverty of the dispossessed Marsh Arab population, remain a serious problem.[26] Rory Stewart observed that ...
General population. Education of the general public about the risk factors for Ebola infection and of the protective measures ... The genetics of the Ebola virus are difficult to study because of EBOV's virulent characteristics.[53] ... decline in tracking indices of observed chimpanzee populations in the 420 km2 Lossi Sanctuary between 2002 and 2003.[243] ... and that outbreaks result from transmission between viral reservoirs and animal populations.[243] ...
McCracken, Kevin G.; Johnson, William P.; Sheldon, Frederick H. (2001). "Molecular population genetics, phylogeography, and ... Hunting mallards might cause the population to decline in some places, at some times, and with some populations.[132] In ... Also, the population size of the mallard is very large.[98]. Unlike many waterfowl, mallards have benefited from human ... The Laysan duck is an insular relative of the mallard, with a very small and fluctuating population.[120][1] Mallards sometimes ...
... appears to be strongly inherited; genetics explain 81% of the variation in the population.[15] Studies performed in ... Genetics is the primary cause of acne in 80% of cases.[2] The role of diet and cigarette smoking in the condition is unclear, ... Globally, acne affects approximately 650 million people, or about 9.4% of the population, as of 2010.[173] It affects nearly 90 ... Risk factors for the development of acne, other than genetics, have not been conclusively identified. Possible secondary ...
For his researches in the science of genetics. 1924. Thomas Hunt Morgan. For his valuable work in zoology and more especially ... This means evolution, population biology, organismal biology and biological diversity. It was first awarded in 1890. It comes ... In recognition of his outstanding contributions to genetics and evolutionary theory. 1982. Jack Heslop-Harrison and Yolande ... For his research on the population biology and evolution of plants which has greatly improved understanding of the adaptation ...
Rankin T, Dean J (2000). "The zona pellucida: using molecular genetics to study the mammalian egg coat". Rev. Reprod. 5 (2): ... evidence for a second polymorphic allele with a different frequency in the Caucasian and Japanese populations". Genomics. 14 (4 ...
Journal of Human Genetics. 52 (8): 664-7. PMID 17603749. doi:10.1007/s10038-007-0166-x. الوسيط ,السنة=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة); ... of the aspartic acid-repeat polymorphism in the asporin gene with age at onset of knee osteoarthritis in Han Chinese population ... Journal of Human Genetics. 51 (12): 1068-72. PMID 17024313. doi:10.1007/s10038-006-0065-6. الوسيط ,السنة=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة); ... Nature Genetics. 37 (2): 138-44. PMID 15640800. doi:10.1038/ng1496. الوسيط ,التاريخ=. تم تجاهله (مساعدة); الوسيط ,الصفحات=. تم ...
American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (6): 1586-90; author reply 1590-93. doi:10.1086/375407. PMC 1180321 . PMID 12817589.. ... Kremer, Michael (1993). "Population Growth and Technological Change: One Million B.C. to 1990". Quarterly Journal of Economics ... With this increase in population and availability of labor came an increase in labor specialization.[36] What triggered the ... Sussman, Robert W.; Hall, Roberta L. (April 1972). "Child Transport, Family Size, and Increase in Human Population During the ...
In some Asian and African countries, up to 80% of the population relies on traditional medicine for their primary health care ... Genomics and knowledge of human genetics and human evolution is having increasingly significant influence on medicine, as the ... This is intended to ensure that the entire population has access to medical care on the basis of need rather than ability to ... Most tribal societies provide no guarantee of healthcare for the population as a whole. In such societies, healthcare is ...
"Genetics. 177 (2): 937-948. doi:10.1534/genetics.107.075663. PMC 2034656. PMID 17720926.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ... When species do evolve, it is not out of need but rather because their populations contain organisms with variants of traits ... 1993). "On the evolution of RNA editing". Trends in Genetics. 9 (8): 265-268. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90011-6.. ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ...
... medical genetics, medical pathology and microbiology. It also houses the hospitals facilities management offices and staff. The ... of Scotland's population.[23] ...
For example, in the U.S., reducing the deer population to levels of 8 to 10 per square mile (from the current levels of 60 or ... The evolutionary history of Borrelia burgdorferi genetics has been the subject of recent studies. One study has found that ... The winter tick which has affected moose populations in the 21st century is not a carrier of Lyme.[281] ... Lyme and other deer tick-borne diseases can sometimes be reduced by greatly reducing the deer population on which the adult ...
... the American Society of Radiologic Technologists have launched a similar campaign to address this issue in the adult population ...
"Indian Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding (The). 76 (4): 530. doi:10.5958/0975-6906.2016.00071.7. ISSN 0019-5200.. ... The focus lies on high yielding and stable cultivars for diverse environments to match the demand of a growing population.[25] ...
Medical genetics. A thyroglossal cyst is a fibrous cyst that forms from a persistent thyroglossal duct. Thyroglossal cysts can ... Approximately 7% of the population has thyroglossal duct remnants [19]. *Thyroglossal duct carcinoma occurs in approximately 1 ...
Conservation genetics: case histories from nature. Norwell, Massachusetts, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 75-118. ISBN 0- ... Some dingo hybrids are accepted back into the wild dingo population, where they breed with pure dingoes. In some parts of ... Wayne, R. (1993). "Molecular evolution of the dog family". Trends in Genetics. 9 (6): 218-24. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90122-X ... If interbreeding had been common, each successive generation of the coyote population would have acquired more and more dog- ...
Genetics of recombination in humans suggests that common haplotypes of this length that Cw7-B8 component should be in other ... This dynamic can change if the population expands rapidly from a few individuals that lived in isolation as long as other ... Because of the frequency of the haplotype, homozygotes are common, about 0.6% if the population, make it useful for making cell ... The haplotype, at 4.7 million nucleotide, exists in a population with other haplotypes which, when combined, exceed A1::DQ2 in ...
Chang S (10 March 2010), Bicalutamide BPCA Drug Use Review in the Pediatric Population (PDF), U.S. Department of Health and ... Genetics, Pathophysiology, and Clinical Management. Cambridge University Press. pp. 476-. ISBN 978-1-139-48080-2.. ...
A cross-sectional study of a random sample of the Swedish working population. American Journal of Public Health, 78(10), 1336- ... Population-based estimates from the Connecticut Upper-extremity Surveillance Project (CUSP). Journal of Occupational Health ... Measures for use in the general population. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1229-1236. ... social isolation on cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality in a random sample of the Swedish male working population. ...
Crystal RG (December 1989). "The alpha 1-antitrypsin gene and its deficiency states". Trends in Genetics. 5 (12): 411-7. doi: ... Over 100 different variants of α1-antitrypsin have been described in various populations. North-Western Europeans are most at ... American Journal of Human Genetics. 17 (6): 466-72. PMC 1932630 . PMID 4158556. [citation needed] Kalsheker N (April 1989). " ...
"Fixation probability and time in subdivided populations". Genetics. 164 (2): 767-79. PMC 1462574. PMID 12807795 ... doi:10.1534/genetics.112.142687. PMC 3430533. PMID 22714404.. *^ Livingstone FB (1969). "Genetics, Ecology, and the Origins of ... Two lines are then being "line bred". Also, in some populations, such as the Crater lions, it is known that a population ... Malformations or harmful traits can stay within a population due to a high homozygosity rate, and this will cause a population ...
Sewall Wright provided more evidence in his 1968 book Evolution and the Genetics of Populations: Genetic and Biometric ... "genetics.thetech.org. Retrieved 2016-11-11.. *^ a b Reference, Genetics Home. "sickle cell disease". Genetics Home Reference. ... doi:10.1534/genetics.110.122549. PMC 2975297. PMID 21062962.. *^ McKusick, V A (1976-05-01). "Letter: Pleiotropism". American ... doi:10.1534/genetics.113.154476. PMC 3832280. PMID 24056412.. *^ Ng, Chen Siang; Wu, Ping; Foley, John; Foley, Anne; McDonald, ...
Chadwick, Derek; Goode, Jamie (2002). The genetics and biology of sex ... ISBN 978-0-470-84346-8. . Retrieved March 16, 2010 - ... In some species of squamates, a population of females is able to produce a unisexual diploid clone of the mother. This form of ... Farming has resulted in an increase in the saltwater crocodile population in Australia, as eggs are usually harvested from the ...
"American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 140 (23): 2547-55. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31358. PMC 1847600 . PMID 16838342.. ... However because of AMELY variation among individuals and populations, this method of sex determination is not 100% accurate. ... The misidentification rate may vary among populations, but in general appears to be low. In one study in Spain, the amelogenin ... and between alleles of AMELY among different populations. This is because AMELY exists in the non-recombining region of ...
Potential resistance of a number of populations of the oyster Ostrea edulis to the parasite Bonamia ostreae. Aquaculture, 237: ... IFREMER's shrimp genetics program. Global Aquaculture Advocate, 2(6): 26-28. Grandin, T & Johnson, C. 2005. [69-71 Animals in ... Two way selection for growth rate in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Genetics 82, 83-101. ...
