DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Learning algorithms which are a set of related supervised computer learning methods that analyze data and recognize patterns, and used for classification and regression analysis.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The very first viral gene products synthesized after cells are infected with adenovirus. The E1 region of the genome has been divided into two major transcriptional units, E1A and E1B, each expressing proteins of the same name (ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS and ADENOVIRUS E1B PROTEINS).
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.
A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS associated with respiratory and enteric infections in primate hosts.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Nucleotide sequences repeated on both the 5' and 3' ends of a sequence under consideration. For example, the hallmarks of a transposon are that it is flanked by inverted repeats on each end and the inverted repeats are flanked by direct repeats. The Delta element of Ty retrotransposons and LTRs (long terminal repeats) are examples of this concept.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Genus of non-oncogenic retroviruses which establish persistent infections in many animal species but are considered non-pathogenic. Its species have been isolated from primates (including humans), cattle, cats, hamsters, horses, and sea lions. Spumaviruses have a foamy or lace-like appearance and are often accompanied by syncytium formation. SIMIAN FOAMY VIRUS is the type species.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.

CAR-dependent and CAR-independent pathways of adenovirus vector-mediated gene transfer and expression in human fibroblasts. (1/23054)

Primary fibroblasts are not efficiently transduced by subgroup C adenovirus (Ad) vectors because they express low levels of the high-affinity Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR). In the present study, we have used primary human dermal fibroblasts as a model to explore strategies by which Ad vectors can be designed to enter cells deficient in CAR. Using an Ad vector expressing the human CAR cDNA (AdCAR) at high multiplicity of infection, primary fibroblasts were converted from being CAR deficient to CAR sufficient. Efficiency of subsequent gene transfer by standard Ad5-based vectors and Ad5-based vectors with alterations in penton and fiber was evaluated. Marked enhancement of binding and transgene expression by standard Ad5 vectors was achieved in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Expression by AdDeltaRGDbetagal, an Ad5-based vector lacking the arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) alphaV integrin recognition site from its penton base, was achieved in CAR-sufficient, but not CAR-deficient, cells. Fiber-altered Ad5-based vectors, including (a) AdF(pK7)betagal (bearing seven lysines on the end of fiber) (b) AdF(RGD)betagal (bearing a high-affinity RGD sequence on the end of fiber), and (c) AdF9sK betagal (bearing a short fiber and Ad9 knob), demonstrated enhanced gene transfer in CAR-deficient fibroblasts, with no further enhancement in CAR-sufficient fibroblasts. Together, these observations demonstrate that CAR deficiency on Ad targets can be circumvented either by supplying CAR or by modifying the Ad fiber to bind to other cell-surface receptors.  (+info)

C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability. (2/23054)

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

Telomerase activity is sufficient to allow transformed cells to escape from crisis. (3/23054)

The introduction of simian virus 40 large T antigen (SVLT) into human primary cells enables them to proliferate beyond their normal replicative life span. In most cases, this temporary escape from senescence eventually ends in a second proliferative block known as "crisis," during which the cells cease growing or die. Rare immortalization events in which cells escape crisis are frequently correlated with the presence of telomerase activity. We tested the hypothesis that telomerase activation is the critical step in the immortalization process by studying the effects of telomerase activity in two mortal SVLT-Rasval12-transformed human pancreatic cell lines, TRM-6 and betalox5. The telomerase catalytic subunit, hTRT, was introduced into late-passage cells via retroviral gene transfer. Telomerase activity was successfully induced in infected cells, as demonstrated by a telomerase repeat amplification protocol assay. In each of nine independent infections, telomerase-positive cells formed rapidly dividing cell lines while control cells entered crisis. Telomere lengths initially increased, but telomeres were then maintained at their new lengths for at least 20 population doublings. These results demonstrate that telomerase activity is sufficient to enable transformed cells to escape crisis and that telomere elongation in these cells occurs in a tightly regulated manner.  (+info)

Stabilization of poly-L-lysine/DNA polyplexes for in vivo gene delivery to the liver. (4/23054)

We are developing a self-assembling non-viral in vivo gene delivery vehicle based on poly-l-lysine and plasmid DNA. We have characterized poly-l-lysines of different chain lengths for DNA condensation and strength of DNA binding. Poly-l-lysine chains >20 residues bound DNA efficiently in physiological saline, while shorter chains did not. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid to PLL increased the PLL chain length required for efficient DNA binding in saline and for efficient DNA condensation. By electron microscopy, poly-l-lysine/DNA polyplexes appeared as toroids 25-50 nm in diameter or rods 40-80 nm long; conjugation of asialoorosomucoid to the polylysine component increased the size of resulting polyplexes to 50-90 nm. In water, poly-l-lysine and asialoorosomucoid-PLL polyplexes have effective diameters of 46 and 87.6 nm, respectively. Polyplexes containing only poly-l-lysine and DNA aggregated in physiological saline at all charge ratios and aggregated at neutral charge ratios in water. Attachment of asialoorosomucoid lessened, but did not eliminate, the aggregation of PLL polyplexes, and did not result in efficient delivery of polyplexes to hepatocytes. Conjugation of polyethylene glycol to poly-l-lysine sterically stabilized resulting polyplexes at neutral charge ratios by shielding the surfaces. For efficient in vivo gene delivery, polyplexes will need to be sterically stabilized to prevent aggregation and interaction with serum components.  (+info)

Deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons. (5/23054)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. However, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. Mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (IE) gene, ICP4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining IE genes are expressed. In order to test directly the toxicity of other IE gene products in neurons and develop a mutant background capable of longterm transgene expression, we generated mutants deleted for multiple IE genes in various combinations and tested their relative cytotoxicity in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells, Vero monkey kidney cells, and primary rat cortical and dorsal root neurons in culture. Viral mutants deleted simultaneously for the IE genes encoding ICP4, ICP22 and ICP27 showed substantially reduced cytotoxicity compared with viruses deleted for ICP4 alone or ICP4 in combination with either ICP22, ICP27 or ICP47. Infection of neurons in culture with these triple IE deletion mutants substantially enhanced cell survival and permitted transgene expression for over 21 days. Such mutants may prove useful for efficient gene transfer and extended transgene expression in neurons in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Inducible long-term gene expression in brain with adeno-associated virus gene transfer. (6/23054)

Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors hold promise for treating a number of neurological disorders due to the ability to deliver long-term gene expression without toxicity or immune response. Critical to these endeavors will be controlled expression of the therapeutic gene in target cells. We have constructed and tested a dual cassette rAAV vector carrying a reporter gene under the control of the tetracycline-responsive system and the tetracycline transactivator. Transduction in vitro resulted in stable expression from the vector that can be suppressed 20-fold by tetracycline treatment. In vivo experiments, carried out to 6 weeks, demonstrated that vector-transduced expression is sustained until doxycycline administration upon which reporter gene expression is reduced. Moreover, the suppression of vector-driven expression can be reversed by removal of the drug. These studies demonstrate long-term regulated gene expression from rAAV vectors. This system will provide a valuable approach for controlling vector gene expression both in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (7/23054)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

Antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express Fas ligand (FasL). (8/23054)

Fas ligand is a type II transmembrane protein which can induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing cells. Recent reports indicate that expression of FasL in transplanted cells may cause graft rejection and, on the other hand, tumor cells may lose their tumorigenicity when they are engineered to express FasL. These effects could be related to recruitment of neutrophils by FasL with activation of their cytotoxic machinery. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of allogenic fibroblasts engineered to express FasL. Fibroblasts engineered to express FasL (PA317/FasL) did not exert toxic effects on transformed liver cell line (BNL) or colon cancer cell line (CT26) in vitro, but they could abrogate their tumorigenicity in vivo. Histological examination of the site of implantation of BNL cells mixed with PA317/FasL revealed massive infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and mononuclear cells. A specific immune protective effect was observed in animals primed with a mixture of BNL or CT26 and PA317/FasL cells. Rechallenge with tumor cells 14 or 100 days after priming resulted in protection of 100 or 50% of animals, respectively. This protective effect was due to CD8+ cells since depletion of CD8+ led to tumor formation. In addition, treatment of pre-established BNL tumors with a subcutaneous injection of BNL and PA317/FasL cell mixture at a distant site caused significant inhibition of tumor growth. These data demonstrate that allogenic cells engineered with FasL are able to abolish tumor growth and induce specific protective immunity when they are mixed with neoplastic cells.  (+info)

Promoterless gene trap vectors have been widely used for high-efficiency gene targeting and random mutagenesis in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Unfortunately, such vectors are only effective for genes expressed in ES cells and this has prompted the development of expression-independent vectors. These polyadenylation (poly A) trap vectors employ a splice donor to capture an endogenous genes polyadenylation sequence and provide transcript stability. However, the spectrum of mutations generated by these vectors appears largely restricted to the last intron of target loci due to nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) making them unsuitable for gene targeting applications. Here, we present novel poly A trap vectors that overcome the effect of NMD and also employ RNA instability sequences to improve splicing efficiency. The set of random insertions generated with these vectors show a significantly reduced insertional bias and the vectors can be targeted directly to a 5′ intron. We also show that this ...
Title: Transductional Targeting with Recombinant Adenovirus Vectors. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Valerie Legrand, Philippe Leissner, Arend Winter, Majid Mehtali and Monika Lusky. Affiliation:CAREXS.A., 11 rue Humann, 67000 Strasbourg, France. Keywords:Adenovirus Vectors, TROPISM, Fiber Protein, Monoclonal antibody. Abstract: Replication-deficient adenoviruses are considered as gene delivery vectors for the genetic treatment of a variety of diseases. The ability of such vectors to mediate efficient expression of therapeutic genes in a broad spectrum of dividing and non-dividing cell types constitutes an advantage over alternative gene transfer vectors. However, this broad tissue tropism may also turn disadvantageous when genes encoding potentially harmful proteins (e.g. cytokines, toxic proteins) are expressed in surrounding normal tissues. Therefore, specific restrictions of the viral tropism would represent a significant technological advance towards safer and more efficient gene delivery ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Retrograde transfer of replication deficient recombinant adenovirus vector in the central nervous system for tracing studies. AU - Kuo, Hui. AU - Ingram, Donald K.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. AU - Mastrangeli, Andrea. PY - 1995/12/24. Y1 - 1995/12/24. N2 - We assessed the application of a replication deficient recombinant adenovirus vector as a retrograde tracer in neural pathway studies. The adenovirus vector, Ad.RSVBgal, containing the intracellular marker gene, β-galactosidase, was injected directly into the laterodorsal striatum of rats. The retrograde transport of the vector from the injection site was clearly visible in the cerebral cortex, thalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra. No evidence for anterograde transport of the vector was found. When the vector was injected into the genu of the corpus callosum, little uptake of the vector by fibers was noted which suggested that uptake by fibers-of-passage should not be a problem in tracing studies. The present study demonstrates ...
Viral vectors are superior tools for gene therapy and as a genetic vaccine platform because viruses have evolved to efficiently infect and transfer their genomes to cells. Several impressive successes in viral vector-based gene therapies have been reported in humans, including restoration of vision in patients with Lebers congenital amaurosis by retinal gene transfer and cures for severe immune deficiencies by gene transfer to hematopoietic stem cells. However, the mammalian immune system has evolved in parallel to fend off invading pathogens such as viruses. Innate and antigen-specific adaptive immune responses against viral vectors and therapeutic transgene products pose serious hurdles for successful gene therapy. Pre-existing immunity in humans, resulting from prior exposure to the parent virus that forms the basis for the gene transfer vehicle may be derived from, often prevents efficient gene transfer. This problem also reduces our ability to use certain vectors for genetic vaccination or in anti
Oxford Biomedica used Antha to optimize their lentiviral vector transfection/transduction system and improve production efficiency and robustness. This resulted in ~40 hours of time saving, a 3-10-fold increase in vector titre upon transduction and an 81% reduction in pure error.
Vector construction. Construction of recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing human IL12 under control of doxycycline by calcium phosphate-mediated coprecipita
We have constructed a small and highly efficient binary Ti vector pSiM24 for plant transformation with maximum efficacy. In the pSiM24 vector, the size of the backbone of the early binary vector pKYLXM24 (GenBank Accession No. HM036220; a derivative of pKYLX71) was reduced from 12.8 kb to 7.1 kb. The binary vector pSiM24 is composed of the following genetic elements: left and right T-DNA borders, a modified full-length transcript promoter (M24) of Mirabilis mosaic virus with duplicated enhancer domains, three multiple cloning sites, a 3rbcsE9 terminator, replication functions for Escherichia coli (ColE1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (pRK2-OriV) and the replicase trfA gene, selectable marker genes for kanamycin resistance (nptII) and ampicillin resistance (bla). The pSiM24 plasmid offers a wide selection of cloning sites, high copy numbers in E. coli and a high cloning capacity for easily manipulating different genetic elements. It has been fully tested in transferring transgenes such as green
A retroviral vector system based on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was developed that, in contrast to a murine leukemia virus-based counterpart, transduced heterologous sequences into HeLa cells and rat fibroblasts blocked in the cell cycle, as well as into human primary macrophages. Additionally, the HIV vector could mediate stable in vivo gene transfer into terminally differentiated neurons. The ability of HIV-based viral vectors to deliver genes in vivo into nondividing cells could increase the applicability of retroviral vectors in human gene therapy.. ...
The murine stem cell virus (MSCV) promoter exhibits activity in mouse hematopoietic cells and embryonic stem cells. respectively. The strength of the GFP fluorescence in the body was comparable to the proportion of GFP-positive leukocytes. Moreover, the rate of recurrence of the GFP-expressing leukocytes was significantly correlated with the frequency of GFP-expressing Purkinje cells. These results suggest that the MSCV promoter is useful for preferentially expressing a transgene in Purkinje cells. In addition, the proportion of transduced leukocytes in the peripheral circulation reflects the expression level of the transgene in Purkinje Rabbit Polyclonal to PPP2R3B cells, which can be used as a way to monitor transgene expression properties in the cerebellum without invasive techniques. Introduction The Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-based retrovirus vector has been widely used to transfer genes into dividing eukaryotic cells [1]. MoMLV and MoMLV-derived retroviral vectors are not active ...
There is growing interest in the use of lentiviral vectors, particularly for cancer immunotherapy and the treatment of monogenic diseases. Manufacturing of these vectors is challenging primarily due to cytotoxic effects of vector components resulting in low cell culture titres and vector instability leading to low purification yields. In addition, currently used processes are typically not scalable as they rely on adherently cultured cells and unit operations such as batch centrifugation and gel filtration. To improve process scalability, suspension adaptation of a lentiviral vector packaging cell line was attempted, however, cell aggregation could not be prevented. For vector clarification it was found that membranes with pore sizes of 0.22 µm resulted in recoveries less than 50%, whereas the use of 0.45 µm membranes resulted in recoveries close to 100%. Successful vector concentration utilising centrifugal filters was possible with a membrane molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 100 kDa, ...
We have constructed and evaluated the utility of a helper-dependent virus vector system that is derived from Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV). This vector is based on the herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicon system and contains the HCMV orthologs of the two cis-acting functions required for replication and packaging of HSV genomes, the complex HCMV viral DNA replication origin (oriLyt), and the cleavage packaging signal (the a sequence). The HCMV amplicon vector replicated independently and was packaged into infectious virions in the presence of helper virus. This vector is capable of delivering and expressing foreign genes in infected cells including progenitor cells such as human CD34+ cells. Packaged defective viral genomes were passaged serially in fibroblasts and could be detected at passage 3; however, the copy number appeared to diminish upon serial passage. The HCMV amplicon offers an alternative vector strategy useful for gene(s) delivery to cells of the hematopoietic lineage.
