Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Chromosome Banding: Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 16: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 13: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosome Pairing: The alignment of CHROMOSOMES at homologous sequences.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4: A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 10: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal chromosome constitution in which there is extra or missing chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment). (from Thompson et al., Genetics in Medicine, 5th ed, p429)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Chromosomes, Human, X: The human female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in humans.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5: One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).Chromosomes, Human, 1-3: The large, metacentric human chromosomes, called group A in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 1, 2, and 3.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Chromosome Painting: A technique for visualizing CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS using fluorescently labeled DNA probes which are hybridized to chromosomal DNA. Multiple fluorochromes may be attached to the probes. Upon hybridization, this produces a multicolored, or painted, effect with a unique color at each site of hybridization. This technique may also be used to identify cross-species homology by labeling probes from one species for hybridization with chromosomes from another species.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Human, 16-18: The short, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group E in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 16, 17, and 18.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20: A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromosomes, Artificial, Yeast: Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Chromosomes, Human, 21-22 and Y: The short, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group G in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 21 and 22 and the Y chromosome.Ring Chromosomes: Aberrant chromosomes with no ends, i.e., circular.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosomes, Human, 4-5: The large, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group B in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 4 and 5.Chromosome Positioning: The mechanisms of eukaryotic CELLS that place or keep the CHROMOSOMES in a particular SUBNUCLEAR SPACE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Chromosome Structures: Structures which are contained in or part of CHROMOSOMES.Chromosomes, Human, 19-20: The short, metacentric human chromosomes, called group F in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 19 and 20.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Trisomy: The possession of a third chromosome of any one type in an otherwise diploid cell.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Chromosomes, Artificial, Human: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, all elements, such as a REPLICATION ORIGIN; TELOMERE; and CENTROMERE, required for successful replication, propagation to and maintainance in progeny human cells. In addition, they are constructed to carry other sequences for analysis or gene transfer.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Chromosome Walking: A technique with which an unknown region of a chromosome can be explored. It is generally used to isolate a locus of interest for which no probe is available but that is known to be linked to a gene which has been identified and cloned. A fragment containing a known gene is selected and used as a probe to identify other overlapping fragments which contain the same gene. The nucleotide sequences of these fragments can then be characterized. This process continues for the length of the chromosome.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Chromosome Fragility: Susceptibility of chromosomes to breakage leading to translocation; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; SEQUENCE DELETION; or other CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE related aberrations.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Chromosome Duplication: An aberration in which an extra chromosome or a chromosomal segment is made.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Abnormalities, MultipleMosaicism: The occurrence in an individual of two or more cell populations of different chromosomal constitutions, derived from a single ZYGOTE, as opposed to CHIMERISM in which the different cell populations are derived from more than one zygote.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Cytogenetic Analysis: Examination of CHROMOSOMES to diagnose, classify, screen for, or manage genetic diseases and abnormalities. Following preparation of the sample, KARYOTYPING is performed and/or the specific chromosomes are analyzed.Cytogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the cytological and molecular analysis of the CHROMOSOMES, and location of the GENES on chromosomes, and the movements of chromosomes during the CELL CYCLE.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Karyotype: The full set of CHROMOSOMES presented as a systematized array of METAPHASE chromosomes from a photomicrograph of a single CELL NUCLEUS arranged in pairs in descending order of size and according to the position of the CENTROMERE. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Chromosome Fragile Sites: Specific loci that show up during KARYOTYPING as a gap (an uncondensed stretch in closer views) on a CHROMATID arm after culturing cells under specific conditions. These sites are associated with an increase in CHROMOSOME FRAGILITY. They are classified as common or rare, and by the specific culture conditions under which they develop. Fragile site loci are named by the letters "FRA" followed by a designation for the specific chromosome, and a letter which refers to which fragile site of that chromosome (e.g. FRAXA refers to fragile site A on the X chromosome. It is a rare, folic acid-sensitive fragile site associated with FRAGILE X SYNDROME.)Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Sex Chromosome Disorders: Clinical conditions caused by an abnormal sex chromosome constitution (SEX CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS), in which there is extra or missing sex chromosome material (either a whole chromosome or a chromosome segment).DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Monosomy: The condition in which one chromosome of a pair is missing. In a normally diploid cell it is represented symbolically as 2N-1.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Ploidies: The degree of replication of the chromosome set in the karyotype.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Philadelphia Chromosome: An aberrant form of human CHROMOSOME 22 characterized by translocation of the distal end of chromosome 9 from 9q34, to the long arm of chromosome 22 at 22q11. It is present in the bone marrow cells of 80 to 90 per cent of patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, MYELOGENOUS, CHRONIC, BCR-ABL POSITIVE).Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.Chromosomes, Archaeal: Structures within the nucleus of archaeal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Sex Chromatin: In the interphase nucleus, a condensed mass of chromatin representing an inactivated X chromosome. Each X CHROMOSOME, in excess of one, forms sex chromatin (Barr body) in the mammalian nucleus. (from King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
In engineering large constructs of >100 kb, such as the Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), or chromosomes, recombineering ... Recombineering is widely used for bacterial genetics, in the generation of target vectors for making a conditional mouse ... "Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET- recombination". Nucleic Acids Res. 27: 1555-1557. doi:10.1093/nar ... and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. ...
Prokaryotic DNA replication
"Control of bacterial chromosome replication by non-coding regions outside the origin". Current Genetics. 63: 607-611. doi: ... Bussiere DE, Bastia D (March 1999). "Termination of DNA replication of bacterial and plasmid chromosomes". Molecular ... "oriC-encoded instructions for the initiation of bacterial chromosome replication". Frontiers in Microbiology. 5: 735. doi: ... Chromosome replication in bacteria is regulated at the initiation stage. DnaA-ATP is hydrolyzed into the inactive DnaA-ADP by ...
John Roth (geneticist)
New methods in bacterial genetics". J. Mol. Biol. 116: 125-159. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(77)90123-1. PMID 338917. CS1 maint: Uses ... "Rearrangements of the bacterial chromosome: formation and applications". In Neidhardt, F.C., Curtis, R., III, Ingraham, J.L., ... In 2011, ASM Press published a festschrift in his honor ("The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth"). Thomas Hunt ... 2011). The Lure of Bacterial Genetics: A Tribute to John Roth. Washington, DC: ASM Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-1-55581-538-7. CS1 ...
Developed the experimental method of interrupted mating, which underpinned the gene mapping of bacterial chromosomes. This work ... Wollman, Élie L; François Jacob (1961). Sexuality and the genetics of bacteria. New York: Academic Press. Wollman, E. L.; Jacob ... With Francois Jacob, he published a monograph, Sexuality and the genetics of bacteria (French title: La sexualité des bactéries ... ISBN 978-0-486-42263-3. Wollman, Élie L; François Jacob (1961). Sexuality and the genetics of bacteria. New York: Academic ...
The status of dosage compensation in the multiple X chromosomes of the platypus', PLoS Genetics, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 1-13. ... In Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. Ed P. Chatterjee, In Tech Open Access Publisher, Croatia, p1-22. http://www.canberratimes. ... In Marsupial Genetics and Genomics. Eds J.E Deakin, P.D. Waters, J.A.M. Graves, Springer, Dordrecht, p101-115. Deakin, J.E. and ... Deakin, J, Koina, E, Waters, P et al 2008, 'Physical map of two tammar wallaby chromosomes: a strategy for mapping in non-model ...
"The development of bacterial genetics". US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 3 July 2010. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology ... Compared to homologous chromosomes, which are similar to another chromosome but often have different alleles, sister chromatids ... The RecBCD enzyme then incorporates this double-strand DNA into the genome of the new bacterial host. Natural bacterial ... Transformation, unlike bacterial conjugation and transduction, depends on numerous bacterial gene products that specifically ...