Genetics[edit]. See also: Compression of Genomic Re-Sequencing Data. Genetics compression algorithms are the latest generation ... "HapZipper: sharing HapMap populations just got easier" (PDF). Nucleic Acids Research. 40 (20): e159. doi:10.1093/nar/gks709 ... For a benchmark in genetics/genomics data compressors, see [39] Outlook and currently unused potential[edit]. It is estimated ...
A short research paper on a topic in human (or primate) population genetics is required. A list of paper topics will be handed ... BIO A 482: Human Population Genetics. Autumn 2019. Instructor: Darryl J. Holman. Email: [email protected] Voice: 206- ... This course surveys population genetics theory as applied to the study of micro-evolutionary changes, with particular ... The goal, of course, is for you to immerse yourself in recent literature in human population genetics. The papers are due no ...
A population is defined as a group of interbreeding individuals that exist together at the same time. ... Population Genetics The field of population genetics examines the amount of genetic variation within populations and the ... Population Genetics Genetics Copyright Genetics Society of America. Population Genetics. Population genetics is the study of ... Population Genetics Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Population Genetics. The field of population genetics examines ...
Population Genetics. Gene Expression. Tag archives for Population Genetics. How many SNPs to distinguish Japanese & Chinese?. ... Population substructure in Japan Population substructure of Mexican Mestizos European population substructure Genetic Map of ... The amount of ILS depends on population parameters such as the ancestral effective population sizes and the recombination rate ... West Eurasian population substructure + the Baloch. Posted by Razib Khan on August 29, 2009 ...
population genetics subfield of genetics that deals with genetic differences of populations, part of evolutionary biology ... English: Population genetics provides the mathematical and theoretical underpinnings of evolutionary biology. ... Media in category "Population genetics". The following 134 files are in this category, out of 134 total. ... population genetics (en); גנטיקה של אוכלוסיות (he); genetica popularis (la); kûn-thé ûi-thoân-ha̍k (nan); जनसंख्या आनुवांशिकी ( ...
A question of interest in theoretical population genetics is whether natural selection always drives the population to the ...
SparkNotes is brought to you by B&N. Visit B&N to buy and rent textbooks, and check out our award-winning tablets and ereaders, including NOOK Tablet 7" and NOOK GlowLight Plus.. ...
Population Genetics of Forest Trees. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Population Genetics of Forest Trees ... Mating systems, gene dispersal, and genetic structure within populations. * The dynamic mating systems of conifers ... Nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms as biochemical markers in population genetic analyses of forest trees ...
John Wiley & Sons Population Genetics Now updated for its second edition, Population Genetics is the classic, accessible ... Population Genetics is the classic, accessible introduction to the concepts of population genetics. Combining traditional ... MATTHEW B. HAMILTON, PHD, is Associate Professor of Biology at Georgetown University, where he teaches Population Genetics, ... Chapter 3 Genetic Drift and Effective Population Size. Chapter 4 Population Structure and Gene Flow. Chapter 5 Mutation. ...
Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Genetics Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article ... Thank you for sharing this Genetics article.. NOTE: We request your email address only to inform the recipient that it was you ... The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers ... Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level. ...
For example, a gene might seem to be associated with epilepsy within a given population, but it may be that a subgroup of the ... In a new article this week in Nature Genetics, Michael Purugannan and colleagues report the whole genome re-sequencing of 93 ... They create a genome-wide SNP map and through comparative genomic analysis study the domestication and population history of ...
Genetics and the population history of Europe. Guido Barbujani and Giorgio Bertorelle ... 1984) The Neolithic Transition and the Genetics of Populations in Europe (Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ).. ... For instance, pairs of populations that separated in Paleolithic times can be expected to share fewer alleles than populations ... 34). When one estimates populations ages based on molecular trees, the implicit assumption is that population genealogies are ...
Population and Evolutionary Genetics. *. How Good Are Predictions of the Effects of Selective Sweeps on Levels of Neutral ... The study population adheres closely to the expectations under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and reflects a past population ... Using data from 83 isolates from a single population, the population genomics of the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex are ... Population Genomics of Daphnia pulex. Michael Lynch, Ryan Gutenkunst, Matthew Ackerman, Ken Spitze, Zhiqiang Ye, Takahiro ...
We show that Graphtyper is a valuable tool in characterizing sequence variation in both small and population-scale sequencing ... a variation-aware graph structure that encodes sequence variation within a population by representing possible haplotypes as ... Whole-genome sequence variation, population structure and demographic history of the Dutch population. Nat. Genet. 46, 818-825 ... Graphtyper enables population-scale genotyping using pangenome graphs. *Hannes P Eggertsson. ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0002-1674- ...
In turn, knowledge about human population history helps inform studies in medical genetics. ... In turn, knowledge about human population history helps inform studies in medical genetics. ... and evolutionary selection in the human population. ... Home » Science » Scientific Areas » Medical and Population ... and evolutionary selection in the human population. ...
Population Genetics Introductory Course for PhD students will be organised by the Vienna Graduate School of Population Genetics ... Course: Population Genetics Introductory Course for PhD students. Posted on June 12th, 2018 , News ...
You are here: Home / Projects / VGEC / Genetics for Higher Education / Topics for Higher Education / Population genetics ... Population genetics is the study of genetic variation within populations, and involves the examination and modelling of changes ... In natural populations, however, the genetic composition of a populations gene pool may change over time. Mutation is the ... Population genetics is the study of the variation in alleles and genotypes within the gene pool, and how this variation changes ...
Genetic constitution of population, frequencies of genes and genotypes, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, nonrandom mating, ...
population genetics synonyms, population genetics pronunciation, population genetics translation, English dictionary definition ... of population genetics. n. The branch of science that deals with the statistical analysis of the inheritance and prevalence of ... population genetics. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. population genetics. n. (used with ... Population genetics - definition of population genetics by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/population+ ...
Progressively more detailed population genetic analysis carried out independently by... ... History as a guide to understanding Jewish population genetics * Population genetics as a guide to understanding Jewish history ... Population genetics as a guide to understanding Jewish history. Early population genetic studies based on blood groups and ... 1991). Population genetics has been enhanced by the identification of millions of polymorphic markers that reside in close ...
... Alicia Sanchez-Mazas1 and Diogo Meyer2 ... P. W. Hedrick, Genetics of Populations, Jones and Bartlett, Sudbury, Mass, USA, 3rd edition, 2004. ... 1Department of Genetics and Evolution-Anthropology Unit, University of Geneva and Institute of Genetics and Genomics of Geneva ... R. M. Single, M. P. Martin, X. Gao et al., "Global diversity and evidence for coevolution of KIR and HLA," Nature Genetics, vol ...
The objects of study in population genetics are typically the frequencies and fitn... ... Population genetics is concerned with the genetic basis of evolution. ... quantitative genetics. effective population size. Glossary of Genetics terms. Impacts of population ageing and decline on 21st ... Population genetics is concerned with the genetic basis of evolution. The objects of study in population genetics are typically ...
If your are new to population genetics, please read our DNA testing FAQ to learn how to retrace ancestry with DNA, which test ... Forum: Population Genetics. If your are new to population genetics, please read our DNA testing FAQ to learn how to retrace ... Medical & Psychological Genetics. Discuss genetic engineering, genetic diseases, gene therapy, cloning, genes associated with ...
The Department of Evolutionary Genetics studies the genetic history of humans, apes and other organisms. ... population structure and demographic history of the Dutch population. Nature Genetics,46(8), 818-825. DOI BibTeX Endnote ... Population-genetic comparison of the Sorbian isolate population in Germany with the German KORA population using genome-wide ... Pugach, I., & Stoneking, M. (2015). Genome-wide insights into the genetic history of human populations. Investigative Genetics, ...
I recently heard an eminent geneticist declare that population genetics began with Theodosius Dobzhanskys Genetics and the ... "population genetics" in his 1937 book (page 11-12). One could make a case, however, that "ecological genetics" (the field, not ... Population genetics as a field didnt begin with Dobzhansky in my mind, but I believe he was the first to use the phrase " ... The first population genetics paper was Hardy-Weinberg in 1908. Whether or not the field had a name, thats where it started. ...
Our population genetics and biodiversity group aims to learn more of plant adaptation and promote sustainable use of genetic ... population genetics of plant invasion, conservation genetics and plant adaptation mechanisms. Our projects include both basic ... Population genetics and biodiversity group main research areas: 1. DNA barcoding and its applications: methodological ... Group members of the Population genetics and biodiversity research group, University of Helsinki. ...
... population genetics, statistics, molecular biology, genomics, and bioinformatics - who collaborate to characterize genetic ... The Program in Medical and Population Genetics is a diverse community of experts from a variety of fields - ... The Program in Medical and Population Genetics is a diverse community of experts from a variety of fields - population genetics ... Medical and Population Genetics focuses on understanding how genomic variation contributes to human variation in visible traits ...
Part II Population Genetics of Select Bacterial Pathogens.. 9 Population Genetics of Bacillus: Phylogeography of Anthrax in ... 8 The Use of MLVA and SNP Analysis to Study the Population Genetics of Pathogenic Bacteria. ... Bacterial Population Genetics in Infectious Disease. D. Ashley Robinson (Editor), Edward J Feil (Editor), Daniel Falush (Editor ... This book is a unique synthesis of the major concepts and methods in bacterial population genetics in infectious disease, a ...