Of the 127 allogeneic trials analysed by Evolution, over two-thirds (69.3%) utilise an adeno-associated viral vector, followed by adenoviruses (10.2%), plasmids (9.4%) and ADV/HSV-tk (3.9%). Lentiviruses, retroviruses and herpes simplex viruses were each used in three clinical trials for allogeneic cell/gene therapies, representing 2.4% each.. With regards to the 82 autologous cell/gene therapies currently undergoing clinical trials, 59.8% utilise a lentivirus and 30.5% utilise a retrovirus. In total, 74 of the 82 active trials analysed by Evolution utilise either a lentiviral or retroviral vector. Five (6.1%) active trials utilise an adenoviral vector and two (2.4%) utilise an HSV vector. In stark contrast to allogeneic approaches, adeno-associated vectors (AAV) and plasmids are not utilised in any of the ongoing autologous trials.. Lentiviruses are a subclass of retroviruses and are comprised of an envelope, a capsid and an RNA genome. In the transduced cell, the RNA genome is ...
The development of a reverse genetic system has enabled the genetic engineering of negative-strand RNA viruses. This system has been used to analyze the function of viral genes and to construct recombinant viruses which express foreign proteins. In this study, we made an improvement to this system by devising a new method to generate the F-defective SeV vector from a cloned cDNA of a defective RNA genome. This is the first report on constructing a replicon-based RNA vector in the family Paramyxoviridae which replicates in infected cells but does not infect neighboring cells. The improvements achieved in this study are (i) optimization of RNP recovery efficiency by using a UV-inactivated recombinant vaccinia virus expressing T7 RNA polymerase, (ii) construction of an inducible F-expressing packaging LLC-MK2 cell line supplemented with the F protein intrans, and (iii) development of a transfection process for RNP recovered from LLC-MK2 cells. An attempt to recover the F-defective SeV vector ...
TMEM166 is a novel programmed cell death-related molecule. In this report, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus 5-TMEM166 vector (Ad5-TMEM166) and evaluated its expression and anti-tumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Cell viability analysis revealed that the adenovirus-mediated increase of TMEM166 inhibited tumor cell growth in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was mediated by both autophagy (via inhibition of mTOR and activation of p70S6K) and apoptosis (via caspase-3 activation), both of which contributed to cell death and suppression of tumorigenicity. Our data indicated that Ad5-TMEM166 may be a novel gene therapy candidate for cancer. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. ...
First-generation, E1-deleted adenoviral vectors (E1-AV) can transduce the vascular endothelium with high efficiency, but their use is limited by the resulting acute endothelial injury and the long-term development of intimal hyperplasia. To reduce the impact of viral proteins on the gene-modified cells, a second-generation adenoviral vector with an additional pair of deletions in the E4 region was developed. To determine whether this E1/E4-AV vector would be useful for vascular gene transfer, we directly compared the efficiency of gene transfer to uninjured rabbit carotid arteries using either an E1/E4-AV or an E1-AV vector encoding beta-galactosidase. Both vectors efficiently transduced vascular endothelium; however, the E1/E4-AV vector gene-modified vessels showed higher beta-galactosidase expression 10 days after gene transfer. Importantly, the E1/E4-AV vector produced substantially less endothelial cell activation, less inflammation, and reduced neointimal hyperplasia compared with the E1-AV vector
Sirion Biotech offers one of the most comprehensive viral vector technology platforms addressing all three major vector types (adenovirus, lentivirus and AAV). Services range from custom virus design to virus vector productions and cell modelling projects, including superior gene knockdown strategies (RNAiONE) and multicistronic expression systems.. ...
Sirion Biotech offers one of the most comprehensive viral vector technology platforms addressing all three major vector types (adenovirus, lentivirus and AAV). Services range from custom virus design to virus vector productions and cell modelling projects, including superior gene knockdown strategies (RNAiONE) and multicistronic expression systems.. ...
Non-viral gene therapy is being considered as a treatment for cystic fibrosis. In clinical studies and in studies using the mouse airways as a model, current formulations result in only transient transgene expression. A number of reasons for this have been proposed including the loss of plasmid DNA from cells. The aim of these studies was to investigate why transgene expression from non-viral vectors is transient in the mouse lung. Plasmid DNA encoding the luciferase reporter gene was complexed with the cationic lipid GL67 and delivered to the mouse airways. The persistence of plasmid DNA in the mouse lungs was investigated using quantitative PCR and Southern hybridization. Results showed that intact plasmid DNA persisted in the mouse lung in the absence of any detectable luciferase activity. The de novo methylation of plasmid DNA in vivo was investigated as a potential cause of this transient gene expression but results suggested that plasmid DNA does not become de novo methylated in the mouse lung.
Nanotechnology-based non-viral vectors have emerged as promising alternatives to viruses to carry genetic material into target cells due to their ability to overcome many limitations of viral vectors. Although very efficient, viruses present low carrying capacity, expensive and complex production and, most importantly, safety issues related to immunogenic responses and even oncogenesis when randomly integrated in the host genome. In this regard, non-viral vectors present lower immunogenicity, higher nucleic acid packing capacity and ease of fabrication compared to their viral counterparts. In addition, continuous advances in the fields of material science and nano-engineering as well as the diversity of available nanosized material allows the design of multifunctional vectors specifically tailored for different applications. Although most conventional gene therapy strategies based on gene addition use viral vectors, nowadays non-viral vectors are predominant in new investigations based on gene ...
Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) encoded within an expression vector has proven an effective means of harnessing the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in mammalian cells. A survey of the literature revealed that shRNA vector construction can be hindered by high mutation rates and the ensuing sequencing is often problematic. Current options for constructing shRNA vectors include the use of annealed complementary oligonucleotides (74 % of surveyed studies), a PCR approach using hairpin containing primers (22 %) and primer extension of hairpin templates (4 %). We considered primer extension the most attractive method in terms of cost. However, in initial experiments we encountered a mutation frequency of 50 % compared to a reported 20 - 40 % for other strategies. By modifying the technique to be an isothermal reaction using the DNA polymerase Phi29, we reduced the error rate to 10 %, making primer extension the most efficient and cost-effective approach tested. We also found that inclusion of a restriction site in
Many viral vector systems have been developed for gene delivery. These include retroviruses, adenoviruses, adenoassociated viruses and herpes simplex virus. Retrovirus vector system: Replication defective retrovirus vectors that are harmless are being used. A plasmid in association with a retrovirus, a therapeutic gene and a promoter is referred to as plasmovirus. The plasmovirus is capable of carrying a DNA (therapeutic gene) of size less than 3.4 kb. Replication defective virus particles can be produced from the plasmovirus. As such, for the delivery of genes by retroviral vectors, the target cells must be in a dividing stage. But majority of the body cells are quiescent. In recent years, viral vectors have been engineered to infect non-dividing cells. Further, attempts are on to include a DNA in the retroviral vectors (by engineering env gene) that encodes for cell receptor protein. If this is successfully achieved, the retroviral vector will specifically infect the target tissues. Adenoviral ...
However, viral vector-based vaccines that incorporate viruses other than SARS-CoV-2 are in advanced-phase studies, including adenovirus (AdV) vector-based vaccines that have been licensed in Europe. These vaccines consist of intact virions that are engineered to include the gene encoding the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, a technique that leverages the viral vectors ability to efficiently infect cells and enhances spike gene delivery. Vaccines that use viral vectors contain either replication-deficient or replication-competent viruses (Table 1). The majority of viral-vectored vaccines in the most advanced phases of development have been rendered replication-deficient through deletion of genes essential for replication.8 By limiting vector replication, the potential for vaccine-associated AdV disease is greatly diminished.. There are, however, theoretical mechanisms by which replication-deficient viral vector-based vaccines could become replication competent and cause disease, especially in ...
The researchers tested the new vectors in mice and monkeys and compared the results to reverse-oriented vectors. They found that the new vectors could transfer a much higher viral load-up to six times more therapeutic beta-globin genes than the conventional vectors-and had four to 10 times higher transduction efficiency, a measure of the ability to incorporate corrective genes into repopulating bone marrow cells. The new vectors also showed a capacity for longevity, remaining in place four years after transplantation. Researchers also found that they could be produced in much higher amounts than the conventional vectors, potentially saving time and lowering costs associated with large-scale vector production.. Our lab has been working on improving beta-globin vectors for almost a decade…and finally decided to try something radically different-and it worked, Tisdale said. These findings bring us closer to a curative gene therapy approach for hemoglobin disorders.. The new vector, for which ...
Novel gene-based therapies for disease will depend in many cases on long-term persistent transgene expression. To develop gene therapy strategies for Friedreichs ataxia (FRDA), we have examined the persistence of transgene expression in the brain in vivo provided by the entire 135 kb FXN genomic DNA locus delivered as an infectious bacterial artificial chromosome (iBAC) herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-based vector injected in the adult mouse cerebellum. We constructed genomic DNA-reporter fusion vectors carrying a complete 135 kb FXN genomic locus with an insertion of the Escherichia coli lacZ gene at the ATG start codon (iBAC-FXN-lacZ). SHSY5Y human neuroblastoma cells transduced by iBAC-FXN-lacZ showed high efficiency of vector delivery and LacZ expression. Direct intracranial injection of iBAC-FXN-lacZ into the adult mouse cerebellum resulted in a large number of easily detectable transduced cells, with LacZ expression driven by the FXN genomic locus, which persisted for at least 75 days. Green
OBJECTIVE: Dual vector AAV systems are being utilised to enable gene therapy for disorders in which the disease gene is too large to fit into a single capsid. Fragmented adeno-associated viral (fAAV) vectors containing single inverted terminal repeat truncated transgenes have been considered as one such gene replacement strategy. Here we aim to add to the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms employed by fAAV dual vector systems. METHODS: Oversized (|8kb) transgene constructs containingABCA4coding sequence were packaged as truncated fragments |5kb in size into various AAV serotypes.In vitrotransductions with these fAAV vector preparations were conducted with mRNA and protein expression products assessed by way of RT-PCR, qPCR and western blot techniques. RESULTS: Transductions with fAAV vector preparations yieldedABCA4mRNA, but did not generate detectable levels of protein. Sequencing of the transcript population revealed the presence of full lengthABCA4CDS with additional
A multiple cloning site (MCS), also called a polylinker, is a short segment of DNA which contains many (up to ~20) restriction sites - a standard feature of engineered plasmids. Restriction sites within an MCS are typically unique, occurring only once within a given plasmid. MCSs are commonly used during procedures involving molecular cloning or subcloning. Extremely useful in biotechnology, bioengineering, and molecular genetics, MCSs let a molecular biologist insert a piece of DNA or several pieces of DNA into the region of the MCS. This can be used to create transgenic organisms, also known as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). One bacterial plasmid used in genetic engineering as a plasmid cloning vector is pUC18. Its polylinker region is composed of several restriction enzyme recognition sites, that have been engineered into a single cluster (the polylinker). It has restriction sites for various restriction enzymes, including EcoRI, BamHI and PstI. Another vector used in genetic ...
Vectors based on adenovirus (Ad) are one of the most commonly utilized platforms for gene delivery to cells in molecular biology studies and in gene therapy applications. Ad is also the most popular vector system in human clinical gene therapy trials, largely due to its advantageous characteristics such as high cloning capacity (up to 36 kb), ability to infect a wide variety of cell types and tissues, and relative safety due to it remaining episomal in transduced cells. The latest generation of Ad vectors, helper‑dependent Ad (hdAd), which are devoid of all viral protein coding sequences, can mediate high-level expression of a transgene for years in a variety of species ranging from rodents to non-human primates. Given the importance of histones and chromatin in modulating gene expression within the host cell, it is not surprising that Ad, a nuclear virus, also utilizes these proteins to protect the genome and modulate virus- or vector‑encoded genes. In this review, we will discuss our current
We have previously shown that the intramuscular injection of naked plasmid DNA enables foreign gene expression in muscle. Further studies showed that the intravascular delivery of naked plasmid DNA enables high levels of expression not only in muscle but also in hepatocytes. For the liver, this tech …
Functional titer is defined as the number of functional vector particles required to infect a cell, present in a volume. There are several methods for measuring titer. Some are more reliable than others. Other methods include: measuring the p24 concentration/ml, measuring RNA equivalents, Transducing units/ml, or measuring mRNA equivalents. The first two are unreliable because they tend to overestimate the vector titer. The amount of p24 measured comes from functional particles, free p24, and nonfunctional vector particles. The RNA assays measure defective particles as well.. Reliable methods are determined by transduction of cells following limiting dilution of vector and subsequent evaluation of reporter protein activity (eGFP) or by the number of colonies following antibiotic selection.. The most straightforward method is to quantify functional vector titer by employing fluorescence and FACs. This is the method employed by the ViraCore. The method does have some limitations including being ...
In molecular biology, subcloning is a technique used to move a particular DNA sequence from a parent vector to a destination vector. Subcloning is not to be confused with molecular cloning, a related technique. Restriction enzymes are used to excise the gene of interest (the insert) from the parent. The insert is purified in order to isolate it from other DNA molecules. A common purification method is gel isolation. The number of copies of the gene is then amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Simultaneously, the same restriction enzymes are used to digest (cut) the destination. The idea behind using the same restriction enzymes is to create complementary sticky ends, which will facilitate ligation later on. A phosphatase, commonly calf-intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP), is also added to prevent self-ligation of the destination vector. The digested destination vector is isolated/purified. The insert and the destination vector are then mixed together with DNA ligase. A typical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vivo stable transduction of humanized liver tissue in chimeric mice via high-capacity adenovirus-lentivirus hybrid vector. AU - Kubo, Shuji. AU - Kataoka, Miho. AU - Tateno, Chise. AU - Yoshizato, Katsutoshi. AU - Kawasaki, Yoshiko. AU - Kimura, Takahiro. AU - Faure-Kumar, Emmanuelle. AU - Palmer, Donna J.. AU - Ng, Philip. AU - Okamura, Haruki. AU - Kasahara, Noriyuki. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - We developed hybrid vectors employing high-capacity adenovirus as a first-stage carrier encoding all the components required for in situ production of a second-stage lentivirus, thereby achieving stable transgene expression in secondary target cells. Such vectors have never previously been tested in normal tissues, because of the scarcity of suitable in vivo systems permissive for second-stage lentivirus assembly. Here we employed a novel murine model in which endogenous liver tissue is extensively reconstituted with engrafted human hepatocytes, and successfully achieved ...
