DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.
A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS associated with respiratory and enteric infections in primate hosts.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/23054)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (2/23054)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

Telomerase activity is sufficient to allow transformed cells to escape from crisis. (3/23054)

The introduction of simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) into human primary cells enables them to proliferate beyond their normal replicative life span. In most cases, this temporary escape from senescence eventually ends in a second proliferative block known as "crisis," during which the cells cease growing or die. Rare immortalization events in which cells escape crisis are frequently correlated with the presence of telomerase activity. We tested the hypothesis that telomerase activation is the critical step in the immortalization process by studying the effects of telomerase activity in two mortal SVLT-Rasval12-transformed human pancreatic cell lines, TRM-6 and betalox5. The telomerase catalytic subunit, hTRT, was introduced into late-passage cells via retroviral gene transfer. Telomerase activity was successfully induced in infected cells, as demonstrated by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay. In each of nine independent infections, telomerase-positive cells formed rapidly dividing cell lines while control cells entered crisis. Telomere lengths initially increased, but telomeres were then maintained at their new lengths for at least 20 population doublings. These results demonstrate that telomerase activity is sufficient to enable transformed cells to escape crisis and that telomere elongation in these cells occurs in a tightly regulated manner.  (+info)

Stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA polyplexes for in vivo gene delivery to the liver. (4/23054)

We are developing a self-assembling non-viral in vivo gene delivery vehicle based on poly-l-lysine and plasmid DNA. We have characterized poly-l-lysines of different chain lengths for DNA condensation and strength of DNA binding. Poly-l-lysine chains >20 residues bound DNA efficiently in physiological saline, while shorter chains did not. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid to PLL increased the PLL chain length required for efficient DNA binding in saline and for efficient DNA condensation. By electron microscopy, poly-l-lysine/DNA polyplexes appeared as toroids 25-50 nm in diameter or rods 40-80 nm long; conjugation of asialoorosomucoid to the polylysine component increased the size of resulting polyplexes to 50-90 nm. In water, poly-l-lysine and asialoorosomucoid-PLL polyplexes have effective diameters of 46 and 87.6 nm, respectively. Polyplexes containing only poly-l-lysine and DNA aggregated in physiological saline at all charge ratios and aggregated at neutral charge ratios in water. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid lessened, but did not eliminate, the aggregation of PLL polyplexes, and did not result in efficient delivery of polyplexes to hepatocytes. Conjugation of polyethylene glycol to poly-l-lysine sterically stabilized resulting polyplexes at neutral charge ratios by shielding the surfaces. For efficient in vivo gene delivery, polyplexes will need to be sterically stabilized to prevent aggregation and interaction with serum components.  (+info)

Deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons. (5/23054)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. However, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. Mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (IE) gene, ICP4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining IE genes are expressed. In order to test directly the toxicity of other IE gene products in neurons and develop a mutant background capable of longterm transgene expression, we generated mutants deleted for multiple IE genes in various combinations and tested their relative cytotoxicity in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells, Vero monkey kidney cells, and primary rat cortical and dorsal root neurons in culture. Viral mutants deleted simultaneously for the IE genes encoding ICP4, ICP22 and ICP27 showed substantially reduced cytotoxicity compared with viruses deleted for ICP4 alone or ICP4 in combination with either ICP22, ICP27 or ICP47. Infection of neurons in culture with these triple IE deletion mutants substantially enhanced cell survival and permitted transgene expression for over 21 days. Such mutants may prove useful for efficient gene transfer and extended transgene expression in neurons in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Inducible long-term gene expression in brain with adeno-associated virus gene transfer. (6/23054)

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors hold promise for treating a number of neurological disorders due to the ability to deliver long-term gene expression without toxicity or immune response. Critical to these endeavors will be controlled expression of the therapeutic gene in target cells. We have constructed and tested a dual cassette rAAV vector carrying a reporter gene under the control of the tetracycline-responsive system and the tetracycline transactivator. Transduction in vitro resulted in stable expression from the vector that can be suppressed 20-fold by tetracycline treatment. In vivo experiments, carried out to 6 weeks, demonstrated that vector-transduced expression is sustained until doxycycline administration upon which reporter gene expression is reduced. Moreover, the suppression of vector-driven expression can be reversed by removal of the drug. These studies demonstrate long-term regulated gene expression from rAAV vectors. This system will provide a valuable approach for controlling vector gene expression both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (7/23054)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (8/23054)

Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells.  (+info)

Promoterless gene trap vectors have been widely used for high-efficiency gene targeting and random mutagenesis in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Unfortunately, such vectors are only effective for genes expressed in ES cells and this has prompted the development of expression-independent vectors. These polyadenylation (poly A) trap vectors employ a splice donor to capture an endogenous genes polyadenylation sequence and provide transcript stability. However, the spectrum of mutations generated by these vectors appears largely restricted to the last intron of target loci due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) making them unsuitable for gene targeting applications. Here, we present novel poly A trap vectors that overcome the effect of NMD and also employ RNA instability sequences to improve splicing efficiency. The set of random insertions generated with these vectors show a significantly reduced insertional bias and the vectors can be targeted directly to a 5′ intron. We also show that this ...
Title: Transductional Targeting with Recombinant Adenovirus Vectors. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Valerie Legrand, Philippe Leissner, Arend Winter, Majid Mehtali and Monika Lusky. Affiliation:CAREXS.A., 11 rue Humann, 67000 Strasbourg, France. Keywords:Adenovirus Vectors, TROPISM, Fiber Protein, Monoclonal antibody. Abstract: Replication-deficient adenoviruses are considered as gene delivery vectors for the genetic treatment of a variety of diseases. The ability of such vectors to mediate efficient expression of therapeutic genes in a broad spectrum of dividing and non-dividing cell types constitutes an advantage over alternative gene transfer vectors. However, this broad tissue tropism may also turn disadvantageous when genes encoding potentially harmful proteins (e.g. cytokines, toxic proteins) are expressed in surrounding normal tissues. Therefore, specific restrictions of the viral tropism would represent a significant technological advance towards safer and more efficient gene delivery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retrograde transfer of replication deficient recombinant adenovirus vector in the central nervous system for tracing studies. AU - Kuo, Hui. AU - Ingram, Donald K.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. AU - Mastrangeli, Andrea. PY - 1995/12/24. Y1 - 1995/12/24. N2 - We assessed the application of a replication deficient recombinant adenovirus vector as a retrograde tracer in neural pathway studies. The adenovirus vector, Ad.RSVBgal, containing the intracellular marker gene, β-galactosidase, was injected directly into the laterodorsal striatum of rats. The retrograde transport of the vector from the injection site was clearly visible in the cerebral cortex, thalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra. No evidence for anterograde transport of the vector was found. When the vector was injected into the genu of the corpus callosum, little uptake of the vector by fibers was noted which suggested that uptake by fibers-of-passage should not be a problem in tracing studies. The present study demonstrates ...
Viral vectors are superior tools for gene therapy and as a genetic vaccine platform because viruses have evolved to efficiently infect and transfer their genomes to cells. Several impressive successes in viral vector-based gene therapies have been reported in humans, including restoration of vision in patients with Lebers congenital amaurosis by retinal gene transfer and cures for severe immune deficiencies by gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells. However, the mammalian immune system has evolved in parallel to fend off invading pathogens such as viruses. Innate and antigen-specific adaptive immune responses against viral vectors and therapeutic transgene products pose serious hurdles for successful gene therapy. Pre-existing immunity in humans, resulting from prior exposure to the parent virus that forms the basis for the gene transfer vehicle may be derived from, often prevents efficient gene transfer. This problem also reduces our ability to use certain vectors for genetic vaccination or in anti
Oxford Biomedica used Antha to optimize their lentiviral vector transfection/transduction system and improve production efficiency and robustness. This resulted in ~40 hours of time saving, a 3-10-fold increase in vector titre upon transduction and an 81% reduction in pure error.
Vector construction. Construction of recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing human IL12 under control of doxycycline by calcium phosphate-mediated coprecipita
We have constructed a small and highly efficient binary Ti vector pSiM24 for plant transformation with maximum efficacy. In the pSiM24 vector, the size of the backbone of the early binary vector pKYLXM24 (GenBank Accession No. HM036220; a derivative of pKYLX71) was reduced from 12.8 kb to 7.1 kb. The binary vector pSiM24 is composed of the following genetic elements: left and right T-DNA borders, a modified full-length transcript promoter (M24) of Mirabilis mosaic virus with duplicated enhancer domains, three multiple cloning sites, a 3rbcsE9 terminator, replication functions for Escherichia coli (ColE1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pRK2-OriV) and the replicase trfA gene, selectable marker genes for kanamycin resistance (nptII) and ampicillin resistance (bla). The pSiM24 plasmid offers a wide selection of cloning sites, high copy numbers in E. coli and a high cloning capacity for easily manipulating different genetic elements. It has been fully tested in transferring transgenes such as green
A retroviral vector system based on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was developed that, in contrast to a murine leukemia virus-based counterpart, transduced heterologous sequences into HeLa cells and rat fibroblasts blocked in the cell cycle, as well as into human primary macrophages. Additionally, the HIV vector could mediate stable in vivo gene transfer into terminally differentiated neurons. The ability of HIV-based viral vectors to deliver genes in vivo into nondividing cells could increase the applicability of retroviral vectors in human gene therapy.. ...
The murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter exhibits activity in mouse hematopoietic cells and embryonic stem cells. respectively. The strength of the GFP fluorescence in the body was comparable to the proportion of GFP-positive leukocytes. Moreover, the rate of recurrence of the GFP-expressing leukocytes was significantly correlated with the frequency of GFP-expressing Purkinje cells. These results suggest that the MSCV promoter is useful for preferentially expressing a transgene in Purkinje cells. In addition, the proportion of transduced leukocytes in the peripheral circulation reflects the expression level of the transgene in Purkinje Rabbit Polyclonal to PPP2R3B cells, which can be used as a way to monitor transgene expression properties in the cerebellum without invasive techniques. Introduction The Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vector has been widely used to transfer genes into dividing eukaryotic cells [1]. MoMLV and MoMLV-derived retroviral vectors are not active ...
There is growing interest in the use of lentiviral vectors, particularly for cancer immunotherapy and the treatment of monogenic diseases. Manufacturing of these vectors is challenging primarily due to cytotoxic effects of vector components resulting in low cell culture titres and vector instability leading to low purification yields. In addition, currently used processes are typically not scalable as they rely on adherently cultured cells and unit operations such as batch centrifugation and gel filtration. To improve process scalability, suspension adaptation of a lentiviral vector packaging cell line was attempted, however, cell aggregation could not be prevented. For vector clarification it was found that membranes with pore sizes of 0.22 µm resulted in recoveries less than 50%, whereas the use of 0.45 µm membranes resulted in recoveries close to 100%. Successful vector concentration utilising centrifugal filters was possible with a membrane molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 100 kDa, ...
We have constructed and evaluated the utility of a helper-dependent virus vector system that is derived from Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV). This vector is based on the herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicon system and contains the HCMV orthologs of the two cis-acting functions required for replication and packaging of HSV genomes, the complex HCMV viral DNA replication origin (oriLyt), and the cleavage packaging signal (the a sequence). The HCMV amplicon vector replicated independently and was packaged into infectious virions in the presence of helper virus. This vector is capable of delivering and expressing foreign genes in infected cells including progenitor cells such as human CD34+ cells. Packaged defective viral genomes were passaged serially in fibroblasts and could be detected at passage 3; however, the copy number appeared to diminish upon serial passage. The HCMV amplicon offers an alternative vector strategy useful for gene(s) delivery to cells of the hematopoietic lineage.
Of the 127 allogeneic trials analysed by Evolution, over two-thirds (69.3%) utilise an adeno-associated viral vector, followed by adenoviruses (10.2%), plasmids (9.4%) and ADV/HSV-tk (3.9%). Lentiviruses, retroviruses and herpes simplex viruses were each used in three clinical trials for allogeneic cell/gene therapies, representing 2.4% each.. With regards to the 82 autologous cell/gene therapies currently undergoing clinical trials, 59.8% utilise a lentivirus and 30.5% utilise a retrovirus. In total, 74 of the 82 active trials analysed by Evolution utilise either a lentiviral or retroviral vector. Five (6.1%) active trials utilise an adenoviral vector and two (2.4%) utilise an HSV vector. In stark contrast to allogeneic approaches, adeno-associated vectors (AAV) and plasmids are not utilised in any of the ongoing autologous trials.. Lentiviruses are a subclass of retroviruses and are comprised of an envelope, a capsid and an RNA genome. In the transduced cell, the RNA genome is ...
The development of a reverse genetic system has enabled the genetic engineering of negative-strand RNA viruses. This system has been used to analyze the function of viral genes and to construct recombinant viruses which express foreign proteins. In this study, we made an improvement to this system by devising a new method to generate the F-defective SeV vector from a cloned cDNA of a defective RNA genome. This is the first report on constructing a replicon-based RNA vector in the family Paramyxoviridae which replicates in infected cells but does not infect neighboring cells. The improvements achieved in this study are (i) optimization of RNP recovery efficiency by using a UV-inactivated recombinant vaccinia virus expressing T7 RNA polymerase, (ii) construction of an inducible F-expressing packaging LLC-MK2 cell line supplemented with the F protein intrans, and (iii) development of a transfection process for RNP recovered from LLC-MK2 cells. An attempt to recover the F-defective SeV vector ...
TMEM166 is a novel programmed cell death-related molecule. In this report, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus 5-TMEM166 vector (Ad5-TMEM166) and evaluated its expression and anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability analysis revealed that the adenovirus-mediated increase of TMEM166 inhibited tumor cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was mediated by both autophagy (via inhibition of mTOR and activation of p70S6K) and apoptosis (via caspase-3 activation), both of which contributed to cell death and suppression of tumorigenicity. Our data indicated that Ad5-TMEM166 may be a novel gene therapy candidate for cancer. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. ...
First-generation, E1-deleted adenoviral vectors (E1-AV) can transduce the vascular endothelium with high efficiency, but their use is limited by the resulting acute endothelial injury and the long-term development of intimal hyperplasia. To reduce the impact of viral proteins on the gene-modified cells, a second-generation adenoviral vector with an additional pair of deletions in the E4 region was developed. To determine whether this E1/E4-AV vector would be useful for vascular gene transfer, we directly compared the efficiency of gene transfer to uninjured rabbit carotid arteries using either an E1/E4-AV or an E1-AV vector encoding beta-galactosidase. Both vectors efficiently transduced vascular endothelium; however, the E1/E4-AV vector gene-modified vessels showed higher beta-galactosidase expression 10 days after gene transfer. Importantly, the E1/E4-AV vector produced substantially less endothelial cell activation, less inflammation, and reduced neointimal hyperplasia compared with the E1-AV vector
Sirion Biotech offers one of the most comprehensive viral vector technology platforms addressing all three major vector types (adenovirus, lentivirus and AAV). Services range from custom virus design to virus vector productions and cell modelling projects, including superior gene knockdown strategies (RNAiONE) and multicistronic expression systems.. ...
