Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Russia (Pre-1917)Acanthocephala: A phylum of parasitic worms, closely related to tapeworms and containing two genera: Moniliformis, which sometimes infects man, and Macracanthorhynchus, which infects swine.Viburnum: A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Microcystis: A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Chroococcales. Many species are planktonic and possess gas vacuoles.Daphnia: A diverse genus of minute freshwater CRUSTACEA, of the suborder CLADOCERA. They are a major food source for both young and adult freshwater fish.Microcystins: Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.Eutrophication: The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Exfoliatins: Protein exotoxins from Staphylococcus aureus, phage type II, which cause epidermal necrolysis. They are proteins with a molecular weight of 26,000 to 32,000. They cause a condition variously called scaled skin, Lyell or Ritter syndrome, epidermal exfoliative disease, toxic epidermal necrolysis, etc.Mesocestoides: A genus of tapeworm, containing several species, found as adults in birds and mammals. The larvae or cysticercoid stage develop in invertebrates. Human infection has been reported and is probably acquired from eating inadequately cooked meat of animals infected with the second larval stage known as the tetrahythridium.Cestode Infections: Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Handling (Psychology): Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

*Evolution of sexual reproduction

In particular, Otto and Nuismer presented results showing that species interactions (e.g. host vs parasite interactions) ... and one gene in hosts with two alleles h and H, conferring two types of parasite resistance, such that parasites with allele p ... It was found that clones that were plentiful at the beginning of the study became more susceptible to parasites over time. As ... They genetically manipulated the mating system of C. elegans, causing populations to mate either sexually, by self- ...

*Red Queen hypothesis

Consequently, co-evolutionary interactions, between host and parasite, for example, may select for sexual reproduction in hosts ... It was found that clones that were plentiful at the beginning of the study became more susceptible to parasites over time. As ... They genetically manipulated the mating system of C. elegans, causing populations to mate either sexually, by self- ... such as predator-prey or parasite-host interactions. In cases of parasite-host relations, sexual reproduction can quicken the ...

*Gene-for-gene relationship

Flor H.H. (1955). "Host-parasite interaction in flax rust - its genetics and other implications". Phytopathology. 45: 680-685. ... it is believed that the products of Avr genes play an important role in virulence in genetically susceptible hosts. Example: ... Clayton Oscar Person was the first scientist to study plant pathosystem ratios rather than genetics ratios in host-parasite ... Flor showed that the inheritance of both resistance in the host and parasite ability to cause disease is controlled by pairs of ...

*Effects of parasitic worms on the immune system

Often, such a response is beneficial to both parasite and host, according to Professor of Medical Microbiology Graham Rook of ... Experiments have involved a wide range of parasites, diseases, and hosts. The effects on humans have been of special interest. ... As the worms developed ways of triggering a beneficial immune response, humans came to rely on parasitic interaction to help ... drew a "cautious conclusion" that helminths make humans more susceptible to contracting malaria and experiencing some of its ...

*Plant tolerance to herbivory

"Shared control of epidemiological traits in a coevolutionary model of host-parasite interactions". The American Naturalist, 161 ... especially since most farmers are reluctant to assign a proportion of their land to contain susceptible crops (Nunez-Farfan et ... infection by pathogens will decrease the number of uninfected hosts. There may then be selection for decreased virulence in the ... Modern agriculture has focuses on using genetically modified crops which possess toxic compounds to reduce damage by pests ( ...

*Infection

Coevolution between parasite and host can lead to hosts becoming resistant to the parasites or the parasites may evolve greater ... Despite the low interaction between discrete hubs, the disease can jump to and spread in a susceptible hub via a single or few ... healthy people long before the onset of illness and have been used to demonstrate the existence of people who are genetically ... Under disease invasion, when a parasite invades a new host species, it may become pathogenic in the new host. Several human ...

*Human genetic resistance to malaria

... following children during the period when they are most susceptible to falciparum malaria. In both cases parasite counts were ... enable an infectious agent to replicate and disseminate within a host in part by subverting or eluding host defenses. ... Where there is no adverse interaction of mutations, as in the case of abnormal hemoglobins and G6PD deficiency, a positive ... It was also the first example of genetically controlled innate immunity that operates early in the course of infections, ...

*Cactoblastis cactorum

Although it is well known that the moth is capable of switching hosts, the full range of host plants susceptible to the moth is ... Recent work in South America has identified four genetically-structured ecotypes of C. cactorum that infest different hosts and ... The ecological relationship between the Cactoblastis cactorum moth and the Opuntia cactus is a parasite/host relationship. ... However, the eventual extent of the western spread remains unclear because we know little about biotic interactions that will ...

*Virus

... -host interactions during movement processes. Plant Physiology. 2005;138(4):1815-21. doi:10.1104/pp.105.066761. PMID ... Like all invertebrates, the honey bee is susceptible to many viral infections. Most viruses co-exist harmlessly in their host ... Different types of viruses can infect only a limited range of hosts and many are species-specific. Some, such as smallpox virus ... Jefferson, A; Cadet, V. E.; Hielscher, A (2015). "The mechanisms of genetically modified vaccinia viruses for the treatment of ...

*Chloroplast

Their host organisms are commonly known as the green algae and land plants. They differ from glaucophyte and red algal ... DNA becomes susceptible to deamination events when it is single stranded. When replication forks form, the strand not being ... This makes plastid transformation a valuable tool for the creation and cultivation of genetically modified plants that are ... Keeling, Patrick J. (2004). "Diversity and evolutionary history of plastids and their hosts". American Journal of Botany. 91 ( ...

*Bed bug

Parasite. 22: 21. doi:10.1051/parasite/2015021. ISSN 1776-1042. PMC 4475256 . PMID 26091944. Quarles, William (March 2007). " ... If it does not feed, it continues to search for a host. After searching-regardless of whether or not it has eaten-the bed bug ... "Homosexual interactions in bed bugs: Alarm pheromones as male recognition signals." Animal Behaviour. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav. ... They usually feed on their hosts without being noticed. A number of adverse health effects may results from bed bug bites, ...

*Fungus

Molecular Genetics of Host-Specific Toxins in Plant Disease: Proceedings of the 3rd Tottori International Symposium on Host- ... These interactions can be mutualistic or antagonistic in nature, or in the case of commensal fungi are of no apparent benefit ... Environmental conditions trigger genetically determined developmental states that lead to the creation of specialized ... Many species have developed specialized hyphal structures for nutrient uptake from living hosts; examples include haustoria in ...

*Biological pest control

In most instances, production will need to be matched with the appropriate release dates when susceptible host species at a ... When applied to water, the motile spores avoid unsuitable host species and search out suitable mosquito larval hosts. This ... Augmentation can be effective, but is not guaranteed to work, and depends on the precise details of the interactions between ... The egg parasite Trichogramma is frequently released inundatively to control harmful moths. Similarly, Bacillus thuringiensis ...

*Polymorphism (biology)