There are currently over 417 human clinical trials involving retroviral gene therapy registered in the Journal of Gene Medicine database (http://www.abedia.com/wiley/vectors.php, accessed in July, 2016). The first successful gene therapy protocol occurred in the 1990s. In that protocol, two patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) due to adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency were treated with a retroviral vector carrying the ADA coding sequence under the transcriptional control of the promoter/enhancers of the long terminal repeat of the MLV. ADA disease is characterized by defective T and natural killer cell maturations as well as low B cell function, causing recurrent infections. In this pioneer trial, one of the treated patients recovered cell counts and function, showing no adverse effects after 4 years. The response was more limited in the second patient primarily due to lower transduction efficacy; however, other causes could have contribute to this low efficiency such as ...
include ,iostream, #include ,cstdlib, #include ,cstring, using namespace std; class Element { private: int number; public: Element() : number(0) { cout ,, ctor ,, endl; } Element(int num) : number(num) { cout ,, ctor ,, endl; } Element(const Element& e) : number(e.number) { cout ,, copy ctor ,, endl; } Element(Element&& e) : number(e.number) { cout ,, right value ctor ,, endl; } ~Element() { cout ,, dtor ,, endl; } void operator=(const Element& item) { number = item.number; } bool operator==(const Element& item) { return (number == item.number); } void operator()() { cout ,, number; } int GetNumber() { return number; } }; template,typename T, class Vector { private: T* items; int count; public: Vector() : count{ 0 }, items{ nullptr } { } Vector(const Vector& vector) : count{vector.count} { items = static_cast,T*,(malloc(sizeof(T) * count)); memcpy(items, vector.items, sizeof(T) * count); } Vector(Vector&& vector) :count{ vector.count }, items{ vector.items } { vector.items = nullptr; ...
You can often find vector information at NCBI, either directly or in their list of vectors screened for contamination of new sequence at Vecscreen. VectorDB contains information about many common vectors, including yeast vectors. The EMBL Hamburg outstation maintains a large database of vectors. I.M.A.G.E. Consortium Vectors contains information about plasmids commonly used in EST collections such as those sold by OpenBioSystems and Invitrogen. For eukaryotic vectors (Fish, Xenopus) see Minnesota. The Forsburg Lab maintains a list of Fisson Yeast vectors. Promega maintains a list of their vectors. NEB maintains a list of common vectors. Epicentre also maintains its own list. Lucigen provides transcription-free vectors for cloning AT-rich and other difficult DNAs. Addgenes Vector DB contains most of the information from Stanfords VectorDB, plus more vector information they have curated from commercial websites and added through our plasmid curation efforts. (However, it seems to be rather ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Targeting tumor neoangiogenesis via targeted adenoviral vector to achieve effective cancer gene therapy for disseminated neoplastic disease. AU - Lee, Myungeun. AU - Lu, Zhi Hong. AU - Li, Jie. AU - Kashentseva, Elena A.. AU - Dmitriev, Igor P.. AU - Mendonca, Samir A.. AU - Curiel, David T.. PY - 2020/3. Y1 - 2020/3. N2 - The application of cancer gene therapy has heretofore been restricted to local, or locoregional, neoplastic disease contexts. This is owing to the lack of gene transfer vectors, which embody the requisite target cell selectivity in vivo required for metastatic disease applications. To this end, we have explored novel vector engineering paradigms to adapt adenovirus for this purpose. Our novel strategy exploits three distinct targeting modalities that operate in functional synergy. Transcriptional targeting is achieved via the hROBO4 promoter, which restricts transgene expression to proliferative vascular endothelium. Viral binding is modified by incorporation ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of endogenous genes following infection of human endothelial cells with an E1- E4+ adenovirus gene transfer vector. AU - Ramalingam, Ramachandran. AU - Rafii, Shahin. AU - Worgall, Stefan. AU - Hackett, Neil R.. AU - Crystal, Ronald. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - Recombinant adenovirus (Ad) gene transfer vectors are effective at transferring exogenous genes to a variety of cells and tissue types both in vitro and in vivo. However, in the process of gene transfer, the Ad vectors induce the expression of target cell genes, some of which may modify the function of the target cell and/or alter the local milieu. To develop a broader understanding of Ad vector-mediated induction of endogenous gene expression, genes induced by first-generation E1- E4+ Ad vectors in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were identified by cDNA subtraction cloning. The identified cDNAs included signaling molecules (lymphoid blast crisis [LBC], guanine nucleotide binding-protein ...
SB vs Viral Based Methods: Successful gene therapy largely depends on the selective introduction of therapeutic genes into the appropriate target cancer cells. One of the most effective and promising approaches for targeting tumor tissue during gene delivery is the use of viral vectors, which allow for high efficiency gene delivery. However, the use of viral vectors is not without risks and safety concerns, such as toxicities, a host immune response towards the viral antigens or potential viral recombination into the hosts chromosome; these risks limit the clinical application of viral vectors. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based system is an attractive, non-viral alternative to viral delivery systems. SB may be less immunogenic than the viral vector system due to its lack of viral sequences. The SB-based gene delivery system can stably integrate into the host cell genome to produce the therapeutic gene product over the lifetime of a cell. However, when compared to viral vectors, the ...
SB vs Viral Based Methods: Successful gene therapy largely depends on the selective introduction of therapeutic genes into the appropriate target cancer cells. One of the most effective and promising approaches for targeting tumor tissue during gene delivery is the use of viral vectors, which allow for high efficiency gene delivery. However, the use of viral vectors is not without risks and safety concerns, such as toxicities, a host immune response towards the viral antigens or potential viral recombination into the hosts chromosome; these risks limit the clinical application of viral vectors. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based system is an attractive, non-viral alternative to viral delivery systems. SB may be less immunogenic than the viral vector system due to its lack of viral sequences. The SB-based gene delivery system can stably integrate into the host cell genome to produce the therapeutic gene product over the lifetime of a cell. However, when compared to viral vectors, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An effective gene-knockdown using multiple shRNA-expressing adenovirus vectors. AU - Motegi, Yukari. AU - Katayama, Kazufumi. AU - Sakurai, Fuminori. AU - Kato, Takuya. AU - Yamaguchi, Tomoko. AU - Matsui, Hayato. AU - Takahashi, Masahide. AU - Kawabata, Kenji. AU - Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki. PY - 2011/7/30. Y1 - 2011/7/30. N2 - Viral vectors expressing short hairpin RNA (shRNA) are attractive for efficient and tissue-specific RNA interference (RNAi) delivery. We and others previously reported that recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vector-mediated RNAi has great potential for a variety of applications in molecular biology studies and gene therapy. In the present study, we have developed an efficient Ad vector-mediated RNAi system, in which an Ad vector carries four shRNA-expression cassettes (Ad-multi-shRNA vector), a simple and effective strategy for enhancing the RNAi response per Ad vector particle. The data demonstrated that the Ad-multi-shRNA vectors showed an enhanced RNAi effect ...
Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor involved in differentiation, survival and activation of myeloid and non-myeloid cells with important implications for lung antibacterial immunity. Here we examined the effect of pulmonary adenoviral vector-mediated delivery of GM-CSF (AdGM-CSF) on anti-mycobacterial immunity in M. bovis BCG infected mice. Exposure of M. bovis BCG infected mice to AdGM-CSF either applied on 6h, or 6h and 7days post-infection substantially increased alveolar recruitment of iNOS and IL-12 expressing macrophages, and significantly increased accumulation of IFNγpos T cells and particularly regulatory T cells (Tregs). This was accompanied by significantly reduced mycobacterial loads in the lungs of mice. Importantly, diphtheria toxin-induced depletion of Tregs did not influence mycobacterial loads, but accentuated immunopathology in AdGM-CSF-exposed mice infected with M. bovis BCG. Together, the data demonstrate that AdGM-CSF ...
Our viral vector production staff are committed to providing the researcher with high purity, high titer viral vectors at competitive prices. To ensure we the h
Context General information Compatible Gateway Destination vectors Available clones Download the hORFeome V8.1 list Compatible Gateway Destination vectors BCCM/genecorner also offers a range of compatible Gateway destination vectors both with and without C- or N-terminal markers, as well as some multisite Gateway destination vectors. This way, you can create the expression
OriGene provides a variety of cloning vectors, including cDNA cloning vectors (tagged ORF clone vectors, non-tagged cDNA expression vectors), shRNA vectors, CRISPR vectors, miRNA expression vector and 3 UTR luciferase assay vector. These vectors have been used in almost 1,000 citations.
About the Journal Human Gene Therapy, the Official Journal of the European Society of Gene and Cell Therapy, British Society for Gene and Cell Therapy, French Society of Cell and Gene Therapy, German Society of Gene Therapy, and five other gene therapy societies, is an authoritative peer-reviewed journal published monthly in print and online. Led by Editor-in-Chief Terence R. Flotte, MD, Celia and Isaac Haidak Professor of Medical Education and Dean, Provost, and Executive Deputy Chancellor, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Human Gene Therapy presents reports on the transfer and expression of genes in mammals, including humans. Related topics include improvements in vector development, delivery systems, and animal models, particularly in the areas of cancer, heart disease, viral disease, genetic disease, and neurological disease, as well as ethical, legal, and regulatory issues related to the gene transfer in humans. Its companion journals, Human Gene Therapy Methods, published ...
Viral production. EIAV self-inactivating vector genomes were constructed from pONY8.0Z or pONY8.0G vectors described previously (10, 24). The cDNA coding for the reporter gene LacZ or the human SMN was cloned in the EIAV transfer vector. A EIAV vector genome has been generated that encodes the SMN gene with or without a HA tag. Viral vector stocks pseudotyped with rabies G glycoprotein were prepared using the HEK293T transient system as previously described (10, 25). The titers (approximately 4 × 109 T.U./ml) of concentrated EIAV-LacZ viral vectors were estimated by transduction of D17 cells. The titers (4 × 109 to 7 × 109 T.U./ml) of the EIAV-SMN or EIAV-EIAV-SMN-HA vectors were estimated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR by comparison to EIAV-LacZ vectors and were normalized for viral RNA (26, 27).. In vitro transduction. GM03813 fibroblasts from a type 1 SMA patient (Coreill Cell Repository) were transduced with either EIAV-SMN, EIAV-SMN-HA, or EIAV-LacZ vectors pseudotyped with the ...
The goal of the Program in Human Gene Therapy is to develop gene transfer technologies and use them for hepatic gene therapy for the treatment of genetic and acquired diseases. The general approach is to develop new vector systems and delivery methods, test them in the appropriate animal models, uncover the mechanisms involved in vector transduction, and use the most promising approaches in clinical trials. Specifically, we work on a variety of viral and non-viral vector systems. Our major disease models are hemophilia, hepatitis C and B viral infections, and diabetes. The second major focus includes the role that small RNAs play in mammalian gene regulation.. ...
The goal of the Program in Human Gene Therapy is to develop gene transfer technologies and use them for hepatic gene therapy for the treatment of genetic and acquired diseases. The general approach is to develop new vector systems and delivery methods, test them in the appropriate animal models, uncover the mechanisms involved in vector transduction, and use the most promising approaches in clinical trials. Specifically, we work on a variety of viral and non-viral vector systems. Our major disease models are hemophilia, hepatitis C and B viral infections, and diabetes. The second major focus includes the role that small RNAs play in mammalian gene regulation.. ...
A new dual-vector approach to enhance recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated gene expression through intermolecular cis activation
Adeno-associated virus is being developed as a human gene therapy vector. Recombinant AAV vectors are constructed by replacing the wild type viral genome with a transgene of interest. This recombinant genome is then packaged into infectious virions. Virion production requires a vector plasmid containing the transgene of interest, wtAAV rep and cap genes, and helper virus functions. Standard protocols provide rep and cap either through stable rep/cap cell lines, or through co-transfection of a rep/cap plasmid. Helper virus functions are provided by adenovirus-5 or herpes simplex virus-1. Viral infection results in loss of some recombinant virions due to cell death as well as potential contamination of the final stock. To overcome these problems, several helper-virus-free protocols have been developed using plasmids containing essential Ad-5 genes. Standard purification protocols involve CsCl gradient centrifugation followed by dialysis.The centrifugation takes several days, and product is lost in ...
The liver is an attractive organ for gene therapy because of its important role in many inherited and acquired diseases. Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) have been shown to be good candidates for liver gene delivery, leading to long-term gene expression. We evaluated the influence of the route of administration on rAAV-mediated liver transduction by comparing levels of luciferase expression in the livers of male and female mice after injection of rAAV serotype 2, using three different routes of administration: intravenous (IV), intraportal (IP), or direct intrahepatic (IH) injection. To determine transgene expression we used a noninvasive optical bioluminescence imaging system that allowed long-term in vivo analysis. After IV injection dramatic differences in liver transgene expression were observed, depending on gender. When IP injection was used the differences were reduced although they were still significant. Interestingly, direct intrahepatic injection of rAAV vectors was ...
Combined expression of costimulatory factors and proinflammatory cytokines stimulate effective immune-mediated tumor rejection in a variety of murine tumor models. Specifically, syngeneic tumor cells genetically modified to express B7.1 (CD80) have been shown to induce rejection of previously established murine solid tumors, and transduction with IL-2 can further increase survival. However, poor rates of gene transfer and inefficient expression of multiple transgenes encoded by single vectors have hampered the development of such autologous tumor cell vaccines for clinical trials in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Here we describe the development of a self-inactivating lentiviral vector encoding B7.1 and IL-2 as a single fusion protein postsynthetically cleaved to generate biologically active membrane-anchored B7.1 and secreted IL-2. This enables the efficient transduction of both established and primary AML blasts, resulting in expression of the transgenes in up to 98% of the cells following a
In vivo gene transfer and expression in normal uninjured blood vessels using replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus vectors Academic Article ...
Non-viral gene delivery vectors were developed for efficient gene transfer to hard to transfect mouse mammary epithelial cells. broad spectrum of human being diseases including malignancy, cardiac disorders and neurodegenerative diseases result from a genetic defect. Gene therapy gives an attractive option to treat these genetic diseases [1]. The introduction of an exogenous restorative gene into unhealthy cells offers the potential to override or change the malfunctioning gene. Although a large quantity of genetic focuses on possess been recognized, the medical success of gene therapy methods offers been limited by the lack of availability of safe and effective gene delivery vectors 3963-95-9 IC50 [2]. Two major attempts possess emerged in the gene delivery community, one focused on developing viral vectors and the additional on non-viral strategies. Viral vectors have developed to transduce many types of mammalian cells with high effectiveness, but there are limitations to cell-specificity, ...
A method for rapidly producing helper-free murine leukemia virus (MLV) without using packaging cell lines is described. Viruses bearing ecotropic or amphotropic MLV or Rous sarcoma virus envelope glycoprotein and containing various retroviral vector genomes have been prepared with titers 30 to 40-fold higher than those produced by transient transfection of standard packaging cells. This system can be used to alter the cellular tropism of MLV by incorporating other envelope glycoproteins and to prepare retroviral vector stocks without establishing stable producer cell lines. This method will be particularly useful for preparing viruses that encode toxic proteins and for the rapid analysis of panels of mutant envelope glycoproteins. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of repair of radiation-induced DNA damage enhances gene expression from replication-defective adenoviral vectors. AU - Hingorani, Mohan. AU - White, Christine L.. AU - Merron, Andrew. AU - Peerlinck, Inge. AU - Gore, Martin E.. AU - Slade, Andrew. AU - Scott, Simon D.. AU - Nutting, Christopher M.. AU - Pandha, Hardev S.. AU - Melcher, Alan A.. AU - Vile, Richard Geoffrey. AU - Vassaux, Georges. AU - Harrington, Kevin J.. PY - 2008/12/1. Y1 - 2008/12/1. N2 - Radiation has been shown to up-regulate gene expression from adenoviral vectors in previous studies. In the current study, we show that radiation-induced dsDNA breaks and subsequent signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway are responsible, at least in part, for this enhancement of transgene expression both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibitors of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-mutated, and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK)-mediated DNA repair were shown to ...