Population Genetics was formed to commercialize the IP portfolio of Sydney Brenner focused on high sensitivity and high ... Agilent Acquires Population Genetics Technologies Molecular, Sample Barcoding IP. Jul 24, 2017 ... the close of the market Monday that it has acquired the molecular and sample barcoding patent portfolios of Population Genetics ...
Population genetics and molecular epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis.. Caugant DA1.. Author information. 1. WHO ... In the past 10 years or so, population genetic analyses have provided insights into the biology of the bacterium and the ... which are nowadays causing meningococcal disease in the world are summarized here and the importance of population genetics in ...
Genetics Technology has launched a competition inviting researchers to submit research proposals for population genetics ... Population Genetics Technology has launched a competition inviting researchers to submit research proposals for population ... Population Genetics plans to make just one award, but Massam said that could change after seeing the proposals. Additionally, ... Population Genetics Launches Competition for Genetic Association Sequencing Studies Oct 16, 2012 , Monica Heger ...
  • Population genetics provides the mathematical and theoretical underpinnings of evolutionary biology . (wikimedia.org)
  • MATTHEW B. HAMILTON, PHD, is Associate Professor of Biology at Georgetown University, where he teaches Population Genetics, Molecular Evolution, Evolutionary Processes, and similar undergraduate and graduate level courses. (wiley-vch.de)
  • Population Genetics and Microevolutionary Theory takes a modern approach to population genetics, incorporating modern molecular biology, species-level evolutionary biology, and a thorough acknowledgment of quantitative genetics as the theoretical basis for population genetics. (wiley.com)
  • ALAN R. TEMPLETON , PhD, is Charles Rebstock Professor of Biology at Washington University in St. Louis, with joint appointments in Genetics and Biomedical Engineering. (wiley.com)
  • Goldstein received his PhD degree in Theoretical Population Genetics from Stanford in 1994, and BS in Biology from University of California, Los Angeles. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I have degrees in biology and biochemistry, a passion for genetics, history, and philosophy, and shrimp is my favorite food. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The Program in Medical and Population Genetics is a diverse community of experts from a variety of fields - population genetics, statistics, molecular biology, genomics, and bioinformatics - who collaborate to characterize genetic variants and establish their role in disease. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Daniel Falush is a Research Fellow in the Department of Statistics at the University of Oxford, where he specializes in mathematical biology, particularly mathematical genetics and bioinformatics. (wiley.com)
  • In the past 10 years or so, population genetic analyses have provided insights into the biology of the bacterium and the epidemiology of meningococcal disease, improving our understanding of the cause of epidemics. (nih.gov)
  • Theoretical Population Biology 5: 460-469. (els.net)
  • This book provides a detailed introduction to the genetic and demographic issues relevant to the conservation of fragmented populations such as demographic stochasticity, genetic erosion, inbreeding, metapopulation biology, and population viability analysis. (worldcat.org)
  • Applications of population genetics and molecular techniques to conservation biology / Philip W. Hedrick. (worldcat.org)
  • Scientists from Harvard Medical School and the CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology in Hyderabad, India, provide evidence that modern-day India is the result of recent population mixture among divergent demographic groups. (healthcanal.com)
  • The fact that every population in India evolved from randomly mixed populations suggests that social classifications like the caste system are not likely to have existed in the same way before the mixture," said co-senior author Lalji Singh , currently of Banaras Hindu University , in Varanasi, India, and formerly of the CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology. (healthcanal.com)
  • An important consequence of these results is that the high incidence of genetic and population-specific diseases that is characteristic of present-day India is likely to have increased only in the last few thousand years when groups in India started following strict endogamous marriage," said co-first author Kumarasamy Thangaraj , of the CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India. (healthcanal.com)
  • This course provides the basic biology you need to understand all of these issues better, tries to clarify some misconceptions, and tries to prepare students for future, more advanced coursework in Biology (and especially evolutionary genetics). (coursera.org)
  • Studies in this branch of biology examine such phenomena as adaptation, speciation, and population structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • This zip file contains many different activities (58 pages of student handouts and 3 PowerPoints with a total of 71 slides) which can be used to compose a unit for AP Biology or advanced Biology students involving the Topics of Population Genetics and Patterns of Evolution. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Just as evolution is central to our understanding of biology, population genetics theory provides the basic framework to comprehend evolutionary processes. (icts.res.in)
  • Population genetics theory is thus critical to understanding many pressing issues in biology, such as the evolution of antibiotic resistance in pathogens, the formation of new species and the emergence of cooperative and altruistic behaviors. (icts.res.in)
  • To equip students to think about issues in population genetics, we will first conduct a brief refresher course in mathematics, statistics, and basic biology including evolution and genetics. (icts.res.in)
  • Population Genetics with R is aimed at students ranging from undergraduate to postgraduate level in the fields of population genetics, ecology, evolutionary biology, conservation genetics, computational biology, and biostatistics. (bokklubben.no)
  • Floyd Allan Reed is Associate Professor at the Department of Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA, where he teaches upper division undergraduate genetics, and graduate level population genetics courses. (bokklubben.no)
  • With the Population Genetics and Evolution Classic Lab Kit for AP ® Biology, use the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation and explore how population changes affect the principle. (flinnsci.com)
  • Knowledge of both population size and genetic diversity is critical for assessing extinction risk but few studies include concurrent estimates of these two components of population biology. (cambridge.org)
  • Much of the course is about formal (i.e. mathematical) models for changes in allele frequencies over time, which will then be used to understand human evolution on ecological and evolutionary time scales, examine the ways in which genetic variability has been used to study affinities among different groups, and reconstruct the past dynamics of human populations. (washington.edu)
  • For this reason, population genetics provides the groundwork for scientists' understanding of evolution, in particular microevolution, or changes within one or several populations over a limited time span. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Population genetics is concerned with the genetic basis of evolution . (everything2.com)
  • In the population genetics sense, evolution is the change of genotype frequencies over time, which may or may not be due to natural selection . (everything2.com)
  • The time scale of evolution is an exceedingly long one, so it is difficult to follow much genetic change in populations. (everything2.com)
  • Rather, population genetics is driven by constructing mathematical models of evolution and then checking if their predictions are met by natural populations. (everything2.com)
  • Genetic variation is of central importance because evolution can only happen when there is variation to act on in a population. (everything2.com)
  • This blog is about evolution, genetics, genomics and their interstices. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Her specialties include bacterial genetics, microbial evolution and antimicrobial resistance, among others. (wiley.com)
  • Kingman JFC (1982) Exchangeability and the evolution of large populations. (els.net)
  • Because a genetic population is described as the sum of gene (or allelic) frequencies for all the genes represented by that population, it follows that for evolution of a species to occur the gene frequencies of that population must undergo change. (ndsu.edu)
  • Wright's views about population genetics and evolution are so fundamental and so comprehensive that every serious student must examine these books firsthand. (uchicago.edu)
  • Introduction to Genetics and Evolution is a college-level class being offered simultaneously to new students at Duke University. (coursera.org)
  • What sets population genetics apart from newer, more phenotypic approaches to modelling evolution, such as evolutionary game theory and adaptive dynamics, is its emphasis on such genetic phenomena as dominance, epistasis, the degree to which genetic recombination breaks linkage disequilibrium, and the random phenomena of mutation and genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • Natural selection will only cause evolution if there is enough genetic variation in a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a series of papers starting in 1918 and culminating in his 1930 book The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, Fisher showed that the continuous variation measured by the biometricians could be produced by the combined action of many discrete genes, and that natural selection could change allele frequencies in a population, resulting in evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • This integrated natural selection with Mendelian genetics, which was the critical first step in developing a unified theory of how evolution worked. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the most common misunderstandings about evolution is failing to appreciate that evolution happens to populations , not individuals. (biologos.org)
  • As a Center for Evolution & Medicine Research Fellow, she is currently working in the Jensen Lab (and in collaboration with the Stone Lab (ASU)) mainly on the population genetics of time-sampled pathogen data. (utoronto.ca)
  • 16.2 How can population genetics information be used to predict evolution? (trunity.net)
  • Context: Populations of sexually reproducing organisms contain genetic information that can be used to determine whether evolution has occurred. (trunity.net)
  • 1. explain why the population is the basic unit of evolution. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • The remainder of the school will introduce and develop an understanding of population genetics theory and its applications to interesting phenomena such as the evolution of sex and recombination, phenotypic plasticity, polyploidy, and human diversification. (icts.res.in)
  • A change in the allele frequency of a population is evolution. (aqa.org.uk)
  • But the ability to predict evolution requires (1) a quantitative description of the "fitness landscape" (the genotype-phenotype relationship) and (2) a description of the dynamics by which microbial populations explore this landscape. (concordia.ca)
  • Using a droplet-based microfluidics "Evolution Chip", we propagated millions of independent viral sub-populations, and showed that by tuning viral population size per drop, we could control the direction of viral evolution. (concordia.ca)
  • For many Evangelicals (or for that matter atheists ), the idea that we are the products of evolution and became human as a large population over time is on its face contradictory to the idea that Adam and Eve may have been historical individuals. (biologos.org)
