Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Devices for continuously measuring and displaying the arterial blood pressure.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
A condition of markedly elevated BLOOD PRESSURE with DIASTOLIC PRESSURE usually greater than 120 mm Hg. Malignant hypertension is characterized by widespread vascular damage, PAPILLEDEMA, retinopathy, HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY, and renal dysfunction.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Bleeding within the SKULL that is caused by systemic HYPERTENSION, usually in association with INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOSCLEROSIS. Hypertensive hemorrhages are most frequent in the BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; PONS; and THALAMUS; but may also involve the CEREBRAL CORTEX, subcortical white matter, and other brain structures.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
Hardening of the KIDNEY due to infiltration by fibrous connective tissue (FIBROSIS), usually caused by renovascular diseases or chronic HYPERTENSION. Nephrosclerosis leads to renal ISCHEMIA.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The consumption of liquids.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
The position or attitude of the body.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Brain dysfunction or damage resulting from sustained MALIGNANT HYPERTENSION. When BLOOD PRESSURE exceeds the limits of cerebral autoregulation, cerebral blood flow is impaired (BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING; SEIZURES; altered mental status (in some cases progressing to COMA); PAPILLEDEMA; and RETINAL HEMORRHAGE.
Glucose in blood.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An alpha-2 adrenergic agonist that has both central and peripheral nervous system effects. Its primary clinical use is as an antihypertensive agent.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A 105-kDa serum glycoprotein with significant homology to the other late complement components, C7-C9. It is a polypeptide chain cross-linked by 32 disulfide bonds. C6 is the next complement component to bind to the membrane-bound COMPLEMENT C5B in the assembly of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. It is encoded by gene C6.
A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
BUT NOT BLOOD PRESSURE, IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE. RATS. Introduction. The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) has been ... The inbred Dahl rat. strains are another genetic model of hypertension (Rapp and Dene, 1985).. The original strain produced by ... the genetically hypertensive SHR compared to its normotensive control,. the WKY. = p. 52. 100. 90. 80. 70. 60. 50. 40. 30. 20. ... Blood Pressure Measurements. Systolic blood pressure was measured in the Sub P rats on day 12 using a. tail plethysmograph.. ...
... is an inbred strain of genetically hypertensive rats that achieves plateau elevations in blood pressure at 16-20 wk of age. ... WKY) rats from 16 wk of age (n = 31 for each group) to 40 wk of age (n = 15 for SHR,n = 13 for SHRcap,n = 14 for WKY rat). ... 1995) Resetting blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 25:162-165. ... 1989) Development of blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats after withdrawal of long-term treatment related to ...
... regulating blood pressure (BP) and contributing to hypertension in several genetically hypertensive rat strains.1-12 Initial ... rats, inbred SHR. *genes. Rat chromosome 1 was one of the first chromosomes shown by cosegregation analysis to harbor a ... with the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) and isolation of the region containing the QTL in reciprocal congenic strains (WKY.SHR-Sa) and ... Localisation of a blood pressure QTL on rat chromosome 1 using Dahl rat congenic strains. Physiol Genomics. 1999; 1: 119-125. ...
Substrain comparison of genetically hypertensive rats using DNA fingerprinting, and genetic analysis of blood pressure in the ... Hedonic value of avoidance did not differ between SD and WKY rats, but WKY rats had greater motivation to avoid than SD rat … ... No difference in LVEDD was found between SHR and WKY rats; however, LVEDD was increased at 80 wk in both strains. SF decreased ... WKY-CR and WKY-H rats revealed significantly more ulcers as compared to WKY-T and Wistar rats. The WKY inbreeding programs at ...
... of quantitative trait loci for blood pressure and cardiac mass in the rat by genome scanning of recombinant inbred strains. J ... 23 Genomic DNA from 11 SS/Jr rats, 7 SR/Jr rats, 2 GH rats, 1 BN rat, 1 WKY rat, 1 SHR, 1 DRY rat, and 1 Lewis rat was assayed ... inhibition with L-NAME affects blood pressure and cardiovascular structure in the genetically hypertensive (GH) rat strain. ... The New Zealand genetically hypertensive (GH) rat is known to have a blood pressure quantitative trait locus on chromosome 2 ...