Sirion Biotech offers one of the most comprehensive viral vector technology platforms addressing all three major vector types (adenovirus, lentivirus and AAV). Services range from custom virus design to virus vector productions and cell modelling projects, including superior gene knockdown strategies (RNAiONE) and multicistronic expression systems.. ...
Non-viral gene therapy is being considered as a treatment for cystic fibrosis. In clinical studies and in studies using the mouse airways as a model, current formulations result in only transient transgene expression. A number of reasons for this have been proposed including the loss of plasmid DNA from cells. The aim of these studies was to investigate why transgene expression from non-viral vectors is transient in the mouse lung. Plasmid DNA encoding the luciferase reporter gene was complexed with the cationic lipid GL67 and delivered to the mouse airways. The persistence of plasmid DNA in the mouse lungs was investigated using quantitative PCR and Southern hybridization. Results showed that intact plasmid DNA persisted in the mouse lung in the absence of any detectable luciferase activity. The de novo methylation of plasmid DNA in vivo was investigated as a potential cause of this transient gene expression but results suggested that plasmid DNA does not become de novo methylated in the mouse lung.
Nanotechnology-based non-viral vectors have emerged as promising alternatives to viruses to carry genetic material into target cells due to their ability to overcome many limitations of viral vectors. Although very efficient, viruses present low carrying capacity, expensive and complex production and, most importantly, safety issues related to immunogenic responses and even oncogenesis when randomly integrated in the host genome. In this regard, non-viral vectors present lower immunogenicity, higher nucleic acid packing capacity and ease of fabrication compared to their viral counterparts. In addition, continuous advances in the fields of material science and nano-engineering as well as the diversity of available nanosized material allows the design of multifunctional vectors specifically tailored for different applications. Although most conventional gene therapy strategies based on gene addition use viral vectors, nowadays non-viral vectors are predominant in new investigations based on gene ...
Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) encoded within an expression vector has proven an effective means of harnessing the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in mammalian cells. A survey of the literature revealed that shRNA vector construction can be hindered by high mutation rates and the ensuing sequencing is often problematic. Current options for constructing shRNA vectors include the use of annealed complementary oligonucleotides (74 % of surveyed studies), a PCR approach using hairpin containing primers (22 %) and primer extension of hairpin templates (4 %). We considered primer extension the most attractive method in terms of cost. However, in initial experiments we encountered a mutation frequency of 50 % compared to a reported 20 - 40 % for other strategies. By modifying the technique to be an isothermal reaction using the DNA polymerase Phi29, we reduced the error rate to 10 %, making primer extension the most efficient and cost-effective approach tested. We also found that inclusion of a restriction site in
Many viral vector systems have been developed for gene delivery. These include retroviruses, adenoviruses, adenoassociated viruses and herpes simplex virus. Retrovirus vector system: Replication defective retrovirus vectors that are harmless are being used. A plasmid in association with a retrovirus, a therapeutic gene and a promoter is referred to as plasmovirus. The plasmovirus is capable of carrying a DNA (therapeutic gene) of size less than 3.4 kb. Replication defective virus particles can be produced from the plasmovirus. As such, for the delivery of genes by retroviral vectors, the target cells must be in a dividing stage. But majority of the body cells are quiescent. In recent years, viral vectors have been engineered to infect non-dividing cells. Further, attempts are on to include a DNA in the retroviral vectors (by engineering env gene) that encodes for cell receptor protein. If this is successfully achieved, the retroviral vector will specifically infect the target tissues. Adenoviral ...
However, viral vector-based vaccines that incorporate viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 are in advanced-phase studies, including adenovirus (AdV) vector-based vaccines that have been licensed in Europe. These vaccines consist of intact virions that are engineered to include the gene encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, a technique that leverages the viral vectors ability to efficiently infect cells and enhances spike gene delivery. Vaccines that use viral vectors contain either replication-deficient or replication-competent viruses (Table 1). The majority of viral-vectored vaccines in the most advanced phases of development have been rendered replication-deficient through deletion of genes essential for replication.8 By limiting vector replication, the potential for vaccine-associated AdV disease is greatly diminished.. There are, however, theoretical mechanisms by which replication-deficient viral vector-based vaccines could become replication competent and cause disease, especially in ...
The researchers tested the new vectors in mice and monkeys and compared the results to reverse-oriented vectors. They found that the new vectors could transfer a much higher viral load-up to six times more therapeutic beta-globin genes than the conventional vectors-and had four to 10 times higher transduction efficiency, a measure of the ability to incorporate corrective genes into repopulating bone marrow cells. The new vectors also showed a capacity for longevity, remaining in place four years after transplantation. Researchers also found that they could be produced in much higher amounts than the conventional vectors, potentially saving time and lowering costs associated with large-scale vector production.. Our lab has been working on improving beta-globin vectors for almost a decade…and finally decided to try something radically different-and it worked, Tisdale said. These findings bring us closer to a curative gene therapy approach for hemoglobin disorders.. The new vector, for which ...
Novel gene-based therapies for disease will depend in many cases on long-term persistent transgene expression. To develop gene therapy strategies for Friedreichs ataxia (FRDA), we have examined the persistence of transgene expression in the brain in vivo provided by the entire 135 kb FXN genomic DNA locus delivered as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (iBAC) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-based vector injected in the adult mouse cerebellum. We constructed genomic DNA-reporter fusion vectors carrying a complete 135 kb FXN genomic locus with an insertion of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene at the ATG start codon (iBAC-FXN-lacZ). SHSY5Y human neuroblastoma cells transduced by iBAC-FXN-lacZ showed high efficiency of vector delivery and LacZ expression. Direct intracranial injection of iBAC-FXN-lacZ into the adult mouse cerebellum resulted in a large number of easily detectable transduced cells, with LacZ expression driven by the FXN genomic locus, which persisted for at least 75 days. Green
OBJECTIVE: Dual vector AAV systems are being utilised to enable gene therapy for disorders in which the disease gene is too large to fit into a single capsid. Fragmented adeno-associated viral (fAAV) vectors containing single inverted terminal repeat truncated transgenes have been considered as one such gene replacement strategy. Here we aim to add to the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms employed by fAAV dual vector systems. METHODS: Oversized (|8kb) transgene constructs containingABCA4coding sequence were packaged as truncated fragments |5kb in size into various AAV serotypes.In vitrotransductions with these fAAV vector preparations were conducted with mRNA and protein expression products assessed by way of RT-PCR, qPCR and western blot techniques. RESULTS: Transductions with fAAV vector preparations yieldedABCA4mRNA, but did not generate detectable levels of protein. Sequencing of the transcript population revealed the presence of full lengthABCA4CDS with additional
A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid. MCSs are commonly used during procedures involving molecular cloning or subcloning. Extremely useful in biotechnology, bioengineering, and molecular genetics, MCSs let a molecular biologist insert a piece of DNA or several pieces of DNA into the region of the MCS. This can be used to create transgenic organisms, also known as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). One bacterial plasmid used in genetic engineering as a plasmid cloning vector is pUC18. Its polylinker region is composed of several restriction enzyme recognition sites, that have been engineered into a single cluster (the polylinker). It has restriction sites for various restriction enzymes, including EcoRI, BamHI and PstI. Another vector used in genetic ...
Vectors based on adenovirus (Ad) are one of the most commonly utilized platforms for gene delivery to cells in molecular biology studies and in gene therapy applications. Ad is also the most popular vector system in human clinical gene therapy trials, largely due to its advantageous characteristics such as high cloning capacity (up to 36 kb), ability to infect a wide variety of cell types and tissues, and relative safety due to it remaining episomal in transduced cells. The latest generation of Ad vectors, helper‑dependent Ad (hdAd), which are devoid of all viral protein coding sequences, can mediate high-level expression of a transgene for years in a variety of species ranging from rodents to non-human primates. Given the importance of histones and chromatin in modulating gene expression within the host cell, it is not surprising that Ad, a nuclear virus, also utilizes these proteins to protect the genome and modulate virus- or vector‑encoded genes. In this review, we will discuss our current
We have previously shown that the intramuscular injection of naked plasmid DNA enables foreign gene expression in muscle. Further studies showed that the intravascular delivery of naked plasmid DNA enables high levels of expression not only in muscle but also in hepatocytes. For the liver, this tech …
Functional titer is defined as the number of functional vector particles required to infect a cell, present in a volume. There are several methods for measuring titer. Some are more reliable than others. Other methods include: measuring the p24 concentration/ml, measuring RNA equivalents, Transducing units/ml, or measuring mRNA equivalents. The first two are unreliable because they tend to overestimate the vector titer. The amount of p24 measured comes from functional particles, free p24, and nonfunctional vector particles. The RNA assays measure defective particles as well.. Reliable methods are determined by transduction of cells following limiting dilution of vector and subsequent evaluation of reporter protein activity (eGFP) or by the number of colonies following antibiotic selection.. The most straightforward method is to quantify functional vector titer by employing fluorescence and FACs. This is the method employed by the ViraCore. The method does have some limitations including being ...
In molecular biology, subcloning is a technique used to move a particular DNA sequence from a parent vector to a destination vector. Subcloning is not to be confused with molecular cloning, a related technique. Restriction enzymes are used to excise the gene of interest (the insert) from the parent. The insert is purified in order to isolate it from other DNA molecules. A common purification method is gel isolation. The number of copies of the gene is then amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Simultaneously, the same restriction enzymes are used to digest (cut) the destination. The idea behind using the same restriction enzymes is to create complementary sticky ends, which will facilitate ligation later on. A phosphatase, commonly calf-intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP), is also added to prevent self-ligation of the destination vector. The digested destination vector is isolated/purified. The insert and the destination vector are then mixed together with DNA ligase. A typical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo stable transduction of humanized liver tissue in chimeric mice via high-capacity adenovirus-lentivirus hybrid vector. AU - Kubo, Shuji. AU - Kataoka, Miho. AU - Tateno, Chise. AU - Yoshizato, Katsutoshi. AU - Kawasaki, Yoshiko. AU - Kimura, Takahiro. AU - Faure-Kumar, Emmanuelle. AU - Palmer, Donna J.. AU - Ng, Philip. AU - Okamura, Haruki. AU - Kasahara, Noriyuki. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - We developed hybrid vectors employing high-capacity adenovirus as a first-stage carrier encoding all the components required for in situ production of a second-stage lentivirus, thereby achieving stable transgene expression in secondary target cells. Such vectors have never previously been tested in normal tissues, because of the scarcity of suitable in vivo systems permissive for second-stage lentivirus assembly. Here we employed a novel murine model in which endogenous liver tissue is extensively reconstituted with engrafted human hepatocytes, and successfully achieved ...
There are currently over 417 human clinical trials involving retroviral gene therapy registered in the Journal of Gene Medicine database (http://www.abedia.com/wiley/vectors.php, accessed in July, 2016). The first successful gene therapy protocol occurred in the 1990s. In that protocol, two patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency were treated with a retroviral vector carrying the ADA coding sequence under the transcriptional control of the promoter/enhancers of the long terminal repeat of the MLV. ADA disease is characterized by defective T and natural killer cell maturations as well as low B cell function, causing recurrent infections. In this pioneer trial, one of the treated patients recovered cell counts and function, showing no adverse effects after 4 years. The response was more limited in the second patient primarily due to lower transduction efficacy; however, other causes could have contribute to this low efficiency such as ...
include ,iostream, #include ,cstdlib, #include ,cstring, using namespace std; class Element { private: int number; public: Element() : number(0) { cout ,, ctor ,, endl; } Element(int num) : number(num) { cout ,, ctor ,, endl; } Element(const Element& e) : number(e.number) { cout ,, copy ctor ,, endl; } Element(Element&& e) : number(e.number) { cout ,, right value ctor ,, endl; } ~Element() { cout ,, dtor ,, endl; } void operator=(const Element& item) { number = item.number; } bool operator==(const Element& item) { return (number == item.number); } void operator()() { cout ,, number; } int GetNumber() { return number; } }; template,typename T, class Vector { private: T* items; int count; public: Vector() : count{ 0 }, items{ nullptr } { } Vector(const Vector& vector) : count{vector.count} { items = static_cast,T*,(malloc(sizeof(T) * count)); memcpy(items, vector.items, sizeof(T) * count); } Vector(Vector&& vector) :count{ vector.count }, items{ vector.items } { vector.items = nullptr; ...
You can often find vector information at NCBI, either directly or in their list of vectors screened for contamination of new sequence at Vecscreen. VectorDB contains information about many common vectors, including yeast vectors. The EMBL Hamburg outstation maintains a large database of vectors. I.M.A.G.E. Consortium Vectors contains information about plasmids commonly used in EST collections such as those sold by OpenBioSystems and Invitrogen. For eukaryotic vectors (Fish, Xenopus) see Minnesota. The Forsburg Lab maintains a list of Fisson Yeast vectors. Promega maintains a list of their vectors. NEB maintains a list of common vectors. Epicentre also maintains its own list. Lucigen provides transcription-free vectors for cloning AT-rich and other difficult DNAs. Addgenes Vector DB contains most of the information from Stanfords VectorDB, plus more vector information they have curated from commercial websites and added through our plasmid curation efforts. (However, it seems to be rather ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting tumor neoangiogenesis via targeted adenoviral vector to achieve effective cancer gene therapy for disseminated neoplastic disease. AU - Lee, Myungeun. AU - Lu, Zhi Hong. AU - Li, Jie. AU - Kashentseva, Elena A.. AU - Dmitriev, Igor P.. AU - Mendonca, Samir A.. AU - Curiel, David T.. PY - 2020/3. Y1 - 2020/3. N2 - The application of cancer gene therapy has heretofore been restricted to local, or locoregional, neoplastic disease contexts. This is owing to the lack of gene transfer vectors, which embody the requisite target cell selectivity in vivo required for metastatic disease applications. To this end, we have explored novel vector engineering paradigms to adapt adenovirus for this purpose. Our novel strategy exploits three distinct targeting modalities that operate in functional synergy. Transcriptional targeting is achieved via the hROBO4 promoter, which restricts transgene expression to proliferative vascular endothelium. Viral binding is modified by incorporation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of endogenous genes following infection of human endothelial cells with an E1- E4+ adenovirus gene transfer vector. AU - Ramalingam, Ramachandran. AU - Rafii, Shahin. AU - Worgall, Stefan. AU - Hackett, Neil R.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are effective at transferring exogenous genes to a variety of cells and tissue types both in vitro and in vivo. However, in the process of gene transfer, the Ad vectors induce the expression of target cell genes, some of which may modify the function of the target cell and/or alter the local milieu. To develop a broader understanding of Ad vector-mediated induction of endogenous gene expression, genes induced by first-generation E1- E4+ Ad vectors in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were identified by cDNA subtraction cloning. The identified cDNAs included signaling molecules (lymphoid blast crisis [LBC], guanine nucleotide binding-protein ...