A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) vector has been altered to carry the human MERTK (hMERTK) gene. This vector has been shown to restore vision in animal models that resemble human MERTK-associated Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), an incurable retinal degeneration that causes severe vision loss. The proposed study is an open label, Phase I clinical trial of subretinal rAAV2-VMD2-hMERTK administration to individuals with MERTK-associated retinal disease. This trial will lead to a greater understanding of the safety and thereby potential value of gene transfer in MERTK-associated retinal disease and will have implications for other forms of retinal degenerative disease amenable to this type of intervention ...
A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) vector has been altered to carry the human MERTK (hMERTK) gene. This vector has been shown to restore vision in animal models that resemble human MERTK-associated Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), an incurable retinal degeneration that causes severe vision loss. The proposed study is an open label, Phase I clinical trial of subretinal rAAV2-VMD2-hMERTK administration to individuals with MERTK-associated retinal disease. This trial will lead to a greater understanding of the safety and thereby potential value of gene transfer in MERTK-associated retinal disease and will have implications for other forms of retinal degenerative disease amenable to this type of intervention ...
The effect of chemotherapy drug Mitomycin C (MMC) in combination with recombinant adeno-associated virus II (rAAV2) in cancer therapy was investigated, and the mechanism of MMC affecting rAAV2s bioactivity was also studied. The combination effect was evaluated by the level of GFP and TNF expression in a human glioma cell line, and the mechanism of MMC effects on rAAV mediated gene expression was investigated by AAV transduction related signal molecules. C57 and BALB/c nude mice were injected with rAAV-EGFP or rAAV-TNF alone, or mixed with MMC, to evaluate the effect of MMC on AAV-mediated gene expression and tumor suppression. MMC was shown to improve the infection activity of rAAV2 both in vitro and in vivo. Enhancement was found to be independent of initial rAAV2 receptor binding stage or subsequent second-strand synthesis of target DNA, but was related to cell cycle retardation followed by blocked genome degradation. In vivo injection of MMC combined with rAAV2 into the tumors of the animals
294966285 - EP 0996737 A1 2000-05-03 - SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS VECTORS FOR GENE TRANSFER INTO NON-ENDOTHELIAL CARDIOVASCULAR CELLS - [origin: WO9909192A1] The invention provides methods of transducing non-endothelial cardiovascular cells with a recombinant Togavirus vector, vector kits, and vectors.[origin: WO9909192A1] The invention provides methods of transducing non-endothelial cardiovascular cells with a recombinant Togavirus vector, vector kits, and vectors.
Replication-competent retrovirus vectors based on murine leukemia virus (MLV) have been shown to effectively transfer therapeutic genes over multiple serial infections in cell culture and through solid tumors in vivo with a high degree of genomic stability. MLV vectors, whereby the last two are transcriptionally restricted to liver- and -catenin/T-cell factor-deregulated cells, respectively. When the heterologous promoters were used to replace almost the entire MLV U3 region, including the MLV TATA box, vector replication was inefficient since nascent virus particle production from contaminated cells was significantly decreased. Fusion from the heterologous promoters missing the TATA container towards the MLV TATA container, however, generated vectors which replicated with almost-wild-type kinetics throughout permissive cells while exhibiting negligible or low spread in nonpermissive cells. The genomic balance from the vectors was been shown to be much like that of an identical vector filled ...
Because the features and kinetics of adeno−associated virus(AAV)−mediated gene transfer to endothelial cells(EC)are yet to be ultimately determined, we tested variables pertinent to the efficiency of AAV−mediated gene transfer to bovine aortic endothelial cells(BAEC).The variables with AAV vectors were compared with the better characterized adenovirus(Ad)vectors.There is a dose−response relationship between multiplicity of infection(moi)of AAV or Ad vectors and transduction efficiency in BAEC.The higher moi of AAV vectors achieved more than 80% of transduction efficiency in cultured BAEC.AAV and Ad vectors showed an incubation−time−dependent increase in transduction efficiency of LacZ gene to the BAEC up to 12 h of vector exposure.Although the similar kinetics of transduction efficiency of LacZ gene to BAEC was found in both vectors, the duration of gene expression was longer in AAV vector than that in Ad vectors in vitro.These results indicate that AAV−vector is efficient for gene ...
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae causes severe economic losses to the swine industry worldwide and the prevention of its related disease, enzootic porcine pneumonia, remains a challenge. The P97 adhesin protein of M. hyopneumoniae should be a good candidate for the development of a subunit vaccine because antibodies produced against P97 could prevent the adhesion of the pathogen to the respiratory epithelial cells in vitro. In the present study, a P97 recombinant replication-defective adenovirus (rAdP97c) subunit vaccine efficiency was evaluated in pigs. The rAdP97c vaccine was found to induce both strong P97 specific humoral and cellular immune responses. The rAdP97c vaccinated pigs developed a lower amount of macroscopic lung lesions (18.5 ± 9.6%) compared to the unvaccinated and challenged animals (45.8 ± 11.5%). rAdP97c vaccine reduced significantly the severity of inflammatory response and the amount of M. hyopneumoniae in the respiratory tract. Furthermore, the average daily weight gain was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - G2 Cell Cycle Arrest and Cyclophilin A in Lentiviral Gene Transfer. AU - Zhang, Shangming. AU - Joseph, Guiandre. AU - Pollok, Karen. AU - Berthoux, Lionel. AU - Sastry, Lakshmi. AU - Luban, Jeremy. AU - Cornetta, Kenneth. PY - 2006/10. Y1 - 2006/10. N2 - Lentiviral vectors derived from the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) have a higher propensity to transduce nondividing cells compared to vectors based on oncoretroviruses. We report here that genistein, a previously known protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitor and G2 cell cycle arrest inducer, significantly enhanced lentiviral transduction in a dose-dependent manner. Increased transduction, as measured by vector expression, was seen in a variety of human cell lines, murine primary lymphocytes, and primary human CD34+ peripheral blood progenitor cells as well. Increased vector expression was also associated with an increase in vector DNA copy number, as assessed by quantitative PCR. Genistein-mediated G2 cell cycle arrest, ...
Recombinant vectors based on adeno-associated virus (rAAV) are promising tools to specifically alter complex genomes through homologous recombination (HR)-based gene targeting. In a therapeutic setting, an AAV donor vector will recombine with a mutant target locus in order to correct the mutation di …
The airway is an important target for gene transfer to treat cystic fibrosis and other diseases that affect the lung. We previously found that marker gene expression did not persist in the bronchial epithelium following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector administration to the rabbit lung. In an attempt to promote continued expression, we tested repeat vector administration, but no additional transduction was observed, and the block to transduction correlated with the appearance of neutralizing antibodies to the viral capsid. Here we show that mice exhibit a similar response but that treatment with anti-CD40 ligand antibody (MR1) and a soluble CTLA4-immunoglobulin fusion protein (CTLA4Ig) at the time of primary AAV vector exposure allowed successful repeat transduction and prevented production of neutralizing antibodies. We also tested the possibility that an immune response caused the loss of marker-positive cells in the epithelial population in rabbits by evaluating AAV vector expression in ...
AAV is a single stranded DNA virus which has shown great promise as a gene therapy vector. Recombinant AAV vectors delivering RPE65 gene have been demonstrated...
AAV is a single stranded DNA virus which has shown great promise as a gene therapy vector. Recombinant AAV vectors delivering RPE65 gene have been demonstrated...
Gene transfer to the gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa is a therapeutic strategy which could prove particularly advantageous for treatment of various hereditary and acquired intestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), GI infections, and cancer. We evaluated vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein envelope (VSV-G)-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors (LV) for efficacy of gene transfer to both murine rectosigmoid colon in vivo and human colon explants ex vivo. LV encoding beta-galactosidase (LV-β-Gal) or firefly-luciferase (LV-fLuc) reporter genes were administered by intrarectal instillation in mice, or applied topically for ex vivo transduction of human colorectal explant tissues from normal individuals. Macroscopic and histological evaluations were performed to assess any tissue damage or inflammation. Transduction efficiency and systemic biodistribution were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR. LV-fLuc expression was evaluated by ex vivo bioluminescence imaging. LV-β-Gal expression
Recombinant Adeno-associated virus 2 ATCC ® VR-1616™ Designation: Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus 2 Reference Standard Stock (rAAV2 RSS) Application:
Recombinant Adeno-associated virus 2 ATCC ® VR-1616™ Designation: Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus 2 Reference Standard Stock (rAAV2 RSS) Application:
This study evaluated six adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the liver-specific thyroid hormone-binding globulin (TBG) promoter made with novel capsids in canine liver-directed gene transfer. Studies i
Background: Liver-derived Factor VIII (FVIII) expression has been described in the canine hemophilia A model for more than 10 years following adeno-associated viral (AAV) gene therapy. Improved understanding of AAV integration may provide insights into the long-term safety of AAV based gene therapy.. Aims: To evaluate frequency and locations of AAV-FVIII integration sites in a canine hemophilia model.. Methods: Eight severe hemophilia A dogs received a portal vein infusion of canine-FVIII-AAV vector (AAV-BDD-cFVIII). Genomic DNA was isolated from post-mortem liver samples. AAV-BDD-cFVIII vector genomes (vg/ng) were quantified by qPCR. Vector integration sites (IS) were analysed by linear amplification-mediated (LAM)-PCR and target-enrichment sequencing (TES) coupled to Illumina MiSeq sequencing and customised bioinformatical analysis.. Results: AAV-BDD-cFVIII DNA was detected in the liver of all dogs, 10.8 years after a single vector infusion (Table 1). LAM-PCR and TES analyses demonstrated ...
Recombinant adeno-associated virus vectors based on serotype 2 (rAAV2) have been used to deliver transgenes to the airways in a variety of pre-clinical and clinical studies. Gene transfer in these studies has been severely restricted by the basolateral localization of rAAV2 receptors. Here, we studied vectors constructed from the AAV5 genome and capsid, which utilize N-linked sialic acid-containing receptors found on the apical surface of airway epithelial cells. We investigated gene transfer efficacy and duration of transgene expression following delivery of rAAV5/5 vectors to the mouse respiratory tract. Robust, dose-dependent transgene expression was observed in the epithelium lining the nose for at least 32 weeks, and for at least 52 weeks in the lung. Importantly, in the lung, transgene expression mediated by rAAV5/5 was 40-fold greater than by rAAV2/2 vectors. A distinct cellular preference for rAAV5/5-mediated transduction was observed, with transgene expression being predominantly restricted to
The snoMEN (snoRNA Modulator of gene Appearance) vector technology was developed from a human being package C/D snoRNA, HBII-180C, which contains an internal series that may end up being manipulated to help to make it supporting to RNA focuses on, allowing knock-down of targeted genetics. the same mRNA, we record >3-collapse boost in knock-down effectiveness when likened with the unique HBII-180C centered snoMEN. The multiplex 47snoMEM vector allowed the building of human being proteins replacement unit cell lines with improved effectiveness, including the institution of book GFPCHIF-1 alternative cells. Quantitative mass spectrometry evaluation verified the improved effectiveness and specificity of proteins replacement unit using the Solcitinib supplier 47snoMEN-PR vectors. The 47snoMEN vectors increase the potential applications for snoMEN technology in gene appearance research, focus on approval and gene therapy. Intro Little nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are a course of conserved RNAs 1st ...
Custom RNAi Services GeneCust Europe. of shRNA expression plasmids,. shRNA expression vectors system characteristics 1.The expression of short. the duplication of the shRNA expression cassette resulted in. extracted with the SV total RNA isolation system (Promega.pHUSH: a single vector system for conditional gene expression pHUSH:. Reversible gene knockdown in mice using a tight, inducible shRNA expression system.Altered expression of triadin 95 causes parallel changes. this system adenoviral transfection was used to modify. endogenous Trisk 95 expression. The shRNA was.HeLa cells containing a stably integrated tetracycline-inducible luciferase expression cassette were treated with. The Tet-Express Inducible Expression System.Applications. The following. Modulation of Circadian Gene Expression and Metabolic Compensation by. Novel high throughput pooled shRNA screening identifies ...
Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are known to interfere with AAV vector-mediated gene transfer by intravascular delivery. Consequently, gene transfer studies in non-\human being primates may well forecast the effectiveness of gene transfer in humans. Indeed, gene transfer studies using a fresh type of vector have been carried out in rhesus macaques.12,13 The effects from these studies provided the basis for recent hemophilia B gene therapy clinical tests employing an AAV8 vector.13,14,15,16 Gene transfer in mice using AAV vectors results in excellent transduction efficiency. That is so for AAV8 vector-mediated gene transfer in the mouse liver especially;12,13,14,17 however, the efficiency of AAV8 vectors is modest in macaques.13 Theres also difficulties connected Mouse monoclonal to STYK1 with gene appearance when working with AAV8 vectors in non-human primates. Growing proof suggests that the current presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against AAV8, ...
Cornerstone for an efficient cardiac gene therapy is the need for a vector system which enables selective and long-term expression of the gene of interest. In rodent animal models pseudotyped adeno-associated viral vectors like AAV2/6 have been shown to be superior in the transduction of cardiomyocytes compared to other AAV serotypes. However, since significant species dependent differences in transduction characteristics exist, and large animal models are of imminent need for pre-clinical evaluations, we compared the gene transfer efficiency of an AAV2/6 and a heparin-binding site deleted AAV2 (AAV2/dHep) in a porcine model.. Methods: Viral vectors were produced using a pseudotyping strategy. All vectors did express the reporter gene luciferase under control of a cardiac specific promoter (MLC2v). Vectors were delivered via percutaneous pressure-regulated retroinfusion into the coronary vein (3.5 x 10e10 genome copies/animal; n = 5 animals/group). Expression levels were evaluated 4 weeks after ...
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RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly conserved post-transcriptional gene silencing process triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in eukaryotic cells. Elucidation of the RNAi regulatory pathway and its components has led to the identification of endogenous dsRNA molecules, termed microRNAs (miRNAs), which are transcribed as a single hairpin molecule prior to their maturation into a cytoplasmic dsRNA. The efficient gene silencing achieved by these short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules and the cumulative understanding of the RNAi pathway has prompted the development of hairpin expression vectors capable of mediating stable gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the efficacy of viral vector-mediated RNAi in the retina using recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) and lentiviruses that contain silencing hairpin cassettes to target four genes in murine photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). A detailed assessment of the utility and extend of RNAi ...
Staining for LacZ 5 days after intraocular injection of AdLacZ.10 in adult wild-type mice and at various times after injection in transgenic mice with increased expression of PDGF in the retina. Mice were given an intravitreous injection of 5 × 108 (A-E, J-P) or a subretinal injection of 107 (F-I) AdLacZ.10 particles. After 5 days, or as otherwise indicated, ocular sections and retinal and choroidal wholemounts were stained for LacZ. (A) Albino BALB/c mice showed staining in the corneal endothelium, the trabecular meshwork, the iris pigmented epithelium, and the ciliary body (bar, 200 μm). (B) Flatmounts of iris from albino BALB/c mice showed diffuse dark staining throughout the entire iris. (C.) Retinal wholemounts from adult C57BL/6 mice showed scattered focal staining throughout the retina, with more intense staining at the optic nerve. (D, E) Ocular sections from adult C57BL/6 mice showed prominent staining in and around the optic nerve and focal staining of cells in the inner nuclear ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Radioiodinated Capsids Facilitate in Vivo Non-Invasive Tracking of Adeno-Associated Gene Transfer Vectors. AU - Kothari, P.. AU - De, B. P.. AU - He, B.. AU - Chen, A.. AU - Chiuchiolo, M. J.. AU - Kim, D.. AU - Nikolopoulou, A.. AU - Amor-Coarasa, A.. AU - Dyke, J. P.. AU - Voss, H. U.. AU - Kaminsky, S. M.. AU - Foley, C. P.. AU - Vallabhajosula, S.. AU - Hu, B.. AU - DiMagno, S. G.. AU - Sondhi, D.. AU - Crystal, R. G.. AU - Babich, J. W.. AU - Ballon, D.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © The Author(s) 2017. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/1/6. Y1 - 2017/1/6. N2 - Viral vector mediated gene therapy has become commonplace in clinical trials for a wide range of inherited disorders. Successful gene transfer depends on a number of factors, of which tissue tropism is among the most important. To date, definitive mapping of the spatial and temporal distribution of viral vectors in vivo has generally required postmortem examination of tissue. Here ...