  • The particular set of genes carried by an individual is known as his or her genotype, while all the genes in a population together comprise the "gene pool. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Population genetics is the study of genetic variation within populations, and involves the examination and modelling of changes in the frequencies of genes and alleles in populations over space and time. (le.ac.uk)
  • Many of the genes found within a population will be polymorphic - that is, they will occur in a number of different forms (or alleles ). (le.ac.uk)
  • The collection of all the alleles of all of the genes found within a freely interbreeding population is known as the gene pool of the population. (le.ac.uk)
  • The branch of science that deals with the statistical analysis of the inheritance and prevalence of genes in populations and genetic divergence between populations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Migration effect specifies alterations caused by exchange of genes between populations. (els.net)
  • In human populations plagued with a high presence of malaria, the sickle cell allele has thus persisted in the gene pool, a term to describe the collection of genes in the population. (visionlearning.com)
  • Some disease-causing genes have persisted in the human population because they provide some benefit, but the allele that causes Ellis-van Creveld syndrome helps nobody. (visionlearning.com)
  • Dr. Stephen Wooding, a population geneticist, studies how tiny variations in genes give rise to variations in traits among a given human population. (eurekalert.org)
  • The American biologist Sewall Wright, who had a background in animal breeding experiments, focused on combinations of interacting genes, and the effects of inbreeding on small, relatively isolated populations that exhibited genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the terminology of genetics we can understand this in terms of genes and alleles . (biologos.org)
  • While all members of the population have the same genes, they do not all have exactly the same version of any given gene. (biologos.org)
  • In order to evaluate the genetic basis of certain diseases encountered at high frequency in the Ashkenazi Jewish population (AJP), as well as to improve variant annotation among the AJP, we examined the entire exome, focusing on specific genes with known clinical implications in 128 Ashkenazi Jews and compared these data to other non-Jewish populations (European, African, South Asian and East Asian). (cambridge.org)
  • We targeted American College of Medical Genetics incidental finding recommended genes and the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) germline cancer-related genes. (cambridge.org)
  • We identified previously known disease-causing variants and discovered potentially deleterious variants in known disease-causing genes that are population specific or substantially more prevalent in the AJP, such as in the ATP and HGFAC genes associated with colorectal cancer and pancreatic cancer, respectively. (cambridge.org)
  • A) Distribution of percent variance explained by population across n = 5,334 expressed genes with ≥2 transcripts expressed across all individuals. (plos.org)
  • B) Empirical p-values for genes in part A. P-values were calculated by permuting population labels for individuals 100 times and comparing to true population labels. (plos.org)
  • When individuals in a population breed, they pass down their genes to their offspring. (jove.com)
  • In the paper, Kimura uses mathematical techniques to determine the probability of fixation of mutant genes in a population. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2006. DNA sequence variation and selection of tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms at candidate genes for drought-stress response in Pinus taeda L. Genetics 172:1915-1926. (uconn.edu)
  • Mestizo H. pylori had some signatures from Amerindian H. pylori and some from European H. pylori indicating their was a sharing of H. pylori genes from these two different populations, just as there was a sharing of human genes. (anthropology.net)
  • Even prior to human settlement, ponderosa pine populations in this region existed on the edge of the species range, disjunct from the main population and isolated by a significant barrier to the free flow of genes, the Cascade Range. (westernforestry.org)
  • Blogger Thomas Mailund is an author on a new paper, Ancestral Population Genomics: The Coalescent Hidden Markov Model Approach: With incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), the genealogy of closely related species differs along their genomes. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Using data from 83 isolates from a single population, the population genomics of the microcrustacean Daphnia pulex are described and compared to current knowledge for the only other well-studied invertebrate, Drosophila melanogaster . (genetics.org)
  • These results establish D. pulex as an excellent system for future work on the evolutionary genomics of natural populations. (genetics.org)
  • Professor of Population Genetics at Trinity Dan Bradley added: "There is a great power in ancient genomics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • J. Trowsdale and J. C. Knight, "Major histocompatibility complex genomics and human disease," Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics , vol. 14, pp. 301-323, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • The precision public health paradigm, whereby healthcare decisions are made at the level of populations as opposed to individuals, provides one way for the genomics revolution to directly impact health outcomes in the developing world. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genomic approaches to precision public health require a deep understanding of local population genomics, which is still missing for many developing countries. (frontiersin.org)
  • We are investigating the population genomics of genetic variants that mediate drug response in an effort to inform healthcare decisions in Colombia. (frontiersin.org)
  • This makes it appropriate for comparison to population genomics data. (wikipedia.org)
  • We will examine the effects of mutation, selection, inbreeding, gene flow, and genetic drift on changes in allele frequency in populations. (washington.edu)
  • They, with many others, clearly established the basic processes which caused populations to change over time: selection, genetic drift, migration, and mutation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Factors influencing the genetic diversity within a gene pool include population size, mutation, genetic drift, natural selection, environmental diversity, migration and non-random mating patterns. (le.ac.uk)
  • The Hardy-Weinberg model describes and predicts a balanced equilibrium in the frequencies of alleles and genotypes within a freely interbreeding population, assuming a large population size, no mutation, no genetic drift, no natural selection, no gene flow between populations, and random mating patterns. (le.ac.uk)
  • Several factors such as mutation of alleles and migration of individuals with those new alleles will create variation in the population. (ndsu.edu)
  • The mutation could be a change in one allele to resemble one currently in the population, for example from a dominant to a recessive allele. (ndsu.edu)
  • Migration will change gene frequencies by bringing in more copies of an allele already in the population or by bringing in a new allele that has arisen by mutation. (ndsu.edu)
  • Soft sweeps II--molecular population genetics of adaptation from recurrent mutation or migration. (nih.gov)
  • This ignores that beneficial alleles can enter a population recurrently, either by mutation or migration, during the selective phase. (nih.gov)
  • Population genetics is the study of allele frequency changes driven by various evolutionary forces such as mutation, natural selection, and random genetic drift. (umd.edu)
  • In the absence of mutation or heterozygote advantage, any allele must eventually be lost completely from the population or fixed (permanently established at 100% frequency in the population). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the process of substitution, a previously non-existent allele arises by mutation and undergoes fixation by spreading through the population by random genetic drift or positive selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population genetics theory allows quantitative predictions of evolutionary processes, integrating mathematical and statistical concepts with fundamental biological principles of genetic inheritance and processes such as mutation and selection. (icts.res.in)
  • The relative contribution of recombination, as opposed to de novo mutation, in the generation of new bacterial genotypes varies among bacterial populations and, as this contribution increases, the clonality of a given population decreases. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Each mutation that enters the simulated population is tracked from generation to generation to the end of the experiment - or until that mutation is lost either as a result of selection or random drift. (uncommondescent.com)
  • It allows a user to choose values for a large number of parameters such as those specifying the mutation effect distribution, reproduction rate, population size, and variations in environmental conditions. (icr.org)
  • 3) interpret outcomes of common population/conservation genetic data (genotype and sequence data) sequence data). (rug.nl)
  • The program structure is a free software package for using multi-locus genotype data to investigate population structure. (stanford.edu)
  • Effects of different types of selection, Hardy-Weinberg, linkage and recombination, polymorphisms and heterozygosity, population size, random drift and inbreeding on gene and genotype frequencies. (mcgill.ca)
  • Population genetics is concerned with gene and genotype frequencies, the factors that tend to keep them constant, and the factors that tend to change them in populations. (omicsonline.org)
  • We used mean relatedness to test whether adults in the population were related and probability of identity (P (ID) = probability that two random individuals from the population have the same genotype) to test the ability of multi-locus genotyping for uniquely identifying goshawks. (usda.gov)
  • Simply put, selection occurs when some genotypes in the population are on average more successful in reproduction. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Population genetics is the study of the variation in alleles and genotypes within the gene pool, and how this variation changes from one generation to the next. (le.ac.uk)
  • 9. Quantitative Genetics: Unmeasured Genotypes. (wiley.com)
  • 10. Quantitative Genetics: Measured Genotypes. (wiley.com)
  • The objects of study in population genetics are typically the frequencies and fitnesses of genotypes in a population. (everything2.com)
  • The distribution will change because genotypes in the subsequent generation will not appear in direct relationship to the gene frequencies of that population prior to the change. (ndsu.edu)
  • a branch of genetics that applies mendelian inheritance to groups and studies the frequency of alleles and genotypes in breeding populations. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The genetic characteristics of the rare and diverse genotypes detected in the northeastern US were consistent with a recombinant population. (cornell.edu)
  • The foundation for population genetics was laid in 1908, when Godfrey Hardy and Wilhelm Weinberg independently published what is now known as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The study population adheres closely to the expectations under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and reflects a past population history of no more than a twofold range of variation in effective population size. (genetics.org)
  • The first population genetics paper was Hardy-Weinberg in 1908. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Probability calculations are based on knowing allele frequencies for each STR locus for a representative human population (and showning Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the population by statistical tests). (arizona.edu)
  • The Hardy-Weinberg Law described a population that exists in genetic equilibrium. (ndsu.edu)