Ecologically, the system of multiple hosts protects host species from a critical reduction in numbers, and maximises the egg- ... The shell colour series is brown (genetically the top dominant trait), dark pink, light pink, very pale pink, dark yellow and ... Brakefield P. M. (1985). "Polymorphic Müllerian Mimicry and Interactions with Thermal Melanism in Ladybirds and a Soldier ... and it has existed as a human parasite for a long time. Because the heterozygote survives, so does the HgbS allele survive at a ...
Gilbert, Michael A., "Epidemiology and host -parasite interactions between Myxobolus cerebralis the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease and its oligochaete host Tubifex tubifex" (2002). Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers. 9441 ...
BACKGROUND: Animal and plant species can harbour microbes that provide them with protection against enemies. These beneficial microbes can be a significant component of host defence that complement or replaces a repertoire of immunity, but they can also be costly. Given their impact on host and parasite fitness, defensive microbes have the potential to influence host-parasite interactions on an evolutionary timescale. RESULTS: Using a phenotypic framework, we explore the evolutionary and coevolutionary dynamics of a host-parasite interaction in the presence of defensive microbes. We show that costs of host-defensive microbe systems are critical in determining whether a defensive microbe based system or an immune system provides better host protection investment. Partitioning the coevolutionary dynamics yields testable predictions. The ...
Chagas is a potentially fatal chronic disease affecting large numbers of people across the Americas and exported throughout the world through human population movement. It is caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, which is transmitted by triatomine vectors to humans and a wide range of alternative host species. The database described here was compiled to allow the risk of vectorial transmission to humans to be mapped using geospatial models. The database collates all available records, published since 2003, for prevalence and occurrence of infection in humans, vectors and alternative hosts, and links each record to a defined time and location. A total of 16,802 records of infection have been extracted from the published literature and unpublished sources. The resulting database can be used to improve our understanding of the geographic variation in vector infection prevalence and to estimate the risk of vectorial transmission of T. cruzi ...
This short article carefully formulate a simple SI model for a parasite-host interaction through the basic birth and death processes analysis. This model reveals and corrects an error in similar models studied recently by various authors. Complete mathematical investigation of this simple model shows that the host extinction dynamics can happen and the outcomes may depend on the initial conditions. We also present biological implications of our findings.
Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum are closely related obligatory intracellular apicomplexan parasites that invade and multiply in almost all mammalian host cells. They cause disease in immunocompromised animals, abortion in the intermediates host and great economic losses to the farming industry. However, there are several biological differences between these parasites, including host range, zoonotic capacity, transmission, virulence and definitive host. What causes these biological differences is not well understood. To fully understand these biological differences, the host-parasite interactions of these parasites have been investigated in this study using several different approaches at the molecular level. Due to the importance of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) and multiple protein complexes (MPCs) in ...
Host genotype - parasite genotype co-evolutionary dynamics are influenced by local biotic and abiotic environmental conditions. This results in spatially heterogeneous selection among host populations. How such heterogeneous selection influences host resistance, parasite infectivity and virulence remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that different co-evolutionary trajectories of a vertebrate host-parasite association result in specific virulence patterns when assessed on a large geographic scale. We used two reference host populations of three-spined sticklebacks and nine strains of their specific cestode parasite Schistocephalus solidus from across the Northern Hemisphere for controlled infection experiments. Host and parasite effects on infection phenotypes including host immune gene expression were ...
This report describes a bacteria-free culture unit to be used in large numbers for detailed analysis of host-parasite relationships of Meloidogyne sp. The unit consists of an excised tomato root growing in agar medium in a test tube to which one nematode larva has been added. Almost every nematode which penetrates induces a gall; a high proportion of these galls have eggs externally after 3 weeks of incubation at 28° C. Galls appear from the 1st to the 9th day, eggs from the 18th to the 26th day, and larvae from the 25th to the 32nd day after inoculation. Infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita acrita was 53%. Variations in nutrient composition had no marked effects except that high potassium stimulated egg production without affecting incidence of gall formation; high concentrations of iodine increased brown discoloration of galls. Addition of juice from a resistant plant (Cornus florida) depressed the infectivity of M. incognita acrita for tomato roots. A resistant variety of ...
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Author Summary Coevolution between hosts and parasites is believed to be central to a number of biological phenomena, most notably the observed patterns of biodiversity and the origins of sexual reproduction. However, classical mathematical models of host-parasite coevolution account neither for the hosts use of bacterial symbionts for protection from parasites, nor for the potential and observed complexity of genetic interactions between the coevolving species. In this article we address both challenges by simulating a large number of models of host-symbiont-parasite coevolution based on randomly generated genotype interaction patterns. We demonstrate that the degree of
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wptabs style="ui-lightness" mode="vertical" type="accordion"]. [wptabtitle]10. Adaptation in heterogeneous environments: insights from host-parasite systems. Nicolas Rode, Florence Débarre[/wptabtitle]. [wptabcontent]. Adaptation in heterogeneous environments: insights from host-parasite systems. Understanding how species adapt to heterogeneous environments is a major challenge of evolutionary biology. In host-parasite systems, antagonistic coevolution generates highly heterogeneous selective pressures, both in time and space.. Recently, much progress has been made to characterize the process of coevolution in natural (e.g., plant-pathogen, invited speaker ALL) and laboratory (e.g., phage-bacteria, invited speaker AH) populations, showing that the strong and changing selective pressures generated by antagonistic coevolution can play an important role in the dynamics and maintenance of genetic diversity.. ...
Plant infestation with parasitic weeds like Cuscuta reflexa induces morphological as well as biochemical changes in the host and the parasite. These modifications could be caused by a change in protein or gene activity. Using a comparative macroarray approach Cuscuta genes specifically upregulated at the host attachment site were identified. One of the infestation specific Cuscuta genes encodes a cysteine protease. The protein and its intrinsic inhibitory peptide were heterologously expressed, purified and biochemically characterized. The haustoria specific enzyme was named cuscutain in accordance with similar proteins from other plants, e.g. papaya. The role of cuscutain and its inhibitor during the host parasite interaction was studied by external application of an inhibitor suspension, which induced a significant reduction of successful infection events. The study provides new information about molecular events during the ...
Ali, khan Z., "Host-parasite relationship in echinococcosis. I. Parasite biomass and antibody response in three strains of inbred mice against graded doses of echinococcus multilocularis cysts." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 1006 ...
Some parasites may modify the behavior of their hosts. Altered behaviors may: 1) benefit the host in that they defend against the pathogen, 2) benefit the pathogen and represent manipulations of the host response, and 3) benefit neither the host or the pathogen and simply be a product of the host response to infection. In this thesis I examine four host/parasite systems. For each system, I explore host/parasite behavioral interactions, and examine them with regard to selective pressures that may be acting on both the host and the parasite. I test the Hamilton and Zuk hypothese in 26 species of lizards. I find an inverse relationship between a lizard species brightness and parasite prevalence. My result lend credence to criticisms of the Hamilton and Zuk ...
Parasitoids were initially recognized from the order Hymenoptera, but later research showed that a number of families in the Diptera order and one in the Coleoptera order also contain true parasitoids. In describing parasitic insects, the term "parasitoid" was first used in Reuter 1913. His definition referred to an organism that goes through complete metamorphosis and whose larvae are parasitic but whose adults are free living (see Defining Parasitoids). Since that time, the term has been greatly refined to accommodate the plethora of life-history strategies that are found in parasitoids. Some of the most important pioneering research on host-parasitoid interactions was performed by George Salt (Salt 1941) and Stanley Flanders (Flanders 1942 and Flanders 1950), whose early works on development and reproduction are still considered to be of profound importance today. Their studies also influenced later generations of entomologists working on parasitoids. Doutt 1959 wrote the ...
Biogeography has renewed its concepts and methods following important recent advances in phylogenetics, macroecology, and geographic information systems. In parallel, the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions has attracted the interests of numerous studies dealing with life-history traits evolution, community ecology, and evolutionary epidemiology.
Biogeography has renewed its concepts and methods following important recent advances in phylogenetics, macroecology, and geographic information systems. In parallel, the evolutionary ecology of host-parasite interactions has attracted the interests of numerous studies dealing with life-history traits evolution, community ecology, and evolutionary epidemiology.
This posting is no longer current. Please check out our Events & Meetings for the latest postings.. August 5-10, 2018. Mt. Sterling, Ohio USA. Tree Resistance to Insects and Diseases: Putting Promise into Practice. The 6th International Workshop on the Genetics of Host-Parasite Interactions in Forestry. Space is limited. More details at: https://treeresistance2018.ca.uky.edu/. ...
No one can doubt that disease played a major role in human history and still continues to impact human health. Also, many human diseases, such as HIV, Ebola and malaria, have been acquired from our close primate relatives. The potential transmission of infectious agents from monkeys and apes to humans is why the study of primate parasites is so significant. The present work, which is divided into several Parts, consists of 25 chapters authored by one or more of 62 contributors.. Part 1 deals with methods used in studying primate parasite interactions. It begins with a chapter on collecting and diagnosing primate parasites. This is followed with a chapter on extracting and identifying minute nematodes, mostly pin worms, recovered from fecal samples. The next chapter discusses the use of molecular methods for comparing populations of stomach worms (Oesophagostomum). This is followed by a discussion on the use of endocrinological analyses to ...
A social parasite uses workers of another social insect species to rear its own progeny. They are often so closely related to their hosts that it has been suggested that they could have evolved sympatrically from them. To address the question of whether social parasites evolved from their hosts we present a partial sequence of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene for nine species of Polistes, comprising all known species of social parasites, their hosts and two outgroups. Parsimony and maximum-likelihood analyses of the data support monophyly for these social parasites. The trees supporting monophyly are significantly shorter than the trees supporting sympatric speciation of parasites from their hosts. These data support the hypothesis that speciation occurred allopatrically and independently of ...
Trypanosoma brucei, i.e. the causative agent of sleeping sickness in humans and of nagana in cattle can undergo apoptosis in the mammalian bloodstream form (BSF) [20, 21] and the procyclic form within the midgut of the tsetse fly [22, 23]. In the mammalian bloodstream, parasitemia of T. brucei increases and decreases periodically and this is partially due to effective antibody-mediated immune responses of the host and antigenic variation of the major surface glycoprotein of the parasite. However, the cell density of T. brucei is also regulated in axenic cultures in the absence of any host-derived immune effectors. After reaching a cell density-dependent threshold, further expansion of the cell population is restricted by differentiation from the replicating long slender (LS) form to the non-dividing short stumpy (SS) form [24]. Subsequently, the parasite density even decreases and this is accompanied by the occurrence of ...