SB vs Viral Based Methods: Successful gene therapy largely depends on the selective introduction of therapeutic genes into the appropriate target cancer cells. One of the most effective and promising approaches for targeting tumor tissue during gene delivery is the use of viral vectors, which allow for high efficiency gene delivery. However, the use of viral vectors is not without risks and safety concerns, such as toxicities, a host immune response towards the viral antigens or potential viral recombination into the hosts chromosome; these risks limit the clinical application of viral vectors. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based system is an attractive, non-viral alternative to viral delivery systems. SB may be less immunogenic than the viral vector system due to its lack of viral sequences. The SB-based gene delivery system can stably integrate into the host cell genome to produce the therapeutic gene product over the lifetime of a cell. However, when compared to viral vectors, the ...
SB vs Viral Based Methods: Successful gene therapy largely depends on the selective introduction of therapeutic genes into the appropriate target cancer cells. One of the most effective and promising approaches for targeting tumor tissue during gene delivery is the use of viral vectors, which allow for high efficiency gene delivery. However, the use of viral vectors is not without risks and safety concerns, such as toxicities, a host immune response towards the viral antigens or potential viral recombination into the hosts chromosome; these risks limit the clinical application of viral vectors. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based system is an attractive, non-viral alternative to viral delivery systems. SB may be less immunogenic than the viral vector system due to its lack of viral sequences. The SB-based gene delivery system can stably integrate into the host cell genome to produce the therapeutic gene product over the lifetime of a cell. However, when compared to viral vectors, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An effective gene-knockdown using multiple shRNA-expressing adenovirus vectors. AU - Motegi, Yukari. AU - Katayama, Kazufumi. AU - Sakurai, Fuminori. AU - Kato, Takuya. AU - Yamaguchi, Tomoko. AU - Matsui, Hayato. AU - Takahashi, Masahide. AU - Kawabata, Kenji. AU - Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki. PY - 2011/7/30. Y1 - 2011/7/30. N2 - Viral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) are attractive for efficient and tissue-specific RNA interference (RNAi) delivery. We and others previously reported that recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated RNAi has great potential for a variety of applications in molecular biology studies and gene therapy. In the present study, we have developed an efficient Ad vector-mediated RNAi system, in which an Ad vector carries four shRNA-expression cassettes (Ad-multi-shRNA vector), a simple and effective strategy for enhancing the RNAi response per Ad vector particle. The data demonstrated that the Ad-multi-shRNA vectors showed an enhanced RNAi effect ...
Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in differentiation, survival and activation of myeloid and non-myeloid cells with important implications for lung antibacterial immunity. Here we examined the effect of pulmonary adenoviral vector-mediated delivery of GM-CSF (AdGM-CSF) on anti-mycobacterial immunity in M. bovis BCG infected mice. Exposure of M. bovis BCG infected mice to AdGM-CSF either applied on 6h, or 6h and 7days post-infection substantially increased alveolar recruitment of iNOS and IL-12 expressing macrophages, and significantly increased accumulation of IFNγpos T cells and particularly regulatory T cells (Tregs). This was accompanied by significantly reduced mycobacterial loads in the lungs of mice. Importantly, diphtheria toxin-induced depletion of Tregs did not influence mycobacterial loads, but accentuated immunopathology in AdGM-CSF-exposed mice infected with M. bovis BCG. Together, the data demonstrate that AdGM-CSF ...
Our viral vector production staff are committed to providing the researcher with high purity, high titer viral vectors at competitive prices. To ensure we the h
Context General information Compatible Gateway Destination vectors Available clones Download the hORFeome V8.1 list Compatible Gateway Destination vectors BCCM/genecorner also offers a range of compatible Gateway destination vectors both with and without C- or N-terminal markers, as well as some multisite Gateway destination vectors. This way, you can create the expression
OriGene provides a variety of cloning vectors, including cDNA cloning vectors (tagged ORF clone vectors, non-tagged cDNA expression vectors), shRNA vectors, CRISPR vectors, miRNA expression vector and 3 UTR luciferase assay vector. These vectors have been used in almost 1,000 citations.
About the Journal Human Gene Therapy, the Official Journal of the European Society of Gene and Cell Therapy, British Society for Gene and Cell Therapy, French Society of Cell and Gene Therapy, German Society of Gene Therapy, and five other gene therapy societies, is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published monthly in print and online. Led by Editor-in-Chief Terence R. Flotte, MD, Celia and Isaac Haidak Professor of Medical Education and Dean, Provost, and Executive Deputy Chancellor, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Human Gene Therapy presents reports on the transfer and expression of genes in mammals, including humans. Related topics include improvements in vector development, delivery systems, and animal models, particularly in the areas of cancer, heart disease, viral disease, genetic disease, and neurological disease, as well as ethical, legal, and regulatory issues related to the gene transfer in humans. Its companion journals, Human Gene Therapy Methods, published ...
Viral production. EIAV self-inactivating vector genomes were constructed from pONY8.0Z or pONY8.0G vectors described previously (10, 24). The cDNA coding for the reporter gene LacZ or the human SMN was cloned in the EIAV transfer vector. A EIAV vector genome has been generated that encodes the SMN gene with or without a HA tag. Viral vector stocks pseudotyped with rabies G glycoprotein were prepared using the HEK293T transient system as previously described (10, 25). The titers (approximately 4 × 109 T.U./ml) of concentrated EIAV-LacZ viral vectors were estimated by transduction of D17 cells. The titers (4 × 109 to 7 × 109 T.U./ml) of the EIAV-SMN or EIAV-EIAV-SMN-HA vectors were estimated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR by comparison to EIAV-LacZ vectors and were normalized for viral RNA (26, 27).. In vitro transduction. GM03813 fibroblasts from a type 1 SMA patient (Coreill Cell Repository) were transduced with either EIAV-SMN, EIAV-SMN-HA, or EIAV-LacZ vectors pseudotyped with the ...
The goal of the Program in Human Gene Therapy is to develop gene transfer technologies and use them for hepatic gene therapy for the treatment of genetic and acquired diseases. The general approach is to develop new vector systems and delivery methods, test them in the appropriate animal models, uncover the mechanisms involved in vector transduction, and use the most promising approaches in clinical trials. Specifically, we work on a variety of viral and non-viral vector systems. Our major disease models are hemophilia, hepatitis C and B viral infections, and diabetes. The second major focus includes the role that small RNAs play in mammalian gene regulation.. ...
The goal of the Program in Human Gene Therapy is to develop gene transfer technologies and use them for hepatic gene therapy for the treatment of genetic and acquired diseases. The general approach is to develop new vector systems and delivery methods, test them in the appropriate animal models, uncover the mechanisms involved in vector transduction, and use the most promising approaches in clinical trials. Specifically, we work on a variety of viral and non-viral vector systems. Our major disease models are hemophilia, hepatitis C and B viral infections, and diabetes. The second major focus includes the role that small RNAs play in mammalian gene regulation.. ...
A new dual-vector approach to enhance recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene expression through intermolecular cis activation
Adeno-associated virus is being developed as a human gene therapy vector. Recombinant AAV vectors are constructed by replacing the wild type viral genome with a transgene of interest. This recombinant genome is then packaged into infectious virions. Virion production requires a vector plasmid containing the transgene of interest, wtAAV rep and cap genes, and helper virus functions. Standard protocols provide rep and cap either through stable rep/cap cell lines, or through co-transfection of a rep/cap plasmid. Helper virus functions are provided by adenovirus-5 or herpes simplex virus-1. Viral infection results in loss of some recombinant virions due to cell death as well as potential contamination of the final stock. To overcome these problems, several helper-virus-free protocols have been developed using plasmids containing essential Ad-5 genes. Standard purification protocols involve CsCl gradient centrifugation followed by dialysis.The centrifugation takes several days, and product is lost in ...
The liver is an attractive organ for gene therapy because of its important role in many inherited and acquired diseases. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) have been shown to be good candidates for liver gene delivery, leading to long-term gene expression. We evaluated the influence of the route of administration on rAAV-mediated liver transduction by comparing levels of luciferase expression in the livers of male and female mice after injection of rAAV serotype 2, using three different routes of administration: intravenous (IV), intraportal (IP), or direct intrahepatic (IH) injection. To determine transgene expression we used a noninvasive optical bioluminescence imaging system that allowed long-term in vivo analysis. After IV injection dramatic differences in liver transgene expression were observed, depending on gender. When IP injection was used the differences were reduced although they were still significant. Interestingly, direct intrahepatic injection of rAAV vectors was ...
Combined expression of costimulatory factors and proinflammatory cytokines stimulate effective immune-mediated tumor rejection in a variety of murine tumor models. Specifically, syngeneic tumor cells genetically modified to express B7.1 (CD80) have been shown to induce rejection of previously established murine solid tumors, and transduction with IL-2 can further increase survival. However, poor rates of gene transfer and inefficient expression of multiple transgenes encoded by single vectors have hampered the development of such autologous tumor cell vaccines for clinical trials in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Here we describe the development of a self-inactivating lentiviral vector encoding B7.1 and IL-2 as a single fusion protein postsynthetically cleaved to generate biologically active membrane-anchored B7.1 and secreted IL-2. This enables the efficient transduction of both established and primary AML blasts, resulting in expression of the transgenes in up to 98% of the cells following a
In vivo gene transfer and expression in normal uninjured blood vessels using replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus vectors Academic Article ...
Non-viral gene delivery vectors were developed for efficient gene transfer to hard to transfect mouse mammary epithelial cells. broad spectrum of human being diseases including malignancy, cardiac disorders and neurodegenerative diseases result from a genetic defect. Gene therapy gives an attractive option to treat these genetic diseases [1]. The introduction of an exogenous restorative gene into unhealthy cells offers the potential to override or change the malfunctioning gene. Although a large quantity of genetic focuses on possess been recognized, the medical success of gene therapy methods offers been limited by the lack of availability of safe and effective gene delivery vectors 3963-95-9 IC50 [2]. Two major attempts possess emerged in the gene delivery community, one focused on developing viral vectors and the additional on non-viral strategies. Viral vectors have developed to transduce many types of mammalian cells with high effectiveness, but there are limitations to cell-specificity, ...
A method for rapidly producing helper-free murine leukemia virus (MLV) without using packaging cell lines is described. Viruses bearing ecotropic or amphotropic MLV or Rous sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein and containing various retroviral vector genomes have been prepared with titers 30 to 40-fold higher than those produced by transient transfection of standard packaging cells. This system can be used to alter the cellular tropism of MLV by incorporating other envelope glycoproteins and to prepare retroviral vector stocks without establishing stable producer cell lines. This method will be particularly useful for preparing viruses that encode toxic proteins and for the rapid analysis of panels of mutant envelope glycoproteins. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of repair of radiation-induced DNA damage enhances gene expression from replication-defective adenoviral vectors. AU - Hingorani, Mohan. AU - White, Christine L.. AU - Merron, Andrew. AU - Peerlinck, Inge. AU - Gore, Martin E.. AU - Slade, Andrew. AU - Scott, Simon D.. AU - Nutting, Christopher M.. AU - Pandha, Hardev S.. AU - Melcher, Alan A.. AU - Vile, Richard Geoffrey. AU - Vassaux, Georges. AU - Harrington, Kevin J.. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - Radiation has been shown to up-regulate gene expression from adenoviral vectors in previous studies. In the current study, we show that radiation-induced dsDNA breaks and subsequent signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway are responsible, at least in part, for this enhancement of transgene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibitors of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-mutated, and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)-mediated DNA repair were shown to ...
A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) vector has been altered to carry the human MERTK (hMERTK) gene. This vector has been shown to restore vision in animal models that resemble human MERTK-associated Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), an incurable retinal degeneration that causes severe vision loss. The proposed study is an open label, Phase I clinical trial of subretinal rAAV2-VMD2-hMERTK administration to individuals with MERTK-associated retinal disease. This trial will lead to a greater understanding of the safety and thereby potential value of gene transfer in MERTK-associated retinal disease and will have implications for other forms of retinal degenerative disease amenable to this type of intervention ...
A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) vector has been altered to carry the human MERTK (hMERTK) gene. This vector has been shown to restore vision in animal models that resemble human MERTK-associated Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), an incurable retinal degeneration that causes severe vision loss. The proposed study is an open label, Phase I clinical trial of subretinal rAAV2-VMD2-hMERTK administration to individuals with MERTK-associated retinal disease. This trial will lead to a greater understanding of the safety and thereby potential value of gene transfer in MERTK-associated retinal disease and will have implications for other forms of retinal degenerative disease amenable to this type of intervention ...
The effect of chemotherapy drug Mitomycin C (MMC) in combination with recombinant adeno-associated virus II (rAAV2) in cancer therapy was investigated, and the mechanism of MMC affecting rAAV2s bioactivity was also studied. The combination effect was evaluated by the level of GFP and TNF expression in a human glioma cell line, and the mechanism of MMC effects on rAAV mediated gene expression was investigated by AAV transduction related signal molecules. C57 and BALB/c nude mice were injected with rAAV-EGFP or rAAV-TNF alone, or mixed with MMC, to evaluate the effect of MMC on AAV-mediated gene expression and tumor suppression. MMC was shown to improve the infection activity of rAAV2 both in vitro and in vivo. Enhancement was found to be independent of initial rAAV2 receptor binding stage or subsequent second-strand synthesis of target DNA, but was related to cell cycle retardation followed by blocked genome degradation. In vivo injection of MMC combined with rAAV2 into the tumors of the animals
294966285 - EP 0996737 A1 2000-05-03 - SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS VECTORS FOR GENE TRANSFER INTO NON-ENDOTHELIAL CARDIOVASCULAR CELLS - [origin: WO9909192A1] The invention provides methods of transducing non-endothelial cardiovascular cells with a recombinant Togavirus vector, vector kits, and vectors.[origin: WO9909192A1] The invention provides methods of transducing non-endothelial cardiovascular cells with a recombinant Togavirus vector, vector kits, and vectors.
Replication-competent retrovirus vectors based on murine leukemia virus (MLV) have been shown to effectively transfer therapeutic genes over multiple serial infections in cell culture and through solid tumors in vivo with a high degree of genomic stability. MLV vectors, whereby the last two are transcriptionally restricted to liver- and -catenin/T-cell factor-deregulated cells, respectively. When the heterologous promoters were used to replace almost the entire MLV U3 region, including the MLV TATA box, vector replication was inefficient since nascent virus particle production from contaminated cells was significantly decreased. Fusion from the heterologous promoters missing the TATA container towards the MLV TATA container, however, generated vectors which replicated with almost-wild-type kinetics throughout permissive cells while exhibiting negligible or low spread in nonpermissive cells. The genomic balance from the vectors was been shown to be much like that of an identical vector filled ...