  • One of the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg Law is that the population is closed. (ndsu.edu)
  • The unifying concept of population genetics is the Hardy-Weinberg Law (named after the two scientists who simultaneously discovered the law). (ndsu.edu)
  • Infinitely large population - No such population actually exists, but does this necessarily negate the Hardy-Weinberg Law? (ndsu.edu)
  • The Hardy-Weinberg principle provides the solution to how variation is maintained in a population with Mendelian inheritance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explain how the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium works and how it relates to information in populations. (trunity.net)
  • Understand how application of Hardy-Weinberg equation can be used to determine if a population is evolving. (trunity.net)
  • Discover the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation and how it can be applied to populations. (trunity.net)
  • Bottom Line: The Hardy-Weinberg theorem can be used to determine whether a population is in or out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. (trunity.net)
  • Population Genetics: The Hardy Weinberg Principle. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Students will conduct a random sample, and determine the frequency of the alleles in the population using the Hardy Weinberg equation. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • 6. describe the usefulness of the Hardy-Weinberg model to population geneticists. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • 7. list the conditions a population must meet in order to maintain Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • The computer simulation program, Population Genetics Simulator (PGS), is used to study more complex situations where Hardy-Weinberg conditions are not met and evolutionary change occurs. (curriki.org)
  • The second activity explores the changes of a large population to see how various conditions effect the Hardy-Weinberg principle. (flinnsci.com)
  • Increasing levels of gametic phase disequilibrium, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and inbreeding coefficients indicated that inbreeding among individuals hatched into the population made relatively larger contributions to population growth than immigration after 1987. (boisestate.edu)
  • The haplotypic and allelic profiles as well as Hardy-Weinberg proportions of this population sample were evaluated. (arctichealth.org)
  • GA inference involves estimating the proportion of ancestry contributed by different populations averaged across the entire genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings, published August 8 in the American Journal of Human Genetics , describe how India transformed from a country where mixture between different populations was rampant to one where endogamy-that is, marrying within the local community and a key attribute of the caste system-became the norm. (healthcanal.com)
  • Different groups have been examining this subject in two different populations from the States of São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul. (scielo.br)
  • One goal of population genetics is to determine genetic variation among different populations of the same species. (jove.com)
  • Comparing the genetic makeup of different populations can provide insights about gene flow, and is important for maintaining wildlife populations. (jove.com)
  • How much and why do populations of the same species differ? (encyclopedia.com)
  • The focus is the population or the species - not the individual. (le.ac.uk)
  • If two populations of a given species become genetically distinct enough that they can no longer interbreed, they are regarded as new species (a process called speciation ). (le.ac.uk)
  • Genetic variation within populations and species can now be analysed at the level of nucleotide sequences in DNA ( genome analysis ) and the amino acid sequences of proteins ( proteome analysis ). (le.ac.uk)
  • And since publication of the first edition of this compendium in 1997, diagnostic tools have evolved considerably, enabling more precise identification of pathogens, greater understanding of population genetics , and better understanding of evolutionary relationships among various species. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • I recently heard an eminent geneticist declare that population genetics began with Theodosius Dobzhansky's Genetics and the Origin of Species in 1937. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Because mutations do not occur in every population, migration will be required for that allele to spread throughout that species. (ndsu.edu)
  • Other tasks include the genetic classification of wild populations and farmed species (including methods for tracing escaped fish), the behaviour, distribution and survival of organisms that escape from fish farms, and the evolutionary impacts of fishing. (imr.no)
  • The paper, Distinguishing recent dispersal from historical genetic connectivity in the coastal California gnatcatcher , found that although the threatened California gnatcatcher populations are fragmented in southern California coastal sage scrub habitat, genetic signatures indicated that recent long-distance dispersal has occurred so that the species appears to be a single genetic unit throughout most of its US range. (usgs.gov)
  • Studies on cpDNA diversity are also important for population genetics and phylogeographic analyses of rare, endemic, and endangered species. (hindawi.com)
  • Brassica insularis and B. cretica ) are endemic and/or are endangered species [ 9 , 10 ] and therefore the population genetics studies of such species are essential for formulating conservation strategies. (hindawi.com)
  • A population is composed of members of the same species that simultaneously live and interact in the same area. (jove.com)
  • 1986). In the first phase, the species will try to adjust to modified habitats, while in the second phase, changes will occur in the demography of the population. (springer.com)
  • This chapter focuses on information in individual organisms, but you should keep in mind that individuals make up populationsA population is a group of individuals of the same species living in the same place at the same time. (trunity.net)
  • The population may also be defined in modes other than geography, e.g. the cow population, a species specification, the nocturnal bird population. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • From this perspective, the volume appears at a key moment because of 2 major challenges that have arisen since the beginning of the genomic era: 1) defining what constitutes a species and how to determine this, and 2) determining the structure of the population of the most common bacterial pathogens. (cdc.gov)
  • However, bacterial populations are not entirely asexual since recombinational exchanges occur, mobilizing small genome segments among lineages and species. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In consequence, a spectrum of possible population structures exists, with few bacterial species occupying the extremes of highly clonal and completely non-clonal, most containing both clonal and non-clonal elements. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A species exists as one or more populations. (aqa.org.uk)
  • If a population becomes isolated from other populations of the same species, there will be no gene flow between the isolated population and the others. (aqa.org.uk)
  • Populations of different species live in communities. (aqa.org.uk)
  • A population as a group of organisms of the same species occupying a particular space at a particular time that can potentially interbreed. (aqa.org.uk)
  • Individuals within a population of a species may show a wide range of variation in phenotype. (aqa.org.uk)
  • One of my favorite papers on the subject was last year's support for the Out of Africa model of human migrations using the genetics of Helicobacter pylori , another gut dwelling bacterial species. (anthropology.net)
  • Conservation strategies for similar large, philopatric and slowly maturing raptors should focus on preventing population bottlenecks, as the life-history characteristics of these species appear to limit the rate of recovery of genetic variability. (boisestate.edu)
  • In this series, we explore the genetic evidence that indicates humans became a separate species as a substantial population, rather than descending uniquely from an ancestral pair. (biologos.org)
  • And what we see in the genetics of our species is unremarkable for a relatively large-bodied mammal - we do indeed share common ancestry with other species, and we descend from a large population that has never numbered below about 10,000 individuals throughout our evolutionary history. (biologos.org)
  • Mendel is thus a versatile and capable research tool that can be applied to problems in human genetics, plant and animal breeding, and management of endangered species. (icr.org)
  • American Journal of Human Genetics 60: 957-964. (els.net)
  • An article describing these findings will appear in the January 2003 edition of the American Journal of Human Genetics and is now accessible in online edition of the journal at www.ajhg.org. (decode.com)
  • F. F. Gonzalez-Galarza, S. Christmas, D. Middleton, and A. R. Jones, "Allele frequency net: a database and online repository for immune gene frequencies in worldwide populations," Nucleic Acids Research , vol. 39, no. 1, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Allele frequency is defined as the number of copies of the allele in a population divided by the sum of all alleles in a population. (arizona.edu)
  • We performed a survey of the global distribution of pharmacogenomic variants followed by a more focused study of pharmacogenomic allele frequency differences between the two Colombian populations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because both the sampling location of an organism or self-reported ancestry in the case of humans can be uninformative for this purpose, the use of genetic markers can facilitate accurate and reliable ancestry inference by exploiting allele frequency differences across population groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genetic drift can cause changes in allele frequency in small populations. (aqa.org.uk)
  • Our main research interests include characterization, utilization and conservation of plant genetic resources, DNA barcoding, biodiversity analyses, population genetics of plant invasion, conservation genetics and plant adaptation mechanisms. (helsinki.fi)
  • Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature, J . C. Avise and J. L. Hamrick, eds. (springer.com)
  • Forward time population genetics is powerful technique to identify gene underlying traits or mutations of interest. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Importantly, the population genetic architecture of Jews helps to explain the observed patterns of health and disease-relevant mutations and phenotypes which continue to be carefully studied and catalogued, and represent an important resource for human medical genetics research. (springer.com)
  • The answer is that yes, genetic variation enters a population through mutations in individuals - but that only when such variation accumulates within a population and shifts its average characteristics do we observe its effects. (biologos.org)
  • Weakly deleterious mutations can fix in smaller populations through chance, and the probability of fixation will depend on rates of drift (~ 1 / N e {\displaystyle 1/N_{e}} ) and selection (~ s {\displaystyle s} ), where N e {\displaystyle N_{e}} is the effective population size. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increases in allelic diversity between 1987 and 2004 were higher than expected from mutations and indicated that immigration has also contributed to growth in the Long Valley population. (boisestate.edu)
  • Using a standard personal computer, the MENDEL program can be used to generate and track millions of mutations within a single population. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Mendel's Accountant (hereafter referred to as "Mendel") is a state-of-the-art forward-time population genetics model that tracks millions of individual mutations with their unique effects on fitness and unique location within the genome through large numbers of generations. (icr.org)
