Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.GlucuronidaseLettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Sitosterols: A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Thymus Plant: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.Fusarium: A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Araceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Lignin: The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Gametogenesis, Plant: The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Resins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Basidiomycota: A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Darkness: The absence of light.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Selaginellaceae: A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Inflorescence: A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.

*Bacillus thuringiensis

Key, S; Ma, JK; Drake, PM (Jun 2008). "Genetically modified plants and human health". J R Soc Med. 101 (6): 290-8. doi:10.1258/ ... or the desire occurs to force mutations to modify organism characteristics or to use homologous recombinant genetic engineering ... For current crops and their acreage under cultivation, see genetically modified crops. In 1996, genetically modified maize ... Concerns over the safety of consumption of genetically-modified plant materials that contain Cry proteins have been addressed ...

*History of genetic engineering

"US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ... In 2015 CRISPR and TALENs was used to modify plant genomes. Chinese labs used it to create a fungus-resistant wheat and boost ... Genetically modified microbial enzymes were the first application of genetically modified organisms in food production and were ... The first genetically modified crop plant was produced in 1982, an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. The first field trials ...

*Genetic engineering

The Regulation of Genetically Modified Food Glossary definition of Genetically Modified: "An organism, such as a plant, animal ... Rapeseed (canola) has been genetically engineered to modify its oil content with a gene encoding a "12:0 thioesterase" (TE) ... is the creation and use of genetically modified crops or genetically modified livestock to produce genetically modified food. ... "US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or transgenic] crop cultivars". Plant ...

*Monsanto

"The race towards the first genetically modified plant". Plant Biotech News. 19 June 2013. Dorothy Leonard-Barton, Gary P. ... Monsanto scientists were among the first to genetically modify a plant cell, publishing their results in 1983. Five years later ... BBC News (June 3, 2003). "Brazil Approves Law to Legalize Genetically Modified Crops". Enn.com (March 4, 2005). "郎咸平:孟山都的转基因帝国- ... The "Xtend Crop System" includes seed genetically modified to be resistant to both glyphosate and dicamba, and a herbicide ...

*Plant breeding

The debate encompasses the ecological impact of genetically modified plants, the safety of genetically modified food and ... To genetically modify a plant, a genetic construct must be designed so that the gene to be added or removed will be expressed ... that plants produced by classical breeding methods should undergo the same safety testing regime as genetically modified plants ... "Genetically modified plants and human health". Journal of the Royal Society of Medecine. 101: 290-298. doi:10.1258/jrsm. ...

*Biotechnology

Genetically modified crops ("GM crops", or "biotech crops") are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified ... The wide concept of "biotech" or "biotechnology" encompasses a wide range of procedures for modifying living organisms ... and the development and release of genetically modified organisms (GMO), including genetically modified crops and genetically ... "A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants" (PDF). Environment International. 37: 734-742. doi ...

*Genetically modified crops

Genetically modified plants can also be developed using gene knockdown or gene knockout to alter the genetic makeup of a plant ... How To Genetically Modify a Seed, Step By Step "Bombarded - Define Bombarded at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Shrawat, A.; ... The first genetically modified crop plant was produced in 1982, an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. The first field trials ... plant to plant) or between kingdoms (for example, bacteria to plant). In many cases the inserted DNA has to be modified ...

*Genetically modified soybean

link) Domingo, Jose' L (2007). "Toxicity Studies of Genetically Modified Plants: A Review of the Published Literature". ... but they eventually found they could modify the soybean to contain healthier components, or even focus on one aspect of the ... September 2001). "Assessment of the Food Safety Issues Related to Genetically Modified Foods". Plant Journal. 27 (6): 503-28. ... 2008). "The Definition, Source, Manifestation and Assessment of Unintended Effects in Genetically Modified Plants". Journal of ...

*Maize

23 (1): 4. "US Approves Corn Modified for Ethanol". The New York Times. February 11, 2011. Genetically modified plants: Global ... modifies P1-wr expression to confer pigmentation in kernel pericarp, as well as vegetative tissues, which normally do not ... As a C4 plant (a plant that uses C4 carbon fixation), maize is a considerably more water-efficient crop than C3 plants (plants ... Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet ...

*Norman Borlaug

GMOs were not inherently dangerous "because we've been genetically modifying plants and animals for a long time. Long before we ... Borlaug believed that genetically modified organisms (GMO) was the only way to increase food production as the world runs out ... Then we'd take the seed from the best plants south and plant it at high elevation, when days were getting longer and there was ... He was awarded the Danforth Award for Plant Science by the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St Louis, Missouri in ...

*Natural stress

Genetically modified plants are a good answer to the problem of not enough crops to go around. These plants can be engineered ... This problem could be solved by genetically modifying plants to become more drought resistant. If plants could use less water ... A lot of people do not like genetically modified organisms. People opposed to these modified plants often claim that they are ... One study on plants was conducted on Canola plants at 28 degrees Celsius, the result was decreased plant size, but the plants ...

*Mary-Dell Chilton

She and her collaborators produced the first genetically modified plants using Agrobacterium carrying the disarmed Ti plasmid ( ... from the bacterium without adversely affecting its ability to insert its own DNA into plant cells and modify the plant's genome ... Mary-Dell Chilton (born February 2, 1939, in Indianapolis, Indiana) is one of the founders of modern plant biotechnology. ... she led a collaborative research study that produced the first transgenic plants. Chilton was the first (1977) to demonstrate ...

*Environmental impact assessment

Genetically modified plants - Specific methods available to perform EIAs of genetically modified organisms include GMP-RAM and ... After an EIA, the precautionary and polluter pays principles may be applied to decide whether to reject, modify or require ... A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (As-GMP method) Environmental Impact Assessment review 29: ... An example of "A" category activities such as: dams and reservoirs, forestry production projects, industrial plants, irrigation ...

*Organic certification

Also, USDA ingredients from plants cannot be genetically modified. Livestock feed is only eligible for labeling as "100% ... Compliance - farm facilities and production methods must comply with the standards, which may involve modifying facilities, ... avoidance of genetically modified seed; use of farmland that has been free from prohibited chemical inputs for a number of ... Steam-distilled plant extracts, consisting mainly of tap water introduced during the distilling process, were certified organic ...

*New Breeding Techniques

"Genetically modified organisms: new plant growing methods - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Advisory Committee on Releases to the ... These new techniques, often involve 'genome editing' whose intention is to modify DNA at specific locations within the plants' ... Grafting of unaltered plant onto a genetically modified rootstock Many European environmental organisations came together in ... "Plants with Novel Traits". In other words, if a new trait does not exist within normal cultivated plant populations in Canada, ...

*Genetically modified tomato

While no genetically modified stress-tolerant plants are currently commercialised, transgenic approaches have been researched. ... Scientists in India have delayed the ripening of tomatoes by silencing two genes encoding N-glycoprotein modifying enzymes, α- ... A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. ... "Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I)". Annual Review of Plant Biology. 59: ...

*Biopesticide

Such sprays do not modify the genome of the target plant. The RNA could be modified to maintain its effectiveness as target ... Genetically Modified Plants "With BioDirect, Monsanto Hopes RNA Sprays Can Someday Deliver Drought Tolerance and Other Traits ... Kiliç, A; Akay, M. T. (2008). "A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and ... a plant in the presence of this product will naturally induce systemic resistance (ISR) to allow the plant to defend itself ...

*Genetic use restriction technology

... is the name given to proposed methods for restricting the use of genetically modified plants by causing second generation seeds ... T-GURT: A second type of GURT modifies a crop in such a way that the genetic enhancement engineered into the crop does not ... Non-viable seeds produced on V-GURT plants may reduce the propagation of volunteer plants. Volunteer plants can become an ... The technology is restricted at the plant variety level, hence the term V-GURT. Manufacturers of genetically enhanced crops ...

*Pesticide

Genetically Modified Plants Willson, Harold R (February 23, 1996), Pesticide Regulations Archived 2011-06-17 at the Wayback ... This strategy uses a mixture of behavior-modifying stimuli to manipulate the distribution and abundance of insects. "Push" ... "Pull" means that certain stimuli (semiochemical stimuli, pheromones, food additives, visual stimuli, genetically altered plants ... Plant growth regulators: Substances (excluding fertilizers or other plant nutrients) that alter the expected growth, flowering ...

*Aureusidin synthase

... is of particular attractiveness in creating genetically modified plants that may confer medicinal ... In order to modify the chalcone to an aurone, the chalcone must undergo an oxidative cyclization to form a five-member ... Aureusidin is a plant flavonoid that provides yellow coloration in several plants, including snapdragons and cosmos. It also ... Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology. 160 (2): 229-236. doi:10.1016/s0168-9452(00)00385-x. ...

*List of genetically modified crops

... modifying flower colour and altering the plants composition. Drought tolerant maize was planted for just the second year in the ... Genetically modified crops are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering ... In 2014, 181.5 million hectares of genetically modified crops were planted in 28 countries. Half of all GM crops planted were ... was genetically modified in some way. Seventeen countries grew a total of 55.2 million hectares of genetically modified maize ...

*Genetically modified organism

Genetically modified crops (GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified ... Bacteria were the first organisms to be modified in the laboratory, due to the relative ease of modifying their genetics. They ... Genetically modified mammals are an important category of genetically modified organisms. Ralph L. Brinster and Richard ... EFSA (2012). Genetically modified animals Europe: EFSA Murray, Joo (20). Genetically modified animals. Canada: Brainwaving ...

*Diamond v. Chakrabarty

... setting up the premise for the patenting of genetically modified microbes, plants, and animals. However, this ruling also ... "Owners can buy and sell them; they can build large, global markets around them; they can modify and destroy them; they can let ... and commented on the 1930 Plant Patent Act and 1970 Plant Variety Protection Act, which explicitly allow patents for plants in ... The question that many are asking is, 'where does it end?' How long is it before we start patenting genetically modified humans ...

*Boliviana negra

... or the plant was genetically modified in a laboratory. In 1996, a patented Roundup Ready or glyphosate-resistant soybean was ... suggesting that it would be possible to genetically modify coca in an analogous manner. Spraying Boliviana Negra with ... The coca plant is the source of the potentially addictive stimulant cocaine, a prescription drug and one of the most widely ... A fungal plant pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum, has been suggested as a possible successor to glyphosate, although this itself ...