The spatial ecology of host-parasite communities. Parasite transmission occurs through contacts between susceptible individuals and the infective stages of parasites. Standard models of the epidemiological spread of infections typically assume random mixing of these contacts (the mass action assumption) typical of density-dependent transmission, which assumes contacts and transmission simply increase with the density of infected individuals in the total population (McCallum et al 2001; Begon et al 2002; Fenton et al 2002). In reality, however, these contacts are likely to show varying degrees of non-random structure, arising from the spatial arrangement of individuals, environmental heterogeneity and social or behavioural constraints that restrict individual movement.. Obviously, the mode of transmission of a parasite will affect its spatial dynamics of transmission. Many parasites transmit ...
Determining the effect of an invasive species on enzootic pathogen dynamics is critical for understanding both human epidemics and wildlife epizootics. Theoretical models suggest that when a naive species enters an established host-parasite system, the new host may either reduce (dilute) or increase (spillback) pathogen transmission to native hosts. There are few empirical data to evaluate these possibilities, especially for animal pathogens. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is an arthropod-borne alphavirus that is enzootically transmitted by the swallow bug (Oeciacus vicarius) to colonially nesting cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). In western Nebraska, introduced house sparrows (Passer domesticus) invaded cliff swallow colonies approximately 40 years ago and were exposed to BCRV. We evaluated how the addition of house sparrows to this host-parasite system affected the prevalence and ...
Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan pathogen that produces severe disease in humans and animals. This obligate intracellular parasite provides an excellent model for the study of how such pathogens are able to invade, survive, and replicate intracellularly. DNA encoding chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was introduced into T. gondii and transiently expressed with the use of three vectors based on different Toxoplasma genes. The ability to introduce genes and have them efficiently and faithfully expressed is an essential tool for understanding the structure-function relation of genes and their products. ...
Virulence is often under selection during host-parasite coevolution. In order to increase fitness, parasites are predicted to circumvent and overcome host immunity. A particular challenge for pathogens are external immune systems, chemical defence systems comprised of potent antimicrobial compounds released by prospective hosts into the environment. We carried out an evolution experiment, allowing for coevolution to occur, with the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which has a well-documented external immune system with strong inhibitory effects against B. bassiana. After just seven transfers of experimental evolution we saw a significant increase in parasite induced host mortality, a proxy for virulence, in all B. bassiana lines. This apparent virulence increase was mainly the result of the B. bassiana lines evolving ...
The adult lifespan of a generalist secondary parasitoid at the top of an aphid-parasitoid food web tended to decrease when oviposition and larval development took place in hosts experiencing the endophyte environment. Female A. vulgaris improved their host choice with progressing age and oviposition experience through selection of more hosts from the endophyte-free environment compared with younger and less experienced females. Offspring performance in endophyte-free hosts was only improved in terms of lifespan and no effects on developmental time, sex ratio or weight were detected. Asaphes vulgaris parasitoids are long lived and synovigenic, maturing their eggs during adulthood. Under such conditions, a reduced lifespan will most likely result in a shorter reproductive time and thus reduced fitness. Similar fitness penalties of endophytes are known for predators and primary parasitoids ...
RESUMO Um número crescente de casos de angiostrongilíase abdominal tem sido detectado no sul do Brasil. O principal hospedeiro do Angiostrongylus costaricensis na América Central, o rato do algodão (Sigmodon hispidus), não ocorre na América do Sul, exceto no norte do Peru, Colômbia e Venezuela. Foram realizadas capturas na área endêmica do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), visando identificar hospedeiros para obtenção de vermes em laboratório e produção de antígeno. Pela primeira vez no Brasil foi constatada a infecção em roedores: Oryzomys nigripes e Oryzomys ratticeps. O. nigripes é um roedor silvestre de pequeno porte e parece ser o principal hospedeiro definitivo do A. costaricensis na região serrana do RS. Unitermos: Angiostrongylus costaricensis; Oryzomys nigripes, Oryzomys ratticeps; angiostrongilíase abdominal; zoonoses por helmintos; helmintíases. ...
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The Institute of Parasitology is seeking candidates for two Faculty Positions. The Institute of Parasitology is one of the oldest recognized centres of interdisciplinary research in Canada. We focus on parasitic organisms, the relationship with their host and the means to limit the impact of parasitic disease on heath and wellbeing.. The Institute of Parasitology is part of the Quebec Centre for Host Parasite Interaction (CHPI), funded by the FQRNT régroupement strategique program and is one of the longest standing research centres of its type, beginning in 1973. The CHPI supports the interaction of more than 30 research labs throughout Quebec that focus on parasite research.. The Institute maintains a close working relationship with the McGill Centre for Tropical Diseases, the Montreal General Hospital Research Clinic, the Faculties of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Medicine, and Science of McGill University. We ...
Parasite increased trophic transmission (PITT) is a mode of parasite transmission in which the parasite manipulates the behavior of its host to increase transmission success to higher trophic levels. Parasites that use PITT have complex life cycles, requiring more than one host species to procreate. Sexual reproduction is typically limited to a definitive host, high in the trophic levels. Parasite progeny sequentially infect one or more intermediate hosts, inside which they may undergo asexual reproduction and physiological changes. Trophic transmission often relies on predator-prey relationships, where the parasite can only be transmitted if the host is eaten by a later stage host. Parasitic manipulation of the intermediate host can involve adaptations that make it an ...
Despite the fact that most host populations are infected by a community of different parasite species, the majority of empirical studies have focused on the interaction between the host and a single parasite species. Here, we explore the hypothesis that host population dynamics are affected both by single parasite species and by the whole parasite community. We monitored population density and breeding productivity of two populations of willow ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) in northern Norway for 8 and 11 years, respectively, and sampled eukaryotic endoparasites. We found that increasing abundances of the cestode Hymenolepis microps was associated with increased breeding mortality and reduced annual growth rate of the host population in both areas, and reduced host body mass and body condition in the area where such data were available. In one ...
The evolutionary arms race of hosts and parasites often results in adaptations, which may differ between populations. Investigation of such local adaptation becomes increasingly important to understand dynamics of host-parasite interactions and co-evolution. To this end we performed an infection experiment involving pairs of three-spined sticklebacks and their tapeworm parasite Schistocephalus solidus from three geographically separated origins (Germany, Spain and Iceland) in a fully-crossed design for sympatric and allopatric host/parasite combinations. We hypothesized that local adaptation of the hosts results in differences in parasite resistance with variation in parasite infection rates and leukocyte activation, whereas parasites from different origins might differ in ...
Imaging Infection and Immunity in vivo.. My research applies advanced imaging techniques to enhance our understanding of the basic biology of the immune system in real time, in vivo. Working with my long term collaborator Paul Garside, we have applied these approaches to understand how cellular interactions govern the magnitude and phenotype of developing immune responses. We apply these approaches to understanding the host parasite interaction in immunity to infection as well as the host immune response against self in autoimmune diseases such as Rheumatoid Arthritis. To enable this work, we have established state of the art, multiphoton microscopy at the University of Glasgow, which allows us to image on more channels, faster and deeper than previously possible. We collaborate with physicists, mathematicians and chemists to continue development of novel, non-invasive and translational cell-imaging approaches.. For an 11 minute video ...
mRNA-Seq and microarray development for the Grooved carpet shell clam, Ruditapes decussatus: a functional approach to unravel host -parasite interaction +, The database of genomic variants: a curated collection of structural variation in the human genome +, Meta-analysis of 74,046 individuals identifies 11 new susceptibility loci for Alzheimers disease +, … ...
Matrajt, M.; Donald, R.G.K.; Singh, U.; Roos, D.S., 2002: Identification and characterization of differentiation mutants in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii
Researchers have uncovered new knowledge related to host-parasite interaction in severe malaria, concerning how malaria parasites are able to bind to cells in the brain and cause cerebral malaria - the most lethal form of the disease.
The author retains copyright ownership and moral rights in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the authors permission ...
In oral candidiasis, many keratinized epithelial cells and cells of Candida albicans are shed. Scales from patients with oral candidiasis were used for electron microscopic study of the epithelial-fungal relationship. Scales, scraped from the tongue and oral mucosa, were fixed for fungi. Electron microscopic observations showed cells of C. albicans outside, penetrating, or within the epithelial cells. Extracellular fungi possessed a floccular material adherent to the outer surface of the cell wall. Intracellular fungi lacked the floccular material which appeared to detach as fungi invaded the epithelial cells. Large vacuoles, which sometimes contained myelin figures, occupied the cytoplasm of fungal cells. Epithelial cells frequently contained several fungi. Discontinuous plasma membranes marked sites of fungal entry. Cytoplasmic areas devoid of fungi showed many tonofibrils, but the cytoplasm adjacent to fungi often lacked tonofibrils. Micrographs suggested that fungal cells lysed the ...
Mark Armitage wrote: , , Dear All, , Does anyone have any references on parasites which alter intermediate , host behavior in order to increase chances of predation upon the , host? This is not very detailed, but I did hear that there was some type of parasite that would enter a pill bug (rolly polly), cause it to lose its adversion to light, and thusly increase the chances of it being comsumed by a bird. hope this helped a little, teresa ...
Several species of bumble bees are declining in the United States; these declining populations often show higher prevalence of Nosema bombi, a microsporidian pathogen. To date, surveys of bumble bee pathogens in the United States have only been conducted on workers and males, yet the health of a population is ultimately dependent on the success of colony-founding queens. We conducted a molecular-diagnostic survey of the prevalence of N. bombi and trypanosomatids, such as Crithidia bombi, in six species of spring queens (n = 142) collected in 2011 and 2013 at three sites in central Kansas. Nosema bombi was found in 27% of Bombus pensylvanicus and 13% of B. auricomus but was not found in the other species sampled. Trypanosomatids were only found in B. pensylvanicus (9%) during the May 2013 sampling period. The high prevalence of N. bombi in B. pensylvanicus is consistent with other surveys for this pathogen in other castes, but the high prevalence of N. bombi in B. auricomus is a novel finding. ...
The patterns of immunity conferred by host sex or age represent two sources of host heterogeneity that can potentially shape the evolutionary trajectory of disease. With each host sex or age encountered, a pathogens optimal exploitative strategy may change, leading to considerable variation in expression of pathogen transmission and virulence. To date, these host characteristics have been studied in the context of host fitness alone, overlooking the effects of host sex and age on the fundamental virulence-transmission trade-off faced by pathogens. Here we explicitly address the interaction of these characteristics and find that host sex and age at exposure to a pathogen affect age-specific patterns of mortality and the balance between pathogen transmission and virulence. When infecting age-structured male and female Daphnia magna with different genotypes of Pasteuria ramosa, we found that ...