  • Fourfold redundant silent sites and a restricted region of intronic sites appear to evolve in a nearly neutral fashion, providing a powerful tool for population genetic analyses. (genetics.org)
  • At the same time, genetic analyses of diseases have continued in Jewish populations. (springer.com)
  • In population genomic analyses, it is often necessary to classify a sample of organisms into different population groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evaluation of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity in wild relatives of crop brassicas is important for characterization of cytoplasm and also for population genetics/phylogeographic analyses. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, even within a small number of accessions that were screened, intraspecific polymorphisms were observed, which is important for population genetics analyses in wild brassicas and consequently for conservation studies. (hindawi.com)
  • It is equally clear that if different (initally similar) populations occupy different habitats, selection can create differences among populations by favoring different alleles in different areas. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1991 ). Population genetics has been enhanced by the identification of millions of polymorphic markers that reside in close proximity to one another along the genome and that vary in their allele frequencies among populations. (springer.com)
  • TreeMix by Joe Pickrell and Jonathan uses large numbers of SNPs to estimate the historical relationships among populations , using a graph representation that allows both population splits and migration events. (stanford.edu)
  • Historical and contemporary population bottlenecks and founder events reduce population size and shape the level and structure of genetic variability within and among populations. (boisestate.edu)
  • I used molecular data and historical demographic information to infer the roles of demographic events and evolutionary forces on the level and structure of genetic variability within and among populations of Southern Idaho bald eagles. (boisestate.edu)
  • Differences among levels of GPD, genetic variability and inbreeding among populations also indicated that the genetics of these populations have been impacted by various combinations demographic events (population bottlenecks and founder events) and evolutionary forces (genetic drift, gene flow, non-random mating). (boisestate.edu)
  • Estimates of FST, RST and AMOVA also revealed significant genetic differentiation among populations between regions. (boisestate.edu)
  • We present an analytical framework for characterizing genome deletion polymorphism in populations using sequence data that are distributed across hundreds or thousands of genomes. (nature.com)
  • the 1000 Genomes Project used this approach to type 13,826 deletion polymorphisms (48-995,664 bp) at high accuracy in populations. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: Identifying coherent sets of aberrantly mapping reads from a population of genomes. (nature.com)
  • By measuring the lengths of the segments of ANI and ASI ancestry in Indian genomes, the authors were thus able to obtain precise estimates of the age of population mixture, which they infer varied about 1,900 to 4,200 years, depending on the population analyzed. (healthcanal.com)
  • Genetic drift occurs as the result of random fluctuations in the transfer of alleles from one generation to the next, especially in small populations formed, say, as the result adverse environmental conditions (the bottleneck effect ) or the geographical separation of a subset of the population (the founder effect ). (le.ac.uk)
  • The presence of population structure among regions suggests that juvenile dispersal is limited among regions and that contemporary levels of gene flow between populations has not been sufficient to overcome the consequences of small populations size. (boisestate.edu)
  • This course focuses on the processes affecting the distribution of genetic variation in populations of organisms, through space and time. (umass.edu)
  • all genetic information in a single population of sexually-reproducing organisms. (visionlearning.com)
  • structure has been widely used for interpreting population structure of humans and other organisms. (stanford.edu)
  • Evaluate the processes by which variation is generated in organisms and how this affects information at the population level and natural selection. (trunity.net)
  • There is variation in the phenotypes of organisms in a population, due to genetic and environmental factors. (aqa.org.uk)
  • These differences may ultimately lead to organisms in the isolated population becoming unable to breed and produce fertile offspring with organisms from the other populations. (aqa.org.uk)
  • Even though I've made this point before, similar to languages, material culture, and our own genetics, the genetics of organisms associated with humans, be it bacteria, rats, etc. can effectively tell us a lot about human migrations. (anthropology.net)
  • Featuring a highly accessible introduction to coalescent theory, as well as covering the major conceptual advances in population genetics of the last two decades, the second edition now also includes end of chapter problem sets and revised coverage of recombination in the coalescent model, metapopulation extinction and recolonization, and the fixation index. (wiley-vch.de)
  • 1 The Coalescent of Bacterial Populations. (wiley.com)
  • The within-host evolutionary dynamics of TB remain unclear, and underlying biological characteristics (including clonality) render standard population genetic approaches based upon the Kingman coalescent largely inappropriate. (utoronto.ca)
  • and backwards in time (coalescent) models that trace out the genealogical relationships between individuals in a sample from the population. (springer.com)
  • Finally, this accessible textbook points the way forwards to other key concepts that are important to understanding modern day population genetics research (in particular coalescent theory) and offers the reader useful launching points for further learning. (bokklubben.no)
  • The advances made possible by the development of molecular techniques have in recent years revolutionized quantitative genetics and its relevance for population genetics. (wiley.com)
  • Its primary founders were Sewall Wright, J. B. S. Haldane and Ronald Fisher, who also laid the foundations for the related discipline of quantitative genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population genetics is an inherently quantitative discipline, yet often focuses upon abstract concepts which can be difficult to conceptualize and appropriately visualize at first glance. (bokklubben.no)
  • Studying Genetics and quantitative genetics for determining genetic distances, population structure, variance components and basic genetic parameters such as heritability and response toselection. (edu.sa)
  • Chapter Seventeen: Quantitative Genetics COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS Section 17.1 *1. (coursehero.com)
  • A new paper in PLoS, Rapid Assessment of Genetic Ancestry in Populations of Unknown Origin by Genome-Wide Genotyping of Pooled Samples: Many association studies have been published looking for genetic variants contributing to a variety of human traits such as obesity, diabetes, and height. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In a new article this week in Nature Genetics, Michael Purugannan and colleagues report the whole genome re-sequencing of 93 African rice landraces from various regions of Western coastal and sub-Saharan Africa. (nature.com)
  • They create a genome-wide SNP map and through comparative genomic analysis study the domestication and population history of African rice. (nature.com)
  • Whole-genome sequence variation, population structure and demographic history of the Dutch population. (nature.com)
  • Large-scale whole-genome sequencing of the Icelandic population. (nature.com)
  • High-accuracy HLA type inference from whole-genome sequencing data using population reference graphs. (nature.com)
  • Accurate and complete analysis of genome variation in large populations will be required to understand the role of genome variation in complex disease. (nature.com)
  • These methods offer a way to relate genome structural polymorphism to complex disease in populations. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: A population-aware analytical framework for analyzing Genome STRucture in Populations (Genome STRiP). (nature.com)
  • A map of human genome variation from population scale sequencing. (nature.com)
  • At a higher level, there are two different paradigms in ancestry inference: global ancestry inference which tries to compute the genome-wide average of the population contributions and local ancestry inference which tries to identify the regional ancestry of a genomic segment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ancestry estimation is a frequently encountered problem and has been used in a variety of applications such as tracing someone's geographic origin in forensic investigations, correcting for population stratification in genome-wide association studies and developing personalized approaches to treatment. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, in LA inference, we interpret each chromosome in an individual's genome as a mosaic of segments that originate from different ancestral populations and the goal is to find the ancestral population of origin at each position. (frontiersin.org)
  • The main goal of GA inference is to estimate the fraction of ancestry contributed by each population as averaged across the entire genome. (frontiersin.org)
  • The potential value of such extensively genotyped collections is illustrated by selection of genetically matched population controls in a genome-wide analysis of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction. (nih.gov)
  • The crux of modern knowledge of genetics to me is genetics, and the story of how everyday we are seeing news about how environmental factors shape our genome for the next generations. (uncommondescent.com)
  • The field of population genetics examines the amount of genetic variation within populations and the processes that influence this variation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • How much genetic variation is found in populations, and what processes govern this? (encyclopedia.com)
  • Comparisons of levels and patterns of genetic diversity with the predictions of models based on archeological evidence suggest that the spread of early farmers from the Levant was probably the main episode in the European population history, but that both older and more recent processes have left recognizable traces in the current gene pool. (pnas.org)
  • The main way to gain insight into past population processes is to analyze and interpret current patterns of genetic variation ( 10 , 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Emphasis is given to explaining population-level processes that shape genetic variation in bacterial populations and statistical methods of analysis of bacterial genetic data. (wiley.com)
  • For fixed population sizes, the probability of fixation for a new allele with selective advantage s can be approximated using the theory of branching processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combining traditional conceptual approaches with classical hypotheses and debates, the book equips students to understand a wide array of empirical studies that are based on the first principles of population genetics. (wiley-vch.de)
  • The principles of population genetics have important bearing on the practice of fisheries science. (fisheries.org)
  • Few fisheries students go forward with courses focusing on genetics of fruit flies, corn, or humans, and even when they do, the applications of principles to problems they will face in their careers often are unclear. (fisheries.org)
  • Andrew G. Clark is the author of 'Principles of Population Genetics' with ISBN 9780878933020 and ISBN 0878933026. (valorebooks.com)
  • This text introduces the principles of genetics and statistics that are relevant to population studies, and examines the forces affecting genetic variation from the molecular to the organismic level. (boomerangbooks.com.au)