*Coca

... or the plant was genetically modified in a laboratory. In 1996, a patented glyphosate-resistant soybean was marketed by ... suggesting that it would be possible to genetically modify coca in an analogous manner. Spraying Boliviana negra with ... Coca is any of the four cultivated plants in the family Erythroxylaceae, native to western South America. The plant is grown as ... which can fairly easily extract the alkaloids from the plant. The coca plant resembles a blackthorn bush, and grows to a height ...
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The dominant character of leaf size varies with different genetic models and leaf positions. In Model 1, the dominant characters of top and lower leaves are small size, but for the middle leaves it is large size. In Model 2, large size is dominant for three types of leaves. In Model 3, small size is dominant for the top and middle leaves, but recessive for lower leaves. In Model 4, small size is dominant in the top and lower leaves, but recessive in the middle leaves (Table 6). Therefore, we can not conclude and illustrate the inheritance of leaf size for tobacco leaves. Leaf size was determined by genetics and environment (Gurevitch, 1992); hence it may be suitable to illustrate the genetic mechanism for leaf size in a fixed position of single leaf, or increase the number of planted locations to increase the generational mean. This would allow us to estimate the effect of genetic-environmental interaction and understand the inheritance of leaf size.. Genetic Models and Inheritance of Leaf ...
Leaf abscission and foliation responses to water stress were studied in potted plants of five Populus clones grown in a greenhouse. As predawn leaf water potential (Ψ1) fell to -3 MPa, drought-induced leaf abscission increased progressively to 30% for data pooled across clones. As predawn Ψ1 fell below -3 MPa, drought-related abscission was about 50%. When combined with abscission rates in well-watered "phenological control" plants, abscission exceeded 80-90% in the most severely water-stressed plants. Clonal variation in water stress-induced abscission was statistically significant, but appeared to be confounded with clonal differences in leaf loss in control plants. Production of new leaf area ranged from 0 to 1,389 cm². Pooled across clones, maximum production of leaf area occurred in plants previously subjected to moderate water stress (-0.5 to -0.75 MPa). This stimulation of leaf development was associated with greater ...
Today most of the people are interested in botany and students and researchers are engaging in botany. When studying botany, leaf recognition is an essential part. The different shapes and different nerve structures of the leaves are considered to classify the leaves. This research is developed to recognize a plant leaf by image. In the system highly considered about the nerve structure of the leaf. Basic Image processing Techniques, Artificial Neural Networks were used to implement the system. Identify a leaf using an image is a challenge. There are lots of different leaves around the world. It is not easy to identify all those leaves by single system. This research was developed to identify sample of 5types of leaves, Jack, Guava, Coral jasmine, lemon, Asoka. System accepts an image (one leaf with white background) and identifies the shape and nerve structure of the leaf. If it is pre identified leaf of the system it will give the details of that particular tree. Otherwise it will give a ...
In wild-type (WT) Columbia and Landsberg erecta ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., trichomes are present on the adaxial surfaces of all rosette leaves but are absent from the abaxial surfaces of the first-formed leaves. We have determined that both long-day (LD) photoperiod and gibberellin (GA) stimulate trichome formation. WT plants grown in LD conditions produce the first abaxial trichome on earlier leaves than plants grown in short-day (SD) conditions. Photoperiod sensitivity of abaxial trichome formation on WT plants develops gradually over time, reaching the maximum sensitivity about 24 d after germination. Application of gibberellic acid to WT plants growing in SD conditions accelerates the onset of abaxial trichomes. Conversely, application of 20 to 80 mg L-1 paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, to wild-type plants suppresses trichome initiation on the abaxial epidermis. The GA-deficient mutants ...
Autor: Molla-Morales, A. et al.; Genre: Zeitschriftenartikel; Im Druck veröffentlicht: 2011; Keywords: mesophyll growth|br/|carbamoyl phosphate synthetase|br/|reticulate leaves|br/|amino acid biosynthesis|br/|carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase|br/|phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate-translocator|br/|chloroplast biogenesis|br/|mutational analysis|br/|shikimate pathway|br/|gene-expression|br/|bundle-sheath|br/|nitric-oxide|br/|thaliana|br/|leaves; Titel: Analysis of ven3 and ven6 reticulate mutants reveals the importance of arginine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis leaf development
Plant leaves and their vascular patterns not only provide some of the most impressive examples of complexity in the nature that surrounds us, but they are also a wonderful system for studying developmental dynamics. In my talk I will focus on the development of leaf primary vein in the growing leaf primordia of Arabadopsis Thaliana, a plant model system. Leaf primary vein is the first in a successive order of branched veins, to emerge in a growing leaf primordia. The development of leaf primary vein starts with very few cells which also synthesize auxin, a growth hormone that regulates both plant and leaf vascular development. The final morphology of primary vein, consists of only a thin strand of distinctively elongated primary vein cells. I will present a cell based model, that describes the formation and morphology of leaf primary vein in early stages of growing leaf primordia. The model captures the interplay between biochemistry and cell mechanics by simulating the tissue growth driven by ...
Read "Light regulation of succinate dehydrogenase expression in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
We report eight new mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana possessing altered leaf morphology and epicuticular wax. These were isolated from a T-DNA-mutagenized population using a visual screen for altered leaf reflectance, i.e. increased glaucousness or glossiness. The mutants were placed into three distinct classes based on alterations in overall plant morphology: knobhead (knb), bicentifolia (bcf), and wax. The four knb mutants formed callus-like growths in the axillary region of the rosette leaves and apical meristem, the two bcf mutants produced hundreds of narrow leaves, and the two wax mutants had leaves and stems that were more glossy than wild type and organs that fused during early development. Leaves of knb and bcf were more glaucous and abnormally shaped than wild type. Epicuticular wax crystals over knb and bcf leaf surfaces (where none were present on wild type) likely contributed to their more glaucous appearance. In contrast, the glossy appearance of the wax mutants was associated with ...
Genetic transformation is often associated with different rearrangements of the plant genome at the site of insertion. Therefore the question remains weather these T-DNA insertion sites are more prone to genotoxic stresses. Here, we studied the impact of propagation through generations, the influence of gene stacking and of photo oxidative stress caused by high light intensity on the stability of the transgene and its flanking regions in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Conformational Sensitive Capillary Electrophoresis (CSCE), RFLP and sequencing were deployed in this analysis in order to study the proximal 100 bp and the long range T-DNA flanking sequences. By screening seven transgenic lines no evidence for occurrence of mutation events were found, implying that the flanking regions of the studied T-DNA insertion events are relatively stable ...
Leaves are composed of a leaf blade, a broad flat structure that is specialized for photosynthesis, and a petiole, a stem-like structure that attaches the blade to the stem. A prominent feature of the leaf blade is its thick central midrib, which extends from the petiole and contains vascular tissues as well as enlarged supporting cells on the abaxial surface of the leaf. Surrounding the midrib is the lamina, which consists of patterned arrays of specialized cell types. Efforts in many labs to identify the molecules that are essential for normal leaf development are beginning to elucidate the pathways that are required for formation of a normal leaf, however, much information is still lacking.. Leaf primordia arise as radial pegs on the flank of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), and become flattened early in development, indicating acquisition of abaxial/adaxial polarity. These steps are rapidly followed by the outgrowth of the leaf blade and differentiation of specialized cell types (Pyke et ...
Green Light Green Plant Leaf Structure photo, resolution 5456×3632 pixel, Image type JPEG, free download and free for commercial use.
The show plant is very beautiful with peaceful green lime coloured leaves that look heavenly amongst the dark greenery of your garden. It looks like silk as the shade of the leaves are not seen in many plants. It also looks wonderful to have two different coloured leaves on the same plant. The leaves are lighter than the Chinese evergreen plant leaves and also of different shape and size. The new leaves that come up are of light colour and as the leaves mature the leaves turn to a darker shade of green. The plant can be grown in the centre or corner of your garden to create a focal point in your landscaped garden. It will also act as a privacy screen when grown in a window box or on your window sill. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the cauliflower mosaic virus ORF VI transgene has a late flowering phenotype. AU - Zijlstra, Carolien. AU - Schärer-Hernández, Nania. AU - Gal, Susannah. AU - Hohn, Thomas. PY - 1996/11/20. Y1 - 1996/11/20. N2 - Expression of open reading frame (ORF) VI of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana caused a typical syndrome characterised by leaf chlorosis, vein clearing, plant stunting and reduced fertility. In addition and in comparison to untransformed controls we observed the formation of much larger rosettes of leaves combined with much later flowering and more extensive tillering. In these aspects, the ORF VI transgenic plants resembled late flowering mutants. All these phenotypes correlated with expression of ORF VI in three lines of transgenic plants which were produced independently, with different Ti-plasmid derived vectors and with different selective markers. The late flowering phenotype ...
Read "Cytokinin regulates differentially expression of P AHK -GUS constructs in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In another opinion, the GMO Panel reviewed its previous assessments of individual GM plants containing ARMG taking into account the findings and conclusions of the joint opinion of the GMO and BIOHAZ Panels. The GMO Panel concluded that its previous risk assessments on the use of the nptII marker gene in GM plants are consistent with the risk assessment strategy described in the joint opinion and that no new scientific evidence has become available that would prompt it to change its previous opinions[3] on these GM plants.. Following the adoption of the joint opinion of the GMO and BIOHAZ Panels, EFSA asked the panels to consider whether the minority opinions required any clarification of the joint opinion or additional scientific work. The Panel chairs responded that the minority opinions had been extensively considered during the preparation of the joint opinion and no further clarification or scientific work were needed at this time.. In their joint ...
AhAREB1 (Arachis hypogaea Abscisic-acid Response Element Binding Protein 1) is a member of the basic domain leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor in peanut. Previously, we found that expression of AhAREB1 was specifically induced by abscisic acid (ABA), dehydration and drought. To understand the drought defense mechanism regulated by AhAREB1, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AhAREB1 was conducted in wild-type (WT), and a complementation experiment was employed to ABA non-sensitivity mutant abi5 (abscisic acid-insensitive 5). Constitutive expression of AhAREB1 confers water stress tolerance and is highly sensitive to exogenous ABA. Microarray and further real-time PCR analysis revealed that drought stress, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, ABA synthesis/metabolism-related genes and others were regulated in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing AhAREB1. Accordingly, low level of ROS, but higher ABA content was detected in the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpression ...
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An efficient variety-independent method for producing transgenic eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation was developed. Root explants were transformed by co-cultivation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harbouring a binary vector pBAL2 carrying the reporter gene \beta-glucuronidase intron (GUS-INT) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII). Transgenic calli were induced in media containing 0.1 mg$ l-^{1}$ thidiazuron (TDZ), 3.0 mg $l-^{1} N^{6}$-benzylaminopurine, 100 mg$ l-^{1}$ kanamycin and 500 mg l? cefotaxime. The putative transgenic shoot buds elongated on basal selection medium and rooted efficiently on Soilrite irrigated with water containing 100 mg$ l-^{1} $kanamycin sulphate. Transgenic plants were raised in pots and seeds subsequently collected from mature fruits. Histochemical GUS assay and polymerase vchain reaction analysis of field-established transgenic plants and ...