article{9cc27631-773b-4625-add5-aeb353c7d0cb, abstract = {,p,Parasite diversity and abundance (parasite load) vary greatly among host species. However, the influence of host traits on variation in parasitism remains poorly understood. Comparative studies of parasite load have largely examined measures of parasite species richness and are predominantly based on records obtained from published data. Consequently, little is known about the relationships between host traits and other aspects of parasite load, such as parasite abundance, prevalence and aggregation. Meanwhile, understanding of parasite species richness may be clouded by limitations associated with data collation from multiple independent sources. We conducted a field study of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes and their helminth parasites. Using a Bayesian ...
In Plasmodium falciparum infections the parasite transmission stages, the gametocytes, mature in 10 days sequestered in internal organs. Recent studies suggest that cell mechanical properties rather than adhesive interactions play a role in sequestration during gametocyte maturation. It remains instead obscure how sequestration is established, and how the earliest sexual stages, morphologically similar to asexual trophozoites, modify the infected erythrocytes and their cytoadhesive properties at the onset of gametocytogenesis. Here, purified P. falciparum early gametocytes were used to ultrastructurally and biochemically analyse parasite-induced modifications on the red blood cell surface and to measure their functional consequences on adhesion to human endothelial cells. This work revealed that stage I gametocytes are able to deform the infected erythrocytes like asexual parasites, but do not modify its surface with adhesive knob structures ...
The highly prevalent parasite Toxoplasma gondii manipulates its hosts behavior. In infected rodents, the behavioral changes increase the likelihood that the parasite will be transmitted back to its definitive cat host, an essential step in completion of the parasites life cycle. The mechanism(s) responsible for behavioral changes in the host is unknown but two lines of published evidence suggest that the parasite alters neurotransmitter signal transduction: the disruption of the parasite-induced behavioral changes with medications used to treat psychiatric disease (specifically dopamine antagonists) and identification of a tyrosine hydroxylase encoded in the parasite genome. In this study, infection of mammalian dopaminergic cells with T. gondii enhanced the levels of K+-induced release of dopamine several-fold, with a direct correlation between the number ...
Parasites pose a very real risk to to fish. All fish are potential hosts to many different species of parasites. Small numbers of parasites are common and probably do little harm. However, all parasites have tremendous reproductive potential and can, under ideal conditions, quickly overwhelm fish in the confines of a tank or pond.. Types of parasites. We can broadly class parasites into two groups. Ectoparasites are found on the external surfaces such as skin, fins and gills, while endoparasites are found in the internal tissues and organs.. Endoparasites are uncommon in ornamental fish. However, there is a wide diversity of blood parasites, worms that colonize the intestines and other parasites that can invade various organs and tissues. Many require an intermediate host, ...
In parasite-host interactions, there may be many lines of defence. As a NERC-funded Post-doctoral Research Associate with Prof. Nick Davies, we investigated how interactions between individuals can protect the hosts reproductive investment. Cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) use visual signals to mimic the Sparrowhawk, a host predator, but reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) use social information from their neighbours to tell the difference. Our results show that this in turn has selected for another cuckoo trick; cuckoo females are polymorphic to beat these host defences. Cuckoos are declining rapidly so we are now investigating how offences and defences vary in our changing world. (4) Plant signals and animal pollination. I am also interested in interactions at the interface of plants and animals. Sandra Anderson (http://www.bioscienceresearch.co.nz/staff/sandra-anderson/ ) ...
Parasitism is s form of symbiosis in which one organism (called parasite) benefits at the expense of another organism usually of different species (called host). This host-parasite association may eventuate to the injury of the host. Parasites can cause harm or disease to their host. They are generally much smaller than their hosts. Examples of parasites are tapeworms, flukes, lice, ticks, etc. Parasites may be classified into different categories. For instance, parasites may be macroparasites or microparasites based on their size. Macroparasites are those that are bigger in size and visible to an unaided eye. Microparasites are those that are small and can be detected through microscopy. Parasites may also be obligate or ...
My research interests are in the broad area of parasite ecology. Ecology is the study of interactions of organisms with each other and with their environment. A parasites lives on, or in, a living host during some part of its life. A host, therefore, is both another organism and the parasites environment. Consequently, there are many fascinating ecological questions to be addressed surrounding host-parasite relationships. Both hosts and parasites vary widely in their biological characteristics. Some parasites have complex life cycles involving multiple hosts while others have direct life cycles. In any case, one of the main challenges to success as a parasite is successful transmission of offspring into new hosts. I am ...
Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophora seed-feeding Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were surveyed for larval parasitoids to determine how native and alien wasps are partitioned over an elevation gradient (2200-2800 m) on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Parasitism rate of native Euderus metallicus (Eulophidae) increased with increased elevation, while parasitism rate by immigrant Calliephialtes grapholithae (Ichneumonidae) decreased. Parasitism by Pristomerus hawaiiensis (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, also decreased with increased elevation. Two other species, Diadegma blackburni (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, and Brasema cushmani (Eupelmidae), a purposefully introduced biological control
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Disease transmission networks are key for understanding parasite epidemiology. Within the social insects, structured contact networks have been suggested to limit the spread of diseases to vulnerable members of their society, such as the queen or brood. However, even these complex social structures do not provide complete protection, as some diseases, which are transmitted by workers during brood care, can still infect the brood. Given the high rate of feeding interactions that occur in a social insect colony, larvae may act as disease transmission hubs. Here we use the bumblebee Bombus terrestris and its parasite Crithidia bombi to determine the role of brood in bumblebee disease transmission networks. Larvae that were artificially inoculated with C. bombi showed no signs of infection seven days after inoculation. However, larvae that received either an artificial inoculation or a contaminated feed from brood-caring workers were able to transmit the ...
Schistosoma bovis is a ruminant pathogen that is poorly known at a molecular level. With an aim of identifying the parasite proteins involved in host-parasite interplay, we studied two protein extracts that contain, respectively, the proteins excreted/secreted by the adult worm (ES) and the tegumental proteins exposed to the host (TG). The 2-DE, 2-D immunoblot and MS were employed to separate and identify the antigenic proteins and the most abundant non-antigenic proteins in each extract. There were some 400 and 600 spots detected in the ES and the TG extracts, respectively. Ninety-six spots were subjected to MS analysis and 64 of them were identified. Overall, we identified 18 S. bovis proteins located at the host-parasite interface, 16 of which have not been identified previously in this parasite, and one of which -lysozyme- has never been reported in a Schistosoma species. Of the proteins ...
The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodisecretes effector proteins into the cells of host plants to manipulate plant-derived processes in order to achieve successful parasitism. Mc1194 is a M. chitwoodieffector that is highly expressed in pre-parasitic second-stage juvenile nematodes. Yeast two-hybrid assays revealed Mc1194 specifically interacts with a papain-like cysteine protease (PLCP), RD21A in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mc1194 interacts with both the protease and granulin domains of RD21A. PLCPs are targeted by effectors secreted by bacterial, fungal and oomycete pathogens and the hypersusceptibility of rd21-1mutants to M. chitwoodiindicates RD21A plays a role in plant-parasitic nematode infection.
The gene-for-gene relationship was discovered by the late Harold Henry Flor who was working with rust (Melampsora lini) of flax (Linum usitatissimum). Flor showed that the inheritance of both resistance in the host and parasite ability to cause disease is controlled by pairs of matching genes. One is a plant gene called the resistance (R) gene. The other is a parasite gene called the avirulence (Avr) gene. Plants producing a specific R gene product are resistant towards a pathogen that produces the corresponding Avr gene product. Gene-for-gene relationships are a widespread and very important aspect of plant disease resistance. An example can be seen with Lactuca serriola. Clayton Oscar Person was the first scientist to study plant pathosystem ratios rather than genetics ratios in host-parasite systems. In doing so, he discovered the differential interaction that is common to all gene-for-gene relationships and that is now ...
Arzul, I. and J.P. Joly. 2011. EURL (European Union Reference Laboratory) for Molluscs Diseases: Bonamia sp. Web page hosted by Ifremer. URL: http://wwz.ifremer.fr/crlmollusc/Main-activities/Tutorials/Bonamia-sp.. Arzul, I., B. Chollet, C. Garcia, M. Robert, J.-P. Joly, L. Miossec and F. Berthe. 2005a. Ostrea conchaphila: a natural host of Bonamia ostreae? Journal of Shellfish Research 24: 638-639. (Abstract).. Arzul, I., L. Miossec, E. Blanchet, C. Garcia, J.P. Joly, C. Francois and F. Berthe. 2005b. A long term study of bonamiosis in Quiberon Bay, France. In: 8th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration. (Brest, France). (For Open Access version of presentation see http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00000/3314/).. Arzul, I., L. Miossec, E. Blanchet, C. Garcia, C. Francois and J.P. Joly. 2006. Bonamia ostreae and Ostrea edulis: a stable host-parasite system in France? In: Proceedings of the 11th Symposium of the International Society ...
Two root-knot nematode species, Me/oidogyne incognita and M.javanica, were studied with regard to their seasonal population fluctuations on grapevines growing in two vastly different climatic areas. Regular observations on reproduction and numbers of larvae in the soil were compared with patterns of root growth, soil temperature and moisture. Population fluctuations of the two species showed similar trends in spite of the climatic differences in the two areas, but M. incognita in the northern Cape reached higher populations. Larvae populations in the soil declined in summer in both areas and increased during autumn to reach peaks in winter. With the onset of root growth in spring, larvae numbers decreased in the soil, as a result of large scale root penetration.. ...
Resistance to root-knot nematodes [ Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood] is needed for cultivation of peanut in major peanut-growing areas, but significant resistance is lacking in the cultivated spe
The human disease schistosomiasis (or bilharzia) is caused by the helminth blood fluke parasite Schistosoma mansoni, which requires an intermediate host, the freshwater gastropod snail Biomphalaria glabrata (the most common intermediate host). The free-swimming parasite miracidia utilises an excellent chemosensory sense to detect and locate an appropriate host. This study investigated the biomolecules released by the snail that stimulate changes in the behaviour of the aquatic S. mansoni miracidia. To achieve this, we have performed an integrated analysis of the snail-conditioned water, through chromatography and bioassay-guided behaviour observations, followed by mass spectrometry. A single fraction containing multiple putative peptides could stimulate extreme swimming behaviour modifications (e.g. velocity, angular variation) similar to those observed in response to crude snail mucus. One peptide (P12;-R-DITSGLDPEVADD-KR-) ...
In this study, we investigated global changes in miRNAs of Meloidogyne incognita throughout its life cycle. Small RNA sequencing resulted in approximately 62, 38, 38, 35, and 39 Mb reads in the egg, J2, J3, J4, and female stages, respectively. Overall, we identified 2724 known and 383 novel miRNAs (read count > 10) from all stages, of which 169 known and 13 novel miRNA were common to all the five stages. Among the stage-specific miRNAs, miR-286 was highly expressed in eggs, miR-2401 in J2, miR-8 and miR-187 in J3, miR-6736 in J4, and miR-17 in the female stages. These miRNAs are reported to be involved in embryo and neural development, muscular function, and control of apoptosis. Cluster analysis indicated the presence of 91 miRNA clusters, of which 36 clusters were novel and identified in this study. Comparison of miRNA families with other nematodes showed 17 families to be commonly absent in animal parasitic nematodes and M. incognita. Validation of 43 predicted common and stage-specific miRNA by