Our team has shown that the inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) differ with respect to ... 1991) Chromosomal Mapping of Two Genetic Loci Associated with Blood-Pressure Regulation in Hereditary Hypertensive Rats. Nature ... parental strains (usually inbred) that differ genetically for the trait of interest are required [3] . Then, the simplest ways ... 27] found a QTL on rat Chr. 4 affecting anxiety-related behaviors in an F2 derived from High-Ethanol Preferring (HEP) and WKY ...
... proving that this genetic change is responsible for the sitosterolemia in these rat strains. Tail-cuff monitoring of blood ... Three in-bred strains of rats, WKY, SHR and SHRSP, are known to be sitosterolemic, hypertensive and they carry a missense ... but may not be a major determinant of blood pressure in these rats. ... Since these rat strains are also know to carry mutations at other genetic loci and the extent of phytosterolemia is only ...
Dissection of chromosome 18 blood pressure and salt-sensitivity quantitative trait loci in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. ... a comparison among heterogeneous rats and the Roman rat strains. Behav Brain Res.;202(1):92-101.. ... Rintisch C, Holmdahl R (2008) DA rats from two colonies differ genetically and in their arthritis susceptibility.Mamm Genome. ... of central and peripheral components of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the inbred Roman rat strains. ...
This manuscript describes in vitro video microscopy protocols for evaluating vascular function in rat cerebral resistance... ... rats and in novel consomic rat strains that exhibit a reduced salt sensitivity of blood pressure compared to the SS parental ... Multiple blood pressure loci on rat chromosome 13 attenuate development of hypertension in the Dahl S hypertensive rat. Physiol ... This basic information, employing a standard rat model and examples from our studies of new genetically engineered rat strains ...
This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of ... This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and ... Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives ... Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. ...
... freely moving SHR and WKY rats and DOCA-salt hypertensive and normotensive Wistar rats. The effect of ET-3 on blood pressure ... inhibitor treatment in young genetically hypertensive rats prevents the full expression of blood pressure and vascular ... In the present study, we compared the blood pressure in the SHR-SP and in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) after ... the statistical technique of spline fitting to examine patterns of growth and rising blood pressure in individual inbred rats ...
... and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with methoxamine- and nitroprusside-induced steady-state changes in blood pressure. 2 ... Abnormal baroreflex control of heart rate in prehypertensive and hypertensive Dahl genetically salt-sensitive rats. ... Baroreceptor function and changes in strain sensitivity in normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. ... Hypertension is critically dependent on the carotid body input in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. ...
This effect was lacking in hearts from CD36-null mice and hearts from spontaneous hypertensive rats genetically deficient in ... WKY/NCrlBR). The increase in coronary perfusion pressure observed at high concentrations of hexarelin in hearts from WKY/NCrlBR ... CD36-null mice by homologous recombination and rats from the SHR/NCrlBR strain. These rats have been shown to have a defective ... pressure induced by increasing concentrations of hexarelin in hearts isolated from inbreed SHR/NCrlBR and from inbreed controls ...
A Set of Highly Informative Rat SSLP Markers and Genetically Defined Rat Strains in the NBRP-Rat. 第19回国際マウスゲノム会議(IMGC)( ... Sympathetic regulation of the renal functions in rats reciprocally congenic for chromosome 1 blood pressure quantitative trait ... evaluation in reciprocal congenic strains between stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat and Wistar-Kyoto rat.. J ... The LEXF/FXLE rat recombinant inbred strain set: a newly enhanced tool for genetic dissection of complex traits. 第2回アジア実験動物学会
Wistar (WIS) rats were used as controls. Similar to children with ADHD, young adolescent SHRs displayed locomotor hyperactivity ... The results support the notion that the SHR strain is a useful animal model system to investigate potential molecular ... They also had lower performance scores in a complex skilled reaching task when compared to WIS rats, especially in the most ... their gross motor performance on a Rota-Rod test was similar to that of WIS rats. ...
... rats. The use of these inbred rat strains led us to the mapping of two quantitative trait loci (QTL), named Ofil1 (on ... The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), considered as a good animal model of ADHD, also show less anxiety-like behaviors ... For this latter purpose, rats deriving from an F2 intercross between the LEW and SHR strains were selected according to their ... Ofil2 affected prepulse inhibition in female rats only. The results suggest that the LEW and SHR strains are appropriate for ...