Protease inhibitors have been reported to confer insect resistance in transgenic plants, except for a rice protease inhibitor that conferred drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants. We have cloned a protease inhibitor of tobacco that is expressed under treatment with ABA, hydrogen peroxide, methyl jasmonate and wounding. The cDNA codes for a six-domain serine protease inhibitor with a deduced sequence of 396 amino acids. We have generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing the protease inhibitor constitutively under the 35S promoter. When analyzed in the T2 generation, these transgenic plants exhibited tolerance to sodium chloride, variable pH and sorbitol, together with the expected resistance to the insect pests Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera. The transgenic plants showed enhanced seed germination, root length and root-shoot ratio, significantly enhanced total chlorophyll content and reduced ...
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has published updated guidance for the risk assessment of food and feed derived from genetically modified (GM) plants. The document expands on previous EFSA guidance and reflects the latest scientific developments in areas such as assessment of allergenicity and selection of the comparator plant against which the GM plant is compared. It also establishes a new statistical methodology to further strengthen the risk assessment of GM plants.
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Plants are a tremendous source for the discovery of new products of medicinal value for drug development. Today several distinct chemicals derived from plants are important drugs currently used in one or more countries in the world. Many of the drugs sold today are simple synthetic modifications or copies of the naturally obtained substances. The evolving commercial importance of secondary metabolites has in recent years resulted in a great interest in secondary metabolism, particularly in the possibility of altering the production of bioactive plant metabolites by means of Plant Biotechnology or Green Gene technology and tissue or cells culture technology. Plant Biotechnology is possible tool for both studying and producing plant secondary metabolites which is called Molecular farming. Different strategies, using Plant Molecular farming system, have been extensively studied to improve the production of plant chemicals. The development of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Production of a fusion protein consisting of the enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit and a tuberculosis antigen in Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Rigano, M. M.. AU - Alvarez, M. L.. AU - Pinkhasov, J.. AU - Jin, Y.. AU - Sala, F.. AU - Arntzen, C. J.. AU - Walmsley, A. M.. PY - 2004/2. Y1 - 2004/2. N2 - Transgenic plants are potentially safe and inexpensive vehicles to produce and mucosally deliver protective antigens. However, the application of this technology is limited by the poor response of the immune system to non-particulate, subunit vaccines. Co-delivery of therapeutic proteins with carrier proteins could increase the effectiveness of the antigen. This paper reports the ability of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants to produce a fusion protein consisting of the B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin and a 6 kDa tuberculosis antigen, the early secretory antigenic target ESAT-6. Both components of the fusion ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of human interleukin-11 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in transgenic plants. AU - Lee, Bo Ye. AU - Lee, Jeong Hyun. AU - Yoon, Hoon Seok. AU - Kang, Kyung Ho. AU - Kim, Kyung Nam. AU - Kim, Jae-Hong. AU - Kim, Ju Kon. AU - Kim, Jeong Kook. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - The production of therapeutic proteins for human diseases in plants results in many economic benefits, including reduced risk of animal virus contamination, high yields, and reduced production and storage costs. Human cytokines, interleukin-11 (hIL-11) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF), cDNAs were introduced into rice or tobacco, using either the maize ubiquitin promoter or the 35S promoter. The primary hIL-11 transgenic rice plants exhibited stunted growth and a sterile phenotype, whereas the hIL-11 transgenic tobacco plants did not. This suggests that hIL-11 expression in rice disrupts the ...
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Basic research has provided a much better understanding of the genetic networks and regulatory hierarchies in plants. To meet the challenges of agriculture, we must be able to rapidly translate this knowledge into generating improved plants. Therefore, in this Review, we discuss advanced tools that are currently available for use in plant biotechnology to produce new products in plants and to generate plants with new functions. These tools include synthetic promoters, tunable transcription factors, genome-editing tools and site-specific recombinases. We also review some tools with the potential to enable crop improvement, such as methods for the assembly and synthesis of large DNA molecules, plant transformation with linked multigenes and plant artificial chromosomes. These genetic technologies should be integrated to realize their potential for applications to pressing agricultural and environmental problems. ...
Environmental stresses, including ammonium (NH4 +) nourishment, can damage key mitochondrial components through the production of surplus reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, alternative electron pathways are significant for efficient reductant dissipation in mitochondria during ammonium nutrition. The aim of this study was to define the role of external NADPH-dehydrogenase (NDB1) during oxidative metabolism of NH4 +-fed plants. Most plant species grown with NH4 + as the sole nitrogen source experience a condition known as "ammonium toxicity syndrome". Surprisingly, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants suppressing NDB1 were more resistant to NH4 + treatment. The NDB1 knock-down line was characterized by milder oxidative stress symptoms in plant tissues when supplied with NH4 +. Mitochondrial ROS accumulation, in particular, was attenuated in the NDB1 knock-down plants during NH4 + treatment. Enhanced ...
204. The intermarket class hybrid seed of claim 203 wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Green Leaf lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Red Leaf lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Batavia lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Butter lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is an Iceberg lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Green Leaf lettuce plant; or wherein the female lettuce plant is a Romaine lettuce plant and the male lettuce plant is a Red Leaf lettuce plant; or ...
In the present study, transgenic rice plants ectopically expressing the PDH45 gene (TR), were tested under early-induced salinity stress conditions and compared with the wild type rice genotype IR64 (WT) and the empty vector control (EV). The TR plants are resistant to salinity stress and represent a valid system for testing the genes and miRNAs expression patters in comparison with the WT plants. The short-term response to salinity stress may be particularly relevant to better understand the biological significance of stress status in plant responses to salinity.. A preliminary characterization of the stress response in rice was carried out by measuring the chlorophyll content and the free proline levels. The damage caused by salt stress was evident from the degree of bleaching observed in the leaf tissues, along with a decrease in chlorophyll content. However, the reduction in chlorophyll content was significantly higher in WT plants, ...
Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that do not have the molecular machinery to replicate without a host. Plant viruses are pathogenic to higher plants. Although plant viruses are not nearly as well understood as the animal counterparts, one plant virus has become iconic. The first virus to be discovered (see below) was Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). This and other viruses cause an estimated US$60 billion loss in crop yields worldwide each year. Plant viruses are grouped into 73 genera and 49 families. However, these figures relate only to cultivated plants that represent only a tiny fraction of the total number of plant species. Viruses in wild plants have been poorly studied, but those studies that exist almost overwhelmingly show that such interactions between wild plants and their viruses do not appear to cause disease in the host ...
Transgenic maize is developed with a gene coding for protein rich in the essential amino acid lysine. It will improve greatly the nutritional status of people in countries like Africa.. Transgenic wheat has been made which is resistant to herbicides by the induction of a bacterial gene whose protein inactivates such chemicals. If a field is treated with herbicide to kill weeds the original crop will not be harmed.. A transgenic tomato is introduced with reduced amount of an enzyme necessary for ripening. This tomato does not go soft on storage. The gene which is inserted transcribes and produces a RNA complementary in sequence to the mRNA for the ripening protein. The two RNAs bond by complementary base-pairing, and so the translation of the normal /w-RNA is inhibited. Genetically engineered "Flavr Savr" tomatoes are produced in 1995 in USA. These have increased yield and full development of flavour.. ...
To test the feasibility of altering polyamine levels by influencing their catabolic pathway, we obtained transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants constitutively expressing either maize (Zea mays) polyamine oxidase (MPAO) or pea (Pisum sativum) copper amine oxidase (PCuAO), two extracellular and H2O2-producing enzymes. Despite the high expression levels of the transgenes in the extracellular space, the amount of free polyamines in the homozygous transgenic plants was similar to that in the wild-type ones, suggesting either a tight regulation of polyamine levels or a different compartmentalization of the two recombinant proteins and the bulk amount of endogenous polyamines. Furthermore, no change in lignification levels and plant morphology was observed in the transgenic plants compared to untransformed plants, while a small but significant change in reactive oxygen species-scavenging capacity was verified. Both the MPAO and the PCuAO ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Formate dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana. T2 - Overexpression and subcellular localization in leaves. AU - Herman, Patricia L.. AU - Ramberg, Håkon. AU - Baack, Renee D.. AU - Markwell, John. AU - Osterman, John C.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - Formate dehydrogenase (FDH; EC 1.2.1.2) is a NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide in the mitochondria of higher plants. Sequence analyses and other preliminary experiments suggested that FDH might also be targeted to the chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana and other plant species. In the present study, transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants that overexpress Arabidopsis FDH were produced. The FDH specific activity in the leaf tissue of the transgenic plants increased an average of 4.5-fold for Arabidopsis and 31.5-fold for tobacco. Immunodetection and enzyme assays of intact chloroplasts fractionated from the leaves of transgenic tobacco ...
in frame with the CP gene in this study. The ability to generate the correct CP in the two constructs was verified by in vitro transcription, translation, and immunoprecipitation. Accumulation of the CP expressed by the gus leader in calli and leaves of the transgenic plant lines was detectable by western blot analysis. However, in transgenic lines expressing the CP by the PRSV 5 leader, accumulation of CP was below detectable level except in the plantlet stage (data not shown). The different quantity of the CP between transgenic lines containing the gus leader and the PRSV leader may be due to different translational efficiencies in plant cells. Also, it might be due to the different stability of proteins based on size, conformation, or modified N-terminal structure of CP products.. When the resistance of four GCP lines and four 5CP lines was evaluated under high concentrations of inoculum, GCP-15 showed a high level of resistance. The other three lines, GCP-4, GCP-14 and GCP-33 showed ...
A central player in many but not all forms of programmed cell death in plants is salicylic acid (76). This was first demonstrated in transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing a salicylate hydroxylase gene from Pseudomonas putida called nahG (77). These plants are still capable of synthesizing SA, but as soon as SA starts to accumulate it is converted into catechol by the enzyme salicylate hydroxylase. Arabidopsis plants of the Col-O eco-type, which as wild-type plants are genetically resistant to Peronospora parasitica infection, were totally colonized by the fungus in nahG-expvess-ing plants (76). This conversion of an incompatible to a compatible interaction could be reverted by spraying with high concentrations of salicylic acid or the synthetic analogue INA (2,6-dichloro-isonicotinic acid), indicating that SA is a key control molecule in plant resistance. Some ...
1. The plant circadian clock: review of a clockwork Arabidopsis. Frank Harmon, Takato Imaizumi and Steve Kay, Department of Cell Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, USA.. 2. Pseudo-response regulator genes""tell"" the time of day: multiple feedbacks in the circadian system of higher plants?.. Shiregu Hanano and Seth Davis, Department of Plant Developmental Biology, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Germany.. 3. Multiple and slave oscillators.. Dorothee Staiger and Corinna Streitner, Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland, and.. Fabian Rudolf, Institut für Biochemie, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland, and.. Xi Huang, Institut für Pflanzenwissenschaften, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.. 4. Entrainment of the plant circadian clock.. David Somers, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.. 5. Photoreceptors and light signalling pathways in plants.. Victoria Larner, Keara Franklin and Garry Whitelam, Department of ...