  • Buy Principles of Population Genetics by Daniel L. Hartl from Australia's Online Independent Bookstore, Boomerang Books. (boomerangbooks.com.au)
  • We'd like to know what you think about it - write a review about Principles of Population Genetics book by Daniel L. Hartl and you'll earn 50c in Boomerang Bucks loyalty dollars (you must be a Boomerang Books Account Holder - it's free to sign up and there are great benefits! (boomerangbooks.com.au)
  • With its user-friendly graphical user interface and its ability to run on laptop computers it can also be fruitfully employed in teaching genetics and genetic principles, even at a high school level. (icr.org)
  • Migration, in a sociological context, implies the movement of individuals into new populations. (ndsu.edu)
  • In a genetic context, though, migration requires that this movement be coupled with the introduction of new alleles into the population. (ndsu.edu)
  • This can inform us about the evolutionary relationships and migration history of natural populations and help identify an individual's population of origin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Chakraborty R, Kamboh MI and Ferrell RE (1991) 'Unique' alleles in admixed populations: a strategy for determining 'hereditary' population differences of disease frequencies. (els.net)
  • In the 1930s, scientists discovered differences in the ability of humans to taste a bitter synthetic compound called phenylthiocarbamide, or PTC, and they determined that the trait was controlled by genetics (the actual gene for PTC sensitivity was discovered in 2003). (eurekalert.org)
  • A number of these pharmacogenomic variants also show anomalous effect allele frequencies within and between the two Colombian populations, and these differences were found to be associated with their distinct genetic ancestry profiles. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to pharmacogenomic alleles related to increased toxicity risk, we also have evidence that alleles related to dosage and metabolism have large frequency differences between the two populations, which are associated with their specific ancestries. (frontiersin.org)
  • Subsequent chapters examine genetic variation, adaptation, and natural selection as well as different approaches to population differences. (bokklubben.no)
  • This may lead to the accumulation of genetic differences in the isolated population, compared with the other populations. (aqa.org.uk)
  • Contrary to expectation, there were no significant differences in population density across localities. (cambridge.org)
  • the population is genetically and/or hygienically isolated. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The book opens with a review of the concepts and methods that make it possible to analyze bacterial populations genetically. (cdc.gov)
  • BIO A 482: Human Population Genetics. (washington.edu)
  • This course surveys population genetics theory as applied to the study of micro-evolutionary changes, with particular applications for human populations. (washington.edu)
  • The first is John H. Relethford, Human Population Genetics, 1st ed. 2012 (Wiley-Blackwell). (washington.edu)
  • A short research paper on a topic in human (or primate) population genetics is required. (washington.edu)
  • The goal, of course, is for you to immerse yourself in recent literature in human population genetics. (washington.edu)
  • Patterns of genetic variation shed light on recombination, demography, admixture, and evolutionary selection in the human population. (broadinstitute.org)
  • In turn, knowledge about human population history helps inform studies in medical genetics. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Balancing selection and heterogeneity across the classical human leukocyte antigen loci: a meta-analytic review of 497 population studies," Human Immunology , vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 443-464, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • European Journal of Human Genetics, 27 , 475-483. (mpg.de)
  • Human population history of Northwestern Amazonia, Colombia. (mpg.de)
  • High-resolution mitochondrial DNA analysis sheds light on human diversity, cultural interactions, and population mobility in Northwestern Amazonia. (mpg.de)
  • Medical and Population Genetics focuses on understanding how genomic variation contributes to human variation in visible traits, susceptibility to disease, and response to therapy. (broadinstitute.org)
  • Chakraborty R (1986) Gene admixture in human populations: models and predictions. (els.net)
  • Nei M and Roychoudhury AK (1993) Evolutionary relationships of human populations on a global scale. (els.net)
  • Reed TE (1973) Number of gene loci required for accurate estimation of ancestral population proportions in individual human hybrids. (els.net)
  • Human populations clearly are not closed. (ndsu.edu)
  • If that is the case, then why are both tasters and nontasters still present in the human population? (eurekalert.org)
  • Traces of human migrations in Helicobacter pylori populations. (stanford.edu)
  • The genetic structure of human populations. (stanford.edu)
  • deCODE's pharmaceuticals group, based in Chicago, and deCODE's biostructures group, based in Seattle, conduct downstream development work on targets derived from deCODE's proprietary research in human genetics as well as contract service work for pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. (decode.com)
  • This framework thus provides novel population genetic insight in to this important human pathogen, and uniquely provides unbiased estimates of key evolutionary parameters via the development of an organism-appropriate null model. (utoronto.ca)
  • Other projects involve the study of human past populations' microbiome through dental calculus and recovering ancient pathogens from Central America. (utoronto.ca)
  • In this lab, three human genetic traits will be observed in a population. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • Population genetics is also the most widely misused area of human genetics, sometimes bordering on "vigilante genetics," a term coined by Newton Morton. (omicsonline.org)
  • Since they evolve faster due to their exponentially expedited life span, we can trace how human population diverged from one another. (anthropology.net)
  • In other words, Native American human populations, who experienced a population bottleneck while crossing Beringia, also inadvertently caused a H. pylori bottleneck! (anthropology.net)
  • Koalas are currently threatened by loss of habitat and urbanization due to increasing growth of the human population. (illinois.edu)
  • In human populations that we examined, the estimates of effective size were approximately one-third of the census size. (arctichealth.org)
  • 5. Genetic Drift in Large Populations and Coalescence. (wiley.com)
  • This pattern is consistent with a major, but variable component of shared Near East ancestry, together with variable degrees of admixture and introgression from the corresponding host Diaspora populations. (springer.com)
  • The Brazilian population is one of the most heterogeneous populations in the world, formed mainly by the admixture between European, African and Native American populations. (scielo.br)
  • Although the admixture process is not a particularity of the Brazilian population, much of the history and social development in Brazil underlies the ethnic melting pot we observe nowadays. (scielo.br)
  • Then we'll dive into understanding how we can use information from molecular data, especially molecular sequence data, to provide insights into population history and demography. (uconn.edu)
  • The evolutionary demography of bacterial populations is then examined. (cdc.gov)
  • These have included diseases with a clear Mendelian basis, rare syndromes often identified first in a single family, common conditions that are more prevalent in Jewish populations, and common conditions for which the complexity might be simplified by studying Jewish populations. (springer.com)
  • Population genetics began as a reconciliation of Mendelian inheritance and biostatistics models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the discovery of Mendelian genetics, one common hypothesis was blending inheritance. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is a Mendelian population? (coursehero.com)
  • How is the gene pool of a Mendelian population usually described? (coursehero.com)
  • The change in the genetic makeup of a population over time, usually measured in terms of allele frequencies, is equivalent to evolutionary change. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A cline or gradient, for example, may reflect adaptation to variable environments, or a population expansion at one moment in time, or continuous gene flow between groups that initially differed in allele frequencies. (pnas.org)
  • This recent field of science has important applications for the management of populations (natural and domesticated), as well as for evolutionary studies of the various factors that affect gene frequencies over time and spatial distribution.In this work, presented in three sections (Population. (intechopen.com)
  • Consequently the gene frequencies will change and the population will evolve. (ndsu.edu)
  • Because population changes require changes in gene frequencies, it is important to understand how these frequencies can change. (ndsu.edu)
  • Random mating - Random mating refers to matings in a population that occur in proportion to their genotypic frequencies. (ndsu.edu)
  • For example, if the genotypic frequencies in a population are MM=0.83, MN=0.16 and NN=0.01 then we would expect that 68.9% (0.83 x 0.83 X 100) of the matings would occur between MM individuals. (ndsu.edu)
  • Worldwide, we found pharmacogenomic variants to have both unusually high minor allele frequencies and high levels of population differentiation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Its uses include inferring the presence of distinct populations, assigning individuals to populations, studying hybrid zones, identifying migrants and admixed individuals, and estimating population allele frequencies in situations where many individuals are migrants or admixed. (stanford.edu)
  • Population genetics examines genetic variation within and between populations, and changes in allele frequencies across generations. (jove.com)
  • Population geneticists use mathematical models to investigate and predict allele frequencies in populations. (jove.com)
  • the study of heredity at the population level, for example, gene frequencies, mating systems. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 6-Locus HLA allele and haplotype frequencies in a population of 1075 Russians from Karelia. (arctichealth.org)
  • The HLA genotypic data of the population sample reported here are available publicly in the Allele Frequencies Net Database under the population name 'Russia Karelia' and the identifier AFN3430. (arctichealth.org)
  • Based on a comparison of the data on the frequencies of 1206 surnames registered in the Malokarachayevsky District of Karachay-Cherkessia with a number of other parameters and historical data, it was concluded that Karachay surnames are acceptable for use as a quasigenetic marker in a study of a population-genetic description of the area. (arctichealth.org)
  • A question of interest in theoretical population genetics is whether natural selection always drives the population to the state at which the mean fitness is the maximum possible. (blackwellpublishing.com)
  • My immediate reflex was to be skeptical of this, at least going by Will Provine's treatment in The Origins of Theoretical Population Genetics , which seemed to push back the timing to the 1920s. (discovermagazine.com)
  • It provides a rapid introduction to a range of mathematical models that have their origins in theoretical population genetics. (springer.com)
  • Much of the math and concepts in theoretical population genetics is almost impenetrable (just read some Kimura, and you'll get my drift). (uncommondescent.com)
  • 1) select the appropriate population genetic approach for specific common questions in conservation, ecology and behaviour. (rug.nl)