Because the features and kinetics of adeno−associated virus(AAV)−mediated gene transfer to endothelial cells(EC)are yet to be ultimately determined, we tested variables pertinent to the efficiency of AAV−mediated gene transfer to bovine aortic endothelial cells(BAEC).The variables with AAV vectors were compared with the better characterized adenovirus(Ad)vectors.There is a dose−response relationship between multiplicity of infection(moi)of AAV or Ad vectors and transduction efficiency in BAEC.The higher moi of AAV vectors achieved more than 80% of transduction efficiency in cultured BAEC.AAV and Ad vectors showed an incubation−time−dependent increase in transduction efficiency of LacZ gene to the BAEC up to 12 h of vector exposure.Although the similar kinetics of transduction efficiency of LacZ gene to BAEC was found in both vectors, the duration of gene expression was longer in AAV vector than that in Ad vectors in vitro.These results indicate that AAV−vector is efficient for gene ...
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide and the prevention of its related disease, enzootic porcine pneumonia, remains a challenge. The P97 adhesin protein of M. hyopneumoniae should be a good candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine because antibodies produced against P97 could prevent the adhesion of the pathogen to the respiratory epithelial cells in vitro. In the present study, a P97 recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (rAdP97c) subunit vaccine efficiency was evaluated in pigs. The rAdP97c vaccine was found to induce both strong P97 specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The rAdP97c vaccinated pigs developed a lower amount of macroscopic lung lesions (18.5 ± 9.6%) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (45.8 ± 11.5%). rAdP97c vaccine reduced significantly the severity of inflammatory response and the amount of M. hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract. Furthermore, the average daily weight gain was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - G2 Cell Cycle Arrest and Cyclophilin A in Lentiviral Gene Transfer. AU - Zhang, Shangming. AU - Joseph, Guiandre. AU - Pollok, Karen. AU - Berthoux, Lionel. AU - Sastry, Lakshmi. AU - Luban, Jeremy. AU - Cornetta, Kenneth. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Lentiviral vectors derived from the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have a higher propensity to transduce nondividing cells compared to vectors based on oncoretroviruses. We report here that genistein, a previously known protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor and G2 cell cycle arrest inducer, significantly enhanced lentiviral transduction in a dose-dependent manner. Increased transduction, as measured by vector expression, was seen in a variety of human cell lines, murine primary lymphocytes, and primary human CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells as well. Increased vector expression was also associated with an increase in vector DNA copy number, as assessed by quantitative PCR. Genistein-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest, ...
Recombinant vectors based on adeno-associated virus (rAAV) are promising tools to specifically alter complex genomes through homologous recombination (HR)-based gene targeting. In a therapeutic setting, an AAV donor vector will recombine with a mutant target locus in order to correct the mutation di …
The airway is an important target for gene transfer to treat cystic fibrosis and other diseases that affect the lung. We previously found that marker gene expression did not persist in the bronchial epithelium following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector administration to the rabbit lung. In an attempt to promote continued expression, we tested repeat vector administration, but no additional transduction was observed, and the block to transduction correlated with the appearance of neutralizing antibodies to the viral capsid. Here we show that mice exhibit a similar response but that treatment with anti-CD40 ligand antibody (MR1) and a soluble CTLA4-immunoglobulin fusion protein (CTLA4Ig) at the time of primary AAV vector exposure allowed successful repeat transduction and prevented production of neutralizing antibodies. We also tested the possibility that an immune response caused the loss of marker-positive cells in the epithelial population in rabbits by evaluating AAV vector expression in ...
AAV is a single stranded DNA virus which has shown great promise as a gene therapy vector. Recombinant AAV vectors delivering RPE65 gene have been demonstrated...
AAV is a single stranded DNA virus which has shown great promise as a gene therapy vector. Recombinant AAV vectors delivering RPE65 gene have been demonstrated...
Gene transfer to the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is a therapeutic strategy which could prove particularly advantageous for treatment of various hereditary and acquired intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), GI infections, and cancer. We evaluated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein envelope (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (LV) for efficacy of gene transfer to both murine rectosigmoid colon in vivo and human colon explants ex vivo. LV encoding beta-galactosidase (LV-β-Gal) or firefly-luciferase (LV-fLuc) reporter genes were administered by intrarectal instillation in mice, or applied topically for ex vivo transduction of human colorectal explant tissues from normal individuals. Macroscopic and histological evaluations were performed to assess any tissue damage or inflammation. Transduction efficiency and systemic biodistribution were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. LV-fLuc expression was evaluated by ex vivo bioluminescence imaging. LV-β-Gal expression
Recombinant Adeno-associated virus 2 ATCC ® VR-1616™ Designation: Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus 2 Reference Standard Stock (rAAV2 RSS) Application:
Recombinant Adeno-associated virus 2 ATCC ® VR-1616™ Designation: Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus 2 Reference Standard Stock (rAAV2 RSS) Application:
This study evaluated six adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the liver-specific thyroid hormone-binding globulin (TBG) promoter made with novel capsids in canine liver-directed gene transfer. Studies i
Background: Liver-derived Factor VIII (FVIII) expression has been described in the canine hemophilia A model for more than 10 years following adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy. Improved understanding of AAV integration may provide insights into the long-term safety of AAV based gene therapy.. Aims: To evaluate frequency and locations of AAV-FVIII integration sites in a canine hemophilia model.. Methods: Eight severe hemophilia A dogs received a portal vein infusion of canine-FVIII-AAV vector (AAV-BDD-cFVIII). Genomic DNA was isolated from post-mortem liver samples. AAV-BDD-cFVIII vector genomes (vg/ng) were quantified by qPCR. Vector integration sites (IS) were analysed by linear amplification-mediated (LAM)-PCR and target-enrichment sequencing (TES) coupled to Illumina MiSeq sequencing and customised bioinformatical analysis.. Results: AAV-BDD-cFVIII DNA was detected in the liver of all dogs, 10.8 years after a single vector infusion (Table 1). LAM-PCR and TES analyses demonstrated ...
Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 2 (rAAV2) have been used to deliver transgenes to the airways in a variety of pre-clinical and clinical studies. Gene transfer in these studies has been severely restricted by the basolateral localization of rAAV2 receptors. Here, we studied vectors constructed from the AAV5 genome and capsid, which utilize N-linked sialic acid-containing receptors found on the apical surface of airway epithelial cells. We investigated gene transfer efficacy and duration of transgene expression following delivery of rAAV5/5 vectors to the mouse respiratory tract. Robust, dose-dependent transgene expression was observed in the epithelium lining the nose for at least 32 weeks, and for at least 52 weeks in the lung. Importantly, in the lung, transgene expression mediated by rAAV5/5 was 40-fold greater than by rAAV2/2 vectors. A distinct cellular preference for rAAV5/5-mediated transduction was observed, with transgene expression being predominantly restricted to
The snoMEN (snoRNA Modulator of gene Appearance) vector technology was developed from a human being package C/D snoRNA, HBII-180C, which contains an internal series that may end up being manipulated to help to make it supporting to RNA focuses on, allowing knock-down of targeted genetics. the same mRNA, we record >3-collapse boost in knock-down effectiveness when likened with the unique HBII-180C centered snoMEN. The multiplex 47snoMEM vector allowed the building of human being proteins replacement unit cell lines with improved effectiveness, including the institution of book GFPCHIF-1 alternative cells. Quantitative mass spectrometry evaluation verified the improved effectiveness and specificity of proteins replacement unit using the Solcitinib supplier 47snoMEN-PR vectors. The 47snoMEN vectors increase the potential applications for snoMEN technology in gene appearance research, focus on approval and gene therapy. Intro Little nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a course of conserved RNAs 1st ...
Custom RNAi Services GeneCust Europe. of shRNA expression plasmids,. shRNA expression vectors system characteristics 1.The expression of short. the duplication of the shRNA expression cassette resulted in. extracted with the SV total RNA isolation system (Promega.pHUSH: a single vector system for conditional gene expression pHUSH:. Reversible gene knockdown in mice using a tight, inducible shRNA expression system.Altered expression of triadin 95 causes parallel changes. this system adenoviral transfection was used to modify. endogenous Trisk 95 expression. The shRNA was.HeLa cells containing a stably integrated tetracycline-inducible luciferase expression cassette were treated with. The Tet-Express Inducible Expression System.Applications. The following. Modulation of Circadian Gene Expression and Metabolic Compensation by. Novel high throughput pooled shRNA screening identifies ...
Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are known to interfere with AAV vector-mediated gene transfer by intravascular delivery. Consequently, gene transfer studies in non-\human being primates may well forecast the effectiveness of gene transfer in humans. Indeed, gene transfer studies using a fresh type of vector have been carried out in rhesus macaques.12,13 The effects from these studies provided the basis for recent hemophilia B gene therapy clinical tests employing an AAV8 vector.13,14,15,16 Gene transfer in mice using AAV vectors results in excellent transduction efficiency. That is so for AAV8 vector-mediated gene transfer in the mouse liver especially;12,13,14,17 however, the efficiency of AAV8 vectors is modest in macaques.13 Theres also difficulties connected Mouse monoclonal to STYK1 with gene appearance when working with AAV8 vectors in non-human primates. Growing proof suggests that the current presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against AAV8, ...
Cornerstone for an efficient cardiac gene therapy is the need for a vector system which enables selective and long-term expression of the gene of interest. In rodent animal models pseudotyped adeno-associated viral vectors like AAV2/6 have been shown to be superior in the transduction of cardiomyocytes compared to other AAV serotypes. However, since significant species dependent differences in transduction characteristics exist, and large animal models are of imminent need for pre-clinical evaluations, we compared the gene transfer efficiency of an AAV2/6 and a heparin-binding site deleted AAV2 (AAV2/dHep) in a porcine model.. Methods: Viral vectors were produced using a pseudotyping strategy. All vectors did express the reporter gene luciferase under control of a cardiac specific promoter (MLC2v). Vectors were delivered via percutaneous pressure-regulated retroinfusion into the coronary vein (3.5 x 10e10 genome copies/animal; n = 5 animals/group). Expression levels were evaluated 4 weeks after ...
Download Free Vector,PSD,FLASH,JPG--www.hereisfree.com:Download Free Vector,PSD,FLASH,JPG,Vector icon,Vector Cartoon,CHINA Vector,Vector Sport,Vector festival,Vector Design,Vector Flower,Vector People,Vector landscape,Vector Plant,Vector Map,Vector Car,truth to nature,Vector Cartoon
Discover Network Download the vector logo of the Discover Card brand designed by Discover in Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) format. All Rights Reserved. Auto Motor and Sport Channel logo vector … The current status of the logo is active, which means the logo is currently in use. Here is the Discovery Channel logo in vector format(svg) and transparent PNG, ready to download. Rocket logo world discovery space shuttle vector, Search logo elements find information vector, Blue magnifying logo symbol icon technology vector, Wings bag travel creative logo design vector, Discovery science museum letter d icon vector, Creative logo design cosmic shuttle scientific vector, Science discovery logo scientific research vector, Campaign logo or label hiking trip hike icon set vector, Compass and rocket logo combination vector, Logo with abstract image cosmic station space vector, Set badge logo outdoor adventure and traveling vector, People and family for logo design team and group vector, Rocket logo space ...
RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly conserved post-transcriptional gene silencing process triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in eukaryotic cells. Elucidation of the RNAi regulatory pathway and its components has led to the identification of endogenous dsRNA molecules, termed microRNAs (miRNAs), which are transcribed as a single hairpin molecule prior to their maturation into a cytoplasmic dsRNA. The efficient gene silencing achieved by these short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules and the cumulative understanding of the RNAi pathway has prompted the development of hairpin expression vectors capable of mediating stable gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the efficacy of viral vector-mediated RNAi in the retina using recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) and lentiviruses that contain silencing hairpin cassettes to target four genes in murine photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). A detailed assessment of the utility and extend of RNAi ...
Staining for LacZ 5 days after intraocular injection of AdLacZ.10 in adult wild-type mice and at various times after injection in transgenic mice with increased expression of PDGF in the retina. Mice were given an intravitreous injection of 5 × 108 (A-E, J-P) or a subretinal injection of 107 (F-I) AdLacZ.10 particles. After 5 days, or as otherwise indicated, ocular sections and retinal and choroidal wholemounts were stained for LacZ. (A) Albino BALB/c mice showed staining in the corneal endothelium, the trabecular meshwork, the iris pigmented epithelium, and the ciliary body (bar, 200 μm). (B) Flatmounts of iris from albino BALB/c mice showed diffuse dark staining throughout the entire iris. (C.) Retinal wholemounts from adult C57BL/6 mice showed scattered focal staining throughout the retina, with more intense staining at the optic nerve. (D, E) Ocular sections from adult C57BL/6 mice showed prominent staining in and around the optic nerve and focal staining of cells in the inner nuclear ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radioiodinated Capsids Facilitate in Vivo Non-Invasive Tracking of Adeno-Associated Gene Transfer Vectors. AU - Kothari, P.. AU - De, B. P.. AU - He, B.. AU - Chen, A.. AU - Chiuchiolo, M. J.. AU - Kim, D.. AU - Nikolopoulou, A.. AU - Amor-Coarasa, A.. AU - Dyke, J. P.. AU - Voss, H. U.. AU - Kaminsky, S. M.. AU - Foley, C. P.. AU - Vallabhajosula, S.. AU - Hu, B.. AU - DiMagno, S. G.. AU - Sondhi, D.. AU - Crystal, R. G.. AU - Babich, J. W.. AU - Ballon, D.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © The Author(s) 2017. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/1/6. Y1 - 2017/1/6. N2 - Viral vector mediated gene therapy has become commonplace in clinical trials for a wide range of inherited disorders. Successful gene transfer depends on a number of factors, of which tissue tropism is among the most important. To date, definitive mapping of the spatial and temporal distribution of viral vectors in vivo has generally required postmortem examination of tissue. Here ...
Lentiviral vector systems with EF-1 alpha promoters allow you to achieve robust, constitutive, long-term expression of your gene of interest in cell types in which CMV promoters are often silenced, such as hematopoietic and stem cells.
Lentiviral vector systems with EF-1 alpha promoters allow you to achieve robust, constitutive, long-term expression of your gene of interest in cell types in which CMV promoters are often silenced, such as hematopoietic and stem cells.
Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells. This process can be ... Hybrid vectors are vector viruses that are genetically engineered to have qualities of more than one vector. Viruses are ... The choice of a viral vector to deliver genetic material to cells comes with some logistical problems. There are a limited ... Plant viruses can be used to engineer viral vectors, tools commonly used to deliver genetic material into plant cells; they are ...
"Biochemistry & Biophysics - University of Rochester Medical Center". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis, Griffiths et al., 7th ... Almost all commonly used S. cerevisiae vectors are shuttle vectors. Yeast shuttle vectors have components that allow for ... A shuttle vector is a vector (usually a plasmid) constructed so that it can propagate in two different host species. Therefore ... There are also adenovirus shuttle vectors, which can propagate in E. coli and mammals. Shuttle vectors are frequently used to ...