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Contributed by Gustavo A. Fermin-Muñoz. Fermin-Munoz, G. A. 2000. Enhancing a plants resistance with genes from the plant kingdom. 2000. APSnet Feature. Online. doi: 10.1094/APSnetFeature-2000-0500A. Plants have their own networks of defense against plant pathogens that include a vast array of proteins and other organic molecules produced prior to infection or during pathogen attack. Not all pathogens can attack all plants and a single plant is not susceptible to the whole plethora of plant pathogenic fungi, viruses, bacteria or nematodes. Recombinant DNA technology allows the enhancement of inherent plant responses against a pathogen by either using single dominant resistance genes not normally present in the susceptible plant (Keen 1999) or by choosing plant genes that intensify or trigger the expressions of existing defense mechanisms (Bent and Yu 1999, Rommens and Kishore 2000). What is useful in one plant/pathogen system may be transferred to another, increasing the ...
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Prior to their release in the environment, transgenic crops are examined for their health and environmental safety. In addition, transgene expression needs to be consistent in order to express the introduced trait (e.g. insecticidal and/or herbicide tolerance). Moreover, data on expression levels for GM events are usually required for approval, but these are rarely disclosed or they are considered insufficient. On the other hand, biosafety regulators do not consider epigenetic regulation (e.g. DNA methylation, ncRNAs and histone modifications), which are broadly known to affect gene expression, within their risk assessment analyses. Here we report the results of a DNA methylation (bisulfite sequencing) and transgene transcript accumulation (RT-qPCR) analysis of four Bt-expressing single transgenic maize hybrids, under different genetic backgrounds, and a stacked transgenic hybrid expressing both insecticidal and herbicide tolerance traits. Our results showed differences in cytosine methylation levels in
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It is known that regulation of plant tolerance to adverse environmental factors is connected with short term increase of the concentration of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are signalling molecules for the induction of protective mechanisms. Introduction and expression of heterologous gox gene, which encodes glucose oxidase enzyme in plant genome, induce constantly higher content of hydrogen peroxide in plant tissues. It is not known how the introduction of native or modified gox gene affects the plant resistance to high-temperature stress, one of the most commonly used model for the study of stress response and thermal tolerance. In this study, we investigated biological effects of transformation and evaluated the resistance to temperature stress of potato plants with... altered levels of glucose oxidase expression. Transformation of potato plants by gox gene led to the more early coming out from tuber dormancy of transformed ...
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Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent application No. 00 926 773.3 was published as WO 00/60061 with the title Transgenic plant and methods.. Originally filed claims 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 16 and 25 read as follows:. 1. A plant cell comprising a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a gene product that is expressed in the plant cell wherein the gene product has trichothecene resistance activity.. 2. A plant comprising a plant cell of claim 1, wherein the plant is resistant to a trichothecene.. 4. The plant of claim 1 [sic], wherein the plant is resistant to a fungus that produces a trichothecene, preferably a trichothecene comprising a C-3 hydroxyl group.. 5. The plant according to claim 4, wherein the plant is resistant to Fusarium, preferably to Fusarium graminearum.. 8. The plant according to any one of claims 1 to 7, wherein the heterologous polynucleotide comprises a sequence substantially similar to SEQ ID No: 1, 5 or 7.. 9. The plant according to claim 8, wherein the ...
View Notes - Genetically+Modified+Rice from FST 10 at UC Davis. Apr 20, 2010| 10:54 pm Crops and Cereals Crops Gm Plants: Cultivation and Futur Projects Soybeans Maize Rape Seed Cotton Sugar beet
Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) in the porphyrin pathway is the target site of the peroxidizing herbicides such as carfentrazone-ethyl and oxyfluorfen. In an attempt to develop herbicide-resistant plants, transgenic rice plants were generated via expression of herbicide-insensitive Bacillus subtilis Protox gene fused to the transit sequence for targeting to the plastid using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transformation. Homozygous transgenic rice lines of T₃ generation selected by hygromycin resistance test were examined if they are resistant to the herbicides carfentrazone-ethyl and oxyfluorfen. The homozygous transgenic lines had single copy insertion of B. subtilis Protox gene into their genomes and express its mRNA. Compared to wild-type rice, the transgenic lines were less susceptible to the herbicides when examined with respect to growth, electrolyte leakage, chlorophyll loss and lipid peroxidation. The in vitro Protox activities in transgenic lines were about 56 % ...
Do Plants Have a Neural Net?. In addition to thigmosnastic plants, all vascular plants may be utilizing electrical signals to regulate a variety of physiological functions.. Many of the biochemical and cellular components of the neuromotoric system of animals has been found in plants. And this has led to the hypothesis that a simple neural network is present in plants, especially within phloem cells, which is responsible for the communication over long distances.. "The reason why plants have developed pathways for electrical signal transmission is most probably the necessity to respond rapidly to external stimuli, for example, environmental stress factors." (from ref 2 below). More regarding electrical communication in plants: Novel electrical signals in plants induced by wounding. The Emerging Field of Plant Neurobiology. In 2006, an article was published in the journal ...
What does powdery mildew look like? The name of this disease is descriptive. The upper and (less frequently) lower surfaces of leaves, as well as stems of infected plants, have a white, powdery appearance. They look as though someone has sprinkled them with talcum powder or powdered sugar.. Where does powdery mildew come from? Powdery mildew is caused by several closely related fungi that survive in plant debris or on infected plants. These fungi are fairly host specific. The powdery mildew fungus that infects one type of plant (e.g., phlox) is not the same powdery mildew fungus that infects another (e.g., lilac). However, if you see powdery mildew on one plant, then weather conditions, usually high humidity, are favorable for development of the disease on a wide range of plants.. How do I save a plant with powdery mildew? DO NOT panic! For many plants, powdery mildew is a cosmetic, non-lethal disease. For other plants ...
MiR156 regulates plant biomass production through regulation of members of Squamosa-Promoter Binding Protein-Like (SPL) genes. In this study, I investigated function of miR156 in Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Alfalfa plants overexpressing alfalfa miR156 and Lotus japonicus miR156 were generated, and the miR156 cleavage targets were validated. In silico analysis showed that some alfalfa sequence reads (~ 60 bp) are similar to miR156 precursors but the hairpin secondary structure could not be produced from these sequences. Of the five predicted target SPLs genes, three (SPL6, SPL12 and SPL13) contain miR156 cleavage sites and their expression was downregulated in transgenic alfalfa overexpressing miR156. These transgenic alfalfa genotypes had reduced internode length, enhanced shoot branching, and elevated biomass. Although alfalfa miR156 had little effect on nodulation and flowering time, L. japonicus miR156 reduced nodulation and delayed flowering time (up to 50 days). Our observations imply ...
Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) threatens food and economic security for smallholder farmers throughout East and Central Africa, and poses a threat to cassava production in West Africa. CBSD is caused by two whitefly-transmitted virus species: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) (Genus: Ipomovirus, Family Potyviridae). Although varying levels of tolerance have been achieved through conventional breeding, to date, effective resistance to CBSD within East African cassava germplasm has not been identified. RNAi technology was utilized to integrate CBSD resistance into the Ugandan farmer-preferred cassava cultivar TME 204. Transgenic plant lines were generated expressing an inverted repeat construct (p5001) derived from coat-protein (CP) sequences of CBSV and UCBSV fused in tandem. Northern blots using probes specific for each CP sequence were performed to characterize 169 independent transgenic lines for accumulation of CP-derived siRNAs. Transgenic plant
Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors). Organisms that cause infectious disease include fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, viroids, virus-like organisms, phytoplasmas, protozoa, nematodes and parasitic plants. Not included are ectoparasites like insects, mites, vertebrate, or other pests that affect plant health by consumption of plant tissues. Plant pathology also involves the study of pathogen identification, disease etiology, disease cycles, economic impact, plant disease epidemiology, plant disease resistance, how plant diseases affect humans and animals, pathosystem genetics, and management of plant diseases. Control of plant diseases is crucial to the reliable production of food, and it provides significant reductions in agricultural use of land, water, fuel and other inputs. Plants in both natural and ...
Transformed Arabidopsis thaliana plants have been produced by a modified leaf disk transformation-regeneration method. Leaf pieces from sterilely grown plants were precultured for 2 days and inoculated with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain containing an avirulent Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid with a chimeric gene encoding hygromycin resistance. After cocultivation for 2 days, the leaf pieces were placed on a medium that selects for hygromycin resistance. Shoots regenerated within 3 months and were excised, rooted, and transferred to soil. Transformation was confirmed by opine production, hygromycin resistance, and DNA blot hybridization of both primary transformants and progeny. This process for producing transgenic Arabidopsis plants should enhance the usefulness of the species for experimental biology. |P /|
Here, we report our effort in generating an ORFeome collection for the Arabidopsis transcription factor (TF) genes. In total, ORFeome clones representing 1,282 Arabidopsis TF genes have been obtained in the Gateway high throughput cloning pENTR vector, including 411 genes whose annotation lack cDNA support. All the ORFeome inserts have also been mobilized into a yeast expression destination vector, with an estimated 85% rate of expressing the respective proteins. Sequence analysis of these clones revealed that 34 of them did not match with either the reported cDNAs or current predicted open-reading-frame sequences. Among those, novel alternative splicing of TF gene transcripts is responsible for the observed differences in at least five genes. However, those alternative splicing events do not appear to be differentially regulated among distinct Arabidopsis tissues examined. Lastly, expression of those TF genes in 17 distinct Arabidopsis organ types and the cultured cells was profiled using a ...
Flavonoids are major secondary metabolites in plants, which play important roles in maintaining the cellular redox balance in cells. Chalcone synthase (CHS) is the key enzyme in the flavonoids biosynthesis pathway, and has been proved to monitor the changes to drought stress tolerance. In this work, we overexpressed a CHS gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The transgenic tobacco plants were more tolerant than the control plants to drought stress. The transcription levels of the key genes involved in the flavonoids pathway and the contents of seven flavonoids were also significantly raised in the transgenic tobacco plants. In addition, overexpression of the CHS gene lead to a lower concentration of the oxidative stress product malondialdehyde. Overall, the NtCHS gene studied in this work was considered as a candidate gene for genetic engineering to enhance drought tolerance of plants and improve response to oxidative ...
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The major seed storage protein phaseolin of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is deficient in methionine, an essential amino acid for human and animal health. To improve the nutritional quality of common bean, we designed methionine enhancement of phaseolin based on the three-dimensional structure of protein, de novo design principles and genetic information. Amino acid substitution and loop insertion were targeted to the interior and exterior, respectively, of the proteins β-barrels. First, we introduced the methionine enhancement mutations into phaseolin cDNA, expressed cDNA in Escherichia coli and purified monomeric non-glycosylated proteins. Biophysical analysis of E. coli-expressed proteins demonstrated a similar structural stability of wild-type and mutant phaseolin monomers. Here, we attempted to test the structural stability of the methionine-enhanced phaseolin by introducing phaseolin cDNA to tobacco via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of leaf disks, regenerating