Human Genome Project
... "bacterial artificial chromosomes", or BACs, which are derived from bacterial chromosomes which have been genetically engineered ... Mardis, E. (2008). "The impact of next-generation sequencing technology on genetics". Trends in Genetics. 24 (3): 133-41. doi: ... one X chromosome and one Y chromosome) compared to female samples (which contain two X chromosomes). The other 22 chromosomes ( ... "A Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Library for Sequencing the Complete Human Genome". Genome Research. 11 (3): 483-96. doi: ...
... genetics/expression-vectors.html Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome Bacterial artificial chromosome. ... Bacterial promoters consist of two parts, the '-35' region and the '-10' region (the Pribnow box). These two regions bind the ... http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/~smaloy/MicrobialGenetics/topics/in-vitro-genetics/expression-vectors.html Biolabs, New England. " ...
"Alignment of the Genomes of Brachypodium distachyon and Temperate Cereals and Grasses Using Bacterial Artificial Chromosome ... doi:10.1534/genetics.105.049726. PMC 1461447 . PMID 16489232. Christiansen, Pernille; Andersen, Claus Henrik; Didion, Thomas; ... At about 272 million base pairs and with five chromosomes, it has a small genome for a grass species. Brachypodium distachyon's ... Chromosome Research. 12 (4): 397-403. doi:10.1023/B:CHRO.0000034130.35983.99. PMID 15241018. Routledge, Andrew P. M.; Shelley, ...
Superseded scientific theories
Mendelian genetics, classical genetics, Boveri-Sutton chromosome theory - first genetic theories. Not invalidated as such, but ... bacterial growth started. Transmutation of species, Lamarckism, inheritance of acquired characteristics - first theories of ... Not supported by experiment, and rendered obsolete by Darwinian evolution and Mendelian genetics, although some elements of ... subsumed into molecular genetics. Maternal impression - the theory that the mother's thoughts created birth defects. No ...
His subsequent worked helped establish the basics of bacterial genetics, showing that many features of classical genetics ( ... including genetic linkage) have parallels in bacteria, despite their lack of chromosomes. Hotchkiss continued working in ... His work on bacterial transformation helped lay the groundwork for the field of molecular genetics. Hotchkiss was born in South ... Rollin D. Hotchkiss, 93, Is Dead; Did Early Research in Genetics". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2008-09-26. ...
Selman A. Waksman Award in Microbiology
Jack L. Strominger (1968) For his elegant studies on the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall and the mode of action of ... Charles Yanofsky (1972) For his outstanding contributions to many aspects of microbial and molecular genetics. Earl Reece ... thereby revealing the integration of tumor viruses into host chromosomes. ... R. John Collier (de) (1999) For his seminal contribution to the understanding of bacterial pathogenesis by the elucidation of ...
Allan Campbell (biologist)
... where viral DNA is inserted into the host chromosome, becoming covalently bonded to the bacterial DNA, and then remains dormant ... Genetics 11:101-145. "Little Lambda Who Made Thee" Gottesman, M. and R. Weisberg. 2004. MMBR.68.4 796-813.2004 Diagram of ... The 1940s produced the first pictures of bacterial viruses using electron microscopy produced the first photos of bacterial ... Early studies on bacterial viruses began after the discovery by Twort and d'Herelle of 'filterable agents' which were able to ...
... with confirmation by direct sequence analysis of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 78 ( ... with confirmation by direct sequence analysis of bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs)". Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 78 ( ... to human chromosome band 15q24-->q26, and of mouse mitochondrial polymerase gamma (Polg) to mouse chromosome band 7E, ... to human chromosome band 15q24-->q26, and of mouse mitochondrial polymerase gamma (Polg) to mouse chromosome band 7E, ...
In the bacterial SOS response, it has a co-protease function in the autocatalytic cleavage of the LexA repressor and the λ ... In B. subtilis the length of the transferred DNA can be as great as a third and up to the size of the whole chromosome. In ... genetics)). Transformation, in which RecA plays a central role, depends on expression of numerous additional gene products (e.g ... Purification of this plasmid from bacterial cultures can then allow high-fidelity PCR amplification of the original plasmid ...
"Anchoring 9,371 maize expressed sequence tagged unigenes to the bacterial artificial chromosome contig map by two-dimensional ... Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik. 120 (4): 721-34. doi:10.1007/s00122-009-1192-1. PMID ... 1997 ), on chromosome 7, another by igl1, indole-3-glycerol phosphate1(Frey et al. 1997, on chromosome 1, and another by tsah1 ... 2010). AB chromosome translocation analyses place on short arm of chromosome 4 (4S; Simcox and Weber 1985 ). There is close ...
... while the X chromosome is similar to the other chromosomes and contains many genes. The X and Y chromosomes form a strongly ... 2000). "Bacterial conjugation". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-3520-2. ... Genetics has given rise to a number of subfields, including epigenetics and population genetics. Organisms studied within the ... During crossover, chromosomes exchange stretches of DNA, effectively shuffling the gene alleles between the chromosomes. This ...
Bacterial genetics studies the mechanisms of their heritable information, their chromosomes, plasmids, transposons, and phages ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge ... ISBN 978-0-7637-9064-6. "Bacterial genetics". Nature. Macmillan Publishers Limited. Retrieved 8 November 2015. Chen I, Dubnau D ... Microbial genetics is a subject area within microbiology and genetic engineering. It studies the genetics of very small (micro ...
During logarithmic growth, two or more copies of any particular region of the chromosome may be present in a bacterial cell, as ... The translocated single-stranded DNA may then be integrated into the bacterial chromosomes by a RecA-dependent process. In Gram ... This process depends on a second homologous chromosome in addition to the damaged chromosome. During logarithmic growth, a DNA ... Natural transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer that depends on the expression of numerous bacterial genes ...
Beckwith led the research group that in 1969 isolated the first gene from a bacterial chromosome. Some of researchers worked in ... Before and following this experiment, Beckwith made important contributions to the study of bacterial genetics. His studies ... He spoke out against the testing of boys for XYY chromosomes and was a member of the ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social ... 2004). The Double-Edged Helix: Social Implications of Genetics in a Diverse Society. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University ...
Bacterial geneticists make use of this principle to map the genes on the bacterial chromosome. This technique is called ... Brooker, Robert J. (2012). Genetics : analysis & principles (4th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 186-187. ISBN 9780073525280. ... Due to the large size of bacterial chromosome, it is very rare for the entire chromosome to be transferred into the F − cell as ... Therefore, as the conjugative transfer is not complete (the circular nature of plasmid and bacterial chromosome requires ...
Outline of genetics
Exon Intron nucleotide allele animal model antisense apoptosis autosomal dominant autosome bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC ... genetics Medical genetics Microbial genetics Molecular genetics Population genetics Psychiatric genetics Quantitative genetics ... Behavioural genetics Classical genetics Developmental genetics Conservation genetics Ecological genetics Evolutionary genetics ... Introduction to genetics Genetics Chromosome DNA Genetic diversity Genetic drift Genetic variation Genome Heredity Mutation ...
History of genetics
1913: Alfred Sturtevant makes the first genetic map of a chromosome 1913: Gene maps show chromosomes containing linear arranged ... 1923: Frederick Griffith studied bacterial transformation and observed that DNA carries genes responsible for pathogenicity. ... The modern study of genetics at the level of DNA is known as molecular genetics and the synthesis of molecular genetics with ... Principles of Genetics / D. Peter Snustad, Michael J. Simmons - 5th Ed. p.99 Principles of Genetics / D. Peter Snustad, Michael ...
As in all cellular organisms, length of the DNA molecules of bacterial and archaeal chromosomes is very large compared to the ... PLOS Genetics. 7 (6): e1002123. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002123. PMC 3116907 . PMID 21698131. Wang, W.; Li, G.; Chen, C.; Xie ... Qian, Z; Macvanin, M; Dimitriadis, EK; He, X; Zhurkin, V; Adhya, S (2015). "A New Noncoding RNA Arranges Bacterial Chromosome ... Cell nucleus Plasmid Homologous recombination DNA repair Circular bacterial chromosome Thanbichler M, Wang S, Shapiro L (2005 ...