Maloy S. "Expression vectors". San Diego State University. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Genetic promoter regions. ... Some cases of many genetic diseases are associated with variations in promoters or transcription factors. Examples include: ... Promoters are important gene regulatory elements used in tuning synthetically designed genetic circuits and metabolic networks ... December 2020). "Automated design of thousands of nonrepetitive parts for engineering stable genetic systems". Nature ...
Concerns over the transfer of bacterial or viral genetic material into the plant however have led to the development of vectors ... Examples of yeast expression vector in Pichia are the pPIC series of vectors, and these vectors use the AOX1 promoter which is ... Examples of mammalian expression vectors include the adenoviral vectors, the pSV and the pCMV series of plasmid vectors, ... and these vectors are called shuttle vectors. An expression vector must have elements necessary for gene expression. These may ...
The black fly, Simulium tribulatum, is reported as a putative vector. Human Cases The number of reported human zoonotic O. lupi ... "Morphologic and genetic characterization of Onchocerca lupi infecting dogs." Veterinary parasitology 102.4 (2001): 309-319. ... "Human ocular filariasis: further evidence on the zoonotic role of Onchocerca lupi." Parasit Vectors 5.1 (2012): 84. Egyed, Z., ...
"Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review". Parasites & Vectors. 7 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/1756- ... "Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review". Parasites & Vectors. 7 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/1756- ... In 2005 the first complete sequence of its mitochondrial genome was published, and genetic comparison (Cox1gene) with those of ... Bowles, J; McManus, DP (1994). "Genetic characterization of the Asian Taenia, a newly described taeniid cestode of humans". The ...
"Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review". Parasites & Vectors. 7 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/1756- ... Parasit Vectors. 11 (1): 569. doi:10.1186/s13071-018-3153-5. PMC 6208121. PMID 30376899. Somers, Kenneth D.; Morse, Stephen A ...
The binary vector is a shuttle vector, so-called because it is able to replicate in multiple hosts (e.g. Escherichia coli and ... Plant Biotechnology the genetic manipulation of plants. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. Bevan M (November 1984). "Binary ... The pGreen vector, which was developed in 2000, is a newer version of the binary vector that allows for a choice of promoters, ... T-DNA is located on the binary vector (the non-T-DNA region of this vector containing origin(s) of replication that could ...
Vector Control Assocn., pp. 330-356. Asman SM, McDonald PT and T. Prout. (1981) Field studies of genetic control systems for ... She applied genetic methods to mosquitoes with the aim of reducing their ability to carry viruses that can cause disease in ... The research demonstrated that there were genetic determinants for how likely mosquitoes were to carry the viruses that caused ... Parasites and Vectors. 14: 114. Retrieved 1 April 2022. Delmas, Peggy M. (2020). "Foremothers in STEM: Celebrating the work of ...
Meng Qi, Zilin Wei, Ying Zhang, Qiyuan Zhang, Juanfeng Li, Longxian Zhang, Rongjun Wang (11 January 2020). "Genetic diversity ... of Blastocystis in kindergarten children in southern Xinjiang, China". Parasites & Vectors. 13 (15): 15. doi:10.1186/s13071-020 ...
Artificially constructed plasmids may be used as vectors in genetic engineering. These plasmids serve as important tools in ... Preston A (2003). "Chapter 2 - Choosing a Cloning Vector". In Casali N, Preston A (eds.). E. Coli Plasmid Vectors: Methods and ... Plasmids are the most-commonly used bacterial cloning vectors. These cloning vectors contain a site that allows DNA fragments ... Other types of plasmids are often related to yeast cloning vectors that include: Yeast integrative plasmid (YIp), yeast vectors ...
Tim Ravenscroft (2008-06-15). "Are Lentiviral Vectors on Cusp of Breakout?". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. Mary Ann ... "HIV-2 and SIV Vector Systems." Lentiviral Vector Systems for Gene Transfer. Ed. Gary L. Buchschacher. Georgetown, TX: Eurekah. ... Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors have so far been used in more than 300 clinical trials, addressing treatment options for ... Cockrell, Adam S.; Kafri, Tal (2007-07-01). "Gene delivery by lentivirus vectors". Molecular Biotechnology. 36 (3): 184-204. ...
A viral vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material (DNA), which can be transcribed by the ... The genetic material it delivers does not integrate into a person's genome. Viral vector vaccines enable antigen expression ... Both doses are non-replicating vectors and carry the genetic code of several Ebola virus proteins. The rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine is an ... Viral vector vaccines use a modified version of one virus as a vector to deliver to a cell a nucleic acid coding for an antigen ...
Piraino, Stefano (2015). "Genetic connectivity of Pelagia noctiluca populations reveal spatial and temporal reproductive ... subunits". marine-vectors.eu. Retrieved 30 June 2019. Johnson, F.H.; O. Shimomura (1968). "The Chemistry of Luminescence in ... Miller, B.J.; S. von der Heyden; M.J. Gibbons (2012). "Significant population genetic structuring of the holoplanktic ... Even North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations show significant genetic differences. A comprehensive taxonomic review is ...
"Evolutionary insights into duffy gene in mammalian taxa with comparative genetic analysis". J Vector Borne Dis. 46 (3): 230-6. ... The genetic basis for the Fy(a-b-) phenotype is a point mutation in the erythroid specific promoter (a T -> C mutation at ... The mouse gene is located on chromosome 1 between the genetic markers Xmv41 and D1Mit166. The mouse gene has two exons (100 and ... Chiaroni J, Touinssi M, Frassati C, Degioanni A, Gibert M, Reviron D, Mercier P, Boëtsch G (August 2004). "Genetic ...
ISBN 978-1-4398-2750-5. {{cite book}}: ,first1= has generic name (help) Zach N., Adelman (2015). Genetic Control of Malaria and ... 2008). Transgenesis and the management of vector-borne disease ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). New York, NY: Springer Science + Business ... ISBN 978-0-12-800405-0. Jones, editors, P.G. Weintraub & P. (2009). Phytoplasmas : genomes, plant hosts and vectors ([Online- ... Genetic Control of Malaria and Dengue. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-800405-0. Miller, edited by Kostas Bourtzis, Thomas A. ( ...
Rubin, G.; Spradling, A. (1982). "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 (4570 ... Related to his genomics work, Rubin's lab is notable for development of genetic and genomics tools and studies of signal ... Xu, T; Rubin, G. M. (1993). "Analysis of genetic mosaics in developing and adult Drosophila tissues". Development. 117 (4): ...
"Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 (4570): 348-353. Bibcode:1982Sci...218.. ... From this research came work from other scientists on transposons as a tool for genetic alterations in organisms. In 2003 ...
"I don't care if it's a weed or a blight, people still are going to say this is way too massive a genetic engineering project ... One possible application is to genetically modify mosquitoes, mice, and other disease vectors so that they cannot transmit ... "Biologists create new genetic systems to neutralize gene drives". phys.org. Retrieved 8 October 2020. Xu, Xiang-Ru Shannon; ... introduce a genetic modification in wild populations. Gene drives constitute a major development that makes possible previously ...
... or their vectors. Examples of such virus resistance mechanisms and their genetic basis are given below: Immunity A cultivar is ... Both are transmitted by contact and by insect vectors. Unlike the previous viruses, the vectors in these two cases are not ... Thus, the vectors are aphids in the case of AMV and PAMV, and nematodes in the case of TFISV and TBRV. This virosis is quite ... Genetic resistance incorporated into cultivars allows the farmer to keep cultivars free or with low virus incidence for a ...
Wise de Valdez MR, Nimmo D, Betz J, Gong HF, James AA, Alphey L, Black WC (March 2011). "Genetic elimination of dengue vector ... Genetic modification of the myxoma virus has been proposed to conserve European wild rabbits in the Iberian peninsula and to ... The genetic modification is an RNA molecule that prevents the virus reproduction by mimicking the region of the flu virus ... However, the genetic material will be stored at the Canadian Agricultural Genetics Repository Program. In 2006, a pig was ...
Optimal feature selection for support vector machines. Pattern Recognition, 2010. Santana R. (2011) R. Santana. Estimation of ... Proceedings of the 13th annual conference companion on Genetic and evolutionary computation, 2011. Wuchty S. (2010). Gene ... Regression: least squares, ridge regression, least angle regression, elastic net, kernel ridge regression, support vector ... Support Vector Machines (SVM), Diagonal Linear Discriminant Analysis (DLDA), Golub Classifier, Parzen-based, (kernel) Fisher ...
A transformation protocol has been established and RNAi vectors are available. This makes molecular genetic studies much easier ... "Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) accessions". Journal of Phycology (43 ... "Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) accessions". Journal of Phycology. 43 ...
Bridging laboratory and fields research for genetic control of disease vectors. In proceedings of the joint WHO/TDR, NIAID, ... Anopheles mosquito - malaria vector, example Anopheles arabiensis. Tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) - vector of sleeping sickness in ... IAEA and Frontis workshop on bridging laboratory and field research for genetic control of disease vectors, Nairobi, Kenya 14- ... Sex separation can be difficult, though this can be easily performed on a large scale where genetic sexing systems have been ...
... development of new vectors for delivery of drugs and genetic material; development of biomaterials for stem cell-based ... genetic screening of diseases; structure-function relation of proteins with biomedical or biotechnological interest; ...
... scAAV is an attractive vector for use in gene therapy for many reasons. Its parent vector, AAV, is already being used in ... Parvovirinae, Genetic engineering). ... Like all vector-based approaches to gene therapy, one obstacle ... "Self-complementary recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors: packaging capacity and the role of rep proteins in vector purity ... Hillestad, ML; Guenzel, AJ; Nath, KA; Barry, MA (Oct 2012). "A vector-host system to fingerprint virus tropism". Hum Gene Ther ...
Schaffer, J. David (1984). "Multiple Objective Optimization with Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithms". In G.J.E Grefensette; J. ... F. Kursawe, "A variant of evolution strategies for vector optimization," in PPSN I, Vol 496 Lect Notes in Comput Sc. Springer- ... ISBN 978-0-19-509971-3. Haupt, Randy L. Haupt, Sue Ellen (2004). Practical genetic algorithms with CD-Rom (2nd ed.). New York: ... In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms. Czech Republic. pp. 176-182 Binh T. (1999) A ...
The genetic information can be stored within lambda phage and plasma vectors. The National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences ... DNA banks allow for conservation of genetic material and comparative analysis of an individual's genetic information. Analyzing ... This system makes it possible to rule out or confirm the verdict of a suspect based on their personal genetic code. Once an ... DNA banking is the secure, long term storage of an individual's genetic material. DNA is most commonly extracted from blood, ...
"Overcoming pre-existing adenovirus immunity by genetic engineering of adenovirus-based vectors". Expert Opinion on Biological ... Gene therapy vectors (such as viruses) can be PEG-coated to shield them from inactivation by the immune system and to de-target ... Kreppel F, Kochanek S (January 2008). "Modification of adenovirus gene transfer vectors with synthetic polymers: a scientific ...
... s have been explored as vectors in gene delivery and genetic immunization. Poly (propyleneimine) dendrosome based ... dendrimer and dendrosome based genetic immunization against Hepatitis B.". Vaccine. 26 (27-28): 3389-3394. doi:10.1016/j. ... genetic immunization against Hepatitis B was found to be highly effective as compared to Dendrimer-Plasmid DNA complex. It has ...
The viral genetic material is contained in a linear double-stranded DNA consisting of 202,182 tightly packed base pairs. The ... The camelpox virus is spread in three ways: direct contact, indirect contact, and insect vectors.[citation needed] In direct ... Eventually, the viral core dissolves, and the genetic material is bare within the cytoplasm. When all of the structural ...
If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli ... Many genetic sequences are expressed in a bacteriophage library in the form of fusions with the bacteriophage coat protein, so ... The protein displayed corresponds to the genetic sequence within the phage. This phage-display library is added to the dish and ... ISBN 978-0-87969-740-2. Breitling F, Dübel S, Seehaus T, Klewinghaus I, Little M (August 1991). "A surface expression vector ...
This produces an observation vector. The feature is then compared to all sequences of the speech recognition units. These units ... and in particular genetic information. They have since become an important tool in the probabilistic modeling of genomic ... Again we then normalize to give an updated initial vector. Finally we repeat these steps until the resulting probabilities ... to find the maximum likelihood estimate of the parameters of a hidden Markov model given a set of observed feature vectors. Let ...
The key to cloning a DNA fragment is to link it to a vector DNA molecule that can replicate within a host cell. After a single ... Here, DNA fragmentation is a molecular genetic technique that permits researchers to use recombinant DNA technology to prepare ... For the purposes of DNA cloning, purified DNA ligase is used to covalently join the ends of a restriction fragment and vector ... Only relatively small DNA molecules can be cloned in any available vector. Therefore, the long DNA molecules that compose an ...
The BBC also made it clear that the genetic sequences of the virus, as far as is known, date back to a West African strain. On ... Do environmental conditions in the UK support the natural reservoirs or vectors of disease? Outcome: yes. Quality of evidence: ... Genetic evidence suggest the outbreak likely started in Nigeria. Given the unusually high frequency of human-to-human ...
However, virus-encoded genetic elements have the ability to antagonize the IFN response contributing to viral pathogenesis and ... RNA interference technology tools such as siRNA or vector-based reagents can either silence or stimulate interferon pathways. ... "Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance". Nature. 461 (7262): 399-401. Bibcode: ...
The two major vectors of R. rickettsii in the United States are the American dog tick and the Rocky Mountain wood tick. ... Deficiency of G6PD is a genetic condition affecting about 12 percent of the Afro-American male population. Deficiency in this ... He and others characterized the basic epidemiological features of the disease, including the role of tick vectors. Their ... rickettsii or serve as experimental vectors in the laboratory. These species are likely to play only a minor role in the ...
C M Thomas, and C A Smith: "Incompatibility Group P Plasmids: Genetics, Evolution, and Use in Genetic Manipulation", Annual ... "Construction and use of a versatile set of broad-host-range cloning and expression vectors based on the RK2 replicon", Appl. ... An increase in copy number is useful for genetic engineering applications to increase the production yield of recombinant ... which makes it suitable as a genetic engineering tool. It is capable of transfer, replication, and maintenance in most genera ...
see also Viral neuronal tracing) In order to trace projections from a specific region or cell, a genetic construct, virus or ... Over the recent years viral vectors have been developed and implemented as anterograde tracers to identify the target regions ... Those can also be genetic or molecular tracers. Recently manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) has been used to ... Chamberlin NL, Du B, de Lacalle S, Saper CB (May 1998). "Recombinant adeno-associated virus vector: use for transgene ...
... studies of mitochondrial DNA show that the divergence between each of the three chipmunk groups is comparable to the genetic ... and are an important vector for dispersal of the spores of subterranean sporocarps (truffles) which have co-evolved with these ...