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pleiotropic effect due to targeted depletion of secretory rhoptry protein ROP2 in Toxoplasma gondii. AU - Nakaar, Valerian. AU - Ngô, Huân M.. AU - Aaronson, Emily P.. AU - Coppens, Isabelle. AU - Stedman, Timothy T.. AU - Joiner, Keith A. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - Long after their discovery, the function and biogenesis of rhoptries remain enigmatic. In Apicomplexan parasites, these organelles discharge and their contents are exocytosed at the time of host cell invasion, and are thus proposed to play an essential role in establishing the parasitophorous vacuole. In Toxoplasma gondii, ROP2 is suspected to serve as the molecular link between host cell mitochondria and parasitophorous vacuole membrane. In this study we addressed the function of ROP2. Targeted depletion of ROP2 using a ribozyme-modified antisense RNA strategy resulted in multiple effects on parasite morphology because of a disruption in the formation of ...
Roth, O., Keller, I., Landis, S. H., Salzburger, W. and Reusch, T. B.H. (2012), HOSTS ARE AHEAD IN A MARINE HOST-PARASITE COEVOLUTIONARY ARMS RACE: INNATE IMMUNE SYSTEM ADAPTATION IN PIPEFISH SYNGNATHUS TYPHLE AGAINST VIBRIO PHYLOTYPES. Evolution, 66: 2528-2539. doi: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2012.01614.x ...
Females in various species typically avoid males infected with parasites, while parasite-free males advertise their status through conspicuous phenotypic traits. This process selects for heritable resistance and reduces direct exposure of the female to parasites. Coevolving parasites are likely to attempt to circumvent this obstacle. In this paper, we demonstrate a case of parasitic manipulation of host mate choice. We report that Toxoplasma gondii, a sexually transmitted infection of brown rats, enhances sexual attractiveness of infected males. Thus under some evolutionary niches, parasites can indeed manipulate host sexual signaling to their own advantage ...
Toxoplasma gondii, the protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis, initiates invasion of its host cells by inducing the assembly of a parasite-cell junction. Concomitantly, the plasma membrane of the host cell invaginates around the parasite to form a parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The parasite then propels itself through the junction and multiplies in its host cell within the PV. Given the size of the parasite, PV formation and parasite internalization are likely to require local loosening of the host cell cortical actin barrier, but how is this achieved? On page 4333, Isabelle Tardieux, colleagues and collaborators propose that toxofilin, an actin binding protein secreted by T. gondii, facilitates parasite invasion by regulating host cortical actin filament turnover. They show that ...
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Here is the situation: Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is the worst pest of soybeans in the U. S. A. including Missouri.Fortunately, this pest can be managed, but farmers must take steps before planting soybean this year to protect against soybean cyst nematode.The first step is to test the soil for SCN.
Anindo Choudhury, professor or biology and environmental sciences, is the associate editor for the parasitic flatworms section of the Journal of Parasitology, the official journal of the American Society of Parasitologists. In addition, Choudhury serves on the editorial board of Folia Parasitologica, the parasitology journal of the Czech Academy of Sciences, and is on the editorial board of Acta Parasitologica, the parasitology journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Choudhurys research on host-parasite relationships, which spans North and Central America, has resulted in 42 peer-reviewed journal articles, 7 book chapters, 5 technical reports and manuals, and 41 conference presentations.﻽. ...
Transgenerational immune priming occurs when an adult is exposed to a parasite or other pathogen and then transmits information to its offspring through protective phenotypes to cope with the same pathogen (Moret, 2006). There has been evidence for transgenerational immune priming in various invertebrates (Tidbury et al. 2011). Here we tested for the presence of transgenerational immune priming in the Biomphalaria glabrata snails when challenged by exposure to the Schistosoma mansoni parasite. The experimental parent generation was challenged with a parasitic environment, while the control parent generation was not. The results were then determined based on the resistance or susceptibility of the F1 offspring generation. We found that parental challenge did not enhance offspring immunity through transgenerational immune priming ...
... was born in Long Branch, NJ, in 1958. He received his B.S. degree in plant science from the University of Rhode Island in 1980 and his Ph.D. degree in nematology/entomology from the University of Florida in 1988. After postdoctoral research positions in the USDA in Orlando and at the University of Georgia, he joined the plant pathology faculty at North Carolina State University in 1993. His primary research program focuses on the mechanisms of pathogenicity utilized by two groups of unique, plant-parasitic nematodes. He has made pioneering contributions in the understanding of the host-parasite relationships between cyst (Heterodera glycines and Globodera spp.) and root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) nematodes and the major crop plants that they attack. The focus of his research at North Carolina State University has been on esophageal gland-cell proteins and their involvement in plant pathogenesis. Dr. Davis generated a panel of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies that bind ...
Appearance: Root-knot nematodes are about one-tenth the size of a pinhead and are typically embedded inside roots. They are impossible to see with the naked eye. Juvenile root-knot nematodes (both males and females), as well as adult males, are vermiform (i.e., worm-shaped) and live in the soil. Adult females are spherical in shape and live inside roots. Both males and females possess a thin, tube-like structure called a stylet that they use for penetrating root tissue.. Symptoms and Effects: When root-knot nematodes enter roots, they release chemicals that cause nearby root cells to enlarge. This leads to the formation of swollen, distorted areas in roots known as galls or knots. The number and size of galls varies depending on plant species and cultivar, and the number of root-knot nematodes in the soil. On some hosts (e.g., grasses) root swelling can be very difficult to detect. Nematode feeding interferes with proper root function (e.g., water and nutrient movement). ...
Gene expression is known to vary significantly during the Leishmania life-cycle. Its monitoring might allow identification of molecular changes associated with the infective stages (metacyclics and amastigotes) and contribute to the understanding of the complex host-parasite relationships. So far, very few studies have been done on Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, one of the most pathogenic species. Such studies require, first of all, reference molecular markers. In the present work, we applied differential display analysis (DD analysis) in order to identify transcripts that might be (i) candidate markers of metacyclics and intracellular amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis or (ii) potential controls, i.e. constitutively expressed. In total, 48 DNA fragments gave reliable sequencing data, 29 of them being potential markers of infective stages and 12 potential controls. Eight sequences could be identified with reported genes. Validation of the results of DD analysis was done ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of a myoD-like gene from the parasitic nematode, Trichinella spiralis. AU - Connolly, Bernadette. AU - Trenholme, K. AU - Smith, D F. PY - 1996/10/30. Y1 - 1996/10/30. N2 - The infective larval stage of the nematode Trichinella spiralis is an intracellular parasite of skeletal muscle cells. Infection with T. spiralis results in dedifferentiation of the host cell and the formation of a host/parasite complex. A gene encoding a T. spiralis Helix-Loop-helix (HLH) protein with homology to the myogenic transcription factor, MyoD, and to the Caenorhabditis elegans protein, CeMyoD, has been identified and partially characterized. The tsmyd-1 gene is expressed constitutively during the muscle-larval and adult stages. A purified recombinant Tsmyd-1 protein, expressed in Escherichia coli, binds to a high affinity mouse MyoD DNA binding site in vitro. The present study describes the first HLH gene to be identified in ...
Iowa crop producers and agronomists are well aware of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), the plant-parasitic nematode that is widespread through the Midwest and can seriously reduce soybean yields. And many people are aware of other plant-parasitic nematodes that can cause significant yield reductions on corn. But most crop professionals probably are unaware that there is a corn cyst nematode that has been in the northeastern United States since 1981. And just recently, a new cyst nematode species that reproduces on corn was discovered in Tennessee.
Brood parasitic birds lay their eggs in other birds nests, leaving hosts to raise their offspring. To understand parasite-host coevolutionary arms races, many studies have examined host responses to experimentally introduced eggs. However, attending parents often need to be flushed from their nests to add experimental eggs. If these birds witness parasitism events, they may recognize and reject foreign eggs more readily than parents who did not. We found that, after being flushed, female blackbirds, Turdus merula, remained close to their nests. Flushed females were more likely to eject foreign eggs and did so more quickly than females that were not flushed during experimentation. In contrast, flushing did not predict responses and latency to responses to parasitism by song thrush, Turdus philomelos, which flew farther from their nests and likely did not witness experimental parasitism. When statistically considering ...
Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/belowground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a dipteran species (root herbivore).We tested the hypotheses that: (1) high levels of drought stress and below-ground herbivory interact to reduce the performance of parasitoids developing in aphids; (2) drought stress and root herbivory change the profile of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) emitted by the host plant; (3) parasitoids avoid ovipositing in aphids feeding on plants under drought stress and root herbivory. We examined the effect of drought, with and without root herbivory, on the olfactory response of parasitoids (preference), plant volatile emissions, parasitism success (performance), and the effect of drought ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional and biophysical analyses of the class XIV Toxoplasma gondii Myosin D. AU - Herm-Götz, Angelika. AU - Delbac, Frêdêric. AU - Weiss, Stefan. AU - Nyitrai, Miklos. AU - Stratmann, Rolf. AU - Tomavo, Stanislas. AU - Sibley, L. David. AU - Geeves, Michael A.. AU - Soldati, Dominique. PY - 2006/2/1. Y1 - 2006/2/1. N2 - The obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii uses gliding motility to migrate across the biological barriers of the host and to invade cells. This unique form of locomotion requires an intact actin cytoskeleton and involves at least one motor protein (TgMyoA) that belongs to the class XIV of the myosin superfamily. TgMyoA is anchored in the inner membrane complex and is essential for the gliding motion, host cell invasion and egress of T. gondii tachyzoites. TgMyoD is the smallest T. gondii myosin and is structurally very closely related to TgMyoA. We show here that TgMyoD exhibits similar transient kinetic ...
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The investigation of the ...
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The investigation of the ...
Solidago virgaurea and Solidago canadensis bare the most common. Some have their preference in which variety they use. Most find them interchangeable. I refer to her most often as Solidago. For me the name conjures Sol or sun or soul. As many things are starting to fade in the garden she is just coming into her own. This represents one of her healing qualities a kidney or chi deficiency. It is an emotional state. In this case it used when you have a lack of endurance, a lack of strength to persevere through difficulty, an inability to process what is necessary to get to the end. Matthew Wood states that it can be a "covenants broken" frame of mind. A tea made from the flowers and leaves sipped for a few days should help ...
Fusarium oxysporum is a fungus hat occurs frequently in soils worldwide and an cause wilt disease and root rot in various plant species. An interesting aspect of the biology of this fungus is the fat that every individual strain is restricted to causing disease in only one or a few plant species. Peter van Dam studies this aspect of host specificity, asking what determines the fact that one strain is capable of infecting tomato plants, whereas another strain specifically causes disease in melon pants. To find the answer he looks at the DNA of many different fungal strains, and specifically at the role of small proteins known as effectors, which can deregulate the pants defence responses.
Genetic diversity can benefit social insects by providing variability in immune defences against parasites and pathogens. However, social parasites of ants infest colonies and not individuals, and for them a different relationship between genetic diversity and resistance may exist. Here, we investigate the genetic variation, assessed using up to 12 microsatellite loci, of workers in 91 Formica lemani colonies in relation to their infestation by the specialist social parasite Microdon mutabilis. At the main study site, workers in infested colonies exhibited lower relatedness and higher estimated queen numbers, on average, than uninfested ones. Additionally, estimated queen numbers were negatively correlated with estimated average numbers of mates per queen within infested colonies. At another site, infested colonies also exhibited significantly lower worker relatedness, and estimated queen numbers were comparable in trend. In contrast, in two populations of ...