Lentiviral vector systems with EF-1 alpha promoters allow you to achieve robust, constitutive, long-term expression of your gene of interest in cell types in which CMV promoters are often silenced, such as hematopoietic and stem cells.
Lentiviral vector systems with EF-1 alpha promoters allow you to achieve robust, constitutive, long-term expression of your gene of interest in cell types in which CMV promoters are often silenced, such as hematopoietic and stem cells.
"Expression vectors". www.sci.sdsu.edu.. External links[edit]. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Genetic promoter regions. ... Some cases of many genetic diseases are associated with variations in promoters or transcription factors. ...
Rubin GM, Spradling AC (October 1982). "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 ( ... Use of transposable elements can be split into two categories: as a genetic tool and for genetic engineering. ... Genetic tool[edit]. *Used for analysis of gene expression and protein functioning in signature-tagging mutagenesis. *This ... Genetic engineering[edit]. *Used in insertional mutagenesis *Insertional mutagenesis uses the features of a TE to insert a ...
Rubin GM, Spradling AC (October 1982). "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 ( ... Main article: Transposons as a genetic tool. The first TE was discovered in maize (Zea mays) and is named dissociator (Ds). ... It has been shown that TEs are important in genome function and evolution.[2] In Oxytricha, which has a unique genetic system, ... TEs are mutagens and their movements are often the causes of genetic disease. They can damage the genome of their host cell in ...
The genetic basis for the Fy(a-b-) phenotype is a point mutation in the erythroid specific promoter (a T -, C mutation at ... J Vector Borne Dis. 46 (3): 230-6. PMID 19724088.. ... The mouse gene is located on chromosome 1 between the genetic ... Chiaroni J, Touinssi M, Frassati C, Degioanni A, Gibert M, Reviron D, Mercier P, Boëtsch G (August 2004). "Genetic ... Awasthi G, Dashb AP, Dasa A (September 2009). "Evolutionary insights into duffy gene in mammalian taxa with comparative genetic ...
The binary vector is a shuttle vector, so-called because it is able to replicate in multiple hosts (e.g. Escherichia coli and ... Plant Biotechnology the genetic manipulation of plants. New York: Oxford University Press Inc. Bevan M (November 1984). "Binary ... The pGreen vector, which was developed in 2000, is a newer version of the binary vector that allows for a choice of promoters, ... T-DNA is located on the binary vector (the non-T-DNA region of this vector containing origin(s) of replication that could ...
Tim Ravenscroft (2008-06-15). "Are Lentiviral Vectors on Cusp of Breakout?". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. Mary Ann ... "HIV-2 and SIV Vector Systems." Lentiviral Vector Systems for Gene Transfer. Ed. Gary L. Buchschacher. Georgetown, TX: Eurekah. ... Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors have so far been used in more than 300 clinical trials, addressing treatment options for ... Cockrell, Adam S.; Kafri, Tal (2007-07-01). "Gene delivery by lentivirus vectors". Molecular Biotechnology. 36 (3): 184-204. ...
"Genetic elimination of dengue vector mosquitoes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (12): 4772-4775. Bibcode ... A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering ... Besides use of genetic modification to allow the providing of safer animal organs for transplantation, genetic modification can ... This is an organism whose genetic makeup has been altered by the addition of genetic material from an unrelated organism. This ...
ISBN 978-1-4398-2750-5.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Zach N., Adelman (2015). Genetic Control of Malaria and ... by Serap (2008). Transgenesis and the management of vector-borne disease ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). New York, NY: Springer Science ... ISBN 978-0-12-800405-0. Jones, editors, P.G. Weintraub & P. (2009). Phytoplasmas : genomes, plant hosts and vectors ([Online- ... Genetic Control of Malaria and Dengue. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-800405-0. Miller, edited by Kostas Bourtzis, Thomas A. ( ...
Rubin, G.; Spradling, A. (1982). "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 (4570 ... Related to his genomics work, Rubin's lab is notable for development of genetic and genomics tools and studies of signal ... Xu, T; Rubin, G. M. (1993). "Analysis of genetic mosaics in developing and adult Drosophila tissues". Development. 117 (4): ...
Rubin GM, Spradling AC (October 1982). "Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors". Science. 218 ( ... Use of transposable elements can be split into two categories: as a genetic tool and for genetic engineering. Used for analysis ... This refuted the popular genetic theory of the time that genes were fixed in their position on a chromosome. McClintock found ... These are often the causes of genetic disease, and gives the potential lethal effects of ectopic expression. TEs can damage the ...
"I don't care if it's a weed or a blight, people still are going to say this is way too massive a genetic engineering project ... One possible application is to genetically modify mosquitoes and other disease vectors so that they cannot transmit diseases ... "Biologists create new genetic systems to neutralize gene drives". phys.org. Retrieved 8 October 2020. Xu, Xiang-Ru Shannon; ... introduce a genetic modification in wild populations. Gene drives constitute a major development that makes possible previously ...
The black fly, Simulium tribulatum, is reported as a putative vector. Human Cases The number of reported human zoonotic O. lupi ... "Morphologic and genetic characterization of Onchocerca lupi infecting dogs." Veterinary parasitology 102.4 (2001): 309-319. ... "Human ocular filariasis: further evidence on the zoonotic role of Onchocerca lupi." Parasit Vectors 5.1 (2012): 84. Egyed, Z., ...
Wise de Valdez MR, Nimmo D, Betz J, Gong HF, James AA, Alphey L, Black WC (March 2011). "Genetic elimination of dengue vector ... Genetic modification of the myxoma virus has been proposed to conserve European wild rabbits in the Iberian peninsula and to ... The genetic modification is an RNA molecule that prevents the virus reproduction by mimicking the region of the flu virus ... However, the genetic material will be stored at the Canadian Agricultural Genetics Repository Program. In 2006, a pig was ...
"Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review". Parasites & Vectors. 7 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/1756- ... "Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review". Parasites & Vectors. 7 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/1756- ... In 2005 the first complete sequence of its mitochondrial genome was published, and genetic comparison (Cox1gene) with those of ... Bowles, J; McManus, DP (1994). "Genetic characterization of the Asian Taenia, a newly described taeniid cestode of humans". The ...
"Epidemiology and genetic diversity of Taenia asiatica: a systematic review". Parasites & Vectors. 7 (1): 45. doi:10.1186/1756- ... Parasit Vectors. 11 (1): 569. doi:10.1186/s13071-018-3153-5. PMC 6208121. PMID 30376899. Somers, Kenneth D.; Morse, Stephen A ...
Vectors of disease. Anopheles albimanus mosquito feeding on a human arm - this mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito ... Genetic methods including cytoplasmic incompatibility, chromosomal translocations, sex distortion and gene replacement have ... Rutgers University, Center for Vector Biology. *^ a b Spielman, Andrew; D'Antonio, M. (2001). Mosquito : a natural history of ... Journal of Vector Ecology. 29 (1): 140-53. PMID 15266751. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-28.. ...
A retrovirus is a virus that carries its genetic material in the form of RNA rather than DNA. Retroviruses are used as vectors ... Transgenesis can be facilitated by liposomes, enzymes, plasmid vectors, viral vectors, pronuclear injection, protoplast fusion ... This allows the foreign DNA to hybridise with the plasmid DNA and be sealed by DNA ligase enzyme, creating a genetic code not ... Transgenic organisms are able to express foreign genes because the genetic code is similar for all organisms. This means that a ...
Meng Qi, Zilin Wei, Ying Zhang, Qiyuan Zhang, Juanfeng Li, Longxian Zhang, Rongjun Wang (11 January 2020). "Genetic diversity ... of Blastocystis in kindergarten children in southern Xinjiang, China". Parasites & Vectors. 13 (15): 15. doi:10.1186/s13071-020 ...
Artificially constructed plasmids may be used as vectors in genetic engineering. These plasmids serve as important tools in ... Plasmids are the most-commonly used bacterial cloning vectors. These cloning vectors contain a site that allows DNA fragments ... Other types of plasmids are often related to yeast cloning vectors that include: Yeast integrative plasmid (YIp), yeast vectors ... A plasmid cloning vector is typically used to clone DNA fragments of up to 15 kbp. To clone longer lengths of DNA, lambda phage ...
A transformation protocol has been established and RNAi vectors are available. This makes molecular genetic studies much easier ... "Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) accessions". Journal of Phycology (43 ... "Genetic and phenotypic characterization of Phaeodactylum tricornutum (Bacillariophyceae) accessions". Journal of Phycology. 43 ...
Bridging laboratory and fields research for genetic control of disease vectors. In proceedings of the joint WHO/TDR, NIAID, ... IAEA and Frontis workshop on bridging laboratory and field research for genetic control of disease vectors, Nairobi, Kenya 14- ... Sex separation can be difficult, though this can be easily performed on a large scale where genetic sexing systems have been ... Tsetse fly (Glossina spp.) - vector of sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in livestock. Painted apple moth in Auckland, New ...
... development of new vectors for delivery of drugs and genetic material; development of biomaterials for stem cell-based ... genetic screening of diseases; structure-function relation of proteins with biomedical or biotechnological interest; ...
There are many vectors, including snails, ticks, and fleas. Some people are born with 'genetic diseases'. These are diseases ... Animals that spread disease are called vectors. ...
Schaffer, J. David (1984). "Multiple Objective Optimization with Vector Evaluated Genetic Algorithms". In G.J.E Grefensette; J. ... F. Kursawe, "A variant of evolution strategies for vector optimization," in PPSN I, Vol 496 Lect Notes in Comput Sc. Springer- ... ISBN 978-0-19-509971-3. Haupt, Randy L. Haupt, Sue Ellen (2004). Practical genetic algorithms with CD-Rom (2nd ed.). New York: ... In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Genetic Algorithms. Czech Republic. pp. 176-182 Binh T. (1999) A ...
"Molecular phylogeny of the Anopheles gambiae complex suggests genetic introgression between principal malaria vectors". ... The Anopheles gambiae mosquito complex contains both species which are a vector for malaria, and species which are not.[40] ... Wallis GP, Judge KF, Bland J, Waters JM, Berra TM (2001). "Genetic diversity in New Zealand Galaxias vulgaris sensu lato ( ... Roca AL, Georgiadis N, Pecon-Slattery J, O'Brien SJ (2001). "Genetic evidence for two species of elephant in Africa". Science. ...
"Molecular phylogeny of the Anopheles gambiae complex suggests genetic introgression between principal malaria vectors". ... The Anopheles gambiae mosquito complex contains both species that are a vector for malaria and species that are not.[40] ... Wallis GP, Judge KF, Bland J, Waters JM, Berra TM (2001). "Genetic diversity in New Zealand Galaxias vulgaris sensu lato ( ... Kankare M, Van Nouhuys S, Hanski I (2005). "Genetic divergence among host-specific cryptic species in Cotesia melitaearum ...
Piraino, Stefano (2015). "Genetic connectivity of Pelagia noctiluca populations reveal spatial and temporal reproductive ... subunits". marine-vectors.eu. Retrieved 30 June 2019. Johnson, F.H.; O. Shimomura (1968). "The Chemistry of Luminescence in ... Miller, B.J.; S. von der Heyden; M.J. Gibbons (2012). "Significant population genetic structuring of the holoplanktic ... Even North Atlantic and South Atlantic populations show significant genetic differences. A comprehensive taxonomic review is ...
The genetic information can be stored within lambda phage and plasma vectors. The National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences ... DNA banks allow for conservation of genetic material and comparative analysis of an individual's genetic information. Analyzing ... This system makes it possible to rule out or confirm the verdict of a suspect based on their personal genetic code. Once an ... DNA banking is the secure, long term storage of an individual's genetic material. DNA is most commonly extracted from blood, ...
... s have been explored as vectors in gene delivery and genetic immunization. Poly (propyleneimine) dendrosome based ... dendrimer and dendrosome based genetic immunization against Hepatitis B.". Vaccine. 26 (27-28): 3389-3394. doi:10.1016/j. ... genetic immunization against Hepatitis B was found to be highly effective as compared to Dendrimer-Plasmid DNA complex. It has ...
Viral gene therapy uses genetically engineered viral vectors to deliver therapeutic genes to cells with genetic malfunctions[10 ... Viral gene therapy uses genetically engineered viral vectors to deliver a gene of interest to target cells. An AAV-based vector ... In 2017, the FDA approved Spark Therapeutics' Luxturna, an AAV vector-based gene therapy product for the treatment of RPE65 ... However, responses to viral vectors at immune privileged sites such as the eye may be reduced compared to other sites of the ...
Hard-bodied ticks of the genus Ixodes are the main vectors of Lyme disease (also the vector for Babesia).[54] Most infections ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ... In Europe, the vector is Ixodes ricinus, which is also called the sheep tick or castor bean tick.[63] In China, Ixodes ... "Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 7 (1): 42-9. doi:10.1089/vbz.2006.0548. PMC 4128253. PMID 17417956.. ...
Each pollen grain is haploid: it has half of the DNA (genetic information) that is needed to make a new plant. During ... Pollen vector wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil. ... Wasps are also responsible for the pollination of several plants species, being important pollen vectors and, in some cases, ...
Logg CR, Tai CK, Logg A, Anderson WF, Kasahara N (20 May 2001). "A uniquely stable replication-competent retrovirus vector ... and follow-up examination of prepared tissues after immunohistochemical staining or genetic analysis. ... "A Study of a Retroviral Replicating Vector Administered to Subjects With Recurrent Malignant Glioma". Clinical Trials.gov. July ... reported in 2001 the first successful example of applying the use of retroviral replicating vectors towards transducing cell ...
In discrete vector spaces, each possible value for x. {\displaystyle \mathbf {x} }. may be visualized as a vertex in a graph. ... is a vector of continuous and/or discrete values. At each iteration, hill climbing will adjust a single element in x. {\ ... Because hill climbers only adjust one element in the vector at a time, each step will move in an axis-aligned direction. If the ... Continuous Space Hill Climbing Algorithm currentPoint = initialPoint; // the zero-magnitude vector is common stepSize = ...
Feature space vectors[edit]. However a new, alternative view can show compression algorithms implicitly map strings into ... In 2012, a team of scientists from Johns Hopkins University published a genetic compression algorithm that does not use a ... For each compressor C(.) we define an associated vector space ℵ, such that C(.) maps an input string x, corresponds to the ... feature vectors chooses to examine three representative lossless compression methods, LZW, LZ77, and PPM.[17] ...