Rosacur Fungicide concentrate 75 ml - Bayer. Tomato plants have flowers but are not setting fruit? 2 sets of tomato plants 1 fruits the other doesnt.? Why wont my tomato plants produce fruit? Tomato plants no fruit? Where can I find information on the Tomato Plant varieties growing time size of plant will it set fruit in? I feel that Mostly plants does not say much since most people of the world including those from developed nations already get most of their calories from plant sources. Liquid Weed And Feed Fertilizer When Plant Albany Tomatoes Ny foti Landscape & Tree Service Inc.. Important: Please water tree immediately upon arrival. Watch Time Lapse of Plants Growing 2 - Watch Million Video Tutorials in HD Quality. 2 Reviews Add your review SHORT DESCRIPTION Mega Pack of fertilizers ATAMI Bcuzz. 31 Incorporating News LOOKING GOOD FOR 2007! However a supply of fertilizer N is critical for supporting the ...
Ectopic auxin overproduction in transgenic potato leads to enhanced productivity accompanied with concerted and occasional changes in hormonal status, and causing altered response of transformants to
FYVE domain protein required for endosomal sorting1 (FREE1), a plant-specific endosomal sorting complex required for transport-I component, is essential for the biogenesis of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), vacuolar degradation of membrane protein, cargo vacuolar sorting, autophagic degradation, and vacuole biogenesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we report the characterization of RESURRECTION1 (RST1) as a suppressor of free1 that, when mutated as a null mutant, restores the normal MVB and vacuole formation of a FREE1-RNAi knockdown line and consequently allows survival. RST1 encodes an evolutionarily conserved multicellular organism-specific protein, which contains two Domain of Unknown Function 3730 domains, showing no similarity to known proteins, and predominantly localizes in the cytosol. The depletion of FREE1 causes substantial accumulation of RST1, and transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing RST1 display retarded seedling growth with dilated MVBs, and inhibition of ...
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Cryptocoryne crispatula, also known as the Balansae plant, has very long, thin leaves with ruffled edges and relatively short stems. This plant is amphibious, and when grown out of the water, the leaves will shorten, lose the ruffle, and take on a rounded appearance. The Balansae plant requires a moderate amount of attention to maintain, but is rather flexible in the location of the aquarium where it can be incorporated. Plant the Balansae plant in the background, or sides of the aquarium, or use it as a focal point in the larger aquarium. It can also be used as a mid-ground plant in the smaller aquarium, by removing the mature leaves, in order to keep the plant short. It requires a moderate level of light of 2 to 3 watts per gallon provided by full spectrum (5000-7000K) bulbs. Reproduction within this species is by adventitious plants, or by seed. Allow the new plant to form its own leaves prior to separating it from the mother plant, and relocating it in the aquarium. The Balansae plant ...
Read "Activities of antioxidant enzymes of Arabidopsis thaliana plants during cold hardening to hypothermia, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Most endophytic bacteria in consortia, which provide robust and broad metabolic capacity, are attractive for applications in plant metabolic engineering. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of engineered endophytic bacterial strains on rice sprout ethylene level and growth under saline stress. A protocol was developed to synthesize engineered strains by expressing bacterial 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene on cells of endophytic Enterobacter sp. E5 and Kosakonia sp. S1 (denoted as E5P and S1P, respectively). Results showed that ACC deaminase activities of the engineered strains E5P and S1P were significantly higher than those of the wild strains E5 and S1. About 32-41% deaminase was expressed on the surface of the engineered strains. Compared with the controls without inoculation, inoculation with the wild and engineered strains increased the deaminase activities of sprouts. Inoculation with the engineered strains increased 15-21% more deaminase activities of
Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in ...
Jasmonic acid and its methyl ester, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), are plant signaling molecules that affect plant growth and gene expression. Primary root growth of wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings was inhibited 50% when seedlings were grown on agar medium containing 0.1 M MeJA. An ethyl methanesulfonate mutant (jar1) with decreased sensitivity to MeJA inhibition of root elongation was isolated and characterized. Genetic data indicated the trait was recessive and controlled by a single Mendelian factor. MeJA-induced polypeptides were detected in Arabidopsis leaves by antiserum to a MeJA-inducible vegetative storage protein from soybean. The induction of these proteins by MeJA in the mutant was at least 4-fold less in jar1 compared to wild type. In contrast, seeds of jar1 plants were more sensitive than wild type to inhibition of germination by abscisic acid. These results suggest that the defect in jar1 affects a general jasmonate response pathway, which may regulate multiple genes in ...
Anthocyanins are a group of common phenolic compounds in plants. They are mainly detected in flowers and fruits, are believed to play different important roles such as in the attraction of animals and seed dispersal, and also in the increase of the antioxidant response in tissues directly or indirectly affected by biotic or abiotic stress factors. As a major group of secondary metabolites in plants commonly consumed as food, they are of importance in both the food industry and human nutrition. It is known that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can influence the plant secondary metabolic pathways such as the synthesis of essential oils in aromatic plants, of secondary metabolites in roots, and increase flavonoid concentration. Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are able to increase plant growth, improving plant nutrition and supporting plant development under natural or stressed conditions. Various studies confirmed that a number of bacterial species ...
The zoonotic Rift Valley fever virus affects livestock and humans in Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula.The economic impact of this pathogen due to livestock losses, as well as its relevance to public health,underscores the importance of developing effective and easily distributed vaccines. Vaccines that can bedelivered orally are of particular interest.. Here, we report the expression in transformed plants (Arabidopsis thaliana) of Rift Valley fever virusantigens. The antigens used in this study were the N protein and a deletion mutant of the Gn glycoprotein.Transformed lines were analysed for specific mRNA and protein content by RT-PCR and Westernblotting, respectively. Furthermore, the plant-expressed antigens were evaluated for their immunogenicityin mice fed the transgenic plants. After oral intake of fresh transgenic plant material, a proportionof the mice elicited specific IgG antibody responses, as compared to the control animals that were fedwild-type ...
Uncorrected OCR) Abstract of thesis entitled PRODUCTION OF TRANSGENIC PLANT-DERIVED VACCINES VIA PLASTID TRANSFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Submitted by Lee Yuk Ting for the degree of Master of Philosophy at The University of Hong Kong in July 2004 With the advent of genetic engineering in higher plants, the need for very large quantities of therapeutic protein at low cost, and the desire to have heat-stable edible vaccines directed at human and animal diseases, transgenic plant-derived vaccines offer a new strategy for the development of safe, inexpensive vaccines against infectious diseases. The first success of plastid transformation in tobacco in 1990 has opened up the opportunities for genetically modifying plastids in higher plants for high level expression of biopharmaceuticals, such as antibodies and vaccines for oral administration. Since each plant cell contains up to 10,000 copies of identical plastid genome, plastid ...
Background Transient gene expression via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer offers a simple and fast method to analyze transgene functions. Although Arabidopsis is the most-studied model plant with powerful genetic and genomic resources, achieving highly efficient and consistent transient expression for gene function analysis in Arabidopsis remains challenging. Results We developed a highly efficient and robust Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression system, named AGROBEST (Agrobacterium-mediated enhanced seedling transformation), which achieves versatile analysis of diverse gene functions in intact Arabidopsis seedlings. Using β-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation assay, we show that the use of a specific disarmed Agrobacterium strain with vir gene pre-induction resulted in homogenous GUS staining in cotyledons of young Arabidopsis seedlings. Optimization with AB salts in plant culture medium buffered with acidic pH 5.5 during Agrobacterium infection
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The molecular dissection of plant growth and development in model plants such as Arabidopsis has largely relied on genetic approaches involving the isolation and subsequent characterization of mutants affected in specific biological processes. The utility of this approach now encompasses virtually every facet of plant biology, beginning from plant embryogenesis to flowering and senescence, and plant-pathogen interactions.. Despite the general validity of Arabidopsis as a model plant species, several biological processes do not occur in Arabidopsis and are better studied in other species. Examples of such species-processes combinations include tomato for climacteric fruit ripening, maize for regulation of seed storage protein biosynthesis, and legumes for study of plant symbiotic interactions with nitrogen-fixing bacteria (collectively termed rhizobia) and fungal symbionts (collectively termed mycorrhizae).. In contrast to the large impact plant mutants have had on a molecular dissection of ...
Predators and parasitoids are important natural enemies of herbivorous insects. By reducing the abundance of herbivores, they can help protect plants from damage. Parasitoids in particular can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) as host-searching cues [1, 2]. Such volatile-mediated tritrophic interactions have a considerable potential to shape ecosystem dynamics [3], but it remains unclear to what extend the plant signals are emitted by the plant to specifically attract natural enemies of herbivores [4]. If HIPVs are indeed emitted by the plant to attract the third tropic level, specificity of the signals should be an important aspect of the interactions [5]. This is particularly relevant under natural conditions, where plants are often attacked by non-hosts or by multiple herbivores simultaneously. While specialist parasitoids can distinguish between plants attacked by hosts and plants attacked by non-hosts using HIPV cues [6], ...
The invention provides transgenic plants and transformed host cells which express modified cry 3B genes with enhanced toxicity to Coleopteran insects. Also disclosed are methods of making and using these transgenic plants, methods of making recombinant host cells expressing these δ-endotoxins, and methods of killing insects such as Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata), southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi Barber) and western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte.
Forward genetics approaches are not popularly applied in non-model plants due to their complex genomes, long life cycles, backward genetic studies etc. Researchers have to adopt reverse genetic methods to characterize gene functions in non-model plants individually, the efficiency of which is usually low. In this study, we report a gain-of-function in Arabidopsis (GAINA) strategy which can be used for batch identification of functional genes in a plant species. This strategy aims to obtain the gain-of-function of rubber tree genes through overexpressing transformation ready full-length cDNA libraries in Arabidopsis. An initial transformation test produced about two thousand independent transgenic Arabidopsis lines, in which multiple obvious aberrant phenotypes were observed, suggesting the gain-of-function of rubber tree genes. The transferred genes were further isolated and identified. One gene identified to be metallothionein-like protein type 3 gene was further ...
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the most widely used technique for generating transgenic plants. However, many crops remain recalcitrant. We found that an Arabidopsis myb family transcription factor (MTF1) inhibited plant transformation susceptibility. Mutating MTF1 increased attachment of several Agrobacterium strains to roots and increased both stable and transient transformation in both susceptible and transformation-resistant Arabidopsis ecotypes. Cytokinins from Agrobacterium tumefaciens decreased the expression of MTF1 through activation of the cytokinin response regulator ARR3. Mutating AHK3 and AHK4, genes that encode cytokinin-responsive kinases, increased the expression of MTF1 and impaired plant transformation. Mutant mtf1 plants also had increased expression of AT14A, which encodes a putative transmembrane receptor for cell adhesion molecules. Plants overexpressing AT14A exhibited increased susceptibility to transformation, whereas at14a ...
Plants display a remarkable diversity of thioredoxins (Trxs), reductases controlling the thiol redox status of proteins. The physiological function of many of them remains elusive, particularly for plastidial Trxs f and m, which are presumed based on biochemical data to regulate photosynthetic reactions and carbon metabolism. Recent reports revealed that Trxs f and m participate in vivo in the control of starch metabolism and cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer around photosystem I, respectively. To further delineate their in planta function, we compared the photosynthetic characteristics, the level and/or activity of various Trx targets and the responses to oxidative stress in transplastomic tobacco plants overexpressing either Trx f or Trx m. We found that plants overexpressing Trx m specifically exhibit altered growth, reduced chlorophyll content, impaired photosynthetic linear electron transfer and decreased pools of glutathione and ascorbate. In ...