Effects of melatonin on heart rate and blood pressure in rat I. Effects on blood pressure ... The above findings suggest that the hemolymph nodes of WKY rats may take part in blood formation, blood filtration and immune ... IB and Bu2 strains had identical amino acid sequence comparing with STC strain. By phylogenetic analysis, JOONG and DAE strains ... In this work, we found not only hypotensive effect but also hypertensive effect of melatonin in rats and attempted to determine ...
Allelic expression changes in Medaka (Oryzias latipes) hybrids between inbred strains derived from genetically distant ... The average preinduction blood pressure was higher than the preoperative blood pressure. ... of SHR rats was decreased substantially compared with that of WKY rats. Unraveling the isoform-specific regulation of glucose ... Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of CRH (1, 3, and 10 micrograms/rat) dose dependently increased the number of stools ...
The impact of prolonged hyperglycaemia on gene expression changes was more profound in STZ-WKY rats than in GK rats and ... genetically determined) mild hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance (Goto-Kakizaki-GK) and experimentally induced severe ... Wistar-Kyoto-WKY rats injected with streptozotocin [STZ]). Different patterns of transcription regulation in the two rat models ... We aimed to generate novel renal genome-wide gene transcription data in rat models of diabetes in order to test the ...
Rats, Rats, Inbred SHR, Rats, Inbred Strains, Rats, Inbred WKY, Sodium Chloride ... in order to test the hypothesis that diets high in chloride but moderate in sodium elevate blood pressure in genetically ... rats on the high (5%) NaCl diet exhibited a significant elevation in blood pressure compared to rats on the moderate (1%) NaCl ... In salt-sensitive spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-S) of the Okamoto strain, dietary salt loading causes an exacerbation of ...
  • Treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with captopril (100 mg ⋅ kg −1 ⋅ day −1 ) throughout development and during the first 16 wk of life leads to a reduction in blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy. (physiology.org)
  • the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an inbred strain of genetically hypertensive rats that achieves plateau elevations in blood pressure at 16-20 wk of age. (physiology.org)
  • Previously, we observed a single linkage peak for BP in this region in second filial generation rats derived from a cross of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) with the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY), and we have reported the isolation of the region containing the BP effect in reciprocal congenic strains (WKY.SHR-Sa) and (SHR.WKY-Sa) derived from these animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • We have previously reported mapping of a rat chromosome 1 BP QTL in F 2 rats derived from a cross of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) with the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) and isolation of the region containing the QTL in reciprocal congenic strains (WKY.SHR-Sa) and (SHR.WKY-Sa) derived from these animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ideal animal models for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtypes and the effect of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function on the behavior of ADHD rats by comparing behavioral differences between spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats , and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats . (nih.gov)
  • Our team has shown that the inbred rat strains Lewis (LEW) and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) differ with respect to several emotionalityrelated behaviors, one of which (inner locomotion in the open 﫿eld) was strongly in﫿uenced by a QTL (Anxrr16) on rat chromosome 4. (scirp.org)
  • Our results definitively eliminate the putative A1079T transversion in Atp1a1 as a causative factor underlying hypertension in the GH, spontaneously hypertensive, and SS/Jr rat strains and indicate that alternative candidate genes in the region defined by the chromosome 2 hypertension quantitative trait locus should be examined. (ahajournals.org)
  • A neuroradiological and neuropathological study of aged stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). (rns4u.com)
  • 1. The aim of this study was to assess the vagal and sympathetic nerve contribution to the relationship between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) at 6, 9, 14 and 20 weeks of age in conscious Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with methoxamine- and nitroprusside-induced steady-state changes in blood pressure. (meta.org)
  • Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) soleus developed less contractile force and fatigued more rapidly than normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Impaired thermoregulatory cutaneous vasodilation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are more suitable to heat stroke than are normotensive controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Diurnal blood pressure variation and dietary salt in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We have previously reported that high dietary salt exposure significantly increases daytime mean arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) controls. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Long-term treatment of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors has a persistent effect on blood pressure when treatment is withdrawn. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of the study was to investigate to what extent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) formation, cyclooxygenase and converting enzyme activities and vasopressin V1 receptors blockade affects the cardiovascular system in conscious, freely moving normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We subjected young adolescent Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHRs), the most commonly used genetic animal model of ADHD, to a battery of tests for motor activity, gross motor coordination, and skilled reaching. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), considered as a good animal model of ADHD, also show less anxiety-like behaviors than Lewis (LEW) rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In preclinical research, one of the most extensively evaluated animal models of ADHD is the Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat (SHR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although extensively studied, precise definition of the pathogenesis of the hypertension in this strain has proven elusive. (physiology.org)