"The Gut Microbiome of the Vector Lutzomyia Longipalpis Is Essential for Survival of Leishmania Infantum." MBio, vol. 8, no. 1, ... Studies involving isoenzyme electrophoresis, genetic polymorphism assessments of DNA and mRNA, cytogenetics, analysis studies ... Vectors. 9 (1): 580. doi:10.1186/s13071-016-1866-x. PMC 5109651. PMID 27842601. Lima, L., Mesquita, M., Skrip, L. et al. DNA ... the vector of Leishmania donovani chagasi Cunha & Chagas and its significance to kala-azar distribution in South America". ...
"Evolution of Resistance to Insecticide in Disease Vectors". In Tibayrenc, Michel (ed.). Genetics and Evolution of Infectious ... that result from reduced sensitivity of the nervous system caused by point mutations in the insect population's genetic makeup ...
Models and algorithms based on the principle of competitive learning include vector quantization and self-organizing maps ( ... 2003). Neural networks, fuzzy logic, and genetic algorithms : synthesis and applications. Pai, G. A. Vijayalakshmi. (Eastern ... Learning Vector Quantisation, Self-Organising Feature Map, Adaptive Resonance Theory Stochastic - Boltzmann Machine, Cauchy ...
Ullrich purified the insulin mRNA from this sample and cloned it into a vector that he inserted into E coli. Thus, he produced ... In some tumours, (the cancerous state), some receptor tyrosine kinases tend to be over-active, due to genetic changes. Ullrich ...
In 1922, he discovered the aphid "Aphis maidis", the vector of the mosaic of sugar cane. He was also the first Puerto Rican to ... Genetic Roadmap Targets Drug Therapies Archived September 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine from Hartford Business Review ... a genetics-related company and now the bio-tech anchor of Hartford Hospital's Genetic Research Center; he also serves as ...
The activity of SINEs however has genetic vestiges which do not seem to play a significant role, positive or negative, and ... SINEs can be transferred between individuals or species via horizontal transfer through a viral vector. SINEs are known to ... The distribution of SINEs to genes was significantly more similar than that of other non-coding genetic elements and even ... SINEs are also implicated in certain types of genetic disease in humans and other eukaryotes. In essence, short interspersed ...
In functional analysis, an important class of vector spaces consists of the complete normed vector spaces over the real or ... "Genetic analyses from ancient DNA." Annu. Rev. Genet. 38, 645-679 (2004). Jensfelt, Annika (14 January 2001). Svenska Dagbladet ... A Schauder basis or countable basis is similar to the usual (Hamel) basis of a vector space; the difference is that for Hamel ... This result was generalized to other norms on the vector space of homogeneous polynomials. Of these norms, the most used has ...
The method for SMGT uses the sperm cell, a natural vector of genetic material, to transport exogenous DNA. The exogenous DNA ... Skepticism arises based on the assumption that evolutionary chaos could arise if sperm cells could act as vectors for exogenous ... Nevertheless, despite some successes and its potential utility, SMGT is not yet established as a reliable form of genetic ... Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Genetic engineering). ...
Hard-bodied ticks of the genus Ixodes are the vectors of Lyme disease (also the vector for Babesia). Most infections are caused ... The Lyme-related Borrelia species are collectively known as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and show a great deal of genetic ... Companion Vector-Borne Diseases. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 21 May 2019. Eisen L, Eisen RJ (September ... In North America, the black-legged tick or deer tick (Ixodes scapularis) is the main vector on the East Coast. The lone star ...
Sühs; Somavilla; Putzke; Köhler (2009). "Pollen vector wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi ( ... "Does kin recognition and sib-mating avoidance limit the risk of genetic incompatibility in a parasitic wasp?". PLOS ONE. 5 (10 ... Pollen vector wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil]. ...
The goal is to find a vector x that violates as few relations as possible, while satisfying all the others. Min-ULR[≠] is ... ISBN 978-0-7167-1044-8. Koehler, Gary J. (November 1991). "Linear Discriminant Functions Determined by Genetic Search". ORSA ... An m-by-1 vector b. The linear system is given by: A x R b. It is assumed to be feasible (i.e., satisfied by at least one x). ... The goal is to find an n-by-1 vector x that satisfies the system A x R b, and subject to that, contains as few as possible ...
Hypercomplex analysis Vector calculus Complex dynamics List of complex analysis topics Monodromy theorem Real analysis Riemann- ... In aerospace engineering In Biomedical sciences In Brain mapping Genetic mapping Geodesics In Geometry In Geophysics In Google ... González-Matesanz, F. J.; Malpica, J. A. (2006-11-01). "Quasi-conformal mapping with genetic algorithms applied to coordinate ... as a vector-valued function from X into R 2 . {\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{2}.} Some properties of complex-valued functions ( ...
In 2007, he was one of the founding members of the Imagine Institute of Genetic Diseases. In 2008, he received the Inserm Grand ... The trial is restarted in 2004, according to a modified protocol using better retroviral vectors, and will be stopped again in ...
... in addition to managing the vector presence as well. Genetic Resistance: Partial resistance to BPMV is available in some ... There are genetic, cultural, and chemical options which should be used together in an integrated pest management plan, ... If the virus is present but the insect vector is not, spraying insecticides will not be effective in managing the disease. ... In the North Central Region, the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcate) is the most influential vector, by feeding on infected ...
... has a direct life cycle as it infects a single host without requiring an intermediate or vector to complete its ... efforts into learning about this genus must be done such as cross-transmission testing as well as biochemical and genetic ...
Viral vector based gene delivery uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material to the host cell. This is done by using a ... These synthetic vectors have the ability to electrostatically bind DNA or RNA and compact the genetic information to ... Chemical vectors usually enter cells by endocytosis and can protect genetic material from degradation. One of the simplest ... This vector overcomes traditional barriers to gene delivery by combining E. coli with a synthetic polymer to create a vector ...
Researchers at University Sains Malaysia are examining variability in the genome of the pathogen and its genetic variability is ... it remains unproven whether they can be effective vectors. Although it is a soil-borne pathogen, it does not compete well ... of gametes showed relatively high disequilibrium and another a high degree of correlation between independent genetic markers, ...
In 2013 Potrykus met the Pope who offered his personal blessing to Golden Rice although the Pope was concerned that genetic ... in plants of two bacterial antibiotic resistance genes after protoplast transformation with a new plant expression vector. ... Potrykus began thinking about using genetic engineering to improve the nutritional qualities of rice in the late 1980s. He knew ... In 1976 he transferred to Basel, Switzerland to establish the area of plant genetic engineering at the Friedrich Miescher ...
... the constitutive expression of proteins at different levels over a range of three orders of magnitude and in different genetic ... Yeast vectors for the controlled expression of heterologous proteins in different genetic backgrounds Gene. 1995 Apr 14;156(1): ... The 32 expression vectors created by this strategy provide a powerful tool for the convenient cloning and the controlled ... An expression system for Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc) has been developed which, depending on the chosen vector, allows the ...
Download this Free Vector about Genetic scientists conducting research and experiment, and discover more than 41 Million ... www.freepik.com/free-vector/genetic-scientists-conducting-research-experiment_3226122.htm. ...
1977)‎. Genetic aspects of developing insecticide resistance of malaria vectors / by D. A. Muir. World Health Organization. ... Genetic aspects of developing insecticide resistance of malaria vectors / by D. A. Muir. ...
Abnormalities and Fraud Electric Meter Detection using Hybrid Support Vector Machine & Genetic Algorithm K.S. Yap, I.Z. Abidin ... Support Vector Machine, Genetic Algorithm, Dynamic Crossover Point, PrePopulated Database, Dual Lagrangian Optimization ... Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to search for the best parameter of SVM classification by using combination of random and pre- ... This paper presents an intelligent system to reduce Non Technical Loss (NTL) using hybrid Support Vector Machine (SVM) and ...
... and centralized facilities necessary to carry out complex genetic engineering and to create genetically modified mice. ... Viral Vector Core. The mission of the Genetic Engineering Technologies (GET) group is to provide The Jackson Laboratorys ... Other service offerings include genetic engineering consultation, training, custom genetic engineering projects, and provision ... We are fully competent taking a project from concept to delivery of live mice and performing genetic engineering in our ...
Genetic variation of enhancer sequences is known to influence phenotypes, but the effect of enhancer variation upon enhancer ... In the African malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, we identified candidate enhancers in the proximity of genes relevant for ... which may help explain important differences between individuals or populations for malaria transmission efficiency and vector ... Influence of genetic polymorphism on transcriptional enhancer activity in the malaria vector Anopheles coluzzii Luisa Nardini 1 ...
Information on vector control interventions used to reduce malarias impact including larval control and other vector control ... Genetic Modification of Malaria Vectors. Genetic modification aims to develop mosquitoes that are not susceptible to the ... Anopheles gambiae, one of the primary vectors of malaria in Africa, breeds in numerous small pools of water that form due to ... Larval Control and Other Vector Control Interventions. ... Other Vector Control Interventions. Fogging (area spraying) ...
Aedes aegypti on Madeira Island (Portugal): genetic variation of a recently introduced dengue vector. Memórias do Instituto ... Aedes aegypti on Madeira Island (Portugal): genetic variation of a recently introduced dengue vector. Memórias do Instituto ... mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. ... aegypti population from Madeira showed extremely low mtDNA genetic variability, with a single haplotype for COI and ND4. We ...
... we should deploy cadres of high-impact vectors, reducing collateral damage while overcoming the toughest therapeutic challenges ... Rather than unleash hordes of low-impact vectors, ... Viral vectors now carry genetic material in diverse ... adenoviral vectors, and retroviral vectors. Adeno-associated vectors and adenoviral vectors can transduce both dividing and ... Viral vectors in vaccines. In the gene therapy field, much effort has been made to discover or create vectors for which there ...
The Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA) method was used to optimize the parameters of the Support Vector ... The Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA) method was used to optimize the parameters of the Support Vector ... The Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA) method was used to optimize the parameters of the Support Vector ... The Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA) method was used to optimize the parameters of the Support Vector ...
This system should facilitate the generation of multiple genetic variants by eliminating the need for time-consuming plaque ... When the vectors are used for delineating protein function, several viruses, each containing a mutated version of the transgene ... Thus, recombinant adenovirus vectors can be produced very simply, rapidly and with little to no contaminating wild-type ... In this report, we show that a novel backbone plasmid, when cotransfected with routinely used shuttle vectors into HEK293 cells ...
Genetic aspects of developing insecticide resistance of malaria vectors / by D. A. Muir  Muir, D. A; World Health Organization ... Genetic aspects of developing insecticide resistance of malaria vectors / by D. A. Muir  Muir, D. A; World Health Organization ... Vector resistance to insecticides : a review of its operational significance in malaria eradication and control programmes  ... The practical implication of resistance of malaria vectors to insecticides / by A. R. Zahar, G. Davidson  Zahar, A. R; ...
Population genetic structure of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae).. Authors: Gakhar, S K. Sharma, ... Vector control is essential for malaria prevention strategies. Knowledge of population genetic structure is pre-requisite for ... Population genetic structure of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). Indian Journal of Experimental ... Population genetic study can predict level of gene flow between different populations. Anopheles stephensi Liston is urban ...
In vector quantization (VQ), minimization of mean square error (MSE) between code book vectors and training vectors is a non- ... Krishna, K and Ramakrishnan, KR and Thathachar, MAL (1997) Vector Quantization using Genetic K-Means Algorithm for Image ... This paper addresses the problem of designing a globally optimum code book using genetic algorithms (GAs). A hybrid GA called ... the genetic K-means algorithm (GKA) that combines the advantages of gradient descent algorithms and GAs have been proposed ...
The RNA platform is a type of genetic vaccines. Instead of delivering immunogenic proteins, genetic vaccines provide the ... Vector uncoating limits adeno-associated viral vector-mediated transduction of human dendritic cells and vector immunogenicity ... New vector and vaccine platforms: mRNA, DNA, viral vectors : Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS. ... Virus vectors come in many different shapes and forms. Vectors can carry single or double stranded nucleic acids, RNA or DNA ...
An efficient protocol has been developed for the genetic manipulation of Streptomyces fradiae NCIMB 8233, which produces the 2- ... Construction of new vectors for high-level expression in actinomycetes.. *C. Rowe, J. Cortés, S. Gaisser, J. Staunton, P. ... An efficient protocol has been developed for the genetic manipulation of Streptomyces fradiae NCIMB 8233, which produces the 2- ... The neomycin biosynthetic gene cluster of Streptomyces fradiae NCIMB 8233: genetic and biochemical evidence for the roles of ...
Palese P, Roizman B. Genetic engineering of viruses and of virus vectors: A preface. Proceedings of the National Academy of ... Palese, P. ; Roizman, B. / Genetic engineering of viruses and of virus vectors : A preface. In: Proceedings of the National ... Palese, P., & Roizman, B. (1996). Genetic engineering of viruses and of virus vectors: A preface. Proceedings of the National ... Genetic engineering of viruses and of virus vectors : A preface. / Palese, P.; Roizman, B. ...
Find high-quality royalty-free vector images that you wont find anywhere else. ... Vector molecule background, genetic and chemical compounds Vector molecule background, genetic and chemical compounds medicine ... Vector layout design template for medicine. A4 size.. Vector layout template with geometric pattern for medical layout. For ... Vector set of packaging design templates. Vector set of packaging design templates, seamless patterns and frames with copy ...
GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine ... GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector machine ... Title : GAPscreener: An automatic tool for screening human genetic association literature in PubMed using the support vector ... Genetic Linkage Genome, Human Humans Natural Language Processing Pattern Recognition, Automated Periodicals As Topic PubMed ...
Large-Scale Comparative Analyses of Tick Genomes Elucidate Their Genetic Diversity and Vector Capacities.. Jia, Na; Wang, ... We explored the genetic basis common to ticks, including heme and hemoglobin digestion, iron metabolism, and reactive oxygen ... Among arthropod vectors, ticks transmit the most diverse human and animal pathogens, leading to an increasing number of new ... genomes of six ixodid tick species and further resequenced 678 tick specimens to understand three key aspects of ticks genetic ...
Selfishdna mediawiki: Selfish DNA and the genetic control of vector-borne database Format Label:. *GZIP Format ... Selfishdna mediawiki: Selfish DNA and the genetic control of vector-borne database ...
Download free composite photos and vectors. Thousands of free images, photos and vectors. ... Dimensional gradient shape element for design, abstract colorful fluid vector background, flowing 3d wave, color dynamic motion ...
Vector. A vector, as related to molecular biology, is a DNA molecule (often plasmid or virus) that is used as a vehicle to ... Genetic Map. A genetic map (also called a linkage map) shows the relative location of genetic markers (reflecting sites of ... Genetic Epidemiology. Genetic epidemiology is a field of science focused on the study of how genetic factors influence human ... Genetic Counseling. Genetic counseling refers to guidance relating to genetic disorders that a specialized healthcare ...