1992). "A Platform for Evolving Genetic Automata for Text Segmentation (GNATS)". Science of Artificial Neural Networks. Science ... although evolution of the universal state vector is completely deterministic. Current physical theories cannot resolve the ... and desires are fixed by our genetic endowment and our biochemical makeup, the latter of which is affected by both genes and ... it is not certain that environmental determination is any less threatening to free will than genetic determination.[164] ...
This infection of vectors without a previous blood meal seems to play a role in single, sudden breakouts of the disease.[25] ... Bazin, Hervé (2011). Vaccination: a history from Lady Montagu to genetic engineering. Montrouge: J. Libbey Eurotext. p. 407. ... The main vector (A. aegypti) also occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, the Pacific, and Australia, but yellow ... People who become infected in the jungle can carry the virus to urban areas, where A. aegypti acts as a vector. Because of this ...
"The genetic code" (PDF). Nobel Lecture (en inglés). nobelprize.org. Arquivado dende o orixinal (pdf) o 09 de xaneiro de 2009 ... "Cloning of Large Segments of Exogenous DNA into Yeast by Means of Artificial Chromosome Vectors" (PDF). Science 236 (4803). ... "FDA Clears First of Kind Genetic Lab Test". FDA News (en inglés). FDA. Consultado o 13 de setembro de 2008 ... "Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing ...
VectorsEdit. Non-native species have many vectors, including biogenic vectors, but most invasions are associated with human ... Main article: Genetic pollution. Native species can be threatened with extinction[113] through the process of genetic pollution ... Genetic Pollution from Farm Forestry using eucalypt species and hybrids; A report for the RIRDC/L&WA/FWPRDC]; Joint Venture ... An early human vector occurred when prehistoric humans introduced the Pacific rat (Rattus exulans) to Polynesia.[46] ...
"Genetic unmasking of an epigenetically silenced microRNA in human cancer cells". Cancer Res. 67 (4): 1424-9. doi:10.1158/0008- ... Further tests directly showed that transfecting breast cancer cells with a vector over-expressing miR-155 represses RAD51, ...
From Genetic resistance to malaria: "Where this parasite [p. falciparum] is endemic, young children have repeated malaria ... A 2013 book by Billy G. Smith, professor of history at Montana State University, makes a case that the principal vector of the ... American doctors did not identify the vector of yellow fever until the late nineteenth century. In 1881 Carlos Finlay, a Cuban ...
"Recognition and classification of histones using support vector machine" (PDF). Journal of Computational Biology. 13 (1): 102- ...
Genetic Genealogy.. *. "Genetic study revives debate on origin and expansion of Indo-European Languages". Science Daily. March ... Autosomal tests also indicate that the Yamnaya are the most likely vector for "Ancient North Eurasian" admixture into Europe.[5 ... "The genetic structure of the world's first farmers". anthrogenica.com.. *^ Gallego-Llorente, M.; Connell, S.; Jones, E. R.; ... 2016). "The genetic structure of the world's first farmers". bioRxiv 059311.. *^ Unterländer, Martina; Palstra, Friso; ...
In the case of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), viroplasms improve the virus transmission by the aphid vector. Viroplasms ... The viroplasm is where components such as replicase enzymes, virus genetic material, and host proteins required for replication ... Virus factories of Cauliflower mosaic virus are virion reservoirs that engage actively in vector-transmission. 2013 journal of ...
These estimates are made using genetic mapping of plant chloroplasts.[12] A DNA study published in Nature in 2018 concludes ... Also rather important are the viral infections to which some of these ectoparasites serve as vectors such as the aphid- ... Citrus fruits clustered by genetic similarity, ternary diagram based on data from Curk, et al. (2016)[18] ... National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Archived from the ...
... - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme ( ... which act as vectors. Research in Spain has indicated the presence of a triterpene, alnulin, rendering the tree bark less ... DNA analysis by Cemagref (now Irstea) in France has determined the genetic diversity within the species is very limited, making ... rather than genetic variation; the subspecies are not accepted by Flora Europaea.[14] ...
GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ... vector - vertical transmission - viral burden - viral core - viral culture - viral envelope - viral load - viremia - viricide ... live vector vaccine - liver function test (LFT) - long terminal repeat sequence (LTR) - long-term nonprogressors - LTR - lumbar ...
Disease vectors were often unknown. The surgeons prescribed coffee, whiskey, and quinine. Harsh weather, bad water, inadequate ... The indigenous people lacked genetic resistance to such new infections, and suffered overwhelming mortality when exposed to ...
Other genetic factors are being investigated,[60] of which many are likely.[17] ... A person's genetic makeup also affects the risk.[9] ... By vector/route. *Community-acquired. *Healthcare-associated. * ...
Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors for gene therapy have been developed that mediate stable genetic modification of treated ... Retroviral vector particles with tropism for various target cells have been designed. Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors ... but also for clinical gene therapy aiming at the long-term correction of genetic defects, e.g., in stem and progenitor cells. ... a fundamental mode for transferring genetic material that occurs in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. It has been speculated ...
This made him realise that the vector of the disease were lice that were discarded with the patient's own clothes.[3] Nicolle ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ... and then deduced that the fleas which carried the bacteria were its true vector or source, and that they transmitted the ... because it was necessary to act on a large number of generations to change the genetic foundation of a species, nevertheless ...
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 10 (6), s. 549-61. doi:10.1089/vbz.2009.0138. PMID 20795916.. KB1 bakım: Birden fazla ad: yazar ... "Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from southern Africa" ...
Both G. mellonella adults and larvae are possible vectors for pathogens that can infect bees, including the Israeli acute ... though authors applying a genetic species concept have suggested it should be considered a separate species.[10] Essentially ...
Woese C.R. (1967). The genetic code: The molecular basis for genetic expression. p. 186. Harper & Row ... Cairns-Smith AG (1993). Genetic Takeover: And the Mineral Origins of Life. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23312-5. ... Crick FH (Dec 1968). "The origin of the genetic code". Journal of Molecular Biology. 38 (3): 367-79. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(68) ... Szathmáry E (Jun 1999). "The origin of the genetic code: amino acids as cofactors in an RNA world". Trends in Genetics. 15 (6 ...
The sample space may be the set of real numbers or a set of vectors, or it may be a list of non-numerical values; for example, ... For continuous variation in biology, see Genetic variability. For other uses, see Distribution. ... Related to the absolute values of vectors with normally distributed components[edit]. *Rayleigh distribution, for the ... Probability distributions are not a vector space-they are not closed under linear combinations, as these do not preserve non- ...
... genetic mutations, genetic drift, etc.. genetics. The study of heredity.. genome. The entire set of genetic material contained ... vector. vegetative reproduction. Any type of asexual reproduction performed by an organism which is nonetheless capable of ... A set of all genes, or genetic information, in any population, usually of a particular species.. generation. genetic code. A ... or between groups of species thriving in different parts of the world as a result of genetic mutation. Genetic diversity in a ...
"Agrobacterium: The Natural Genetic Engineer (100 Years Later)". Retrieved 14 January 2011].,/ref, [[Ti-plasmiid]] integreerub ... ref,[Zambryski, P.; Joos, H.; Genetello, C.; Leemans, J.; Montagu, M. V.; Schell, J. (1983). "Ti plasmid vector for the ... "Transforming Plants - Basic Genetic Engineering Techniques". Retrieved 28 January 2010].,/ref, [[Biolistiline,Biolistilise]] ... Genetic Transformation of Escherichia coli by R-Factor DNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 69 (8): 2110-4. ...
The chosen insect vector of a plant virus will often be the determining factor in that virus's host range: it can only infect ... The RNA carries genetic information to code for the production of new infectious particles. More recently virus research has ... Plants do not move, and so plant-to-plant transmission usually involves vectors (such as insects). Plant cells are surrounded ... Plant viruses need to be transmitted by a vector, most often insects such as leafhoppers. One class of viruses, the ...
Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ... Vector transmission - An organism that does not cause disease itself but transmits infection by conveying pathogens from one ...
A study of potential vectors in Malayasia suggests that Anopheles cracens may be an important vector of P. knowlesi.[27] ... The known vectors belong to the genus Anopheles, subgenus Cellia, series Neomyzomyia and group Leucosphyrus.[4] Mosquitoes of ... "Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 11 (2): 131-5. doi:10.1089/vbz.2010.0024. PMC 3033207. PMID 20586605.. ... Wharton RH, Eyles DE (1961). "Anopheles hackeri, a vector of Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaya". Science. 134 (3474): 279-80. doi: ...
The pNL1.1[Nluc] and pNL1.2[NlucP] Vectors are used to clone a putative promoter to drive expression of the bright NanoLuc® ... Genetic Reporter Vectors and Cell Lines Promoterless NanoLuc® Genetic Reporter Basic Vectors. Relative size for different ... About NanoLuc® Luciferase and the pNL Vectors. For use as a genetic reporter, multiple forms of NanoLuc® luciferase have been ... Promoterless Renilla Luciferase Basic Vectors. Three Renilla reporter vectors used to clone a putative promoter element for ...
The genetic vector may include adenovirus recombinants, DNA/adenovirus complexes, DNA/liposome complexes, or any other vectors ... in need of such treatment topically by applying to said skin an immunologically effective concentration of a genetic vector ... Topical application of geneticvectors may preferably include a device as designed therein. ... contacting skin of said animal topically by applying to said skin an immunologically effective concentration of a vector ...
Promega offers firefly, NanoLuc® and ,i,Renilla,/i, luciferases, GFP and dual-reporter coincidence vectors. We also offer ... Optimized reporter vectors including luciferase reporter genes to detect and monitor gene activity. ... Genetic Reporter Vectors and Cell Lines. We offer luciferase reporter vectors containing NanoLuc®, firefly, and Renilla ... Shop all Genetic Reporter Vectors and Cell Lines. Sort by:. Newest. Alphabetical A-Z. Alphabetical Z-A. ...
Biological context of Genetic Vectors. *Transgenic mice with a lambda shuttle vector containing a lacI target gene were ... Chemical compound and disease context of Genetic Vectors. *A retroviral shuttle vector was constructed by introducing the ... Anatomical context of Genetic Vectors. *The parental vector we have chosen [pZIP-NeoSV(X)1] expresses a dominant selectable ... High impact information on Genetic Vectors. *When these were introduced into yeast on autonomously replicating shuttle vectors ...
... isometric design 1221971 royalty-free Vector from Vecteezy for your project and explore over a million other vectors, icons and ... Vectors Backgrounds Banners Logos Flowers Patterns Wedding People Newest Vectors Vectors by Category ... a href=https://www.vecteezy.com/free-vector/human,Human Vectors by Vecteezy,/a, ...
Microparticles, Vector of Genetic Information During HIV Infection. Official Title ICMJE Microparticles, Vector of Genetic ... Microparticles, Vector of Genetic Information During HIV Infection. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
Student Treatment of Genetic Diseases #1 - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) ... Target cells such as the patients liver or lung cells are infected with the viral vector. The vector then unloads its genetic ... Treatment Of Genetic Diseases. Treatment of inherited disease Genetic diseases do not necessarily require a "genetic" cure • ... Factors kept gene therapy from becoming an effective treatment for genetic disease • Short-lived nature of gene therapy: The ...
Microparticles, Vector of Genetic Information During HIV Infection. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ...
... Xiaochen Zhang and Dongxiang ... To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) ... Meanwhile, the sensitive feature vectors are randomly chosen from the database and constitute training samples and testing ... Combined with wavelet packet decomposition and isometric mapping (Isomap), the sensitive feature vectors are obtained and ...
... Xiaochen Zhang and Dongxiang ... G. Mountrakis, J. Im, and C. Ogole, "Support vector machines in remote sensing: a review," ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and ... J.-C. Lee, W.-M. Lin, G.-C. Liao, and T.-P. Tsao, "Quantum genetic algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with valve-point ... B.-Z. Yao, C.-Y. Yang, J.-B. Yao, and J. Sun, "Tunnel surrounding rock displacement prediction using support vector machine," ...
Genetic transformation of Drosophila with transposable element vectors Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... These transformed flies had wild-type eye color indicating that the visible genetic defect in the host strain could be fully ...
An Integrated Genetic Map of the African Human Malaria Vector Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae Liangbiao Zheng, Mark Q. Benedict, ... An Integrated Genetic Map of the African Human Malaria Vector Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae Liangbiao Zheng, Mark Q. Benedict, ... An Integrated Genetic Map of the African Human Malaria Vector Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae Liangbiao Zheng, Mark Q. Benedict, ... We present a genetic map based on microsatellite polymorphisms for the African human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. ...
Explore millions of stock photos, images, illustrations, and vectors in the Shutterstock creative collection. 1000s of new ... Find translation of base triplets for genetic code with the help of codon wheel stock vectors and royalty free photos in HD. ... Royalty-free stock vector ID: 339833039 translation of base triplets for genetic code with the help of codon wheel - Vector ... Translation Base Triplets Genetic Code Help Stock Vector (Royalty Free) 339833039 - Shutterstock ...
The genetic engineering of hematopoietic stem cells: the rise of lentiviral vectors, the conundrum of the ltr, and the promise ... Tissue-specific vectors, as exemplified by globin vectors, not only provide therapeutic efficacy, but may also enhance safety, ... and other genetic elements, the rise of lentiviral technology and the emergence of regulated vector systems providing tissue- ... New developments in vector design and an increasing understanding of the mechanisms underlying insertional oncogenesis are ...
DNA human genetic icon vector illustration graphic design. Download a Free Preview or High Quality Adobe Illustrator Ai, EPS, ... Dna human genetic Vector Image. DNA human genetic icon vector illustration graphic design. Download a Free Preview or High ... www.vectorstock.com/royalty-free-vector/dna-human-genetic-vector-15226348 ... cdn.vectorstock.com/i/1000x1000/63/48/dna-human-genetic-vector-15226348.jpg ...
... genetic icon and element - heart. Download a Free Preview or High Quality Adobe Illustrator Ai, EPS, PDF and High Resolution ... DNA genetic icon - heart Vector Image. DNA, genetic icon and element - heart. Download a Free Preview or High Quality Adobe ... www.vectorstock.com/royalty-free-vector/dna-genetic-icon-heart-vector-6622441 ... cdn.vectorstock.com/i/1000x1000/24/41/dna-genetic-icon-heart-vector-6622441.jpg ...
... decision tree support vector machine (DTSVM), which combines SVM and decision tree using the concept of dic ...
Generation and Functional In Vitro Analysis of Semliki Forest Virus Vectors Encoding TNF-α and IFN-γ *Baiba Kurena ... In addition, no other vector proteins are produced, other than small amounts of viral replicase. Berglund et al29 demonstrated ... Moreover, SFV infection is cytolytic by apoptosis.1328 Therefore, no genetic information of E6 and E7 will persist for more ... Daemen, T., Pries, F., Bungener, L. et al. Genetic immunization against cervical carcinoma: induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte ...
... Honestly, thats a little too broad of a question to ... 4357 Also the below reference is a good review on lentiviral vectors and its vectorology: Debyser, Current Gene Therapy, 2003, ... which is the main reference for anything concerning retroviruses and retroviral vectors. http: //www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/books ...
Genetic diversities of C. hominis were estimated in 10 nations in 5 continents, and that of C. parvum of human origin were ... A genetic marker that mirrors disease incidence is potentially a powerful tool for monitoring the two primary human infected ... Genetic diversity of C. hominis and C. parvum may therefore be an independent and complementary measure for quantifying disease ... Based on 296 C. hominis and 195 C. parvum GP60 sequences from human origin, the genetic diversities of Cryptosporidium was ...