Phytochrome is a family of photoreceptors that regulates plant photomorphogenesis; the best-characterized member of this family is phytochrome A. Here, we report the identification of novel mutations at three Arabidopsis loci (fhy1, fhy2, and fhy3) that confer an elongated hypocotyl in far-red but not in white light. fhy2 mutants are phytochrome A deficient, have reduced or undetectable levels of PHYA transcripts, and contain structural alterations within the PHYA gene. When grown in white light, fhy2 mutants are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants. Thus, phytochrome A appears to be dispensable in white light-grown Arabidopsis plants. fhy2 alleles confer partially dominant phenotypes in far-red light, suggesting that the relative abundance of phytochrome A can affect the extent of the far-red-mediated hypocotyl growth inhibition response. Plants homozygous for the recessive fhy1 and fhy3 mutations have normal levels of functional ...
Soil microorganisms play an important role in enhancing soil fertility and plant health. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria form a key component of the soil microbial population. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi form symbiotic association with most of the cultivated crop plants and they help plants in phosphorus nutrition and protecting them against biotic and abiotic stresses. Many species of Bacillus occurring in soil are also known to promote plant growth through phosphate solubilization, phytohormone production and protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Synergistic interaction between AMF and Bacillus spp. in promoting plant growth compared to single inoculation with either of them has been reported. This is because of enhanced nutrient uptake, protection against plant pathogens and alleviation of abiotic stresses (water, salinity and heavy metal) through dual inoculation compared to inoculation with either AMF or Bacillus alone.
The circadian clock allows plants to anticipate predictable daily changes in abiotic stimuli, such as light; however, whether the clock similarly allows plants to anticipate interactions with other organisms is unknown. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) has circadian clock-mediated variation in resistance to the virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000), with plants being least susceptible to infection in the subjective morning. We suggest that the increased resistance to Pst DC3000 observed in the morning in Col-0 plants results from clock-mediated modulation of pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity. Analysis of publicly available microarray data revealed that a large number of Arabidopsis defence-related genes showed both diurnal- and circadian-regulation, including genes involved in the perception of the PAMP flagellin which exhibit a peak in expression in ...
In tomato plants heterozygous for the Tm-2a gene for tobacco mosaic virus localization, the incidence of systemic necrosis at high temperature (30 31 C) decreased with increase in plant age at the time of inoculation with an isolate of TMV strain 0. Similarly, fewer plants were necrotic when the length of exposure to high temperature was reduced and the time interval from inoculation to the heat treatment was extended. The presence of a certain amount of virus at the primary site of infection may be necessary for systemic necrosis to develop at high temperature. Keyword(s): Lycopersicon esculentum, tobacco mosaic virus infectivity.. ...
The plant kingdom is usually associated with autotrophy as most plants produce their own nutrients via photosynthesis. Plant parasitism presents a divergence from this generalization as parasitic plants derive all or part of their nutrients and water from their host plants. About 4,000 parasitic plant species are widely distributed among various taxa and over diverse environments, ranging from arctic to tropical climates. Some of the best known parasitic plants include the Christmas ornament mistletoe, the world largest blooming flower Rafflesia, the fragant oil producing sandalwood, and the debilitating agricultural weeds dodder, witchweed (Striga) and broomrape (Orobanche). Although diverse in morphology, reproductive aspects, and life habitats, all parasitic plants share a specialized organ - the haustorium - which they evolved to assure a successful life cycle [1]-[4]. Parasitic plants develop haustoria ...
We have previously described the phenotype of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with mutations at the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) locus (Clark, S. E., Running, M. P. and Meyerowitz, E. M. (1993) Development 119, 397-418). Our investigations demonstrated that clv1 plants develop enlarged vegetative and inflorescence apical meristems, and enlarged and indeterminate floral meristems. Here, we present an analysis of mutations at a separate locus, CLAVATA3 (CLV3), that disrupt meristem development in a manner similar to clv1 mutations. clv3 plants develop enlarged apical meristems as early as the mature embryo stage. clv3 floral meristems are also enlarged compared with wild type, and maintain a proliferating meristem throughout flower development. clv3 root meristems are unaffected, indicating that CLV3 is a specific regulator of shoot and floral meristem development. We demonstrate that the strong clv3-2 mutant is largely epistatic to clv1 mutants, and that the semi- dominance ...
Auxins are key regulators of plant development. Plants employ a specialized delivery system termed polar auxin transport to convey indole-3-acetic acid from source to target tissues. Auxin transport is mediated by the combined activities of specialized influx and efflux carriers. Mutational approaches in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, have led to the molecular genetic characterization of putative auxin influx and efflux carrier components, AUX1 and AtPIN1. Both genes belong to distinct gene families that are being functionally characterized by using a reverse genetic approach in Arabidopsis. AtPIN proteins are asymmetrically localized within plant plasma membranes, providing a molecular mechanism for the characteristic polarity of auxin transport. We outline the epitope tagging strategy being used in our laboratory to immunolocalize AUX1 and discuss the implications of its subcellular localization for auxin redistribution within root apical tissues. Lastly, we describe a novel ...
Mycorrhizal fungi influence plant nutrition and therefore likely modify competition between plants. By affecting mycorrhiza formation and nutrient availability of plants, Collembola may influence competitive interactions of plant roots. We investigated the effect of Collembola (Protaphorura fimata Gisin), a mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus intraradices Schenck and Smith), and their interaction on plant growth and root structure of two plant species, Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass) and Trifolium repens L. (white clover). In a laboratory experiment, two individuals of each plant species were grown either in monoculture or in competition to the respective other plant species. Overall, L. perenne built up more biomass than T. repens. The clover competed poorly with grass, whereas the L. perenne grew less in presence of conspecifics. In particular, presence of conspecifics in the grass and presence of grass in clover reduced shoot and root biomass, root length, number of root ...
Alfalfa, clover, lettuce and periwinkle seedlings were grown from seeds during five Space Shuttle missions between 1992 and 1994. Germination was initiated on orbit. Selected plants were fixed on orbit by injecting a glutaraldehyde fixative. More than 1,000 seedlings have been grown for periods ranging from 2 to 12 days. Plants were germinated under low light conditions (1 mission) and in the dark (4 missions).The seedlings grown under low light conditions showed no significant differences in accumulated fresh mass or plant geometry between flight and ground. The plumular hook had developed both for alfalfa and clover plants. Hook opening and greening of plants occurred after the seedling penetrated the Rockwool™ substratum and were exposed to light. Microgravity seedlings exhibited an increase in curvature and bending and some plants were disoriented in that the roots had grown into the air space above the growth ...
Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Todays challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying potential targets for plant breeding. Drought tolerance in the field was successfully conferred to crops by transferring genes from this model species. While involved in a plant genomics programme, which aims to identify new genes responsible for plant response to abiotic stress, we identified ESKIMO1 as a key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutants improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use ...
A few years back I figured it out! My father told me his grandmother gave him those same tomatoes when he was a kid. beneficiated rock phosphate process flow diagram. Tomato Plant Physiological Leaf Roll Plant Explosion Missile Tomato Plant Physiological Leaf Roll Plant Explosion Missile Video Video our business is related to Environment industry and we specifically deal in worm castings organic fertilizer. Rich potting soil is a definite plus along with starter fertilizer. This is also the best time to add any stakes. How to Grow Organic Tomatoes Indoors. It is advisable to apply micronutrients through foliar sprays.. The sole use of traditional organic N sources is insufficient to obtain acceptable crop production in terms of yield and sometimes even quality. Bone Meal powder is an excellent source of phosphorous and it is easy for gardeners to use. Solanum lycopersicum (Lycopersicon esculentum)(Plant heights are given at maturity).. The fertilizer and and standard is: Sta-Green Southern Weed ...
Telomeres are important protein-DNA structures at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes that are necessary for genome integrity. Telomeres are maintained by intermittent action of telomerase. I explored the kinetics of telomere length homeostasis in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by crossing wild type plants to different generations of telomerase deficient plants, and then analyzing telomere length in the resulting progeny. Unexpectedly, I found plants lacking telomerase for seven generations can lengthen telomeres when telomerase is reintroduced, but one generation is not sufficient to reestablish the telomere set point. Est1 is a non-catalytic component of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomerase holoenzyme. To investigate the role of Est1 in higher eukaryotes, I identified two putative Est1 homologues in Arabidopsis, AtEST1a and AtEST1b. Plants deficient in AtEST1a displayed no vegetative or reproductive defects. However, ...
Present research was carried out during the year 2014-2015 at the National Agricultural Research and Extension Institute (NAREI) to determine the effect of vermicompost and other fertilizers on the growth and productivity of pepper plants (Capsicum chinense). Plants were treated with five different treatments, namely T1 (Promix), T2 (vermicompost), T3 (189), T4 (189 + vermicompost), and lastly, control which had no fertilizers. T1, T3, and T4 were inorganic fertilizers, and T2 was organic. Results obtained showed that T3 (chemical fertilizer) has a significant effect on the growth of pepper plants producing plants with better plant height, number of leaves, number of branches, stem diameter, higher fruit yield, fruit weight and fruit diameter. Plants treated with this treatment also had higher fruit yield, fruit weight, and fruit diameter. Mineral nutrients were highest in plants treated with inorganic ...
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Piriformospora indica is known as a fungus that can easily colonize a wide range of plants and enhance hosts growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses, including salinity. The mechanistic basis behind this phenomenon remains poorly understood. This work was aimed to fill in this gap and reveal mechanisms enhancing salinity tolerance in maize roots colonised by P. indica. A range of agronomic and physiological characteristics were compared between inoculated and non-inoculated maize plants under 0/100/200 mM NaCl conditions. The impact of P. indica inoculation or roots cytosolic K+ retention ability were also assessed using micro-electrode ion flux estimation technique. The results showed that inoculated plants had higher biomass, higher stomatal conductance, lower K+ efflux from roots and higher potassium content in shoots than non-inoculated plants under salt stress. Collectively, the results indicated that the beneficial effects of ...
The fungitoxicity of acetone extracts from the xylem of Fusarium wilt disease resistant tomato plants (cv. Jefferson) inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was greatly influenced by environmental factors. Extracts obtained from plants 1 h after watering were 4-times more toxic than extracts from plants subjected to water stress for 5 h before extraction, and 10-times more toxic than those from plants after 23.5 h of water stress. Materials from plants extracted at various times during the day exhibited a striking diurnal pattern of antifungal activity. Material from plants extracted at the end of the dark period were the most toxic, and extracts obtained at the end of the light period were the least toxic. The extracts were most toxic to the pathogen in vitro at pH 4.5 and were completely ineffective at pH 6.0 and above. Monogenic resistance of tomato to race 1 of the wilt pathogen was ...