Svg Vector Icons : http://www.onlinewebfonts.com/icon Report. Yes, its cute, but its a literal genetic defect, so PLEASE dont ... Svg Vector Icons : http://www.onlinewebfonts.com/icon Report. Yeah dont bother me about eating my ribs. I do whatever I want. ... Svg Vector Icons : http://www.onlinewebfonts.com/icon Report. My last cat Turkey was a stray, I named him Turkey because he ... Svg Vector Icons : http://www.onlinewebfonts.com/icon Report. Cats can be the most lovely creatures ever. I hate the bad rap ...
... "vectors" that can enter certain cells. Vectors carry genetic instructions to specific cells. Once delivered, the new genetic ... A certain type of vector, called an adeno-associated virus, or AAV, dissolves after delivering its genetic instructions. These ... as its vector. The AAV5 vector carries the Padua gene variant of Factor IX (FIX-Padua), which generates FIX proteins that are ... genetic instructions remain in the target cells, but never actually become a part of a persons own DNA. ...
Age-factors; Disease-incidence; Disease-vectors; Exposure-methods; Genes; Genetic-factors; Genetics; Tobacco; Author Keywords: ...
Real and reactive power flow allocation in deregulated power system utilizing genetic-support vector machine technique. ... Real and reactive power flow allocation in deregulated power system utilizing genetic-support vector machine technique. ...
  • Recombinant adenoviruses are useful vectors for basic research. (nature.com)
  • In this report, we show that a novel backbone plasmid, when cotransfected with routinely used shuttle vectors into HEK293 cells allowed for production of recombinant viruses in an average of 14 days. (nature.com)
  • Thus, recombinant adenovirus vectors can be produced very simply, rapidly and with little to no contaminating wild-type particles. (nature.com)
  • Design of recombinant DNA molecules for genetic modification. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • My colleagues and I have several active projects, including a study on the generation and use of recombinant AAV vectors expressing Factor IX to treat hemophilia B. In particular, we are investigating novel methods of delivering vector to target tissues, and are also exploring the use of alternate serotypes and optimized expression cassettes in order to maximize gene expression. (upenn.edu)
  • Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are the leading vectors for gene delivery. (genengnews.com)
  • To date, most of the vectors used for gene therapy have been derived from the adeno-associated virus (AAV). (genengnews.com)
  • A certain type of vector, called an adeno-associated virus, or AAV, dissolves after delivering its genetic instructions. (biospace.com)
  • Identify, for a particular delivery strategy (adeno-associated virus vectors), the importance of the various serotypes available. (sfn.org)
  • Viral vectors that are frequently used to deliver gene therapy include adeno-associated vectors, adenoviral vectors, and retroviral vectors. (genengnews.com)
  • Adeno-associated vectors and adenoviral vectors can transduce both dividing and nondividing cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Adenoviral vectors, particularly human serotype 5 (of 58 individual serotypes), are widely used for gene therapy due to versatile tropism, large transgene capacity and ability to achieve efficient transgene without risk of insertional mutagenesis. (ukri.org)
  • To fully understand this interaction we will assess the role of other capsid proteins, fiber and penton base by using a range of chimeric adenoviral vectors. (ukri.org)
  • The purpose of this review is to share the excitement of new developments in the field of vaccine vector modalities against infectious diseases. (lww.com)
  • And unlike attenuated and subunit vaccines that require a new process for each vaccine, emerging technologies require only the genetic sequence for parts of a target virus. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • We have two types of vaccines - the adenovirus vector vaccine by Johnson & Johnson and RNA/ mRNA vaccines. (legalreader.com)
  • The other vaccine contains an adenovirus vector. (legalreader.com)
  • However, the Novavax vaccine leverages the older vaccine development techniques , where the injection introduces the protein and not the genetic recipe. (legalreader.com)
  • Dr. Richard Currie explained how rapid genomic tests can be used to benchmark vaccine administration in poultry flocks vaccinated with next generation vector vaccines. (wattagnet.com)
  • A new genomic test provides feedback on uniformity of vector vaccine administration in poultry flocks and another can provide data on the level of field virus challenge on a farm. (wattagnet.com)
  • Dr. Richard Currie, CEO, Rapid Genomics , said that a pair of new diagnostic tests for HVT vector vaccine verification and virus exposure characterization have been developed to help poultry producers manage their vaccine administration programs and provide insight into the level of disease challenge present on their farms. (wattagnet.com)
  • On February 26, 2021, Health Canada authorized the use of a third COVID-19 vaccine from AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1-S). This new vaccine is a viral-vector based vaccine which uses a harmless virus, in this case an adenovirus, to deliver the genetic information (DNA) that instructs the body on how to make the surface spike protein of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). (mssociety.ca)
  • E1 deleted adenoviruses are considered to be replication-defective and are used as shuttle vectors in gene therapy or vaccination for gene therapy and vaccine immunization. (medicaltrend.org)
  • However, since there is a chance that many people may have already been exposed to the viruses being used as vectors, some may be immune to it, making the vaccine less effective. (gavi.org)
  • In the absence of a vaccine, vector control is the mainstay for dengue prevention and control. (who.int)
  • Given the lack of a dengue vaccine, control of dengue depends on vector control. (who.int)
  • Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. (researchgate.net)
  • as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. (researchgate.net)
  • What is a viral vector vaccine? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The Johnson & Johnson vaccine, which is a viral vector vaccine, works in a similar way. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sandflies are important insect vectors that transmit many species of Leishmania , bacteria and viruses. (plos.org)
  • American Trypanosomiasis, Chagas Disease: One Hundred Years of Research, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of Chagas disease and discusses the latest discoveries concerning the three elements that compose the transmission chain of the disease, the host, the insect vectors, and the causative parasite. (elsevier.com)
  • Several genetic subunit vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 demonstrated protection against severe disease, obtained Emergency Use Authorization and scaled their production to billions of doses. (lww.com)
  • Emerging genetic vaccines eliminate the complexity and risk of working with live viruses. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Viral-vector vaccines use engineered viruses to enter host cells and deliver DNA that yields expression of tailored antigenic proteins. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • These vaccines inject the genetic recipe into the body cells, and those cells, in turn, produce the protein so that our immunity can fight the disease. (legalreader.com)
  • Next generation vector vaccines for poultry can be administered in the hatchery and are minimally interfered with by maternal antibodies, are safer to use than live attenuated whole virus vaccines and offer the potential for lifetime immunity for the bird. (wattagnet.com)
  • Next generation vector vaccines utilize a virus, such as a turkey herpes virus (HVT), which serves as a carrier for the genetic material from viruses which cause a poultry disease, such as Newcastle disease, infectious bursal disease, Marek's disease or infectious bronchitis. (wattagnet.com)
  • Inactivated vaccines use viruses whose genetic material has been destroyed so they cannot replicate, but can still trigger an immune response. (gavi.org)
  • Nucleic acid vaccines use genetic material - either RNA or DNA - to provide cells with the instructions to make the antigen. (gavi.org)
  • Viral vector vaccines also work by giving cells genetic instructions to produce antigens. (gavi.org)
  • Viral vector vaccines can mimic natural viral infection and should therefore trigger a strong immune response. (gavi.org)
  • Both mRNA and viral vector COVID-19 vaccines deliver instructions (genetic material) to our cells to start building protection against the virus that causes COVID-19. (ca.gov)
  • mRNA and viral vector vaccines are the two types of currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines available. (ca.gov)
  • Matica Biotechnology, Inc. is a contract development and manufacturing organization (CDMO) specializing in the production of virus-based cell & gene therapeutics, oncolytic vectors, and vaccines for their clients. (providenceparkbcs.com)
  • Zoetis discovers, develops, manufactures and commercializes medicines, vaccines and diagnostic products, which are complemented by biodevices, genetic tests and precision livestock farming. (providenceparkbcs.com)
  • For instance, valine to control vector-borne diseases is still the main interven- glycine in domain II (V1016G) is associated with resistance tion although efforts to introduce licensed vaccines have to type I and type II pyrethroids, such as permethrin progressed greatly. (who.int)
  • This different virus, called a 'viral vector,' carries the same type of important instructions that mRNA vaccines do. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vector Competence of Aedes caspius and Ae. (cdc.gov)
  • Aedes aegypti on Madeira Island (Portugal): genetic variation of a recently introduced dengue vector. (unl.pt)
  • 2 The most important dengue vector in the Western Pacific Region is Aedes aegypti ( Stegomyia aegypti ), which is predominately found in densely populated urban areas. (who.int)
  • Dengue outbreaks have also been associated with Aedes albopictus , particularly in China, 3 and several other Aedes species found in South Pacific countries and areas may also be competent dengue vectors. (who.int)
  • Dengue is endemic in Saudi Arabia especially in Jeddah, Makkah, Asir, and Jazan areas where pyrethroids are widely used to control the vector, Aedes aegypti . (who.int)
  • Knowledge of population genetic structure is pre-requisite for determining prevention strategies, particularly using transgenic mosquitoes. (who.int)
  • Help with cloning protocols and reagents required to generate gene targeting and transgenic vectors. (irbbarcelona.org)
  • TMV-MP-expressing transgenic plants exhibited a root-to-shoot ratio that was approximately 40% below that of transgenic vector control plants. (usda.gov)
  • Viruses have been evolving for millions of years, improving their ability to transfer genetic material to the hosts they infect. (genengnews.com)
  • So, it's no wonder that viruses-or rather, viral vectors derived from viruses-have been harnessed to accomplish gene transfer in the name of science and medicine. (genengnews.com)
  • Viruses are diverse, and so are viral vectors. (genengnews.com)
  • When the vectors are used for delineating protein function, several viruses, each containing a mutated version of the transgene are compared at the same time. (nature.com)
  • Palese, P & Roizman, B 1996, ' Genetic engineering of viruses and of virus vectors: A preface ', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 93, no. 21, pp. 11287. (mssm.edu)
  • Gene therapy has the potential to make more normal clotting ability possible in hemophilia B. Gene therapy achieves this with modified non-infectious viruses called "vectors" that can enter certain cells. (biospace.com)
  • Certain viruses are used as vectors because they can deliver the material by infecting the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Researchers are developing newer technologies that can deliver genetic material or gene-editing tools without using viruses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sandflies are well known vectors for Leishmania but also transmit a number of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). (plos.org)
  • Adenoviruses are a family of related viruses which cause mild infections in people and which have been converted into gene transfer vectors by blocking their ability to replicate in cells. (ukri.org)
  • The polymorphic regions on the genes for merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 ( msp1 and msp2 ) were amplified in 118 pre-treatment samples to identify the genetic diversity of the infected parasites. (researchsquare.com)
  • Researchers from the Institut Pasteur, CNRS and IRD, in collaboration with scientific teams from four African countries and the United States, have identified a genetic marker that helps detect malaria-susceptible mosquitoes which are more likely to be infected with Plasmodium parasites in the wild, thereby having greater chance to transmit the disease to humans. (pasteur.fr)
  • New approaches to the identification of parasites and their vectors : proceedings of a symposium on application of biochemical and molecular biology techniques to problems of parasite and vector identification held in Geneva, Switzerland, 8-10 November, 1982 / edited by B. N. Newton and F. Michal. (who.int)
  • Approaches including those based on viral vectors, DNA plasmids, and messenger RNA (mRNA) produce viral antigens inside patient cells. (bioprocessintl.com)
  • Genetic variation of enhancer sequences is known to influence phenotypes, but the effect of enhancer variation upon enhancer functional activity and downstream phenotypes has barely been examined in any species. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Here we sequenced and assembled high-quality genomes of six ixodid tick species and further resequenced 678 tick specimens to understand three key aspects of ticks genetic diversity , population structure, and pathogen distribution. (bvsalud.org)
  • We explored the genetic basis common to ticks , including heme and hemoglobin digestion , iron metabolism , and reactive oxygen species , and unveiled for the first time that genetic structure and pathogen composition in different tick species are mainly shaped by ecological and geographic factors . (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present study, cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences were determined in 13 species circulating in Peru to establish a basis for analysis of the genetic structure, and the intraspecific genetic diversity was assessed in the Lutzomyia (Lu. (edu.pe)
  • peruensis, a main vector species of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana in Peruvian Andes. (edu.pe)
  • Several findings promoted experimental BLU research (3,10): the showing of the plurality of strains (23), the successful use of the propagation of BLU inembryonated chicken eggs(1), the development of cell culture as a neutralization assay system (8), and the demonstration for wild and colonized populations of C. variipennis that this species was a biological vector of bluetongue virus(7). (cdc.gov)
  • 2007. Genetic diversity analysis in Vicia species using retrotransposon-based SSAP markers . (hutton.ac.uk)
  • Recent focus on Culicoides species diversity in Thailand was prompted by a need to identify vectors responsible for the transmission of African Horse Sickness in that country. (edu.au)
  • To assist rapid genetic identification of species, we sampled mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) DNA barcodes (N = 78) from 40 species of Culicoides biting midge from Thailand, including 17 species for which DNA barcodes were previously unavailable. (edu.au)
  • Comparison with published BINs also revealed genetic evidence of divergent population processes and or potentially cryptic species in 16 described taxa, flagged by their high levels of COI sequence difference among conspecifics. (edu.au)
  • In the African malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii, we identified candidate enhancers in the proximity of genes relevant for immunity, insecticide resistance, and development. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Anopheles gambiae , one of the primary vectors of malaria in Africa, breeds in numerous small pools of water that form due to rainfall. (cdc.gov)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Population genetic structure of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). (who.int)
  • Anopheles stephensi Liston is urban vector of malaria in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent. (who.int)
  • Called the 2La inversion, this marker is a frequent and geographically widespread genetic difference found in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the major African malaria vector. (pasteur.fr)
  • In Anopheles mosquitoes, this genetic variation is present in two forms: the 2La genetic sequence and the 2L+ a genetic inversion. (pasteur.fr)
  • Genetic and morphological identification of female Anopheles spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Vectors for transcription factor cloning and target site identification by means of genetic selection in yeast. (wikigenes.org)
  • We describe the construction of a number of vectors that can be used in yeast genetic selection systems for cloning of transcription factors or other DNA-binding proteins and for identification of the target sites recognized by transcription factors. (wikigenes.org)
  • Genetic screening of a yeast genomic library in a high-copy-number vector identified the normally single-copy tRNA CCU Arg gene as one of the genes that reduces Ty1 transposition frequency when overexpressed. (nyu.edu)
  • This paper presents an intelligent system to reduce Non Technical Loss (NTL) using hybrid Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). The main motivation for this research is to assist Sabah Electricity Sdn. (actapress.com)
  • Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to search for the best parameter of SVM classification by using combination of random and pre-populated genomes from Pre-Populated Database (PPD). (actapress.com)
  • This involved using the CT Scan dataset obtained from Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, and the application of the Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm-Support Vector Machine (PSO-GA-SVM) method of classification. (ui.ac.id)
  • The Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA) method was used to optimize the parameters of the Support Vector Machine. (ui.ac.id)
  • A hybrid GA called the genetic K-means algorithm (GKA) that combines the advantages of gradient descent algorithms and GAs have been proposed previously. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Furthermore, a hybrid model based on the genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed to simultaneously optimize the prototype construction and the SVM kernel parameters setting to enhance the classification accuracy. (nycu.edu.tw)