... has 1 bacterial chromosome, 5 chromids, and 1 plasmid. Plasmids and bacteriophages are usually replicated as single replicons, ... For most prokaryotic chromosomes, the replicon is the entire chromosome. One notable exception found comes from archaea, where ... For eukaryotic chromosomes, there are multiple replicons per chromosome. In the case of mitochondria the definition of ... chromosomes are often described as a molecule that is a mixture between a true chromosome and a plasmid and are sometimes ...
If the lysogenic cycle is adopted, the phage chromosome is integrated (by covalent bonds) into the bacterial chromosome, where ... The new virus capsule now loaded with part bacterial DNA continues to infect another bacterial cell. This bacterial material ... If the lysogen is induced (by UV light for example), the phage genome is excised from the bacterial chromosome and initiates ... At the same time, some phage genes are left behind in the bacterial chromosome. There are generally three types of ...
List of geneticists
... human and mammalian genetics and chromosome structure and function César Milstein (1927-2002) Argentine-UK, Nobel Prize for ... bacterial development Herbert Lubs (born c. 1928), US internist, medical geneticist, described "marker X" (fragile X chromosome ... This is a list of people who have made notable contributions to genetics. The growth and development of genetics represents the ... chromosome flow cytometry Philip J. Fialkow (1934-1996), US internist, educator, research in medical genetics and cancer ...
"A proposal for a uniform nomenclature in bacterial genetics" (PDF). Genetics. 54 (1): 61-76. PMC 1211113. PMID 5961488.. ... construction of chromosome rearrangements, were also developed in Typhimurium. These genetic tools also led to a simple test ... Genetics. In addition to its importance as a pathogen, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium has been instrumental in the ... "Bacterial protein mimics DNA to sabotage cells' defenses: Study reveals details of Salmonella infections".. ...
"Genetics. 136 (2): 423-6. PMC 1205797. PMID 8150273.. *^ van der Poll T, Opal SM (2009). "Pathogenesis, treatment, and ... For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous DNA into its chromosome, it must enter a special physiological state ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... Genetics. The genome of S. pneumoniae is a closed, circular DNA structure that contains between 2.0 and 2.1 million base ...
It further contends that only a minority of the genetic material is kept in circular chromosomes while the rest is in branched ... Because it is similar to bacterial amino acid transporters and the mitochondrial import protein Tim17 (translocase on the i ... Annual Review of Genetics. 47 (1): 335-52. doi:10.1146/annurev-genet-111212-133519. PMID 24274753.. ... The new cpDNA structures separate, creating daughter cpDNA chromosomes. In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this ...
Evolution of biological complexity
"Genetics. 177 (2): 937-948. doi:10.1534/genetics.107.075663. PMC 2034656. PMID 17720926.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors ... "Being Pathogenic, Plastic, and Sexual while Living with a Nearly Minimal Bacterial Genome". PLoS Genet. 3 (5): e75. doi ... 1993). "On the evolution of RNA editing". Trends in Genetics. 9 (8): 265-268. doi:10.1016/0168-9525(93)90011-6.. ...
condensed chromosome. • nuclear chromosome, telomeric region. • nucleus. • nuclear chromatin. • lateral element. • cytosol. • ... RAD51 family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51. The protein is highly conserved ... Nature Genetics. 4 (3): 239-43. doi:10.1038/ng0793-239. PMID 8358431.. ... nuclear chromosome. • mitochondrial matrix. • nucleolus. • mitochondrion. • perinuclear region of cytoplasm. • chromatin. • ...
"Nature Genetics. 40 (9): 1056-8. doi:10.1038/ng.209. PMC 2703780. PMID 18711365. Lay summary - Schizophrenia Research Forum.. ... to chromosome 12p13.2-pter using a dinucleotide repeat". Genomics. 14 (1): 206-7. doi:10.1016/S0888-7543(05)80312-X. PMID ... "Frontiers in Genetics. 4: 76. doi:10.3389/fgene.2013.00076. PMC 3646240. PMID 23675382.. ... "Psychiatric Genetics. 21 (1): 1-4. doi:10.1097/YPG.0b013e3283413382. PMC 3024533. PMID 21057379.. ...
GeneticsEdit. Further information: Plasmid and Genome. Archaea usually have a single circular chromosome, with as many as ... the cycle has characteristics that are similar to both bacterial and eukaryotic systems. The chromosomes replicate from ... Allers T; Mevarech M (2005). "Archaeal genetics - the third way". Nature Reviews Genetics. 6 (1): 58-73. doi:10.1038/nrg1504. ... Circular chromosomes, similar translation and transcription to Eukarya. Circular chromosomes, unique translation and ...
"BMC Genetics. 15 (1): 152. doi:10.1186/s12863-014-0152-1. ISSN 1471-2156. PMC 4302129. PMID 25544367.. ... The real danger lies that the psyllid can carry a deadly, bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "American Journal of Human Genetics. 49 (3): 635-45. PMC 1683123. PMID 1652892.. ... It is functionally similar to glycogen debranching enzyme, but is on a different chromosome, processed differently by the cell ... "American Journal of Human Genetics. 47 (3): 440-5. PMC 1683879. PMID 2203258.. ...
ವಂಶವಾಹಿ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
doi:10.1534/genetics.109.112144. PMC 2815933. PMID 20061565. *↑ Austin, Christopher P.; Battey, James F.; Bradley, Allan; Bucan ... Ochman, H; Lawrence, JG; Groisman, EA (18 May 2000). "Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation.". Nature ... "Three-Dimensional Maps of All Chromosomes in Human Male Fibroblast Nuclei and Prometaphase Rosettes". PLoS Biology 3 (5): e157 ... ೬೩.೦ ೬೩.೧ Guerzoni, D; McLysaght, A (November 2011). "De novo origins of human genes.". PLOS Genetics 7 (11): e1002381. doi: ...
"Nature Reviews Genetics. 12: 475-486. PMID 21681209. doi:10.1038/nrg3028.. *^ Maynard Smith J (1990). "Models of a Dual ... Similar systems exist in other bacterial genera.. Medicine. Epigenetics has many and varied potential medical ... Methylation of cytosines can also persist from the germ line of one of the parents into the zygote, marking the chromosome as ... doi:10.1534/genetics.109.110213.. *^ Sapp J (1991). "Concepts of organization. The leverage of ciliate protozoa". Dev. Biol. ( ...
Harold E. Varmus
GeneticsEdit. WAS is associated with mutations in a gene on the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp11.23) that was originally ... Recurrent bacterial infections develop by three months. The majority of children with WAS develop at least one autoimmune ... Reference, Genetics Home. "Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. Retrieved 2016-06-26.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Advances in Genetics. 25: 1-38. doi:10.1016/S0065-2660(08)60457-5. ISBN 9780120176250. PMID 3057819.. ... It is found in the mucosa and binds iron, thus creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacterial survival in a ... The gene coding for transferrin in humans is located in chromosome band 3q21. ... Bowman BH, Yang FM, Adrian GS (1989). "Transferrin: evolution and genetic regulation of expression". Advances in Genetics. ...
200kb bacterial artificial chromosomes to small oligonucleotides) that represent unique regions of the genome. This method is ... Chromosome studies. Chromosome studies are used in the general genetics clinic to determine a cause for developmental ... Medical genetics differs from human genetics in that human genetics is a field of scientific research that may or may not apply ... Molecular Genetics. BSc, MSc, PhD, MD, DO, MD-PhD, or DO-PhD. Individuals who specialize in Molecular genetics typically work ...
In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by ... This causes chromosome looping, allowing the promoter region and the silencer region to come to close proximity. ... bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB. *eukaryotic RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase II. Termination. (bacterial,. eukaryotic). * ...