Core modules include: parasitology and entomology; analysis and design of research studies. Optional modules include: critical skills for tropical medicine; molecular biology; advanced immunology; designing disease control programmes in developing countries; epidemiology and control of malaria; molecular biology and recombinant DNA techniques; advanced diagnostic parasitology; advanced immunology; design and analysis of epidemiological studies; statistical methods in epidemiology; advanced training in molecular biology; spatial epidemiology in public health; tropical environmental health; vector sampling, identification and incrimination; epidemiology and control of communicable diseases; genetic epidemiology; immunology of parasitic infection (principles); molecular biology research progress and applications; vector biology and vector parasite interaction; AIDS; antimicrobial chemotherapy; immunology of parasitic infection (practice); integrated vector management; molecular cell biology and ...
Ecology of Onchocerca volvulus:. O. volvulus cannot survive in the outside environment; therefore it constantly remains within a host, whether it be the black fly or a human. This parasite causes no harm to the intermediate host and only causes harm to its primary host after the parasites death. Upon dying the parasite causes inflammation in various areas of the human body, producing nodules that protrude from the skin. This inflammatory response also causes damage to the optical nerves, causing blindness, which is the origin of the diseases name. As previously stated, there is no preventative vaccine or cure for the disease caused by this parasite, but medicine can be taken to temporarily alleviate the pain. [2]. An example of Onchcerca volvulus tranmission and relation to slavery:. O. volvulus is transmitted from human to human through the bites of black flies. Although the majority of the ...
Eukaryotic parasites are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet little is known about the genetic basis of their virulence. Here, we present a forward genetic screen to study pathogenesis in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. By using modified signature-tagged mutagenesis, the growth of 6,300 T. gondii insertional mutants was compared in cell culture and murine infection to identify genes required specifically in vivo. One of the 39 avirulent mutants is disrupted in a divergent ortholog of the regulator of chromosome condensation 1 (RCC1), which is critical for nuclear trafficking in model systems. Although this RCC1 mutant grows similar to wild type in standard tissue culture conditions, it is growth-impaired under nutrient limitation. Genetic complementation of mutant parasites with the T. gondii RCC1 gene fully restores both virulence in mice and growth under low-nutrient conditions. Further analysis shows that there is a ...
All major crops are thought to be infected by at least one species of plant-parasitic nematode, which causes damage valued at over $80 billion each year [1]. The majority of these economic losses are attributable to the sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) and the genera Heterodera and Globodera (cyst nematodes). These sedentary endoparasites have complex biotrophic interactions with their hosts that include induction of specific feeding sites and long residence times within or on their host(s).. Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are economically important pathogens of potato, with two major species: the white PCN Globodera pallida and the yellow PCN G. rostochiensis. These nematodes originate in South America [2, 3] and have subsequently been introduced into all major potato-growing regions of the world. Europe has acted as a secondary distribution hub for PCN; worldwide populations ...
There is a question as to why the majority of the hosts of brood parasites care for the nestlings of their parasites. Not only do these brood parasites usually differ significantly in size and appearance, but it is also highly probable that they reduce the reproductive success of their hosts. The "mafia hypothesis" evolved through studies in an attempt to answer this question. This hypothesis revolves around host manipulations induced by behaviors of the brood parasite. Upon the detection and rejection of a brood parasites egg, the hosts nest is depredated upon, its nest destroyed and nestlings injured or killed. This threatening response indirectly enhances selective pressures favoring aggressive parasite behavior that may result in positive feedback between mafia-like parasites and ...
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate root symbionts that can protect their host plant against biotic stress factors such as plant-parasitic nematode (PPN) infection. PPN consist of a wide range of species with different life styles that can cause major damage in many important crops worldwide. Various mechanisms have been proposed to play a role in the biocontrol effect of AMF against PPN. This review presents an overview of the different mechanisms that have been proposed, and discusses into more detail the plausibility of their involvement in the biocontrol against PPN specifically. The proposed mechanisms include enhanced plant tolerance, direct competition for nutrients and space, induced systemic resistance (ISR) and altered rhizosphere interactions. Recent studies have emphasized the importance of ISR in biocontrol and are increasingly placing rhizosphere effects on the foreground as well, both of which will be the focal point of this review. Though AMF are ...
Anderson et al. [51,52] reported that the presence of localized bacterial food source (Escherichia coli) acting as a chemo-attractant caused the movements of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans on a homogeneous layer of nutrient agar in a Petri dish to become straighter and more directed. These movements approximate to a straight line, which is, of course, the shortest possible route to the source of the chemo-attractant. The results of our numerical simulations build upon the study of Anderson et al. [51,52] and provide a provocative answer to the question of how plant-parasitic nematodes locate distant sources of chemo-attractant. They indicate that chemotaxis can take a nematode to the source of a pure chemo-attractant by the shortest, most direct route through the labyrinth of air-filled or water-filled channels within a soil through which the attractant diffuses. Previously, this remarkable consequence of chemotaxis had gone unnoticed. Searching strategies and maze-solving algorithms are ...
Parasites of the genus Leishmania cause a variety of devastating and often fatal diseases, ranging from cutaneous ulcerative lesions to fatal visceralizing infections that affect an estimated 12 million people worldwide. Unfortunately, vaccines are not available and the cturent arsenal of drugs used to treat leishmaniasis is far from ideal. Thus the need for new therapeutic targets and a better understanding of host-parasite interactions is urgent. One biochemical pathway that has been successfully exploited for the treatment of a related parasitic disease, African trypanosomiasis, is the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. In order to elucidate the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and to explore its potential as a therapeutic target in Leishmania, we have generated and characterized gene deletion mutants and polyamine enzyme overproducer strains. These studies revealed that the polyamine pathway in Leishmania is significantly different from that ...
Journal of Parasitology Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of basic and applied parasitology. Articles covering host-parasite relationships and parasitic diseases will be considered, as well as studies on disease vectors. Articles highlighting social and economic issues around the impact of parasites are also encouraged. As an international, Open Access publication, Journal of Parasitology Research aims to foster learning and collaboration between countries and communities.
article{914d9e2c-3c9b-4351-8914-f4d9ab597cb6, abstract = {Research in avian blood parasites has seen a remarkable increase since the introduction of polymerase chain reaction-based methods for parasite identification. New data are revealing complex multihost-multiparasite systems which are difficult to understand without good knowledge of the host range and geographical distribution of the parasite lineages. However, such information is currently difficult to obtain from the literature, or from general repositories such as GenBank, mainly because (i) different research groups use different parasite lineage names, (ii) GenBank entries frequently refer only to the first host and locality at which each parasite was sampled, and (iii) different researchers use different gene fragments to identify parasite lineages. We propose a unified database ...
The main goal of the AP4 will be the development of a data retrieval web interface for port authorities and public administrations that are not directly involved in the development of the MSW. This interface can be also employed for the interconnection of Port Community Systems in case that private Hellenic ports are willing and they are interested to develop it. Furthermore, the hardware required for the implementation will be used as part of the disaster recovery planning of the MSW, since the hardware infrastructure can be used as alternative host of the main MSW application. Also, in this pilot the exploitation of the EMSA IMP demonstration project will be examined and implemented in case of compatibility.. ...
... was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. He was awarded the B.S. degree with honors from the University of Edinburgh, and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Adelaide. Dr. Kerr spent most of his exemplary career as a phytopathologist at the University of Adelaide. His previous honors include the Ruth Alen and E. C. Stakman awards, the Walter Burfitt Prize of the Royal Society of New South Wales, and the inaugural Ausralia Prize. He was elected a Fellow of the Australasian Plant Pathology Society, the Australian Academy of Science, and the Royal Society, a Foreign Associate of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, and an officer of the Order of Australia. Dr. Kerrs early research was on the soilborne fungi Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, and Pythium, with special reference to host-parasite relationships, interactions among pathogens, and influence of soil moisture on infection. During his tenure at the Tea Research Institute in Sir Lanka, he studied the epidemiology ...
Citation: N/A Interpretive Summary: The mite Varroa jacobsoni is a serious pest of honey bees and a threat to the vitality of the U.S. beekeeping industry. We have examined a nutritional aspect of the host-parasite interaction in an effort to uncover biochemical differences between the mite and the bee. Our results indicate that the use of sterol inhibitors in a mite control program are unlikely to be effective. This information will be used by those involved in finding a control for parasitic bee mites and will benefit the U.S. beekeeping industry. Technical Abstract: The neutral sterols of the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni were compared with Apis mellifera carnica drone pupae. Analysis by GLC-mass spectrometry indicated mite sterols were reflective of the sterol composition of the drones; 24-methylenecholesterol was the major sterol in both species, with lesser amounts of sitosterol and isofucosterol. Cholesterol accounted for less than 1% of the total sterols. ...
Barberries tolerate dry soil well but need at least some water during the hottest months, including August. If you provide water the wrong way, however, you could see adverse effects. Plants do best when they develop deep roots, which occurs when the plants are watered thoroughly but infrequently. If plants are watered often but shallowly, such as the way a sprinkler provides water, then they grow surface roots that arent good at tapping water reserves deeper in the ground and, therefore, the plants suffer during droughts. If your barberries leaves are scorched along their edges and falling off, then take a close look at your watering schedule, and revise it if necessary to help the shrubs develop deep roots.. ...
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The Sunjoy Golden Pillar Barberry Shrub is a brilliant addition to your garden or landscape. In summer its bright golden foliage provides interest and contrast against the green leafy plantings you already may have. In the springtime the new growth is red, then it changes to golden yellow. Bright orange-red autumn foliage rounds out the seasons.
Garcia-Perez R, Ibáñez C, Godinez JM, Arechiga N, Garin I, Perez-Suarez G, de Paz O, Juste J, Echevarria JE, Bravo IG (2014). Novel papillomaviruses in free-ranging. Iberian bats: no virus-host co-evolution, no strict host specificity and hints for recombination. Genome Biology and Evolution 6: 94-104 ...
The ATCC Virology Collection has more than 2,000 viruses and associated reagents, including type strains from different host species. Our seed stock system ensures that every preparation made by ATCC is as close as possible to the original culture deposit.
Human IgG (H&L), 0.5 mg. This secondary antibody is specifically designed for the detection of multiple primary antibodies (polyclonal or monoclonal) of different host species in experiments where cells are simultaneously labeled without unwanted cross
Its time fofr BET to pick the new hosts of 106 and Park! Paigion and Shorty da Prince have to be the new hosts of 106 & Park.