  • Their typical similarity metric is modified to a weighted Euclidean metric and automatically adjusted by a genetic algorithm, a heuristic search (optimization) technique. (bvsalud.org)
  • Malaria epidemiology is associated with drug resistance in parasite and differential distribution and insecticide resistance in vector. (who.int)
  • It is important to continue to monitor IR in PNG and develop proactive insecticide resistance management strategies in primary disease vectors to retain pyrethroid susceptibility especially in the malaria vectors for as long as possible. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insecticide resistance (IR) monitoring in mosquitoes is important for ensuring continued efficacy of insecticide-based vector control interventions and for guiding the selection and application of the most appropriate combinations of products and active ingredients (AIs) [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene therapy requires gene transfer vectors to deliver the therapeutic gene to the relevant target cell. (ca.gov)
  • However, the levels of therapeutic gene expression is consistantly controlled by insertion promoter of viral vector. (ca.gov)
  • The 32 expression vectors created by this strategy provide a powerful tool for the convenient cloning and the controlled expression of genes or cDNAs in nearly every genetic background of the currently used Sc strains. (nih.gov)
  • Our study establishes the first genetic evaluation based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes [cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4)] and knockdown resistance ( kdr ) mutations exploring the colonisation history and the genetic diversity of this insular vector population. (unl.pt)
  • During the critical period from the low-transmission to the pre-elimination phase, this study tracked the dynamic changes in the genetic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum , the distribution of antimalarial drug-resistance genes, and the treatment outcomes in patients to provide insights for the prevention of rebounded malaria in STP. (researchsquare.com)
  • This allows the adenoviral vector to be used for gene therapy (the use of genes to treat human disease). (ukri.org)
  • In fact, adenoviruses are one of the most common vectors in use in gene therapy clinical trials because they are easy to work with, safe and are efficient at delivering genes to cells and tissues in the body. (ukri.org)
  • Genetic changes in microbes, animal vectors, and humans were included. (cdc.gov)
  • It's both a tickborne disease and a zoonotic disease, so that could be related to other, you know, changes occurring in climate or in animal vectors. (cdc.gov)
  • Gene transfer therapy introduces new genetic material into cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Efficient delivery of the virus is the major factor restricting further progress of many important new adenoviral gene therapies, largely because certain properties of the vector have not been optimised for gene transfer. (ukri.org)
  • Current Gene Therapy publishes full-length/mini reviews and original research on the latest developments in gene transfer and gene expression analysis, vector development, cellular genetic engineering, animal models and human clinical applications of gene and cell therapy for the treatment of diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
  • SINV is present throughout the primary vectors ( 21 ). (cdc.gov)
  • With such diversity, is there any way to guarantee that viral vectors are safe and effective? (genengnews.com)
  • Large-Scale Comparative Analyses of Tick Genomes Elucidate Their Genetic Diversity and Vector Capacities. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genetic diversity of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Lutzomyia spp. (edu.pe)
  • Analysis of intraspecific genetic diversity in the cyt b gene sequences from 36 Lu. (edu.pe)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Genetic diversity of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Lutzomyia spp. (edu.pe)
  • Genetic diversity and relationships among Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus field isolates from Colombia and Venezuela. (ajtmh.org)
  • Background: Two of the problems of malaria parasite vector control in Nigeria are the diversity of Anopheline vectors and large size of the country. (bvsalud.org)
  • Another vector in which genetics apparently plays a part involves the sense of taste and how flavours are perceived in the brain. (maggiejs.ca)
  • Over the next month, a highly effective collaboration ensued between the Indian Health Service, the University of New Mexico School of Medicine, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, leading not only to the successful isolation of the virus, but also to the identification of the reservoir and vector for the disease, Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse). (medscape.com)
  • Huntington's disease is an example of an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. (genome.gov)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Comparative Effectiveness of Intracerebroventricular, Intrathecal, and Intranasal Routes of AAV9 Vector Administration for Genetic Therapy of Neurologic Disease in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (umn.edu)
  • Comparative Effectiveness of Intracerebroventricular, Intrathecal, and Intranasal Routes of AAV9 Vector Administration for Genetic Therapy of Neurologic Disease in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I . Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience , 14 , [618360]. (umn.edu)
  • Fixing or compensating for disease-causing genetic changes may recover the role of these important proteins and allow the body to function as expected. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In 2019, Zolgensma was priced at $2.1 million as a treatment for spinal muscular atrophy, a fatal genetic disease affecting infants and young children. (medscape.com)
  • It targets the cause, the genetic defect behind a disease, swapping out faulty code or even inserting a gene that's missing. (medscape.com)
  • More than half (23 of 39) of the articles represent epidemiologic studies including candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) examining genetic effect modification on disease risk. (cdc.gov)
  • Occupational exposures involving crystalline silica and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were also studied in relation to genetic damage and initiation of disease processes. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus alphavirus-glycoprotein pseudotypes hold a potential as suitable vectors for gene therapy/ transfer in Niemann Pick's Disease-Type A, a genetic lipid-storage disorder. (purdue.edu)
  • and strengthen prevention of tropical and vector-borne disease outbreaks in epidemic-prone Member States by 2030. (who.int)
  • Rosenberg's Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease, Sixth Edition: Volume One, provides a comprehensive introduction and reference to the foundations and key practical aspects relevant to neurologic and psychiatric disease. (amoscassidyauthor.com)
  • They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS . (bvsalud.org)
  • These results demonstrate the existence of naturally polymorphic A. coluzzii enhancers, which may help explain important differences between individuals or populations for malaria transmission efficiency and vector adaptation to the environment. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • mosquito populations from Europe are screening legs, and transmission rates by screening saliva, competent vectors for Zika virus ( 3,4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Population genetic study can predict level of gene flow between different populations. (who.int)
  • The present study indicated that the middle region of the cyt b gene is useful for the analysis of genetic structure in sand fly populations. (edu.pe)
  • The primary goal of vector control activities is to reduce vector population density to levels that are believed to correlate with a lower dengue transmission risk. (who.int)
  • 5,6 A model employing all three parameters of dengue transmission, vector density, human cases and vector infection rate, would probably be the most accurate in determining outbreak thresholds for early outbreak prediction. (who.int)
  • Dengue should be suspected in individuals who present with high fever (104°F/40°C), retro-orbital headache, muscle and joint pain, nausea, lymphadenopathy, vomiting, and rash and who have traveled within 2 weeks of symptom onset to an area where appropriate vectors are present and dengue transmission may be occurring. (medscape.com)
  • This paper addresses the problem of designing a globally optimum code book using genetic algorithms (GAs). (iisc.ac.in)
  • Shenk T . Group C adenoviruses as vectors for gene therapy. (nature.com)
  • Adenoviruses have high genetic stability and low pathogenicity. (medicaltrend.org)
  • These experiments will help our further understanding of adenoviruses and ultimately lead to more optimal and safe vectors for all adenoviral gene therapy approaches. (ukri.org)
  • however, retroviral vectors of the lentiviral subtype may transduce both dividing and nondividing cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Genome-wide approaches to epidermal function include short interfering RNA-based genetic screens in cultured human epidermal cells 8 and RNA interference-mediated gene knockdown via in utero microinjection of lentiviral vectors 9 . (nature.com)
  • Other work focuses on safety problems, including determinants of the immune response to the transgene product, and assessment of risk of germline transmission of vector sequences. (upenn.edu)
  • Two were inferred from genetic sequences detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in lung tissue from HPS patients. (cdc.gov)
  • This system should facilitate the generation of multiple genetic variants by eliminating the need for time-consuming plaque purification and the need to manipulate and screen very large plasmids. (nature.com)
  • The instructions for making proteins are carried in a person's genetic code, and variants (or mutations) in this code can impact the production or function of proteins that may be critical to how the body works. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Mutations or abnormalities in this genome lead to genetic disorders. (purdue.edu)
  • AAV vectors are the go-to vectors because they have a record of preclinical and clinical success. (genengnews.com)
  • More recently we have pioneered safe and effective clinical translation of genetic therapies for inherited disorders. (upenn.edu)
  • Thus, with limited information of preclinical data and vector production, the number of clinical trials conducted worldwide did not rise steadily from 1999 to 2015 (32). (swfinstitute.org)
  • Furthermore, funding of the actual clinical trial was not guaranteed even vectors have been produced and certified for human use at significant cost. (swfinstitute.org)
  • The content covers all aspects essential to the practice of neurogenetics to inform clinical diagnosis, treatment and genetic counseling. (amoscassidyauthor.com)
  • Named 2La, this marker is the first widespread genetic variation for malaria infection reported in the wild vector population. (pasteur.fr)
  • The large amount of genetic information accumulated in the post-genomic era needs to be transformed into knowledge 1 . (nature.com)
  • For example, the company participates in upstream and downstream process development for AAV, AV, and LV manufacture, and it has active R&D projects in the areas of AAV and LV vector optimization focused on clinically compliant vector designs. (genengnews.com)
  • The results showed that the classification using PSO-GA-SVM had better performance compared to Support Vector Machine without parameter optimization. (ui.ac.id)
  • We are fully competent taking a project from concept to delivery of live mice and performing genetic engineering in our laboratories, including allele design, construct development, microinjection, and genotyping of founder mice. (jax.org)
  • competent vectors ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, 22(4):573-605, 2021. (upenn.edu)
  • Among arthropod vectors , ticks transmit the most diverse human and animal pathogens, leading to an increasing number of new challenges worldwide. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2007. Delivery of macromolecules to plant parasitic nematodes using a tobacco rattle virus vector . (hutton.ac.uk)
  • The genetic divergence caused by genetic drift and/or selection is suggested to affect the vectorial capacity and insecticide susceptibility of sand flies, as well as other arthropods. (edu.pe)
  • A genetic selection program for oral susceptibility to BLUdeveloped two highly susceptible and a resistant line from the baseline colony of C. variipennis (Sonora strain) that was only 30% susceptible (16). (cdc.gov)
  • Viral vectors now carry genetic material in diverse applications, helping to correct genetic defects, prevent infections, and cure cancer. (genengnews.com)
  • Vectors carry genetic instructions to specific cells. (biospace.com)
  • Usutu virus is maintained in an enzootic cycle involving mosquitos as vectors and birds as the main amplifying hosts. (cdc.gov)
  • Usutu-BONN has not led to massive deaths among birds and has not yet been found in other hosts or mosquito vectors, it seems evident that this strain was recently introduced into Germany and evolved in another geographic region, probably Africa. (cdc.gov)
  • Yes, the NAU junior biology major says, insects can be "gross," but she is fascinated by the dynamic and complex role they play as vectors carrying plague to human hosts: "I think diseases are really cool, in a sadistic way, the way they infect people. (facesoftrif.org)
  • others leave their genetic material outside the genome. (genengnews.com)
  • Instead of adding new genetic material, genome editing introduces gene-editing tools that can change the existing DNA in the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Genome editing technologies allow genetic material to be added, removed, or altered at precise locations in the genome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, there was no production of virus-derived piRNAs and only mild changes in the expression of vector miRNAs in response to infection. (plos.org)
  • We know very little about how this insect vector responds to viral infection. (plos.org)
  • activity of sandfly vectors for TOSV occurs during sum- mer, along with most cases of TOSV infection (7). (cdc.gov)
  • While insufficient to accurately predict the risk of human infection, dengue vector surveillance employs several entomological indicators that have been developed to assess the risk of outbreaks occurring. (who.int)
  • 220 897 dengue fever cases, and 25 064 Rift Valley fever cases among arboviruses or vector-borne diseases reported in 2020. (who.int)
  • Special Issue: Highlights of Genetic Programming 2020 Events. (upenn.edu)
  • Genetic Programming and Evolvable Machines, 21(3):375-397, 2020. (upenn.edu)
  • Some types of virus, such as retroviruses, integrate their genetic material (including the new gene) into a chromosome in the human cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Retroviruses are popularly used gene therapy/transfer vectors. (purdue.edu)
  • Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition. (bvsalud.org)
  • 2007. Genetic polymorphisms in the human selenoprotein P gene determine the response of selenoprotein markers to selenium supplementation in a gender-specific manner (the SELGEN study) . (hutton.ac.uk)
  • All ship command codes have been transferred and encrypted your genetic markers. (voices.com)
  • Pyrethroid-only bed nets are currently the only programmatic vector control tool used in PNG. (biomedcentral.com)
  • protein, which block pyrethroid and DDT action (genetic makeup) ( 4 ). (who.int)
  • Vector control is essential for malaria prevention strategies. (who.int)
  • With effective vector control and case management, substantial progress has been made in the elimination of malaria on the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe (STP). (researchsquare.com)
  • This includes the choice of products for long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs), indoor residual spraying and other vector control tools. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Today, I will talk about the work that we have carried out in the lab during the last 10 years in an effort to develop a CRISPR-based suppression drive for vector control against malaria. (hstalks.com)
  • The next slide shows you why we are interested in developing a vector control measure against malaria. (hstalks.com)
  • The integrated framework builds on progress made in the last two decades in the control, elimination and/or eradication of tropical and vector-borne diseases and addresses major programme deficiencies that drive the persistently high burden of these diseases and the lost momentum towards the 2030 targets. (who.int)
  • In this paper we describe vector surveillance and vector control in the Western Pacific countries and areas. (who.int)
  • Vector surveillance and control strategies used by countries and areas of the Western Pacific Region vary. (who.int)
  • Vector control strategies include chemical, biological and environmental management that mainly target larval breeding sites. (who.int)
  • The use of insecticides targeting larvae and adult mosquitoes remains the mainstay of vector control programmes. (who.int)
  • Existing vector control tools have several limitations in terms of cost, delivery and long-term sustainability. (who.int)
  • Any vector control strategy should be selected based on evidence and appropriateness for the entomological and epidemiological setting and carried out in both inter-epidemic and epidemic periods. (who.int)
  • Vector control is best achieved through management of breeding sites. (who.int)
  • In this paper we describe dengue vector surveillance and control practices in the Western Pacific Region and provide a perspective for future dengue control. (who.int)
  • Vector control methods and strategies differ across countries and areas in the Western Pacific Region ( Table 2 ). (who.int)
  • One such technique uses special structures called nanoparticles as vectors to deliver the genetic material or gene-editing components into cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Autosomal dominant is a pattern of inheritance characteristic of some genetic disorders. (genome.gov)
  • Autosomal recessive is a pattern of inheritance characteristic of some genetic disorders. (genome.gov)
  • aegypti population from Madeira showed extremely low mtDNA genetic variability, with a single haplotype for COI and ND4. (unl.pt)