  • Rat chromosome 1 was one of the first chromosomes shown by cosegregation analysis to harbor a quantitative trait locus (QTL) regulating blood pressure (BP) and contributing to hypertension in several genetically hypertensive rat strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • A putative 1079A→T mutation in the α1 isoform of the Na + , K + -ATPase ( Atp1a1 ) gene of the Dahl salt-sensitive rat inbred by John Rapp (SS/Jr) strain was projected to cause a conformation change in the membrane hydrophobic region of the protein product, possibly resulting in hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Physiological studies have shown that imbalances in hormonal, cytokine, and salt-handling systems can cause increases in blood pressure, whereas genetic studies have identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Research into the etiology of essential hypertension has been facilitated by the development of the genetically hypertensive inbred rat strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • The reported discovery of an 1079A→T point mutation in the Atp1a1 allele of the SS/Jr strain 7 presented the possibility of bringing together genetic and physiological findings to explain a component of hypertension in SS/Jr and to fulfill most of the criteria for establishing a gene/causality effect. (ahajournals.org)
  • Since these rat strains are also know to carry mutations at other genetic loci and the extent of phytosterolemia is only moderate, it is important to verify that the mutations in Abcg5 are causative for phytosterolemia and whether they contribute to hypertension. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tail-cuff monitoring of blood pressure in conscious animals showed no significant differences between wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous mutant F2 rats, suggesting that this alteration may not be a significant determinant of hypertension in these rats on a chow diet. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study shows that the previously identified Gly583Cys change in Abcg5 in three hypertension-susceptible rats is responsible for the sitosterolemia, but may not be a major determinant of blood pressure in these rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Many organizations including the leading United States authority on blood pressure - the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC) - define hypertension as a systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 or a diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of ≥ 90 mm Hg. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sustained hypertension can lead to hypertensive retinopathy of the eye, which untreated can lead to blindness [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rat arterial muscle cells show an elevated Ca(2+)-dependent K+ efflux during the established phase of hypertension. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Genetic relationship between placental and fetal weights and markers of the metabolic syndrome in reat recombinant inbred strains. (rns4u.com)
  • Three types of hypertensive rats, and their normotensive controls, were assessed to determine the effects of high blood pressure on the contractile and fatigue properties of the soleus muscle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Tremor dominant Kyoto (Trdk) rats carry a missense mutation in the gene encoding the SK2 subunit of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • The SHR strain displays the major symptoms of ADHD, including inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity when compared to its progenitor strain, the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three in-bred strains of rats, WKY, SHR and SHRSP, are known to be sitosterolemic, hypertensive and they carry a missense 'mutation' in a conserved residue of Abcg5, Gly583Cys. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Echocardiographic assessment of myocardial infarction: comparison of a rat model in two strains. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • A region with a major effect on blood pressure (BP) is located on rat chromosome 1 in the vicinity of the Sa gene, a candidate gene for BP regulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The findings strongly indicate that there are at least 2 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting BP in this region of rat chromosome 1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, the BP effect seen in SISA1 indicates that at least a proportion of the BP effect of this region of rat chromosome 1 cannot be due to the Sa gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • Therefore, to facilitate identification of the chromosome 1 BP QTL, several groups have successfully isolated the region around the Sa gene containing the QTL in congenic strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • 17 Indeed, recent reports of secondary strains derived from some of the initial chromosome 1 congenic strains suggest that at least 1 BP QTL on chromosome 1 lies outside the region containing the Sa gene. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1 BP QTL located in this region of rat chromosome 1. (ahajournals.org)