The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and ... Reverse genetics is usually followed as a functional genomics approach based on the dynamic of biological system that aims to ... Low Transgene Copy Plants by Launching T-DNA from the Agrobacterium Chromosome". Plant Physiology. 152 (3): 1158-1166. doi: ... Several other bacterial virulence effectors like VirB5, VirB7 (the minor components of the T-complex), VirD5, VirE2, VirE3, and ...
Genetics. A family history of AF may increase the risk of AF. A study of more than 2,200 people found an increased risk ... Small genetic deletions on the X chromosome around the STS (steroid sulfatase) gene are associated with increased rates of AF ... Subacute bacterial endocarditis. *non-infective endocarditis *Libman-Sacks endocarditis. *Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis ... Anumonwo, JM; Kalifa, J (November 2014). "Risk Factors and Genetics of Atrial Fibrillation". Cardiology Clinics. 32 (4): 485-94 ...
Introduction to genetics
Chromosomes are tiny packages which contain one DNA molecule and its associated proteins. Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs ... Genetic engineering: Bacterial arsenal to combat chewing insects GMO Safety, Jul 2010 ... Timeline of the history of genetics. References. *^ a b University of Utah Genetics Learning Center animated tour of the ... Genetics is the study of genes-what they are, what they do, and how they work. Genes inside the nucleus of a cell are strung ...
While in bacterial cell division, after duplication of DNA, two circular chromosomes are attached to a special region of the ... Draviam VM, Xie S, Sorger PK (April 2004). "Chromosome segregation and genomic stability". Current Opinion in Genetics & ... Condensing chromosomes. Interphase nucleus (left), condensing chromosomes (middle) and condensed chromosomes (right). ... In this stage, chromosomes are long, thin and thread-like. Each chromosome has two chromatids. The two chromatids are joined at ...
... bacterial tree disease called Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease. ... "BMC Genetics. 15 (1). doi:10.1186/s12863-014-0152-1. ISSN 1471-2156. Retrieved 2017-07-08.. ... "Next generation haplotyping to decipher nuclear genomic interspecific admixture in Citrusspecies: analysis of chromosome 2" ... Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 100 (8): 1155-1166. doi:10.1007/s001220051419.. ...
Another theory suggests the female high tendency to get autoimmunity is due to an imbalanced X chromosome inactivation. The ... Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) patients also present with eczema, autoimmune manifestations, recurrent bacterial infections and ... "Recent Advances in the Genetics of Autoimmune Disease". Annual Review of Immunology. 27: 363-391. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol. ... Theory: High autoimmunity in females due to imbalanced X chromosome inactivation:  ...
Genomic DNA is fragmented into random pieces and cloned as a bacterial library. DNA from individual bacterial clones is ... "The American Journal of Human Genetics. 85 (2): 142-54. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.06.022. PMC 2725244 . PMID 19679224.. ... The circular chromosome contains 1,830,137 bases and its publication in the journal Science marked the first published use ... "Nature Reviews Genetics. 12 (2): 87-98. doi:10.1038/nrg2934. ISSN 1471-0056. PMC 3031867 . PMID 21191423.. ...
An example target for targeted therapy is the protein produced by the Philadelphia chromosome, a genetic lesion found commonly ... genetics, and obesity, which has a major impact on the actual concentration of the drug in the patient's bloodstream.[ ... "Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial infections in afebrile neutropenic patients following chemotherapy". The Cochrane ...
Marian R. Goldsmith, Toru Shimada & Hiroaki Abe (2005). "The genetics and genomics of the silkworm, Bombyx mori". Annual Review ... Bombyx mori females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together only by the synaptonemal ... Lysocin E is a new antibiotic that targets menaquinone in the bacterial membrane. Nat. Chem. Biol. 11, 127-133 PMID 25485686 ... The silkworm is one of the few organisms wherein the principles of genetics and breeding were applied to harvest maximum output ...
ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Central nervous system navs - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Programmed cell death
"Bacterial Programmed Cell Death and Multicellular Behavior in Bacteria". PLoS Genetics. 2 (10): e135. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen. ... The first insight into the mechanism came from studying BCL2, the product of a putative oncogene activated by chromosome ... six-chromosome D. discoideum has additional significance: It permits the study of a developmental PCD path that does not depend ...
... with 22-25 clonally abnormal chromosomes, known as HeLa signature chromosomes." The signature chromosomes can ... "G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics. 3 (8): 1213-24. doi:10.1534/g3.113.005777. PMC 3737162. PMID 23550136.. ... "What are bacterial species?". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 56 (1): 457-487. doi:10.1146/annurev.micro.56.012302.160634. PMID 12142474 ... We mapped by FISH five HPV18 integration sites: three on normal chromosomes 8 at 8q24 and two on derivative chromosomes, der(5) ...
The first genetics, Mendelian genetics, began at 1900, yet inheritance of Mendelian traits was localized to chromosomes by 1903 ... Mindful of Griffith and Avery, Joshua Lederberg confirmed bacterial conjugation -reported decades earlier but controversial- ... In the early 1960s, Crick helped crack a genetic code in DNA, thus establishing molecular genetics. ... Lederberg led the opening of a genetics department at Stanford University's medical school, and facilitated greater ...
Artificial chromosome vector - The General Hospital Corporation
Blackburn, E. H., Trends in Genetics 1:8-12 (1985). Szostak et al., Cell 29:245-255 (1982). Appels et al., Chromosoma (Berl.) ... common genetic transformation method used in higher plants is based on the transfer of bacterial DNA into plant chromosomes ... The extra telocentric chromosome has two telomeres: one identical to that present on the full length chromosomes, and a new ... This chromosome undergoes breakage, followed by rearrangement or chromosome loss; these events can be detected by karyotype ...
Bacterial artificial chromosome-emulation oligonucleotide arrays for targeted clinical array-comparative genomic hybridization...
... platform to give high-resolution coverage of regions within the genome sequence coordinates of BAC/P1 artificial chromosome ( ... The goal of this work was to test the ability of oligonucleotide-based arrays to reproduce the results of focused bacterial ... artificial chromosome (BAC)-based arrays used clinically in comparative genomic hybridization experiments to detect ... Genetics in Medicine volume 10, pages278-289(2008)Cite this article ...
Gene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle | PNAS
1981) in Genetics as a Tool in Microbiology, SGM Symposia, Transcriptional regulation by bacterial RNA polymerase, eds Glover S ... Gene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle. Patrick ... Gene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle ... Gene order and chromosome dynamics coordinate spatiotemporal gene expression during the bacterial growth cycle ...
Avoiding chromosome pathology when replication forks collide | Nature
have exploited a bacterial system to look at the effects of such a collision on the cell. They find that the site of collision ... Chromosome duplication normally initiates through the assembly of replication fork complexes at defined origins1,2. DNA ... It relies on the chromosome being circular, reinforcing the idea that replication initiation is triggered repeatedly by fork ... The site of collision between two chromosome replication forks can be used to reinitiate replication independent of an active ...
Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes | SpringerLink
Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for ... Applications of BACs in Model Organisms, Medical Genetics, and Drug Discovery. * Front Matter Pages 231-231 ... Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition expands upon the previous edition with current, detailed methods developed for ... Authoritative and cutting-edge, Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes, Second Edition seeks to aid scientists in advancing their ...
Mutations arising during repair of chromosome breaks
DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae
The genome consists of two circular chromosomes of 2,961,146 bp and 1,072,314 bp that together encode 3,885 open reading frames ... environmental organism emerged to become a significant human bacterial pathogen. ... In contrast, the small chromosome contains a larger fraction (59%) of hypothetical genes compared with the large chromosome (42 ... DNA sequence of both chromosomes of the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae Nature. 2000 Aug 3;406(6795):477-83. doi: 10.1038/ ...
Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect | PNAS
Bacterial symbionts in insects: balancing life and death. Harriet L. Harris, Lesley J. Brennan, B. Andrew Keddie, Henk R. Braig ... Russian Journal of Genetics 2010 46 1 *. Evolutionary analysis revealed the horizontal transfer of the Cyt b gene from Fungi to ... Genome fragment of Wolbachia endosymbiont transferred to X chromosome of host insect. Natsuko Kondo, Naruo Nikoh, Nobuyuki ... Bacterial Genes in the Aphid Genome: Absence of Functional Gene Transfer from Buchnera to Its Host ...
Bacterial artificial chromosome - Wikipedia
"Epstein-Barr virus genetics: talking about the BAC generation". Herpesviridae. 1 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/2042-4280-1-6. ISSN 2042- ... A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) is a DNA construct, based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid), used for ... The bacterial artificial chromosomes usual insert size is 150-350 kbp. A similar cloning vector called a PAC has also been ... The Big Bad BAC: Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes - a review from the Science Creative Quarterly ...
A Physically Anchored Genetic Map and Linkage to Avirulence Reveals Recombination Suppression Over the Proximal Region of...
1979 The nature of genetic recombination near the third chromosome centromere of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 93: 117-130 ... AFLP bands and STS markers were used as probes to identify clones in an arrayed Hessian fly bacterial artificial chromosome ( ... The S chromosomes are composed of two autosomes (A1 and A2) and two X chromosomes (X1 and X2). The S chromosomes undergo ... each zygote contains a diploid set of S chromosomes and 30-40 E chromosomes (A1 A2 X1 X2/A1 A2 X1 X2 + E). The E chromosomes ...
Genetic and physical maps of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.
Sequencing of the complete Bacillus subtilis chromosome revealed the presence of approximately 4100 genes, 1000 of which were ... Chromosome Mapping*. Chromosomes, Bacterial / genetics. DNA, Bacterial / genetics. Genetic Markers. Genome, Bacterial. Models, ... Title: Genetics Volume: 151 ISSN: 0016-6731 ISO Abbreviation: Genetics Publication Date: 1999 Apr ... 10101153 - Genetic and physical maps of the bacillus subtilis chromosome.. 9515703 - Use of asymmetric cell division and ...
Development of stable reporter system cloning luxCDABE genes into chromosome of Salmonella enterica serotypes using Tn7...
Bacterial Adhesion. Chickens. Chromosomes, Bacterial / genetics*. Cloning, Molecular / methods*. DNA Transposable Elements*. ... Plasmid pBEN276 was utilized to insert the bacterial lux operon into chromosomes of eleven Salmonella enterica serotypes. ... Bacterial density values (OD600) for S. Schwarzengrund were also similar to bacterial density values for the other serotypes. ... Insertion of lux genes into the chromosome of Salmonella enterica Bioluminescence was established in the chromosome of the ...
Evidence That Stationary-Phase Hypermutation in the Escherichia coli Chromosome Is Promoted by Recombination | Genetics
The data suggest that recombinational stationary-phase mutation occurs in the bacterial chromosome and thus can be a general ... Strategy for measuring stationary-phase mutation in the bacterial chromosome: Chromosomal mutations coincident with Lac+ ... 1995 Editing DNA replication and recombination by mismatch repair: from bacterial genetics to mechanisms of predisposition to ... Recombination-promoted mutation in the bacterial chromosome: It was suggested that recombination-dependent stationary-phase ...
Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes | SpringerLink
1.Department of GeneticsNorth Caroline State UniversityRaleighUSA. About this protocol. Cite this protocol as: Alonso J.M., ... Stepanova A.N. (2014) Arabidopsis Transformation with Large Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes. In: Sanchez-Serrano J., Salinas J ... Generation of a high-quality P1 library of Arabidopsis suitable for chromosome walking. Plant J 7:351-358CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector ...
Hans Ris (1914-2004): Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts
3. Ris, H. Kubai, D (1970) Chromosome structure. Annu Rev Genetics 4:263-294 ... Hans Ris (1914-2004). Genophore, chromosomes and the bacterial origin of chloroplasts ... Ris was very disappointed when his appropriate name for the "bacterial chromosome, the "genophore ", a term he coined, was not ... Even in some marine protists, the dinoflagellates, whose peculiar chromosomes (made of bacterial-like 25 nm-small fibrils that ...
Recent Articles | Bacterial Toxin And Genetics & Genomics | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 4
Multiple DNA breaks at either the centromere or the long arm of the mouse Y chromosome cause it to fragment and disappear. ... Scientists Destroy Entire Chromosome with CRISPR. By Kerry Grens , August 1, 2017 ... tags: bacterial toxin x genetics & genomics x The Scientist. » bacterial toxin and genetics & genomics ...
Frequent exchange of the DNA polymerase during bacterial chromosome replication | eLife
DnaB Helicase is the only stable component of the bacterial replisome as the replicative DNA polymerase frequently exchanges in ... Nature Genetics 46:405-408.. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2905 *PubMed ... Thank you for submitting your article "Frequent exchange of the DNA polymerase during bacterial chromosome replication" for ... Thank you for resubmitting your work entitled "Frequent exchange of the DNA polymerase during bacterial chromosome replication ...
Chromosome Replication | Encyclopedia.com
Genetics: From Genes to Genomes. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.. Hartwell, Leland H., and T. A. Weinert. "Checkpoints: Controls ... The organization of the eukaryotic DNA is very different from bacterial DNA. In the latter, the genetic material is usually ... During S phase, every chromosome replicates to yield two identical sister chromosomes (called chromatids ) that remain attached ... This halving of the chromosome number (2n to n) compensates for its doubling when the gametes (n + n) unite to form a zygote (2 ...
Chromosomes | Encyclopedia.com
Chromosome A chromosome is a structure that occurs within cells and that contains the cells genetic material. That genetic ... See chromosome mutation. Bacterial and viral cells contain only a single chromosome; it differs from the eukaryotic chromosome ... Home Science and Technology Biology and Genetics Genetics and Genetic Engineering Chromosomes ... Lilies have 24 chromosomes, earthworms have 36 chromosomes, chimps have 48 chromosomes, and horses have 64 chromosomes. The ...
Relative entropy differences in bacterial chromosomes, plasmids, phages and genomic islands<...
keywords = "BIOTECHNOLOGY, GENETICS, USAGE PATTERNS, SEQUENCES, PROKARYOTES, COMMUNICATION, REDUCTION, DIVERSITY, ANCESTOR",. ... Results: Relative entropy was highest in bacterial chromosomes and had the sequence chromosomes , GI , phage , plasmid. There ... Results: Relative entropy was highest in bacterial chromosomes and had the sequence chromosomes , GI , phage , plasmid. There ... Results: Relative entropy was highest in bacterial chromosomes and had the sequence chromosomes , GI , phage , plasmid. There ...
A bacterial artificial chromosome library for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the identification of clones containing putative...
A bacterial artificial chromosome library for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the identification of clones containing putative ... TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Volume 101, Number 7, 1093-1099, DOI: 10.1007/s001220051584. Abstract. Modern cultivated ... A bacterial artificial chromosome library for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the identification of clones containing putative ... 2001-1988 : A bacterial artificial chromosome library for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the identification of clones ...
Expression of human smooth muscle calponin in transgenic mice revealed with a bacterial artificial chromosome | Heart and...
Division of Human Cancer Genetics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, and ... bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), or P1 phage artificial chromosomes revealed correct spatiotemporal expression of the ... Here, we report on the use of a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) to begin understanding the in vivo regulation of smooth ... Expression of human smooth muscle calponin in transgenic mice revealed with a bacterial artificial chromosome. Joseph M. Miano ...