Myocardial Infarction (MI) is one of the well-known heart attacks. This cardiac abnormality occurs when the artery connecting the heart is blocked. The main aim
Genetic elimination of dengue vector mosquitoes. PNAS, Vol. ... Genetic elimination of dengue vector mosquitoes. PNAS, Vol. 108 ... MosqGuide: A project to develop best practice guidance for the deployment of innovative genetic vector control strategies for ...
... ... Anopheles funestus is a primary vector of malaria, but little is known about the basic biology and few genetic resources are ... Genetic variation in populations is largely shaped by natural selection, demography, and genetic drift. I used population ... Novel vector-based disease intervention strategies are largely based on two types of mosquito proteins: non-immune proteins ...
Download this Premium Vector about Dna strand background and genetic engineering or laboratory research, and discover more than ... Dna strand background and genetic engineering or laboratory research Premium Vector. 4 months ago ... www.freepik.com/premium-vector/dna-strand-background-genetic-engineering-laboratory-research_10802994.htm ...
The genetic differentiation was less high between Ae. albopictus populations collected in agglomerations connected by highly ... f Population genetic structure and competence as a vector for dengue type 2 virus of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from ... The genetic differentiation was less high between Ae. albopictus populations collected in agglomerations connected by highly ...
Ohio State Researchers Design A Viral Vector To Treat A Genetic Form Of Blindness. ... The vector is part of a clinical trial investigating the use of gene therapy to cure choroideremia, a disease that affects an ... The vector was designed by Dr. Matthew During, professor of molecular virology, immunology and medical genetics and of ... The clinical vector manufacturing facility at Nationwide Childrens Hospital is outstanding, and Dr. Clark and his team deserve ...
Lessmann, S and Stahlbock, R and Crone, S (2005) Optimizing hyperparameters of support vector machines by genetic algorithms. ...
Rasgon, J. Population Replacement Strategies for Controlling Vector Populations and the Use of Wolbachia pipientis for Genetic ... Reproduktionsnivån strategier för kontroll Vector Populationer och användning av Wolbachia pipientis för genetiska Drive. Jason ...
Rasgon, J. Population Replacement Strategies for Controlling Vector Populations and the Use of Wolbachia pipientis for Genetic ...
... to provide PCR-quality DNA for multi-locus genetic analysis. The techniques reported here present simple and effective short- ... Parasites & Vectors ISSN: 1756-3305. Contact us. *Submission enquiries: Access here and click Contact Us ... In line with Whatman FTA® cards this approach enables parasite genetic analysis without the use of laboratory animals and is in ... Agola LE, Steinauer ML, Mburu DN, Mungai BN, Mwangi IN, Magoma GN, Loker ES, Mkoji GM: Genetic diversity and population ...
  • Target cells such as the patient's liver or lung cells are infected with the viral vector. (scribd.com)
  • During and his colleagues designed the viral vector to infect the light-sensitive photoreceptor cells that line the back of the eye and make up the retina. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the current study, we present a robust method for lentiviral vector-mediated gene delivery into hNPC that maintains the differentiation and proliferative properties of neurosphere cultures while minimizing the amount of viral vector used and controlling the number of insertion sites per population. (epfl.ch)
  • Viral vectors are the best approach used in the gene therapies and therefore, testing services are the key factors for the timely development of viral vector-based therapies. (marketresearch.com)
  • Viral vector characterization plays an important role for orthogonal analytical approaches. (marketresearch.com)
  • Nowadays, viral vector are the leading vehicle for the multiple virus-based drugs, which are approved in the global market and are developed for various treatments such as cancer and neurology, hematology, ophthalmology, and metabolic or muscular disorders. (marketresearch.com)
  • The viral vector and plasmid DNA testing services market is expected to witness significant growth over the forecast period, owing to rising number of business expansion by opening a new center or process development service (PDS). (marketresearch.com)
  • Moreover, acquisitions by the major players are expected to drive growth of viral vector and plasmid DNA testing services market over the forecast period. (marketresearch.com)
  • For instance, in November 2018, ABL Europe SAS, a subsidiary of ABL, Inc., acquired a former Accinov GMP manufacturing site located in Lyon, France for expansion of viral vector GMP contract manufacturing capacity in the gene therapy space. (marketresearch.com)
  • In this study, we focused on the improvement of gene delivery efficiency of a newly emerged viral vector originated from insect viruses, namely baculovirus. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Through genetic modifications of Baculovirus, neuron-specific transgene expression was successfully achieved after local injection of the viral vector into the rat brain. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Could a Viral Vector Be The Carrier to a HIV Cure? (biotechniques.com)
  • A lentiviral vector system was then developed in an attempt to find a viral vector system that could achieve sustained transgene expression from infected non-dividing cells. (biotechniques.com)
  • Although non-viral vector systems such as lipid-mediated vectors, hydrodynamic delivery, and the gene gun have been advocated and tried. (medcraveonline.com)
  • But none of them have approached the efficacy of the viral vector delivery systems. (medcraveonline.com)
  • The era for using non-viral vector in gene therapy was begun when polyethylene glycol was first time used as a vector for delivery gene into brain cells in 2003. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • Delivery of the gene is realized via intramuscular injection of an adeno-associated viral vector, pseudotyped with AAV1 capsids. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Low toxicity: The viral vector should have a minimal effect on the physiology of the cell it infects. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is detrimental to predictability and reproducibility of the work conducted using a viral vector and is avoided in their design. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells can then be isolated easily, as those that have not taken up the viral vector genes do not have antibiotic resistance, and so cannot grow in a culture with the relevant antibiotic present. (wikipedia.org)
  • To predict the remaining life of ball screw, a screw remaining life prediction method based on quantum genetic algorithm (QGA) and support vector machine (SVM) is proposed. (hindawi.com)
  • Support vector machines and artificial neural network techniques are used to classify the aggregates using a methodology to tune the algorithm parameters to improve the performance of the models. (deepdyve.com)
  • We used a combination of genetic algorithm as an optimizer and support vector machines as a classifier for the identification of maximally-effective waveband combination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1. A method of non-invasively inducing a systemic immune response, comprising topically administering, a plasmid DNA and liposome complex vector that encodes a gene of interest and expresses a protein encoded by the gene of interest, to the skin of a mammal, in an effective amount to induce said systemic immune response to said protein, wherein a systemic immune resonse to said protein is induced in said mammal. (google.com)
  • The ongoing clinical trials on the viral vectors and plasmid DNA for various treatment is expected to fuel growth of the market in the forecast period. (marketresearch.com)
  • Furthermore, favorable regulations imposed by the regulatory authorities for the specific utilization of viral vectors or plasmid DNA in the industries are expected to fuel growth of the market. (marketresearch.com)
  • Retroviral vectors: They utilized pRETRO-SUPER plasmid for short hairpin RNA targeting of BRCA2 and confirmed all plasmids by DNA sequencing and/or restriction digestion. (avsabonline.org)
  • To introduce individual genes into bacteria or eukaryotic cells, the most widely used vector is a plasmid, according to Scitable. (reference.com)
  • In addition, these vectors express the Escherichia coli rpsL gene, encoding ribosomal protein S12, which provides a positive selection for bacteria that have exchanged cloned plasmid sequences with the corresponding chromosomal sequences. (nih.gov)
  • The transfer vector plasmid contains cis-acting genetic sequences crucial for vector's ability to infect the target cell and to transfer selected therapeutic (or reporter) genes. (news-medical.net)
  • A bacterial plasmid (a small circular strand of DNA often found in bacteria in addition to their main DNA) is often used as a vector. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • Some of the different types of viruses used as gene therapy vectors: Retroviruses - A class of viruses that can create double-stranded DNA copies of their RNA genomes (reverse transcription). (scribd.com)
  • Below is a webpage address that comes directly out of "Retroviruses" , which is the main reference for anything concerning retroviruses and retroviral vectors. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Viral vectors mainly consist of four types: retroviruses, lentiviruses, adenoviruses and adeno-associated viruses (1). (biotechniques.com)
  • Researchers first developed viral vectors in the 1970s, based upon retroviruses (2). (biotechniques.com)
  • The most commonly used viral vectors are derived from retroviruses, adenoviruses, and adeno associated viruses (AAV). (medcraveonline.com)
  • Viral vectors, especially retroviruses, stably expressing marker genes such as GFP are widely used to permanently label cells to track them and their progeny, for example in xenotransplantation experiments, when cells infected in vitro are implanted into a host animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some viral vectors, for instance gamma-retroviruses, insert their genomes at a seemingly random location on one of the host chromosomes, which can disturb the function of cellular genes and lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population genetic structure and competence as a vector for dengue type 2 virus of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Madagascar. (ajtmh.org)
  • Ecological and genetic changes in vector populations of dengue fever in relation to urbanization. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Ecology of dengue vectors in Southeast Asia. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In this video, Jason Rasgon discusses population replacement strategies to control vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue. (elsevier.com)
  • This species is a vector of medically important arboviruses, notably chikungunya (CHIKV), dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV). (pasteur.fr)
  • Insect vectors transmit parasitic diseases such as malaria and leishmaniasis, and viral infections such as chikungunya, dengue, Zika, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever. (pasteur.fr)
  • The genetic architecture of a complex trait: Resistance to multiple toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis in the dengue and yellow fever vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti. (edu.sa)
  • The genetic engineering of hematopoietic stem cells: the rise of lentiviral vectors, the conundrum of the ltr, and the promise of lineage-restricte. (nih.gov)
  • We were interested in determining whether the tropism of HCMV can be exploited to construct defective HCMV virus vectors (amplicons) targeted to hematopoietic stem cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The success of these strategies depends on knowledge of genetic variation at relevant loci in targeted mosquito populations. (cornell.edu)
  • Genetic variation in populations is largely shaped by natural selection, demography, and genetic drift. (cornell.edu)
  • I used population genetic approaches to study the historical demographic and selective events of multiple populations of one of the primary vectors, Anopheles gambiae. (cornell.edu)
  • To test whether two transmission- blocking vaccine candidate proteins saglin and laminin are adaptively evolving, I v sampled alleles from wild caught populations of the M and S molecular forms and analyzed both intraspecific and interspecific patterns of variation using population genetic tests. (cornell.edu)
  • Population genetic neutrality tests revealed striking divisions of putative selection signals among these strata, with only 1 of the 11 loci that rejected the neutral model being shared among the populations. (cornell.edu)
  • To explore potential biases and statistical power of NGS-based population genomic studies, I used a simulation approach to identify biases introduced into demographic analysis, tests for positive natural selection, and analysis of genetic differentiation between populations. (cornell.edu)
  • The protocol will facilitate more detailed and ethically advantageous sampling of schistosome populations for genetic profiling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Montana, several introduced populations have been reported, but little is known of their sources and vectors of introduction and secondary spread. (altmetric.com)
  • We evaluated the genetic composition of introduced populations at local (Yellowstone River floodplain) and regional (Montana and Wyoming) scales in contrast to native range populations. (altmetric.com)
  • Population replacement" is the replacement of wild vector populations (that are competent to transmit pathogens) with those that are not competent to transmit pathogens. (elsevier.com)
  • In Southeast Asia, the low differentiation and the high co-ancestry values identified among China, Thailand and Japan indicate that, in the native range, these populations maintain high genetic connectivity, revealing their ancestral common origin. (pasteur.fr)
  • Outside Southeast Asia, the invasion process in La Réunion, America and the Mediterranean Basin is primarily supported by a chaotic propagule distribution, which cooperates in maintaining a relatively high genetic diversity within the adventive populations. (pasteur.fr)
  • Recent studies on the integration patterns of different categories of retroviral vectors, the genotoxicity of long-terminal repeats (LTRs) and other genetic elements, the rise of lentiviral technology and the emergence of regulated vector systems providing tissue-restricted transgene expression and RNA interference, are profoundly changing the landscape of stem cell-based therapies. (nih.gov)
  • Tissue-specific vectors, as exemplified by globin vectors, not only provide therapeutic efficacy, but may also enhance safety, insofar that they restrict transgene expression in stem cells, progenitor cells and blood cells in all but the transcriptionally targeted lineage. (nih.gov)
  • The modified viral vectors were more resistant to serum inactivation and displayed an improved efficiency of transgene expression after systemic injection of the baculovirus vectors. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Other vectors based on adenoviruses were developed, which could not achieve long-term transgene expression as in the retrovirus model, due to limitations in that they could only infect non-dividing cells. (biotechniques.com)
  • The CRISPR system also targeted gene expression in infected, non-dividing CD4 + T cells enabling sustained transgene expression, proving the worth of lentiviral vectors in this context. (biotechniques.com)
  • The capability of lentiviral vectors to transduce non-dividing cells, including resting CD4 + T cells, and maintain stable, long-term Cas9 transgene expression supports their potential use in eradicating infected cells constituting the latent reservoir," the researchers concluded. (biotechniques.com)
  • Lentiviral vectors have demonstrated great potential as gene therapy vectors mediating efficient ex vivo and in vivo gene delivery and long-term transgene expression in both dividing and nondividing cells. (nih.gov)
  • This study also reveals the requirements for transgene expression, with the first report of GFP expression in these Hypholoma, the need for an intron for such transgene expression, and further demonstrates the functionality of the expression vector by its use in Clitopilus passeckerianus. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Vectors derived from lentiviruses can be used for treatment strategies dependent on both transgene expression and gene correction. (news-medical.net)
  • Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy with a lentiviral vector in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Put simply, viral vectors enable the efficient and viable use of CRISPR applications, with the vector of choice for many CRISPR applications tending to be the lentiviral vector. (biotechniques.com)
  • The lentiviral vector, modified from HIV-1, was known to infect non-dividing cells (3). (biotechniques.com)
  • The lentiviral vector was engineered so it did not contain any viral-coding genes whilst maintaining genes for replication and viral packaging. (biotechniques.com)
  • It is also possible to target both dividing and non-dividing cells with a lentiviral vector as well as primary and hard-to-transfect cells. (biotechniques.com)
  • It may seem strange but recent scientific developments (4) have utilized the HIV-1 modified lentiviral vector to deliver a CRISPR/Cas9 system to cells in the hope of thwarting HIV-1. (biotechniques.com)
  • The gRNAs and the Cas9 enzyme were packaged into a lentiviral vector, so the gRNA could direct the Cas9 to the relevant sites in the DNA. (biotechniques.com)
  • However, for clinical studies it must be demonstrated that lentiviral vector preparations are safe and not contaminated by replication-competent recombinants related to the parental pathogenic virus. (nih.gov)
  • Statistically representative samples from large-scale lentiviral vector productions were assayed using multiple test cultures for each lot. (nih.gov)
  • We propose to implement this assay as a release testing for clinical-grade lentiviral vector preparations intended for gene therapy clinical trials. (nih.gov)
  • To dissect out the functional importance and unique roles of these Nox enzymes in the pressor and dipsogenic effects of central Ang-II, we developed adenoviral vectors expressing small interfering RNA to selectively silence Nox2 or Nox4 expression in the subfornical organ. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adenoviral vectors are frequently used for gene transfer because of their high cellular transduction efficiency in vitro and in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of viral proteins and the low capacity for foreign DNA limits the clinical application of first- and second-generation adenoviral vectors. (nih.gov)
  • Adenoviral vectors with all viral coding sequences deleted offer the prospect of decreased host immune responses to viral proteins, decreased cellular toxicity of viral proteins and increased capacity to accommodate large regulatory DNA regions. (nih.gov)
  • Based on their ability to transduce non-dividing cells and their genomic stability, lentiviral vectors offer new prospects for the manipulation of HSCs. (nih.gov)
  • What types of vectors are used in genetic engineering? (reference.com)
  • In the present article, our major focus will be on different types of vectors used in gene therapy in addition to some of the examples of it. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • Viral vectors such as AAV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-based lentivirus, are showing great promise as a gene therapy tool. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Development of a sensitive assay for detection of replication-competent recombinant lentivirus in large-scale HIV-based vector preparations. (nih.gov)