Evolution of sexual reproduction - WikipediaEvolution of sexual reproduction - Wikipedia

In particular, Otto and Nuismer [26] presented results showing that species interactions (e.g. host vs parasite interactions) ... and one gene in hosts with two alleles h and H, conferring two types of parasite resistance, such that parasites with allele p ... They genetically manipulated the mating system of C. elegans, causing populations to mate either sexually, by self- ... It was found that clones that were plentiful at the beginning of the study became more susceptible to parasites over time. As ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_sexual_reproduction

Evolution of sexual reproduction - WikipediaEvolution of sexual reproduction - Wikipedia

In particular, Otto and Nuismer [28] presented results showing that species interactions (e.g. host vs parasite interactions) ... and one gene in hosts with two alleles h and H, conferring two types of parasite resistance, such that parasites with allele p ... They genetically manipulated the mating system of C. elegans, causing populations to mate either sexually, by self- ... It was found that clones that were plentiful at the beginning of the study became more susceptible to parasites over time. As ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_sexual_reproduction

A transcriptomic snapshot of early molecular communication between Pasteuria penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita | BMC Genomics...A transcriptomic snapshot of early molecular communication between Pasteuria penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita | BMC Genomics...

Our results add new and significant information to the existing knowledge on early molecular interaction between M. incognita ... Transcriptome profiling during a natural host-parasite interaction. BMC Genomics. 2015;16:643.PubMedPubMed CentralView Article ... This was contrary to the general understanding that a down-regulated gene response is exhibited by the susceptible hosts, which ... There is a high degree of genetically regulated host specificity involved in this interaction. Pasteuria is highly selective ...
more infohttps://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-018-5230-8

Red Queen hypothesis - WikipediaRed Queen hypothesis - Wikipedia

Consequently, co-evolutionary interactions, between host and parasite, for example, may select for sexual reproduction in hosts ... It was found that clones that were plentiful at the beginning of the study became more susceptible to parasites over time. As ... They genetically manipulated the mating system of C. elegans, causing populations to mate either sexually, by self- ... such as predator-prey or parasite-host interactions. In cases of parasite-host relations, sexual reproduction can quicken the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Queen_hypothesis

Caenorhabditis elegans, a Model Organism for Investigating Immunity | Applied and Environmental MicrobiologyCaenorhabditis elegans, a Model Organism for Investigating Immunity | Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Host-pathogen interactions can be studied on many levels, given that not all interactions lead to disease and those that do ... is susceptible to a wide range of bacterial and fungal pathogens which vary in the mechanisms and rate at which they kill host ... Drechmeria coniospora is a nematode parasite that adheres to the mouth and vulva of animals and penetrates throughout the worm ... host immunity and pathogen virulence that are analogous to those involved during pathogenesis in humans or other animal hosts, ...
more infohttps://aem.asm.org/content/78/7/2075?ijkey=3584ae64e024c210c3d88f9697abf76df5527bc9&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Transmission of Human and Macaque Plasmodium spp. to Ex-Captive Orangutans in Kalimantan, Indonesia - Volume 12, Number 12...Transmission of Human and Macaque Plasmodium spp. to Ex-Captive Orangutans in Kalimantan, Indonesia - Volume 12, Number 12...

Data are lacking on the specific diseases to which great apes are susceptible and the transmission dynamics and overall impact ... Because humans are genetically closer to orangutans than to macaques, if P. vivax arose as the result of a recent host switch, ... Orangutans also may be susceptible and may be exposed to infection from the human parasite, P. vivax, although few data are ... The role of humans and great apes as reservoirs of parasites that can be shared and transmitted between both hosts has not been ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/12/06-0191

A quantitative test of the relationship between parasite dose and infection probability across different host-parasite...A quantitative test of the relationship between parasite dose and infection probability across different host-parasite...

On the other hand, as the parasite dose increases, the pool of susceptible hosts is exhausted, and it becomes more difficult to ... 2006) aspects of the host may influence the interaction. For example, the host population dynamics and spatial structure (e.g. ... genetically based) immunological heterogeneity of the host and the initial parasite inoculum (Antia et al. 1994; Antia & ... Plot of the proportion of infected hosts in relation to the parasite spore dose used. Each symbol represents a host-parasite ...
more infohttp://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/275/1636/853

Hilary Hurd  - Keele UniversityHilary Hurd - Keele University

A parasite that increases host lifespan. Proc Biol Sci, vol. 268(1477), 1749-1753. link, doi, ... Physiological and behavioural interactions between parasites and invertebrate hosts. Adv Parasitol, vol. 29, 271-318. link, doi ... Comparison of male reproductive success in malaria-refractory and susceptible strains of Anopheles gambiae. Malar J, vol. 7, ... Choosing anti-Plasmodium molecules for genetically modifying mosquitoes: focus on peptides. Trends Parasitol, vol. 26(12), 582- ...
more infohttps://www.keele.ac.uk/lifesci/people/hilaryhurd/

DiVA - SøkeresultatDiVA - Søkeresultat

Parasite on Crayfish: Characterisation of Their Pathogenesis, Host Interactions and Diversity2002Doktoravhandling, med artikler ... after mimicking parasite attack. In contrast, the susceptible crayfish, Astacus astacus, responds to the parasite by increased ... Two morphotypes of the crayfish parasite Psorospermium haeckeli obtained from different crayfish hosts of different ... The northern crossbills were genetically too similar to infer which population was more related to the southern ones. ...
more infohttp://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/resultList.jsf?af=%5B%5D&aq=%5B%5B%7B%22categoryId%22%3A%2211556%22%7D%5D%5D&aqe=%5B%5D&aq2=%5B%5B%5D%5D&language=no&query=

Innate Immune Activation and Subversion of Mammalian Functions by Leishmania LipophosphoglycanInnate Immune Activation and Subversion of Mammalian Functions by Leishmania Lipophosphoglycan

Articles covering host-parasite relationships and parasitic diseases will be considered, as well as studies on disease vectors ... D. Sacks and S. Kamhawi, "Molecular aspects of parasite-vector and vector-host interactions in Leishmaniasis," Annual Review of ... on the interactions they establish with antigen-presenting cells of their mammalian hosts," Advances in Parasitology, vol. 58, ... mutants are highly susceptible to lysis by complement; sensitive to oxidative stress, and they fail to even transiently inhibit ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jpr/2012/165126/

Red Queen hypothesis - WikipediaRed Queen hypothesis - Wikipedia

Consequently, co-evolutionary interactions, between host and parasite, for example, may select for sexual reproduction in hosts ... They genetically manipulated the mating system of C. elegans, causing populations to mate either sexually, by self- ... It was found that clones that were plentiful at the beginning of the study became more susceptible to parasites over time. As ... such as predator-prey or parasite-host interactions. In cases of parasite-host relations, sexual reproduction can quicken the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Queen

Ecological immunology of mosquito-malaria interactionsEcological immunology of mosquito-malaria interactions

Lambrechts L. Host genotype by parasite genotype interactions underlying the resistance of anopheline mosquitoes to Plasmodium ... Parasite and immunity-mediated fitness costs. By their very nature, parasitic infections affect their hosts in adverse ways, ... Because refractory and susceptible alleles were found in this study, the important question remains as to what factors ... Boete C., Koella J.C. Evolutionary ideas about genetically manipulated mosquitoes and malaria control. Trends Parasitol. 2003; ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2474669/

Blood feeding tsetse flies as hosts and vectors of mammals-pre-adapted African Trypanosoma: current and expected research...Blood feeding tsetse flies as hosts and vectors of mammals-pre-adapted African Trypanosoma: current and expected research...

Gut microbiota instead of host genotype drive the specificity in the interaction of a natural host-parasite system. Ecol Lett. ... it can also intervene in host fertility, immunity, longevity, and development [50-53]. Tsetse populations host genetically ... This latter effect is in line with previous observations that flies with a higher Sodalis load are more susceptible to ... This success also depends on the hosts ability to respond to the parasites attempts to breach its first line of defense (for ...
more infohttps://bmcmicrobiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12866-018-1281-x

Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda - Volume 14,...Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda - Volume 14,...

Primates and the ecology of their infectious diseases: how will anthropogenic change affect host-parasite interactions? Evol ... Humans in our study, who as omnivores have single stomachs, harbored E. coli virtually indistinguishable genetically from the E ... a high prevalence of HIV renders a significant proportion of the population immunocompromised and thus susceptible to ... infer that spatial and ecologic overlap is the primary determinant of bacterial genetic similarity among populations of hosts ...
more infohttp://www.cdc.gov/EID/content/14/9/1375.htm

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma has an indirect life cycle, in which felids are the definitive host. It has been ... been hypothesized that the maladaptive chronic inflammatory responses seen in IBD patients develop in genetically susceptible ... The virulence mechanisms by which bacterial pathogens colonize the intestinal tract of their hosts, as well as specific host ... Increased spatial resolution of the host-pathogen interaction is also possible using the described rapid swimbladder dissection ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/22431975/chronic-toxoplasma-infection-modifies-structure-risk-host

Genetic interrelationships of North American populations of giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna | Parasites & Vectors | Full...Genetic interrelationships of North American populations of giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna | Parasites & Vectors | Full...

The genetic makeup of the parasites populations correlates with data on historical distribution of its hosts. Based on the ... magna adults towards any definitive host species; the detected haplotypes of giant liver fluke are shared amongst several host ... which separated the parasite into western and eastern populations. Western populations included samples from Rocky Mountain ... network and results of AMOVA analysis confirmed explicit genetic separation of western and eastern populations of the parasite ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-015-0895-1

Human drivers of host-parasite evolution | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological SciencesHuman drivers of host-parasite evolution | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

... evolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites on ecological timescales. There is still much to learn about these ... The resulting extremely virulent parasites can become a major threat to susceptible wild host species when spillover occurs [7 ... Scientists can select for higher virulence in the laboratory or genetically modify parasites to increase virulence, and then ... 2005 Host diversity begets parasite diversity: bird final hosts and trematodes in snail intermediate hosts. Proc. R. Soc. B 272 ...
more infohttp://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/372/1712/20160043

Trypanosoma vivax Infections: Pushing Ahead with Mouse Models for the Study of Nagana. I. Parasitological, Hematological and...Trypanosoma vivax Infections: Pushing Ahead with Mouse Models for the Study of Nagana. I. Parasitological, Hematological and...