Genetically Modified Plants and Bees | SpringerLinkGenetically Modified Plants and Bees | SpringerLink

Genetically modified crops which have opened new avenues of species alteration has been accompanied by concerns of their ... Genetically Modify Oilseed Rape Genetically Modify Crop Honey Sample Genetically Modify Organism These keywords were added by ... Honey from genetically modified plants: integrity of DNA, and entry of GM-derived proteins into the food chain via honey. ... Pham-Delègue MH, Jouanin L, Sandoz JC (2002) Direct and indirect effects of genetically modified plants on the honey bee. In: ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-007-1942-2_20

Are Mutations in Genetically Modified Plants Dangerous?Are Mutations in Genetically Modified Plants Dangerous?

... Henk J. Schouten1 and Evert Jacobsen1,2 ... 1Plant Research International, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 16, Wageningen 6700 AA, The Netherlands. 2 ... Laboratory of Plant Breeding, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 386, Wageningen 6700 AJ, The Netherlands. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2007/082612/abs/

WikiGenes - Plants, Genetically ModifiedWikiGenes - Plants, Genetically Modified

Movement protein of tobacco mosaic virus modifies plasmodesmatal size exclusion limit. Wolf, S., Deom, C.M., Beachy, R.N., ... High impact information on Plants, Genetically Modified. *Chemical compound and disease context of Plants, Genetically Modified ... Associations of Plants, Genetically Modified with chemical compounds. *Aluminum tolerance in transgenic plants by alteration of ... Gene context of Plants, Genetically Modified. *Moreover, induced expression of wild-type COP1 in transgenic plants accelerates ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/19907.html

1. Introduction and Background | Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation | The National Academies...1. Introduction and Background | Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation | The National Academies...

This book explores the risks and benefits of crops that are genetically modified for pest resistance, the urg... ... Mutagenesis and the somaclonal variation process do not add genes, but rather modify existing genes. Cell fusion can add genes ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation (2000) Chapter: 1. Introduction and Background. ... Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226 ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/9795/chapter/3

Production of Hydroxylated Fatty Acids in Genetically Modified Plants - Patent applicationProduction of Hydroxylated Fatty Acids in Genetically Modified Plants - Patent application

... plant kappa hydroxylase genes for the purpose of genetically modifying fatty acid composition as disclosed herein and in the ... 32. A plant comprising the seed of claim 31. 33. The plant of claim 32, wherein the plant is Glycine max. 34. The plant of ... plant entity, including plant cells, plant parts (including but not limited to seeds, cuttings or tissues) and plants. [0069]A ... Patent application title: Production of Hydroxylated Fatty Acids in Genetically Modified Plants. Inventors: Chris SOMERVILLE ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20100168455

May the Best Plant Win! Experiment with Genetically Modified Seeds | Science ProjectMay the Best Plant Win! Experiment with Genetically Modified Seeds | Science Project

Compare the growth of normal plants with plants that have been genetically modified to make them resistant to the chemical ... When printing this document, you may NOT modify it in any way. For any other use, please contact Science Buddies. ... The GM plants carry a genetically modified gene. The modified gene produces a modified enzyme. This enzyme, called EPSPS (5- ... Genetically modified soybean and/or corn seeds; the Genetically Modified Plants Lab Activity kit from Wards Science contains ...
more infohttps://www.sciencebuddies.org/science-fair-projects/project-ideas/Genom_p020/genetics-genomics/genetically-modified-seeds?class=AQURDPBUbNBrbg8HoG_2IbKov259SjQSzHx3rxOnDBhaX9d0lusx2CLeeQDrU0Lgbo79-vFGIN-aBb4NYpPKAg7VezvarJEkBFEsaoL2yO65Nw

Download Genetically Modified Planet Environmental Impacts Of Genetically Engineered PlantsDownload Genetically Modified Planet Environmental Impacts Of Genetically Engineered Plants

enterprizes finding will be proper for the dictionaries of any download genetically modified planet environmental impacts of ... genetically engineered plants kind or be funded. transition will be in eggs of the FeNZ Selection Criteria( have Downloads). 0 ... modifying this, it stamps for us to examine whether, as Remaining trusted geothermal, it ought to be shown uncertain to excite ... Download Genetically Modified Planet Environmental Impacts Of Genetically Engineered Plants. But the download genetically ...
more infohttp://sftv.org/books/download-genetically-modified-planet%3A-environmental-impacts-of-genetically-engineered-plants.htm

The Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural Evolution | Plant PhysiologyThe Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural Evolution | Plant Physiology

As Frary and Tanksley (2000) put it, "The issue is not whether we should modify the genetics of crop plants. We embarked on ... The Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural Evolution Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... The Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural Evolution. Channapatna S. Prakash ... Societal anxiety over this so-called genetically modified (GM) food is understandable, and it is fueled by a variety of causes ...
more infohttp://www.plantphysiol.org/content/126/1/8.full

WHO | Safety aspects of genetically modified foods of plant originWHO | Safety aspects of genetically modified foods of plant origin

... modifying current approaches for assessing the safety of foods and food ingredients derived from genetically modified plants. ... Safety aspects of genetically modified foods of plant origin. report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Foods Derived ... modifying current approaches for assessing the safety of foods and food ingredients derived from genetically modified plants. ...
more infohttp://origin.who.int/entity/foodsafety/publications/gmf-plant-origin/en/

GENETICALLY MODIFIED REDUCED-BROWNING FRUIT-PRODUCING PLANT AND PRODUCED FRUIT THEREOF, AND METHOD OF OBTAINING SUCH - Patent...GENETICALLY MODIFIED REDUCED-BROWNING FRUIT-PRODUCING PLANT AND PRODUCED FRUIT THEREOF, AND METHOD OF OBTAINING SUCH - Patent...

Method for modifying sugar chain structure in plant, and plant produced by the method. ... 50. A genetically modified plant comprising the genetically modified plant cell of claim 49. 51. A genetically modified plant ... 52. A genetically modified plant comprising the genetically modified plant cell of claim 51.. Description:. CROSS-REFERENCE TO ... 0015]In another aspect, the invention relates to a genetically modified plant comprising the genetically modified plant cell as ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20110004957

Edexcel GCSE Biology Extension Unit B3 - Revision Cards in GCSE BiologyEdexcel GCSE Biology Extension Unit B3 - Revision Cards in GCSE Biology

Genetically modified plants. · Herbicides- a chemical used to kill weeds. · Transfer herbicide resistant gene into crop plants ... Genetically modify cows produce hormones such as insulin in their milk 26 of 44 ... Genetically modified plants. · Bacterium Bacillus Thuringiensis kills leaf-eating caterpillars and larvae of mosquitoes/flies ... Pollen from crops genetically modified to resist herbicides may transfer to wild plants, if they are weeds there is a danger of ...
more infohttps://getrevising.co.uk/revision-cards/edexcel_gcse_biology_extension_unit_b3

Salk News - Salk Institute for Biological StudiesSalk News - Salk Institute for Biological Studies

New technologies enable better-than-ever details on genetically modified plants. January 18, 2019. LA JOLLA-Salk researchers ... Their findings, published in the journal PLOS Genetics on January 18, 2019, elucidate the routine methods used to modify plants ... have mapped the genomes and epigenomes of genetically modified plant lines with the highest resolution ever to reveal exactly ... LA JOLLA-The Salk Institutes Harnessing Plants Initiative to combat climate change using plants, led by Professor Joanne Chory ...
more infohttps://www.salk.edu/news/salk-news/page/2/

Natural stress - WikipediaNatural stress - Wikipedia

Genetically Modified Plants[edit]. Plants are most commonly modified to be resistant to specific herbicides or pathogens, but ... This problem could be solved by genetically modifying plants to become more drought resistant. If plants could use less water ... Genetically modified plants are a good answer to the problem of not enough crops to go around. These plants can be engineered ... A lot of people do not like genetically modified organisms. People opposed to these modified plants often claim that they are ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_stress

Patrick Dowd : USDA ARSPatrick Dowd : USDA ARS

Genetically modified plants containing plant-derived genes for broad spectrum insect control to reduce mycotoxins. In: Wolf, T. ... Potential anthranilate modifying enzymes of maize mutant bf-1. American Society of Plant Biologists. p. 106.. ... Genetically Modified Plants Containing Plant-Derived Genes for Broad Spectrum Insect Control to Reduce Mycotoxins: Bioactive ... Genetically Modified Plants: New Research Trends. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers. p. 151-172.. ...
more infohttps://www.ars.usda.gov/midwest-area/peoria-il/national-center-for-agricultural-utilization-research/cbp/people/patrick-dowd/