  • Other QTLs affecting neurobiological traits were also found on rat chromosome 4 and several candidate genes have been pointed out as possibly influencing those phenotypes. (scirp.org)
  • Altogether, these studies suggest that rat chromosome 4 constitutes an interesting target for the study of the molecular bases of anxiety and other traits related to emotional reactivity. (scirp.org)
  • The New Zealand genetically hypertensive (GH) rat is known to have a blood pressure quantitative trait locus on chromosome 2 containing the gene for the ATPase. (ahajournals.org)
  • This review will focus not only on the impact of the gonadal hormone milieu but also on the other effects that differences in the sex chromosome complement can exert on blood pressure control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, elucidating the mechanisms responsible for gonadal and sex chromosome effects on blood pressure could lead to the development of novel and improved antihypertensive therapeutics for treating this debilitating disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The use of these inbred rat strains led us to the mapping of two quantitative trait loci (QTL), named Ofil1 (on chromosome 4) and Ofil2 (on chromosome 7), related to locomotion in the central and aversive area of an open field. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results suggest that the LEW and SHR strains are appropriate for studying mechanisms of sensorimotor gating and indicate that the locus Ofil2 on rat chromosome 7 contain genes controlling prepulse inhibition, a neuro-behavioral trait of ADHD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Surprisingly, all 4 substrains demonstrated a highly significant BP difference compared with that of their respective parental strain, which was of a magnitude similar to those seen in the original congenic strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • Intriguingly, several studies have shown that early treatment of the SHR with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors results in a sustained fall in blood pressure and a reduction in end organ sequelae (e.g., cardiac hypertrophy) that persists even after ACE inhibition is discontinued ( 9 , 25 ). (physiology.org)
  • Cardiac hypertrophy is a predictable sequelae of sustained elevations in blood pressure such as those seen in the SHR. (physiology.org)
  • 4. After methylatropine, no differences in the cardiac sympathetic baroreflex range or gain parameters were observed between strains or ages. (meta.org)
  • Scores reflecting anxiety in the elevated plus maze were lowest for Fischer-344 rats and highest for WKY rats , but the anxiety scores of WKY rats did not differ significantly from Wistar rats . (nih.gov)
  • Wistar (WIS) rats were used as controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Importantly, the Wistar (WIS) strain was used as control since this strain is more active than the WKY strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For this latter purpose, rats deriving from an F2 intercross between the LEW and SHR strains were selected according to their genotype at markers flanking the QTLs and bred to obtain lines of rats homozygous LEW/LEW or SHR/SHR for each of the two loci, thus generating 4 genotypic combinations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Hedonic value of avoidance did not differ between SD and WKY rats , but WKY rats had greater motivation to avoid than SD rats . (nih.gov)
  • Herein, we examined whether LEW and SHR rats differ in the acoustic startle reflex, a test used to study the neurobiology of anxiety, and in the prepulse inhibition of the startle response, which is known to be impaired in ADHD patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mean arterial pressures of conscious captopril-treated rats, rats removed from captopril therapy, and the offspring of rats removed from therapy were significantly lower than those of control SHR at 4 and 9 mo of age. (physiology.org)
  • Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A greater understanding of sex differences in the physiology and pathophysiology of blood pressure control could yield treatments that are better tailored to the individual because one's sex is taken into account. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this context, it could be hypothesized that these strain differences are related to their ability to refrain motor activity or impulsive behavior. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 17 If the QTL is present within the introgressed region, provided there are no genetic background effects, the BP of the congenic strain should be different (higher in the above example) from that of the recipient strain. (ahajournals.org)
  • Segregation analysis showed that the inheritance of the Gly583Cys mutation Abcg5 segregated with elevated plant sterols and this pattern was recessive, proving that this genetic change is responsible for the sitosterolemia in these rat strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These rats are likely to carry a number of mutated genes as part of their genetic burden. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic background influences susceptibility to Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis at the level of uptake/transport in a novel rat model. (rns4u.com)
  • Different patterns of transcription regulation in the two rat models of diabetes likely underlie the roles of genetic variants and hyperglycaemia severity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of candidate genes for generalized tonic-clonic seizures in Noda epileptic rat. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • We aimed to generate novel renal genome-wide gene transcription data in rat models of diabetes in order to test the responsiveness to hyperglycaemia and renal structural changes of positional candidate genes at selected diabetic nephropathy (DN) susceptibility loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Further expression analysis of rat orthologs of human DN positional candidate genes provided functional annotations of known and novel genes that are responsive to hyperglycaemia and may contribute to renal functional and/or structural alterations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prorenin contributes to angiotensin peptide formation in transgenic rats with rat prorenin expression targeted to the liver. (rns4u.com)