... the mouse model can be used to elucidate the immunopathological mechanisms involved in parasite evasion and persistence, and ... In order to circumvent the major constraints inherent to studying T. vivax/host interactions in the field, we developed in vivo ... endemicity and host species, but the key steps in the T. vivax - host interactions are still largely unknown. Several pieces of ... and the diversity of the immune responses presented by unrelated hosts [19], [20], [21], call for the discovery of new parasite ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0000792

Reivew. Ecological genomics in Daphnia | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological SciencesReivew. Ecological genomics in Daphnia | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

2006 Parasite-host specificity: experimental studies on the basis of parasite adaptation. Evolution 60, 31-38. ... physiological and behavioural adaptations that influence the strength of interactions and are known to be genetically variable ... that hosts must continually evolve to evade co-evolving parasites. Host lineages obtained by hatching diapausing eggs from ... The presence of additional Daphnia species that are less susceptible to parasitism creates a dilution effect that inhibits ...
more infohttp://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/279/1735/1873

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

... and the pending genome sequence9 make it a good model organism for use in studying host-microbe interactions during ... It is a "generalist," which means that it can utilize most Drosophila species as hosts1. L. heterotoma and L. victoriae are ... When these data are collected for a range of insecticide-susceptible populations, the LC50 can be used as baseline data for ... Unlike L. heterotoma, L. boulardi is a specialist parasite and the range of Drosophila species it utilizes is relatively ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/24386488/a-comparison-growth-development-three-major-agricultural-insect-pests

Journal of The Royal Society InterfaceJournal of The Royal Society Interface

2002 Virulence in malaria parasites: host genotype by parasite genotype interactions. Infect. Genet. Evol. 1, 287-297. (doi: ... many of the negative health outcomes that we think of as malaria parasite virulence are mediated by the hosts own immune ... Susceptible red blood cell dynamics. To also capture RBC replenishment and regulation, we can express an equivalent regression ... For this experiment, eight genetically distinct P. chabaudi chabaudi clones were selected (AD, AJ, AQ, AS, AT, BC, CW, ER) ...
more infohttp://rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/early/2012/06/19/rsif.2012.0340.full

Infestation of Lice Among Wild Canids in Alaska | Wolf Song of AlaskaInfestation of Lice Among Wild Canids in Alaska | Wolf Song of Alaska

However, parasites that are not endemic to an area are more destructive to new hosts that have never encountered the parasite ... Ha - lice are not genetically similar. 6. Ho - lice on wolves, coyotes, and dogs are genetically similar. Ha - lice are not ... 3. Ho - wolves are susceptible to reinfestation after successful treatment. Ha - wolves are not susceptible to reinfestation ... Level of interaction among wolves, coyotes, and dogs. * Influence of wolf population growth rates and pack stability on the ...
more infohttps://wolfsongalaska.org/chorus/node/91

Environmental Constraints Guide Migration of Malaria Parasites during Transmission | proLékaře.czEnvironmental Constraints Guide Migration of Malaria Parasites during Transmission | proLékaře.cz

Host cell traversal is important for progression of the malaria parasite through the dermis to the liver. Cell Host Microbe 3 ... The characterization of a genetically defined parasite mutant further illustrates how micro-patterned obstacle arrays, in ... EjigiriISinnisP 2009 Plasmodium sporozoite-host interactions from the dermis to the hepatocyte. Curr Opin Microbiol 12 401 407 ... Článek HSV-2 Infection of Dendritic Cells Amplifies a Highly Susceptible HIV-1 Cell Target ...
more infohttps://www.prolekare.cz/casopisy/plos-pathogens/2011-6/environmental-constraints-guide-migration-of-malaria-parasites-during-transmission-46145

Development of Vaccines against Visceral LeishmaniasisDevelopment of Vaccines against Visceral Leishmaniasis

Articles on the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of tropical diseases, parasites and their hosts, epidemiology, and public ... In addition, transgenic parasites are invaluable tools for understanding host-parasite interactions [152] and inform vaccine ... but incapable of sustaining virulent infection in the host, in amastigote form. The first genetically attenuated parasite ... Humans are the only known hosts for L. donovani; however L. infantum is primarily a zoonotic disease and canine species are the ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtm/2012/892817/
  • C. elegans offers a number of benefits as a model host for studying innate immunity. (asm.org)
  • However, empirical studies have found significant deviations from this assumption due to biotic and abiotic factors, such as seasonality, the spatial structure of the host population and host heterogeneity with respect to immunity and susceptibility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Used in this sense, the disease triangle illustrates the continuum of host reaction from complete susceptibility to immunity. (apsnet.org)
  • Population structure and genetic interrelationships of giant liver fluke Fascioloides magna from all enzootic North American regions were revealed in close relation with geographical distribution of its obligate definitive cervid hosts for the first time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The flexibility of sporozoite adaption to different environments and a favorable speed for optimal dispersal ensures efficient host switching during malaria transmission. (prolekare.cz)
  • More recently, these investigations have uncovered details of the natural pathogens of C. elegans , including the description of a novel intracellular microsporidian parasite as well as new nodaviruses, the first identification of viral infections of this nematode. (asm.org)
  • The intracellular parasite Toxoplasma has an indirect life cycle, in which felids are the definitive host. (jove.com)
  • As such, several independent triggers of egress have been identified which all converge on the release of intracellular Ca 2+ , a signal that is also critical for host cell invasion 6-8 . (jove.com)
  • F 2 segregants were used as hosts ( N total = 107) to compare different homozygotes and the respective heterozygotes and to control for possible maternal effects or differences in the background genetics among congenic strains (see below). (genetics.org)
  • Leishmania promastigotes are covered by a thick glycocalyx comprised of abundant glycoconjugates important for parasite survival and pathogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • In multi-host and multi-parasite coevolution, the Red Queen dynamics could affect what host and parasite types will become dominant or rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Data are lacking on the specific diseases to which great apes are susceptible and the transmission dynamics and overall impact of these diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Bacteria harbored by humans and live- centuries, the dynamics of these interactions have changed stock were approximately twice as similar to those of red- dramatically over the last several decades. (cdc.gov)
  • Although people and domestic animals have shared habitats with nonhuman primates (primates hereafter) for centuries, the dynamics of these interactions have changed dramatically over the last several decades. (cdc.gov)
  • Whether host susceptibility, transmission dynamics, or a combination of these factors drive such trends remains unclear ( 15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Novel strategies, such as the design of transgenic mosquitoes refractory to Plasmodium , or design of human vaccines emulating mosquito resistance to the parasite, require extensive knowledge of processes involved in immune responses and of microevolutionary mechanisms that create and maintain variation in immune responses in wild vector populations. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, this approach will require the characterization of the mechanisms (particularly molecular) involved in these interactions, which will also necessitate determining how to stimulate or repress these mechanisms (depending on the objective). (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been suggested that this parasite developed mechanisms for enhancing its transmission rate to felids by inducing behavioral modifications in the intermediate rodent host. (jove.com)
  • The life cycle of Leishmania has two main morphological forms: flagellated promastigotes, which replicate and develop in the midgut of the sand fly vector, and rounded amastigotes, which live and multiply inside the macrophages of the vertebrate host. (hindawi.com)
  • Cure in all forms of leishmaniasis is affected through cellular immune response capable of activating host macrophages to eliminate the parasite. (wiley.com)
  • Here, using data from eight murine malaria clones, we apply recently developed statistical methods to infer differences in clone characteristics, including induction of differing host-mediated changes in red blood cell (RBC) supply. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Individual mosquitoes might also differ in the number of infected bloodmeals they ingest and could acquire one or multiple parasite genotypes, thus further complicating the picture. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our results add new and significant information to the existing knowledge on early molecular interaction between M. incognita and P. penetrans . (biomedcentral.com)
  • While we begin to understand the molecular basis of parasite motility, little is known about how Plasmodium sporozoites reach the blood vessels after they are injected into the dermis by a mosquito. (prolekare.cz)
  • Leishmania promastigotes express several prominent glycoconjugates, either secreted or anchored to the parasite surface. (hindawi.com)
  • This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding the role of LPG in Leishmania infectivity, focusing on the interaction of LPG and innate immune cells and in the subversion of mammalian functions by this molecule. (hindawi.com)
  • During transmission of malaria, parasite motility in the skin is important for Plasmodium sporozoites to reach the blood circulation. (prolekare.cz)
  • Here we analyze motile Plasmodium sporozoites, which are the forms of the malaria parasite injected into the dermis during a mosquito bite , . (prolekare.cz)
  • In his manuscript Smith further speculated on the impact of an asexual mutant arising in a sexual population, which suppresses meiosis and allows eggs to develop by mitotic division into offspring genetically identical to the mother. (wikipedia.org)
  • The performances of genetically identical lines either infected with H. caryophila or symbiont-free were compared. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, the parasitoid wasp group, Campoletis sonorensis, is able to fight against the immune system of its hosts, Heliothis virescens (Lepidopteran) with the association of a polydnavirus (PDV) (Campoletis sonorensis PDV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Ascoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that are pathogenic to lepidopteran hosts, particularly noctuid larvae. (jove.com)
  • For example, a host with some degree of resistance, but not immune, will result in an overall lower level of disease. (apsnet.org)
  • We found no strong cyst tropism for any particular brain area but found that the distribution of Toxoplasma cysts in the brain of infected animals was not random, and that particular combinations of cyst localizations changed risk/unconditioned fear in the host. (jove.com)
  • Conversely, a positive effect of the bacteria during the exponential phase was observed for several host × parasite combinations resulting in an increased growth rate of infected P. biaurelia . (frontiersin.org)
  • Following factors were considered as potentially influencing the outcome of the interaction: (1) host strain, (2) parasite strain, and (3) growth phases of the host. (frontiersin.org)
  • Depending on the current host growth phase, the presence of H. caryophila can be harmful or advantageous for P. biaurelia . (frontiersin.org)
  • The life-cycle of plant-parasitic nematodes commences when an infective juvenile hatches from an egg as a second-stage juvenile, and migrate through the soil seeking a suitable host plant before feeding starts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Aesop The interactions between parasitoid wasps and insect larvae, necessary for the parasitic wasp's life cycle, are also a good illustration of an arms race. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, in the case of vector-borne and sexually transmitted diseases, the number of conspecifics encountered by a contagious individual may depend on the proportion of infected hosts in the population, yielding a frequency-dependent transmission term (also called proportionate mixing, e.g. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Current knowledge about the steps leading to parasite escape is limited, for example, whether it is regulated by the parasite or occurs simply through overwhelming the capacity of the macrophage to harbor them. (hindawi.com)