Module Catalogue - Newcastle University
Molecular genetics: introduction to bacterial genetics; structure of the bacterial chromosome; comparative genomics; DNA ... introduce the fundamental principles of Mendelian genetics, population genetics and current concepts of molecular genetics ... Evolutionary genetics: prebiotic chemistry; ribozymes as molecular fossils; molecular phylogenetics and population genetics. ... clinical genetics of complex diseases; ethics in Genetics ... era of genetics as well as recent advances in genetic analysis ...
Frequent exchange of the DNA polymerase during bacterial chromosome replication - White Rose Research Online
Neuroscience,Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology,Immunology and Microbiology. Dates:. *Published: 31 March 2017 ... 4 more authors) (2017) Frequent exchange of the DNA polymerase during bacterial chromosome replication. eLife. e21763. ISSN ... In Escherichia coli, a single pair of replisomes is responsible for duplicating the entire 4.6 Mbp circular chromosome. In ...
Recombineering - Wikipedia
In engineering large constructs of >100 kb, such as the Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes (BACs), or chromosomes, recombineering ... Recombineering is widely used for bacterial genetics, in the generation of target vectors for making a conditional mouse ... "Rapid modification of bacterial artificial chromosomes by ET- recombination". Nucleic Acids Res. 27: 1555-1557. doi:10.1093/nar ... and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. ...
Skip to Content
Research at Duquesne | Duquesne University
'genome size' Protocols and Video...
Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: A Functional Genomics Tool for the Study of Positive-strand RNA Viruses, Purifying the ... Genetics Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes: A Functional Genomics Tool for the Study of Positive-strand RNA Viruses. Sang-Im Yun ... 1Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Development, Noble Research Institute, 2Genetics Laboratory, University of Oklahoma Health ... Genetics TChIP-Seq: Cell-Type-Specific Epigenome Profiling. Mari Mito1,2, Mitsutaka Kadota3, Shinichi Nakagawa1,4, Shintaro ...
BIOL - Undergraduate Courses - Courses - 2011 Undergraduate Catalog - The University of Texas at Dallas
... with major focus on bacterial and model eukaryotic systems; genetic recombination and chromosome mapping; tetrad analysis; ... BIOL 1318 (BIOL 2316) Human Genetics (3 semester hours) Elementary course in the fundamentals of human genetics. Topics include ... BIOL 3351 Secrets of Cells (3 semester hours) Explores the biology of cells, from bacterial to human. Topics include the basic ... Population genetics employed during the statistical evaluation of data is covered. The course is structured to allow ...
The University of Texas at Dallas - 2004 Undergraduate Catalog
... focus on bacterial and model eukaryotic systems; genetic recombination and chromosome mapping; tetrad analysis; mutations and ... BIOL 1318 Human Genetics (3 semester hours) Elementary course in the fundamentals of human genetics. Topics include patterns of ... BIOL 3321 Microbial Genetics Laboratory (3 semester hours) Laboratory with introductory lecture that will focus on the genetic ... Population genetics employed during the statistical evaluation of data is covered. The course is structured to allow ...
PlasmidMolecular BiologyMicrobiologyGenomicsPlasmidsGeneHuman GeneticsStructure of the bacterial chromosomeMicrobial GeneticsSpeciesBiochemistryYeastBiologyProkaryoticQuantitative traiSegregationArtificial chromosome vectorSets of chromosomesHeredityMechanismsEvolutionTransposable ElementsInheritanceTransductionAcrocentric chromosomesMetacentric chromosomesMutationsRearrangementsOrganism2017ProkaryotesViralPhysiologyCellsPresence of chromosomeVectorsFragmentsGrowthProteinsModern geneticsGenome consistsPlant breedingNucleusPhageGenetic analysisMutationCytology
- A ) Temporal changes of NAPs, RNAP composition, and average plasmid DNA superhelicity (σ) during bacterial growth. (pnas.org)
- A bacterial artificial chromosome ( BAC ) is a DNA construct , based on a functional fertility plasmid (or F-plasmid ), used for transforming and cloning in bacteria , usually E. coli . (wikipedia.org)
- The best-studied assay for stationary-phase mutation uses Escherichia coli cells carrying a revertible lac frameshift allele on an F′ sex plasmid and no lac genes in the chromosome ( C airns and F oster 1991 ). (genetics.org)
- Although developed in bacteria, much of the inspiration for recombineering techniques came from methods first developed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae where a linear plasmid was used to target genes or clone genes off the chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
- Goldstein E, Drlica K (1984) Regulation of bacterial DNA supercoiling: Plasmid linking numbers vary with growth temperature. (springer.com)
- D: F+ bacteria have a nonintegrated F plasmid, while Hfr bacteria have an F plasmid that is integrated into their main chromosome. (brainscape.com)
- Transformation is the process by which a foreign chromosome fragment (plasmid) is incorporated into the bacterial chromosome via recombination, creating new inheritable genetic combination. (wikibooks.org)
- it only transfers a portion of the fertility plasmid, along with part of its chromosome. (brainscape.com)
- The full-length genome of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 was cloned as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) plasmid, pAD/Cre. (asm.org)
- bacterial DNA that is extrachromosomal and that may replicate autonomously as a plasmid or become incorporated into the chromosome and replicate with it. (dictionary.com)
- Among topics considered are structure and function of plants and animals, relations of organisms to each other and to their environment, energy relations of organisms, integrative and coordinating mechanisms of organisms, cell biology principles, genetics, molecular biology, reproduction, development and growth, and the evidence for organic evolution. (reed.edu)
- Here, we describe the development of animal models to investigate globin switching and the β-hemoglobinopathies, a field that has paralleled the emergence of modern molecular biology and clinical genetics. (nih.gov)
- Life: A Study of Genetics and Molecular Biology - Source of information from the basics to contemporary issues such as cloning and cancer. (searchbeat.com)
- Recent advancements in understanding the genetics and molecular biology of archaea are described where appropriate. (pearson.ch)
- To facilitate comparative genomics within Crocodylia and between crocodilians and other archosaurs, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the Australian saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus . (biomedcentral.com)
- After receiving his Ph.D., he worked at a genomics institute and became a faculty member in the Department of Genetics and Biochemistry at Clemson. (icr.org)
- Genetic linkage maps are useful tools in evolutionary genetics for the discovery of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL), comparative genomics, and in anchoring sequences to specific chromosomal regions. (g3journal.org)
- 2017. Aquaculture genomics, genetics and breeding in the United States: current status, challenges, and priorities for future research. (usda.gov)
- Genome transplantation is an essential enabling step in the field of synthetic genomics as it is a key mechanism by which chemically synthesized chromosomes can be activated into viable living cells. (medgadget.com)
- We analyzed the differences in information capacity between prokaryotic chromosomes, genomic islands (GI), phages, and plasmids. (dtu.dk)
- There was an association between relative entropy and AT content in chromosomes, phages, plasmids and GIs with the strongest association being in phages. (dtu.dk)
- We argue that relative entropy differences reflect how plasmids, phages and GIs interact with microbial host chromosomes and that all these biological entities are, or have been, subjected to different selective pressures. (dtu.dk)
- The rate at which amelioration of horizontally acquired DNA occurs within the chromosome is likely to account for the small differences between chromosomes and stably incorporated GIs compared to the transient or independent replicons such as phages and plasmids. (dtu.dk)
- Episomes are plasmids that are capable of integration into the bacterial genome. (wikibooks.org)
- Bacterial plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that are replicated and inherited within cells, separately from the chromosome. (usd.edu)
- The terms chromosome and gene were used long before biologists really understood what these structures were. (encyclopedia.com)
- The Watson and Crick discovery made it possible to express biological concepts (such as the gene) and structures (such as the chromosome) in concrete chemical terms. (encyclopedia.com)
- Artificial chromosomes, which harbor hundreds of kilobases of genomic DNA, preserve a large sequence landscape containing most, if not all, regulatory elements controlling the expression of a particular gene. (physiology.org)