  • Transgenic rat models for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • The impact of prolonged hyperglycaemia on gene expression changes was more profound in STZ-WKY rats than in GK rats and involved largely different sets of genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Additionally, we measured tail-cuff blood pressure and measured intestinal lipid transport to identify possible mechanisms whereby this mutation causes sitosterolemia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification of gene regions regulating inflammatory microglial response in the rat CNS after nerve injury. (rns4u.com)
  • Intravenous Infusion of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduces Erectile Dysfunction Following Cavernous Nerve Injury in Rats. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • The SHR strain, besides being used in the study of ADHD, also provides an interesting tool to study anxiety-related traits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, the behavioral contrast between LEW and SHR rats appears to be limited to anxiety tests based on approach/avoidance tendencies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Does fascia lata repair facilitate closure and does it affect compartment pressures of the anterolateral thigh flap donor site? (termsreign.cf)
  • In rodents, the first QTL was mapped in 1991, when investigators found evidence suggesting the presence of a blood pressure regulatory locus on rat Chr. (scirp.org)
  • [8] described for the first time a behavioral QTL in rats, identifying a locus on Chr. (scirp.org)
  • In particular, the use of the WKY strain as control since it shows several behavioral abnormalities (e.g., hypoactivity and depression-like phenotype). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results support the notion that the SHR strain is a useful animal model system to investigate potential molecular mechanisms underlying fine motor skill problems in children with ADHD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the SHR strain has not been previously examined as a model for deficits in fine motor skills in ADHD, leaving this aspect of the model understudied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we took advantage of a well-validated rat skilled reaching task that has been widely used to model neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease [ 15 ], to investigate whether the SHR strain is valid for investigating not only locomotor hyperactivity, but also more complex motor coordination problems displayed by the majority of children and adolescent with ADHD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since then, several other studies not only corroborated the initial description of Anxrr16, but also extrapolated its effects to a broader context (rats from both sexes and regardless of the estrous cycle phase) and suggested that this same region influences other emotionality-related behaviors as well as alcohol intake. (scirp.org)
  • Effect of glucocorticoid receptor function on the behavior of rats with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder]. (nih.gov)
  • 5. It was concluded that older SHR have normal sympathetic but reduced vagal capacity to control HR in response to changes in MAP, but that this deficit was not dependent on the absolute level of blood pressure. (meta.org)
  • Comparisons of Neuronal and Excitatory Network Properties between the Rat Brainstem Nuclei That Participate in Vertical and Horizontal Gaze Holding. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • Reflex regulation of arterial pressure during sleep in man. (meta.org)
  • This association of enhanced K+ efflux with high arterial pressure implies that changes of in vivo blood pressure can alter the level of K+ channel current in arterial membranes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Enhanced Expression of Trib3 during the Development of Myelin Breakdown in dmy Myelin Mutant Rats. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • Rat models of cardiovascular diseases. (rns4u.com)
  • Application of genome editing technologies in rats for human disease models. (kyoto-u.ac.jp)
  • 9 ) reported that treatment of young SHR for 4-8 wk (i.e., either 2-6, 6-10, or 2-10 wk of age) with perindopril resulted in a dramatic fall in blood pressure that rose with discontinuation of therapy but plateaued at a level well below that of the untreated, age-matched controls. (physiology.org)
  • Perindopril given for shorter periods of time (e.g., between 6 and 7 wk of age) or at a later time in life (i.e., between 20 and 24 wk) had no significant long-term effect on blood pressure. (physiology.org)
  • Dose-dependent effects of perindopril on blood pressure and small-artery structure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • High blood pressure can lead to substantial morbidity by damaging the function of critical organs including the brain, heart, blood vessels and kidney [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 16 In the present study, we report our analysis of 4 substrains derived from these initial congenic strains. (ahajournals.org)
  • To investigate whether the missense change in Abcg5 is responsible for the sitosterolemia we performed a segregation analysis in 103 F2 rats from a SHR × SD cross. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The performance of WKY rats on three tests of emotional behavior. (nih.gov)