  • Each week will focus on different specific applications of population/individual-based genetic data in conservation, ecology and behavior, such as individual identification and parentage analysis; delineation of management units and population structure; long- and short-term abundance; as well as detection of selection/adaptation. (rug.nl)
  • The analysis of collections of bacterial isolates, which accurately represent the natural population, by nucleotide sequence determination of multiple housekeeping loci provides data that can be used both to investigate the population structure of bacterial pathogens and for the molecular characterization of bacterial isolates. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Chakraborty R and Nei M (1974) Dynamics of gene differentiation between incompletely isolated populations of unequal sizes. (els.net)
  • The results were analyzed with Wright's F statistics which were used to investigate the amount of genetic differentiation in the population attributable to subdivision of the population into colonies, colony clusters, local populations and the geographic regions of Panama and Suriname. (ku.edu)
  • Most of the genetic differentiation in the A. eximius sampled was due to subdivision of the population into colony clusters and into geographic regions. (ku.edu)
  • Population pairwise FST estimates showed significant genetic differentiation between the Queensland (zoo) koalas and the BR (FST = 0.32) and SR koalas (FST = 0.29). (illinois.edu)
  • This book is a unique synthesis of the major concepts and methods in bacterial population genetics in infectious disease, a field that is now about 35 yrs old. (wiley.com)
  • Bacterial Population Genetics in Infectious Disease addresses a set of issues that are extremely provocative in the current climate in which progress is rapidly changing the microbiological landscape. (cdc.gov)
  • The availability of a textbook for a course in fisheries genetics would make the field of population genetics relevant and accessible to students and practitioners of fisheries science. (fisheries.org)
  • Marsh L.K. (2003) Genetics and Population Dynamics. (springer.com)
  • 3) Provide sufficient historical, intellectual, and mathematical backgrounds to help you evaluate contemporary research in anthropological genetics. (washington.edu)
  • Progressively more detailed population genetic analysis carried out independently by multiple research groups over the past two decades has revealed a pattern for the population genetic architecture of contemporary Jews descendant from globally dispersed Diaspora communities. (springer.com)
  • Population Genetics Technology has launched a competition inviting researchers to submit research proposals for population genetics studies that take advantage of the company's technology for doing large-scale pooled targeted sequencing studies. (genomeweb.com)
  • The pilot was done as part of a collaboration Population Genetics has with the IntReALL consortium - a group of 23 research teams studying pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia relapse cases - to identify and validate biomarkers for disease risk and treatment efficacy. (genomeweb.com)
  • The company published the method last year in Nucleic Acids Research and has used it in collaboration with academic groups and pharmaceutical companies in several population genetic studies, including a study investigating genetic predisposition to Alzheimer's disease ( IS 5/10/2011 ). (genomeweb.com)
  • These two conclusions have been demonstrated experimentally to be valid and form the basis upon which all further population and evolutionary genetics research is based. (ndsu.edu)
  • With its uniquely comprehensive population data, deCODE is turning research on the genetic causes of common diseases into a growing range of products and services - in gene and drug discovery, DNA-based diagnostics, pharmacogenomics, bioinformatics, and clinical trials. (decode.com)
  • This school aims to expose students and researchers from diverse backgrounds to the basics and the forefront of current research in population genetics. (icts.res.in)
  • To facilitate exploratory genetics research, we have assembled a DNA resource from a large number of subjects participating in multiple studies throughout the world. (nih.gov)
  • Joe is incredibly generous in making the compilation of his research of 34 years into a freely downloadable textbook for students of population genetics. (uncommondescent.com)
  • In natural populations, however, the genetic composition of a population's gene pool may change over time. (le.ac.uk)
  • This is a kind of natural selection that keeps two different forms of the same gene active in a population," Dr. Wooding said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The main goal of ancestry inference is to identify an individual's population of origin based on our knowledge of natural populations. (frontiersin.org)
  • It begins to discuss how recombination is leveraged in classic genetic works as well as mapping simple genetic traits using crosses or data from natural populations. (coursera.org)
  • In 1932 Wright introduced the concept of an adaptive landscape and argued that genetic drift and inbreeding could drive a small, isolated sub-population away from an adaptive peak, allowing natural selection to drive it towards different adaptive peaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene pools of natural populations may vary significantly. (jove.com)
  • For instance, increased urbanization gradually fragments natural landscapes and leads to habitat loss, division, and isolation of natural populations. (jove.com)
  • Because the effect of natural selection is stipulated to be negligible, the probability at any given time that an allele will ultimately become fixed at its locus is simply its frequency p {\displaystyle p} in the population at that time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire class makes up the population as students use allele cards and specific case by case conditions to explore an ideal population as well as how natural selection, heterozygote advantage and genetic drift affect the overall genetics of a population. (flinnsci.com)
  • Two forces affect genetic variation in populations: genetic drift and natural selection. (aqa.org.uk)
  • We've suspected that Native American populations have undergone a bottleneck because looking at their ABO blood group diversity, they show a remarkable dominance of O blood type - something not seen in European and African populations. (anthropology.net)
  • We found a higher likelihood of past bottleneck events in the fragmented coastal populations. (cambridge.org)
  • Modified Garza-Williamson values were low, and ranged from 0.11 to 0.62 in the BR and SR koalas, which suggested past population size reductions and loss of alleles after a bottleneck or founder effect. (illinois.edu)
  • Mathematical models are used to investigate and predict the occurrence of specific alleles or combinations of alleles in populations, based on developments in the molecular understanding of genetics, Mendel's laws of inheritance and modern evolutionary theory. (le.ac.uk)
  • Long-established populations showed the highest levels of genetic variability and the most recently discovered populations showed the lowest levels. (boisestate.edu)
  • The current level and structure of genetic variability of Bald eagles in southern Idaho appears to have been shaped by both the number of reductions in population size and the relative recentness of reductions. (boisestate.edu)
  • When populations grow from small sizes, the rate by which genetic variability increases over time is determined by the rate of growth and the nature of recruitment into the populations: internal recruitment, immigration, or a combination of both. (boisestate.edu)
  • In instances where the parameters of population growth are difficult to measure using traditional means, changes in genetic variability over time can provide a reasonable means to infer the relative contributions of internal recruitment and immigration to population expansion from small size. (boisestate.edu)
  • With the advent of modern population genetics based on analysis of genetic markers in the second half of the twentieth century, investigators have attempted to categorize the origins and relatedness of Jewish people. (springer.com)
  • Traditionally a highly mathematical discipline, modern population genetics encompasses theoretical, laboratory, and field work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dienekes points me to a new paper, European Population Genetic Substructure: Further Definition of Ancestry Informative Markers for Distinguishing Among Diverse European Ethnic Groups. (scienceblogs.com)
  • For example, a gene might seem to be associated with epilepsy within a given population, but it may be that a subgroup of the affected individuals shares a common ancestry that they aren't aware of, and the associated gene may simply reflect that fact. (nature.com)
  • If your are new to population genetics, please read our DNA testing FAQ to learn how to retrace ancestry with DNA, which test to choose and how to interpret your results. (eupedia.com)
  • Our work focuses on two neighboring populations with distinct ancestry profiles: Antioquia and Chocó. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this mini review, I describe the numerous approaches that are currently available for both kinds of ancestry inference from population genomic datasets. (frontiersin.org)
  • Briefly stated, genetics is well suited to addressing scientific questions such as whether humans share ancestry with other forms of life, and what our population structure looked like as we separated from our evolutionary relatives. (biologos.org)
  • We estimate the effective population size of European-ancestry individuals in the UK four generations ago to be eight million and the effective population size of Finland four generations ago to be 0.7 million. (arctichealth.org)
  • Part of the work of forensic DNA analysis is the creation of population databases for the STR loci studied. (arizona.edu)
  • This chapter presents a brief introduction to phylogenetics, population genetics and DNA bar coding, and discusses the genetic loci and analytical tools (software) that are relevant to applying them to entomogenous nematodes. (cabi.org)
  • In contrast, within a local population, samples from adjacent colony clusters were sometimes fixed for different alleles at one or more loci, and the Panama and Suriname samples were fixed for different alleles at three loci. (ku.edu)
  • We collected tissue samples from 53 individuals and used 26 polymorphic microsatellite loci to obtain measures of population structure (divergence and diversity) across these localities. (cambridge.org)
  • I collected DNA samples and analyzed six polymorphic microsatellite loci from seven breeding bald eagle populations in southern Idaho. (boisestate.edu)
  • Integrated detection and population-genetic analysis of SNPs and copy number variation. (nature.com)
  • Using these findings, we have developed and validated an inexpensive allele-specific PCR assay to test for the presence of such population-enriched pharmacogenomic SNPs in Colombia. (frontiersin.org)
  • When I entered Theodosius Dobzhansky's laboratory as a graduate student in 1951, the problematic of population genetics was the description and explanation of genetic variation within and between populations. (everything2.com)
  • Graphtyper realigns short-read sequence data to a pangenome, a variation-aware graph structure that encodes sequence variation within a population by representing possible haplotypes as graph paths. (nature.com)
  • A population model for genotyping indels from next-generation sequence data. (nature.com)
  • Our approach uses population-level concepts to reinterpret the technical features of sequence data that often reflect structural variation. (nature.com)
  • Figure 3: Evaluating the population-heterogeneity and allele-substitution properties of population-scale sequence data. (nature.com)
  • Population genetic models are used both for statistical inference from DNA sequence data and for proof/disproof of concept. (wikipedia.org)
  • We found that inferred segments of IBD contain information about effective population size from around 4 generations to around 50 generations ago for SNP array data and to over 200 generations ago for sequence data. (arctichealth.org)