- An important outgrowth of the Human Genome Project that has assisted investigators in defining the boundaries of genomic DNA necessary for the complete expression of a particular gene has been the development of artificial chromosomes ( 4 , 50 ). (physiology.org)
- CHORI-240 bovine bacterial artificial chromosome library high density filters were probed with gene-specific overgo primers for Sialyltransferase 4A (SIAT4A). (usda.gov)
- This situation contrasts with that later in spermatogenesis, when expression of some X-linked genes from the repressed X chromosome is facilitated by various mechanisms including gene amplification [ 16 ] and establishment of active chromatin marks by the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 [ 21 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- Non-coding RNAs have a prominent role in gene silencing, e.g. in X chromosome inactivation [ 28 ], and repression of transposable elements and centromeric repeats [ 29 ], and it is therefore possible that X-linked miRNAs contribute to the process of MSCI itself. (prolekare.cz)
- The major challenge in combining immunofluorescence and 3D DNA FISH is, on the one hand to preserve the epitope detected by the antibody as well as the 3D architecture of the nucleus, and on the other hand, to allow the penetration of the DNA probe to detect gene loci or chromosome territories 1-5 . (jove.com)
- First, an antibiotic selectable marker gene was added to the M. mycoides LC chromosome to allow for selection of living cells containing the transplanted chromosome. (medgadget.com)
- Sickle-Cell Disease: This disease occurs when there is a mutation in the hemoglobin-Beta gene that is found on chromosome 11. (brighthub.com)
- Gene CRC - Provides a range of information on the latest genetics research and ethical and associated issues. (searchbeat.com)
- Plus, electrifying news about bacterial nanowires, cuddly koalas, and counting chromosomes, and our gene of the month is the mindblowing Mind Bomb. (thenakedscientists.com)
Structure of the bacterial chromosome1
- Fundamental Bacterial Genetics" presents a concise introduction to microbial genetics. (whsmith.co.uk)
- A solid balance of concepts, techniques and applications makes this book an accessible, essential introduction to the theory and practice of fundamental microbial genetics. (whsmith.co.uk)
- Nancy Trun is an Assistant Professor in the Dept of Biological Sciences at Duquesne University where she teaches undergraduate and graduate level microbial genetics. (whsmith.co.uk)
- She has taught microbial genetics courses at the University of Maryland and at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and received the National Institutes of Health Director's Award for science education at the elementary school level. (whsmith.co.uk)
- thus, the small chromosome may have originally been a megaplasmid that was captured by an ancestral Vibrio species. (nih.gov)
- With Sally Hughes-Schrader at Columbia University in New York City he studied chromosomes in an aphid species in which the offspring of fertilized eggs develop into females. (isciii.es)
- The lifestyle of phages makes them potent conveyors of genetic information between bacterial species. (dur.ac.uk)
- This "swapping" of DNA may help explain how genes that confer resistance to anti-bacterial drugs have spread among many species. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
- Pennisetum is a highly diverse genus consisting of a heterogeneous group of approximately 140 species [ 7 , 8 , 9 ] with different basic chromosome numbers of 5, 7, 8 or 9, a range of ploidy levels from diploid to octoploid, both sexual and apomictic reproductive behaviours and life cycles of an annual, biennial or perennial nature [ 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Here we present a de novo genome assembly and annotation of D. bifasciata , a species which represents an important subgroup for which no high-quality chromosome-level genome assembly currently exists. (g3journal.org)
- We annotated a total of 12,821 protein-coding genes and comparisons of synteny with D. athabasca orthologs show that the large metacentric pericentromeric regions of multiple chromosomes are conserved between these species. (g3journal.org)
- Importantly, Muller A (X chromosome) was found to be metacentric in D. bifasciata and the pericentromeric region appears homologous to the pericentromeric region of the fused Muller A-AD (XL and XR) of pseudoobscura / affinis subgroup species. (g3journal.org)
- Each organism of a species is normally characterized by the same number of chromosomes in its somatic cells, 46 being the number normally present in humans, including 22 pairs of autosomes and the two sex chromosomes (XX or XY), which determine the sex of the organism. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Six metacentric chromosomes seem to be conserved with Arctic Char suggesting there have been at least two species-specific fusion and fission events within the genus Salvelinus . (g3journal.org)
- The ability to transfer the naked DNA isolated from one species into a second microbial species paves the way for next experiments to transplant a fully synthetic bacterial chromosome into a living organism and if successful, "boot up" the new entity. (medgadget.com)
- Cosmid End-sequence profiling Fosmid Human artificial chromosome Yeast artificial chromosome O'Connor M, Peifer M, Bender W (1989). (wikipedia.org)
- Laboratory experiments include microscopy, microbial techniques, yeast genetics, and the electrophoretic behavior of normal and mutant proteins. (utdallas.edu)
- Study of proteins and protein modifiers that regulate chromosome segregation and genome integrity in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cereviasiae . (wm.edu)
- YAC, yeast artificial chromosome. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Newswise - An international team of scientists led by Jef Boeke, PhD, director of NYU Langone Medical Center's Institute for Systems Genetics, has synthesized the first functional chromosome in yeast, an important step in the emerging field of synthetic biology, designing microorganisms to produce novel medicines, raw materials for food, and biofuels. (newswise.com)
- Researchers say their team's global effort also marks one of the most significant advances in yeast genetics since 1996, when scientists initially mapped out yeast's entire DNA code, or genetic blueprint. (newswise.com)
- We have shown that yeast cells carrying this synthetic chromosome are remarkably normal. (newswise.com)
- In this week's issue of Science online March 27, the team reports how, using computer-aided design, they built a fully functioning chromosome, which they call synIII, and successfully incorporated it into brewer's yeast, known scientifically as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (newswise.com)
- We have made over 50,000 changes to the DNA code in the chromosome and our yeast still live. (newswise.com)
- It shows that our synthetic chromosome is hardy, and it endows the yeast with new properties. (newswise.com)
- Yeast chromosome III was selected for synthesis because it is among the smallest of the 16 yeast chromosomes and controls how yeast cells mate and undergo genetic change. (newswise.com)
- Delineating Rearrangements in Single Yeast Artificial Chromosomes by Quantitative DNA Fiber Mapping. (semanticscholar.org)
- Topics include the chemistry and metabolism of biological molecules, elementary classical and molecular genetics, and selected aspects of developmental biology, physiology (including hormone action), immunity, and neurophysiology. (utdallas.edu)
- High-Density Sequencing Applications in Microbial Molecular Genetics , Volume 612 in the Methods of Enzymology series provides the latest on the high-density sequencing of DNA and cDNA libraries and how they have revolutionized contemporary research in biology. (elsevier.com)
- This example of diagram for studying of prokaryotic molecular genetics is created with ConceptDraw PRO diagramming and vector drawing software enhanced with Biology solution from ConceptDraw Solution Park. (conceptdraw.com)
- Previously, we identified and validated microsatellites on chromosome Omy19 associated with QTL (quantitative trait loci) for BCWD resistance and spleen size in rainbow trout. (frontiersin.org)
- 2017. Similar Genetic Architecture with Shared and Unique Quantitative Trait Loci for Bacterial Cold Water Disease Resistance in Two Rainbow Trout Breeding Populations. (usda.gov)
- We demonstrate that the majority of CI-induced mortality occurs during embryogenesis and that the pattern of paternal chromosome segregation during the first mitosis is a good predictor of CI phenotype. (biologists.org)
- The latter class is the first documented example of asymmetric mitotic segregation of abnormal chromosomes. (biologists.org)
- His current research utilizes the tools of Drosophila genetics to investigate the mechansims that ensure proper chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. (nhbs.com)
- Elaine is a cell and molecular biologist interested in the regulation of centromeres, key chromosomal loci that oversee proper chromosome segregation during cell division. (wellcome.ac.uk)
Artificial chromosome vector2