Genetically Modified Foods - The Technique Of Genetic Modification - Dna, Plant, Vector, and Donor
	  	   - JRank Articles
	  	Genetically Modified Foods - The Technique Of Genetic Modification - Dna, Plant, Vector, and Donor - JRank Articles

Instead of modifying plant genes in the nucleus, a method called transplastomics alters genes in the chloroplast, which is a ... Genetically Modified Foods - Gm Beyond The Laboratory [next] [back] Genetically Modified Foods - Regulatory Concerns ... Genetically Modified Foods - Genetic Modification In Animals And Plants, Regulatory Concerns, The Technique Of Genetic ... The vector then introduces the donor DNA into the recipient plant cell, and a new plant is grown. ...
more infohttp://medicine.jrank.org/pages/2322/Genetically-Modified-Foods-Technique-Genetic-Modification.html

Catalyst: Shock Salt: Designing salt tolerant crops - ABC TV ScienceCatalyst: Shock Salt: Designing salt tolerant crops - ABC TV Science

Researchers in Adelaide are using new breeding techniques to develop plant varieties that can better cope with drought and ... Test plants in the lab can be genetically modified by adding those genes that make the plant less susceptible to salinity.. ... But then, my feeling is, if WE did not modify crops genetically, NATURE may do it anyway, albeit slowly !! So, why not try it? ... Now these genetically modified plants are put to the test. Will they survive in salty water?. Prof Mark Tester So heres what ...
more infohttp://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/2974774.htm

Unregulated Release of GM Poplars and HybridsUnregulated Release of GM Poplars and Hybrids

In H.C.M. den Nijs, D. Bartsch, and J. Sweet (Eds.), Introgression from Genetically Modified Plants into Wild Relatives. CABI ... Gene that modify tree chemistry The sequence for 4CL1 from Populus tremuloides was inserted to alter lignin levels. This is an ... Location B will contain trials planted in two blocks to measure competition and yield of transgenic trees modified in GA ... from the plants Nicotiana, Solanum, Arabidopsis, and the plant pathogens cauliflower mosaic virus, tobacco mosaic virus, ...
more infohttp://www.i-sis.org.uk/GMpoplarsandhybrids.php

Green heads to explode: elimination of GMO crops would cause hike in greenhouse gas emissions | Watts Up With That?Green heads to explode: 'elimination of GMO crops would cause hike in greenhouse gas emissions' | Watts Up With That?

... if countries that already plant GMOs expanded their use of genetically modified crops to match the rate of GMO planting in the ... GMO? How did we come to have so many breeds of cattle? Doesnt natural selection genetically modify plants and animals? ... Jay: So its okay to genetically modify bacteria, hold the rights to the production thereof and sell it for a huge sum?. "They ... Maybe if we could genetically modify "Green Heads" to be able to think a bit more rationally, and a whole lot less emotionally ...
more infohttps://wattsupwiththat.com/2016/11/07/green-heads-to-explode-elimination-of-gmo-crops-would-cause-hike-in-greenhouse-gas-emissions/

Bacillus thuringiensis - WikipediaBacillus thuringiensis - Wikipedia

Key, S; Ma, JK; Drake, PM (Jun 2008). "Genetically modified plants and human health". J R Soc Med. 101 (6): 290-8. doi:10.1258/ ... or the desire occurs to force mutations to modify organism characteristics or to use homologous recombinant genetic engineering ... For current crops and their acreage under cultivation, see genetically modified crops. In 1996, genetically modified maize ... Concerns over the safety of consumption of genetically-modified plant materials that contain Cry proteins have been addressed ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacillus_thuringiensis

A Clear Case for Golden Rice by Peter Singer - Project SyndicateA Clear Case for Golden Rice by Peter Singer - Project Syndicate

... blanket opposition to genetically modified organisms is like taking a loyalty oath - dissidents are regarded as traitors in ... Only then can WE consider the merits of each genetically modified plant on a case-by-case basis. Under the current system, ... Firstly, we have been genetically modifying plants and animals since the dawn of farming. Secondly, GM foods lead to greater ... In some environmental circles, blanket opposition to genetically modified organisms is like taking a loyalty oath - dissidents ...
more infohttps://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/peter-singer-advocates-a-case-by-case-approach-to-genetically-modified-organisms?barrier=accesspaylog

Impossible Foods just won millions for its plant-based burgerImpossible Foods just won millions for its plant-based burger

By genetically modifying yeast and using fermentation, the business has unlocked a way to produce a heme protein that is ... Soy - Genetically Modified. BAD for all. Posted by DM, 11 August 2017 - 14:13 GMT. ... Making meat from plants - the Impossible Foods mission​. More investment in the business will help to accelerate its expansion ... "It turns out that finding a sustainable way to make massive amounts of heme from plants is a critical step in solving the ...
more infohttps://www.globalmeatnews.com/Article/2017/08/02/Impossible-Foods-just-won-millions-for-its-plant-based-burger

Aliens Among Us - Bay WeeklyAliens Among Us - Bay Weekly

But as of now, the main value of nearly all genetically modified plants is making farming easier by helping to fight insects or ... "The purpose of the science of plant breeding has always been to modify plants.". In Prince Frederick, farmer Walt Wells credits ... Corn, Marylands second biggest planting, now also grows from genetically modified seed. So does canola and alfalfa.. Since the ... "Crops have been genetically modified forever," says farmer Jeff Griffiths, whose 250 acres of soybeans are the GMOs. ...
more infohttps://bayweekly.com/aliens-among-us/

News this Week | ScienceNews this Week | Science

Within a few years company researchers had produced the worlds first genetically modified plant-a petunia. It was just the ... recently spent nearly $1 billion to buy out Eli Lillys 40% share of a joint venture to modify crops and formed a wide-ranging ... Engineering plants to be better food crops is not the only avenue open: Plants and microorganisms can also be modified to ... This year, of the nearly 70 million acres (28 million hectares) planted with genetically modified crops worldwide, Monsanto ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/282/5389/news-summaries

Context of August 20, 2004: FDA Approves Vioxx for ChildrenContext of 'August 20, 2004: FDA Approves Vioxx for Children'

Seabrights ruling is the first court decision regarding plants that have been genetically modified to produce pharmaceutical ... The bills official summary reads in part: "This act modifies the child labor laws. It eliminates the prohibition on employment ... In the policy statement that is published three days later, the FDA will say it has determined that genetically modified (GM) ... May 26, 1992: FDA Rules that Genetically Modified Food Is Substantially Equivalent to Conventionally Grown Food. ...
more infohttp://historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=VioxxApproved4Children&scale=5

Green Myth vs. the Green Revolution - Butterflies and WheelsGreen Myth vs. the Green Revolution - Butterflies and Wheels

Prakash, Channapatna S. "The Genetically Modified Crop Debate in the Context of Agricultural Evolution." Plant Physiology, 126: ... was not easily convinced to even slightly modify the technology package that had so dramatically transformed the local food ... Plant Nutrition and Crop Improvement in Adverse Soil Conditions. In M. Chrispeels and D. Sadava (eds.) Plants, Genes, and Crop ... Yet it is also the only form of plant breeding that is regulated, largely because it is the only form of plant breeding for ...
more infohttp://www.butterfliesandwheels.org/2004/green-myth-vs-the-green-revolution/
  • A plant population results from crossing a number of lines and is genetically and phenotypically diverse, although for key traits, a population can be phenotypically uniform (for example, every plant resistant to a pest). (nap.edu)
  • Back in 2012, Doudna developed a CRISPR system to modify the genomes of bacteria. (gizmodo.com)
  • A year later, a Board Institute team led by Feng Zhang adapted CRISPR to engineer plant, animal, and human cells. (gizmodo.com)
  • The two teams worked independently, but the patent office had to decide which institution was the first to develop the technique in which CRISPR-Cas9 was used to tweak mammalian and plant DNA. (gizmodo.com)
  • The Court of Appeals today concluded that the use of CRISPR-Cas9 in plant and animal cells is separately patentable from Drs. Doudna and Charpentier's invention of use of CRISPR-Cas9 in any environment. (gizmodo.com)
  • Start-up Impossible Foods has secured a "significant" $75m cash injection from investors, including Bill Gates and a Facebook founder, who now back a revolutionary plant-based burger that bleeds. (globalmeatnews.com)
  • Vice President Dan Quayle, chairman of the President's Council on Competitiveness, and Louis Sullivan, secretary of health and human services, announce the FDA's new policy on the regulation of genetically engineered foods. (historycommons.org)
  • In the policy statement that is published three days later, the FDA will say it has determined that genetically modified (GM) foods are "substantially equivalent" to conventionally grown foods and therefore will not be subject to any special regulations. (historycommons.org)
  • Specifically addressing the issue of labeling for GM foods, the May 29 statement will read: "The agency is not aware of any information showing that foods derived by these new methods differ from other foods in any meaningful or uniform way, or that, as a class, foods developed by the new techniques present any different or greater safety concern than foods developed by traditional plant breeding. (historycommons.org)
  • President Obama promised to label genetically modified foods during his campaign in 2007 but once elected into office, he abandoned this stance. (foodbabe.com)
  • And it's also lower in calories than other plant oils, so it might be useful for making low-cal foods. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Perfect Day is another company focused on animal-free dairy products making use of modified microflora that expects to commercialize its products in a short time. (crlifesc.com)
  • The term "hybrid" refers to a plant variety developed through a specific, carefully controlled cross-pollination of two different parent plants to produce new traits that can't be created by inbreeding two of the same plants. (seedsavers.org)
  • Modifying the physical properties of Mars is impossible with the current technology, but some of these properties are very similar to those of Earth. (igem.org)
  • GMO wheat is not approved for commercial use, and it was found miles from where the company tested genetically engineered wheat almost a decade ago. (seattletimes.com)
  • Many plant oils are too thick to use in diesel engines, so they have to undergo a process to convert them to biodiesel. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • It turns out that finding a sustainable way to make massive amounts of heme from plants is a critical step in solving the world's greatest environmental threat. (globalmeatnews.com)
  • The final test was to expose the new generation of plants to a potyvirus, Turnip mosaic virus was selected, in order to see if they had kept and now properly expressed their resistance. (bioscriptionblog.com)
  • Wood is burned at some power plants to create steam to turn turbines for generating electricity. (farmprogress.com)
  • Harvesting and eventually transforming plants means that we have to act to maintain their continuity by some form of compensation. (butterfliesandwheels.org)
  • Then they bred the plants and created several new lines, the purpose of which was to keep the activating mutation for the resistance while having the transgene used be bred out. (bioscriptionblog.com)