- Liu YG, Shirano Y, Fukaki H, Yanai Y, Tasaka M, Tabata S, Shibata D (1999) Complementation of plant mutants with large genomic DNA fragments by a transformation-competent artificial chromosome vector accelerates positional cloning. (springer.com)
- A modular, positive selection bacterial artificial chromosome vector with multiple cloning sites. (openwetware.org)
Sets of chromosomes1
- During the last decade, the increasing number of available chromosome maps has prompted reconsideration of existing theories about the evolution of bacterial genome organization ( 7 , 16 ). (asm.org)
- Small and large genome alterations are important in bacterial genome evolution. (els.net)
- Informed by many years of genetics teaching and research expertise, authors Mark Sanders and John Bowman use an integrated approach that helps contextualize three core challenges of learning genetics: solving problems, understanding evolution, and understanding the connection between traditional genetics models and more modern approaches. (pearson.ch)
- The asparagus genome sheds light on the origin and evolution of a young Y chromosome. (arizona.edu)
- Gregor Mendel published results of experiments on the laws of inheritance, thus establishing the science of genetics. (conservapedia.com)
- However, the modern science of genetics, which seeks to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-nineteenth century. (statemaster.com)
- Adult-onset idiopathic focal dystonia affecting specific parts of the body, such as the eye (blepharospasm), neck (cervical dystonia), and hand (writer's cramp), is mostly associated with the DYT7 locus, which was originally mapped to chromosome 18p by genomewide linkage analysis in a large family showing autosomal dominant inheritance. (strath.ac.uk)
- Comparative mapping confirmed the presence of 8 metacentric and 34 acrocentric chromosomes in Brook Trout. (g3journal.org)
- 4 The risk of an abnormal phenotype associated with such markers is relatively high with Crolla 4 estimating the risk to be approximately 28% for rings derived from non-acrocentric chromosomes and approximately 7% from acrocentric chromosomes. (bmj.com)
- However, there is now evidence that the breakpoints of intrachromosomal rearrangements are not necessarily randomly distributed along the chromosome. (bmj.com)
- 2 Therefore it is possible that a proportion of small ring chromosomes will originate from chromosome rearrangements which also show non-random breakpoints. (bmj.com)
- The V. cholerae genomic sequence provides a starting point for understanding how a free-living, environmental organism emerged to become a significant human bacterial pathogen. (nih.gov)
- The number of exchanges will vary from one organism or chromosome to another (on average, one to five per chromosome, and up to one hundred or so per cell). (innovations-report.com)
- Ris' favorite comparisons of genetic material were of the chromosomes, nuclear membranes and cytoskeleton of eggs and sperm cells of animals including sea urchins, frogs, toads and salamanders. (isciii.es)
- A chromosome is a structure that occurs within cells and that contains the cell's genetic material. (encyclopedia.com)
- In eukaryotes, or cells with a distinct nucleus, chromosomes are much more complex in structure. (encyclopedia.com)
- One indication of these fluctuations in three-dimensional structure is that the shape of the bacterial nucleoid is irregular and varies in different cells in the same culture. (springer.com)
- Chromosomes are the structures in cells that "package" genes and ensure their safe transfer into new cells. (genomenewsnetwork.org)
- Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) describes the transcriptional silencing of the unsynapsed X and Y chromosomes at the onset of pachynema in mammalian male germ cells [ 1 - 5 ]. (prolekare.cz)
- Notably, a host of widely used antibiotics result in oxidative DNA damage in bacterial cells, and how bacterial cells cope with this DNA damage underlies the emergence of antibiotics resistance. (harvard.edu)
- During the normal production of sperm and egg cells, DNA strands occasionally break and rejoin in different places on the same chromosome or on the other copy of the same chromosome (i.e., the homologous chromosome). (lsu.edu)
- A condition known as mosaicism results from an error in the distribution of chromosomes between daughter cells during an early embryonic cell division, producing two and sometimes three populations of cells with different chromosome numbers in the same individual. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Errors in cell division often result in daughter cells with inappropriate numbers of chromosomes, a condition associated with cancers and Down's syndrome. (wellcome.ac.uk)
- 1. Introduction To The Cell.The Molecules That Make Up A Cell.The Bacterial Cell: A Quick Overview.How Do Cells Grow? (whsmith.co.uk)
- This M. mycoides LC chromosome was then transplanted into the M. capricolum cells. (medgadget.com)
- After several rounds of cell division, the recipient M. capricolum chromosome disappeared having been replaced by the donor M. mycoides LC chromosome, and the M. capricolum cells took on all the phenotypic characteristics of M. mycoides LC cells. (medgadget.com)
- Two sets of antibodies that bound specifically to cell surface proteins from each cell were reacted with transplant cells, to demonstrate that the membrane proteins switch to those dictated by the transplanted chromosome not the recipient cell chromosome. (medgadget.com)
- During the formation of reproductive cells or gametes, sexual reproduction is accompanied by an exchange of genes between the two chromosomes inherited from the parents. (innovations-report.com)
- So, all the cells in our body carry the same genetic material (chromosomes), apart from a few exceptions such as gametes, antibody-producing cells, and also, unfortunately, tumor cells. (innovations-report.com)
- In meiosis (from the Greek, meaning reduction), unlike mitosis, the genetic material is halved when transmitted from the mother cell to the daughter cells: 2n chromosomes (diploid cell) become n chromosomes (haploid cell). (innovations-report.com)
- Each pair of chromosomes - one of paternal origin, the other maternal - is positioned independently of the other pairs on the equatorial plate, before migrating to the poles to produce two daughter cells. (innovations-report.com)
- A genetic particle within certain cells, especially bacterial cells, that can exist either autonomously in the cytoplasm or as part of a chromosome. (dictionary.com)
Presence of chromosome2
- The sex chromosomes are labeled X and Y. Karyotyping is useful in determining the presence of chromosome defects. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The most frequent group are the idic(15)s, readily identified cytogenetically by the presence of chromosome satellites and positive distamycin A/DAPI staining regions. (bmj.com)
- Recombineering is widely used for bacterial genetics, in the generation of target vectors for making a conditional mouse knockout, and for modifying DNA of any source often contained on a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), among other applications. (wikipedia.org)
- Generation of stable cell clones for protein production using Bacterial Artificial Chromosomes offers a clear advantage over the use of conventional vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have developed a procedure for efficient in situ hybridization of bacterial recombinants created with various types of large-insert cloning vectors. (semanticscholar.org)
- Mapping involves (1) dividing the chromosomes into smaller fragments that can be propagated and characterized and (2) ordering (mapping) them to correspond to their respective locations on the chromosomes. (lsu.edu)
- Microbiological diagram sample: Bacterial transformation with DNA fragments. (conceptdraw.com)
- Figure 4: Effect of recG , tus and growth phase on chromosome marker frequencies. (nature.com)
- Dr. Boeke and his team made more than 500 alterations to its genetic base, removing repeating sections of some 47,841 DNA base pairs, deemed unnecessary to chromosome reproduction and growth. (newswise.com)
- Today we know that a chromosome contains a single molecule of DNA along with several kinds of proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
- However, the analogy with protein structure should not be carried too far, because the three-dimensional structure of the chromosome appears to be dynamic in its organization and its structural fluctuations may go beyond the kinds of statistical perturbations expected in proteins. (springer.com)
- Then the team purified the DNA or chromosome from M. mycoides LC so that it was free from proteins (called naked DNA). (medgadget.com)
- As a test of the success of the genome transplantation, the team used two methods - 2D gel electrophoresis and protein sequencing, to prove that all the expressed proteins were now the ones coded for by the M. mycoides LC chromosome. (medgadget.com)
- the bulk of this material forms a compact bacterial nucleus. (thefreedictionary.com)
- It is also possible to make a photomicrograph of a cell nucleus, cut it apart, and rearrange it so that the individual chromosomes are in order and labeled. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the nucleus, mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA. (medlineplus.gov)