  • We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. (nature.com)
  • Ticks (subphylum Chelicerata: suborder Ixodida) are notorious ectoparasites and vectors of human and animal pathogens, transmitting a greater diversity of infectious agents than any other group of blood-feeding arthropods. (nature.com)
  • Previous surveys in dogs from Korea indicated that dogs are exposed to a variety of vector- borne pathogens, but perception for a nation-wide canine vector-borne disease (CVBD) occurrence has been missing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Graphical abstract Keywords Reinforced rubber blends · Digital image analysis · Aggregate shape classification · Artificial neural networks · Support vector machines · Genetic algorithms 1 Introduction Communicated by V. Loia. (deepdyve.com)
  • Genome sequence map, chromosome architecture and genetic sequencing chart abstract data. (shutterstock.com)
  • Vector Clip Art of Virtual abstract background with particle, molecule. (canstockphoto.com)
  • Vector - Virtual abstract background with particle, molecule structure. (canstockphoto.com)
  • 46662677 - Vector Abstract science Background. (123rf.com)
  • 37129314 - Abstract low poly white bright technology vector background. (123rf.com)
  • This can be achieved efficiently with recombinant viral vectors. (nature.com)
  • Commandeur, U. 2007-04-01 00:00:00 We investigated the genetic stability of recombinant potato virus X vectors presenting beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) epitopes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Human malaria parasites are vectored primarily by three mosquito species of the genus Anopheles, and new technologies and strategies to control disease transmission by targeting the mosquito vector have been proposed or are in development. (cornell.edu)
  • The vector was designed by Dr. Matthew During, professor of molecular virology, immunology and medical genetics and of neuroscience and neurological surgery at Ohio State, in collaboration with Robert MacLaren, professor of ophthalmology at the University of Oxford, who also leads the trial. (healthcanal.com)
  • Observations of what is now referred to as selfish genetic elements go back to the early days in the history of genetics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral vectors were originally developed as an alternative to transfection of naked DNA for molecular genetics experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • We present a genetic map based on microsatellite polymorphisms for the African human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae . (genetics.org)
  • Anopheles darlingi is the main malaria mosquito vector in the Amazonia region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anopheles darlingi is a major malaria mosquito vector in the Americas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of the newly available mosquito colonies is Anopheles atroparvus , a widespread European species that was the major vector of human malaria until Europe was declared malaria-free in 1975. (pasteur.fr)
  • Anopheles gambiae , one of the primary vectors of malaria in Africa, breeds in numerous small pools of water that form due to rainfall. (cdc.gov)
  • Novel transformation vectors containing novel chimeric genes allow the introduction of exogenous DNA fragments coding for polypeptide toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis or having substantial sequence homology to a gene coding for a polypeptide toxin as described herein and expression of the chimeric. (google.com)
  • Genetic rearrangements occurring during a single cycle of murine leukemia virus vector replication: characterization and implications. (asm.org)
  • The agency also stated that the characterization of the vector should include all components, but in particular, those present in the final product to be administered. (marketresearch.com)
  • This review provides a survey of these advances as well as several remaining challenges, focusing in particular on the importance of achieving adequate levels of protein expression from a limited number of vector copies per cell-ideally one to two. (nih.gov)
  • The pCambia-1301-35SN vector containing the CaMV 35S promoter and the β-glucuronidase ( GUS ) and Superfolder green fluorescence protein (SG) as reporter genes were introduced into the plant tissues by the Agrobacterium -mediated transformation system. (frontiersin.org)
  • In mice and flies, the Arc protein forms capsids and carries genetic information. (the-scientist.com)
  • These vectors can be used for allelic exchange in a wide variety of bacterial species because their R6K origin of replication functions only in bacteria engineered to produce the replication protein pi. (nih.gov)
  • Protein coding genes can be expressed using viral vectors, commonly to study the function of the particular protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • This thesis investigates GAs as a method for the Vector Quantization (VQ) problem of image compression. (auraria.edu)
  • 2. Vector Quantization. (auraria.edu)
  • Use of support vector machines, neural networks and genetic algorithms to characterize rubber. (deepdyve.com)
  • Also, genetic algorithms are applied to make a feature selection in order to get most robust and accurate models. (deepdyve.com)
  • It is demonstrated that the combination of genetic algorithms with support vector machines and artificial neural network improves the classification results and minimizes the complexity of the resulting model. (deepdyve.com)
  • 3. Genetic Algorithms. (auraria.edu)
  • Here, we discuss the salient advances in the prevention and control strategies to combat ZIKV with a focus on highlighting various intervention approaches against the vector mosquitoes of this viral pathogen along with presenting an overview regarding human intervention measures to counter other modes of ZIKV transmission and spread. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we present the principles, associated opportunities and risks, as well as the degree of advancement of these various techniques for a subset of livestock pests and disease vectors including screwworms, tsetse, mosquitoes and stomoxes. (cirad.fr)
  • The following rules for the genetic and molecular nomenclature of all mosquitoes are proposed. (vectorbase.org)
  • The reason behind most pro-eugenicists' thoughts was that the terminal diseases could be prevented by stopping those with genetic from their basic right to procreate. (njitvector.com)
  • Classification, Data mining, cardiovascular diseases, Genetic fuzzy based improved kernel support vector machine (GF-IKSVM), Modified independent component analysis (MICA). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Jason Rasgon discusses, in detail, the basic biology of this bacterial symbiont and various ways to use it for control of vector-borne diseases. (elsevier.com)
  • In a context of tighter regulations on approved insecticide molecules, the spread of insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human and animal diseases and the introduction of exotic vectors to new territories call for the development of new pest control methods and strategies. (cirad.fr)
  • Pests and vector-borne diseases in the livestock industry , 5, Wageningen Academic Publishers, pp.435-451, 2018, Ecology and Control of Vector-borne diseases, 978-90-8686-315-0. (cirad.fr)
  • But Daley sees a future where genetic diseases can be cured by creating iPS cells from a child's own diseased cells, rendering them disease-free through genetic intervention, then growing them into healthy tissue that won't be rejected by the patient's immune system. (childrenshospital.org)
  • To realize the vision of future cures for bone-marrow disorders and other genetic diseases, many more challenges need to be overcome: the genetic and epigenetic instability of cells grown in lab dishes, inefficient genetic repair, directing differentiation of the pluripotent cells and getting the repaired cells and tissues to engraft in patients. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Genetic humanization, which involves replacing mouse genes with their human counterparts, can create powerful animal models for the study of human genes and diseases. (pnas.org)
  • Currently researchers and clinicians are testing several approaches of gene therapy of genetic diseases including: replacing a mutated gene that causes disease with a normal copy of the gene, inactivating or "knocking out" a mutated gene that is functioning improperly, and introducing a new normal gene into the body to help fight a disease. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Although gene therapy is a promising treatment option for a number inherited and genetic diseases, the therapy remains risky and is still under investigation to make sure that it will be safe and effective. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Despite some problems encountered by viral vectors in gene therapy clinical trials in the past, rationally designed viral vectors will be good delivery vehicles for gene therapy of human genetic diseases and will cure hundreds of thousands of patients world-wide. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) have been increasingly reported in dogs and cats worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the future, gene therapy may provide a way to cure genetic disorders, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, cystic fibrosis or even haemophilia A. Because these diseases result from mutations in the DNA sequence for specific genes, gene therapy trials have used viruses to deliver unmutated copies of these genes to the cells of the patient's body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various genetic mutations allow some bacterial strains to survive assaults from his immune system and antibiotics, while others perish. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Six megabases of mouse immune genes were replaced in a precise manner and "in situ" (in the orthologous position) with the corresponding human immune genes using largechimeric bacterial artificial chromosome targeting vectors. (pnas.org)
  • We describe a general and efficient method for very large, in situ, and precise genetic humanization using large compound bacterial artificial chromosome-based targeting vectors introduced into mouse ES cells. (pnas.org)
  • Explanation: BAC vector system stands for Bacterial Artificial Chromosome. (sanfoundry.com)
  • This means that sexual recombination is likely to be common if strains from different genetic heritages infect the same animal or person. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It contains the elements required for vector packaging such as structural proteins, HIV genes (except the gene env because its presence would enable the virus to infect T-cells) and the enzymes that generate vector particles. (news-medical.net)
  • Cell type specificity: Most viral vectors are engineered to infect as wide a range of cell types as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus of this report is to examine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements arising during a single cycle of Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) vector virus replication. (asm.org)
  • Selfish genetic elements (historically also referred to as selfish genes , ultra-selfish genes , selfish DNA , parasitic DNA and genomic outlaws ) are genetic segments that can enhance their own transmission at the expense of other genes in the genome, even if this has no positive or a net negative effect on organismal fitness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we review recent findings, new technical improvements, and exciting potential genetic and genomic applications for harnessing this colorful technique in anatomical, developmental, and genetic studies. (genetics.org)
  • This paper describes a major advance in genomic engineering, describing by far the largest genetic humanization of the mouse ever attempted. (pnas.org)
  • These results indicate significant advantages of regulated gene expression using genomic DNA for gene transfer and of adenoviral gene transfer vectors devoid of all viral coding sequences. (nih.gov)
  • Synthesis of data from published human genetic association studies is a critical step in the translation of human genome discoveries into health applications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [11] Though long dismissed as genetic curiosities, with little relevance for evolution, they are now recognized to affect a wide swath of biological processes, ranging from genome size and architecture to speciation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the whole-genome sequence of D. officinale is publicly available, this species is poised to become a convenient research model for the evolutionary, developmental, and genetic studies of Orchidaceae. (frontiersin.org)
  • Genome-wide SNPs lead to strong signals of geographic structure and relatedness patterns in the major arbovirus vector, Aedes aegypti. (edu.sa)
  • Lentiviral vectors are created when the genome of the retrovirus (for example, HIV) is stripped down, with a consequence of breaking the provirus into pieces and leaving the replication of the vector defective. (news-medical.net)
  • Adeno-associated virus-based vectors are much safer in this respect as they always integrate at the same site in the human genome, with applications in various disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HCMV amplicon vector replicated independently and was packaged into infectious virions in the presence of helper virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MoMLV vector virus was produced in packaging lines, and target cells were infected. (asm.org)
  • They were examining bacteria from cystic fibrosis patients who had acquired chronic B. dolosa infections, expecting the B. dolosa cells from later samples to look like genetic descendants of those in earlier samples. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Instead of studying single isolates, the researchers cultured many cells from each patient and conducted two kinds of genetic sequencing (colony resequencing and deep population sequencing) to reveal B. dolosa 's genetic diversity. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Insertional transformation of hematopoietic cells by self-inactivating lentiviral and gammaretroviral vectors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This vector is capable of delivering and expressing foreign genes in infected cells including progenitor cells such as human CD34+ cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The HCMV amplicon offers an alternative vector strategy useful for gene(s) delivery to cells of the hematopoietic lineage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The road to transplantation therapy begins with understanding what diseased cells can be transformed into iPS cells, how transformation affects the cells, and how the genetic defects can be fixed. (childrenshospital.org)
  • In contrast, mutated cells from yet another fatal genetic blood disease, Fanconi anemia, resisted reprogramming efforts. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Viruses naturally possess specialized molecular mechanisms to efficiently transfer their genetic materials into the infected cells. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Brenner, M 1994, ' Genetic Marking and Manipulation of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Using Retroviral Vectors ', ImmunoMethods , vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 204-210. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • They are known for transferring genetic material between cells and they do it by a proteinaceous filament called sex pilus. (sanfoundry.com)
  • Viral vectors are tools commonly used by molecular biologists to deliver genetic material into cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Delivery of genes or other genetic material by a vector is termed transduction and the infected cells are described as transduced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification: Viral vectors are often given certain genes that help identify which cells took up the viral genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cytogenetic locations on the nurse cell polytene chromosomes have been determined for 47 markers, making this map an integrated tool for cytogenetic, genetic, and molecular analysis. (genetics.org)
  • 45979917 - Molecular structure and DNA vector banners. (123rf.com)
  • In addition to their use in molecular biology research, viral vectors are used for gene therapy and the development of vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • New developments in vector design and an increasing understanding of the mechanisms underlying insertional oncogenesis are ushering in a new phase in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engineering, thus bringing the hitherto exclusive reliance on LTR-driven, gamma-retroviral vectors to an end. (nih.gov)
  • An experimental system for the evaluation of retroviral vector design to diminish the risk for proto-oncogene activation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In another clinical trial conducted in France and UK, among twenty X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease (X-SCID) patients, 19 were successfully cured their immunodeficiency by retroviral vector containing IL-2RG (ï §c). (medcraveonline.com)
  • In the year 1984, the first retroviral vector system was introduced by Richard Mulligan for delivering the foreign gene. (geneticeducation.co.in)
  • At relatively shallow sequencing depth (4x), vi demographic inference and estimates of genetic differentiation are systematically biased, and positive selection can only be reliably detected if it is strong and recent. (cornell.edu)
  • The genetic differentiation was less high between Ae. (ajtmh.org)
  • An MoMLV vector containing the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (tk) gene was constructed. (asm.org)
  • This vector is based on the herpes simplex virus (HSV) amplicon system and contains the HCMV orthologs of the two cis -acting functions required for replication and packaging of HSV genomes, the complex HCMV viral DNA replication origin (oriLyt), and the cleavage packaging signal (the a sequence). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Scientific illustration genetic engineering and gene manipulation concept. (freepik.com)
  • The amazing procedure that gave way to the "Three Parent Child" is called nuclear spindle transfer, a landmark scientific method that gives way to genetic manipulation. (njitvector.com)
  • Despite these advantages, the methods of genetic manipulation are poorly developed in D. officinale . (frontiersin.org)
  • These two basic techniques contribute to the genetic manipulation toolbox of Orchidaceae. (frontiersin.org)
  • Improved vectors for Agrobacterium mediated genetic manipulation of Hypholoma spp. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Currently physicians and researchers are conducting gene therapy clinical trials utilizing vectors with improved safety features such as replication incompetent vectors, self-inactivated vectors, pseudo typed vectors, hybrid vectors, etc. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Here we describe a sensitive assay for the detection of replication-competent lentiviruses (RCL) in large-scale preparations of HIV-based lentiviral vectors. (nih.gov)
  • New genetic control methods, related to the ancestral sterile insect technique (SIT), show particular promise and are being developed in response to increasing health and agricultural challenges. (cirad.fr)
  • EU funding allows Infravec2 to provide researchers worldwide with insect vector research products and services at no cost to the recipients. (pasteur.fr)
  • Answer: a Explanation: Bacteriophage M13 vectors belong to a group of vectors known as skinny or filamentous phage. (sanfoundry.com)
  • However, because of its large size and the complex syntax required for query formation, it is fairly difficult to comprehensively and effectively search PubMed for genetic association studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These unique abilities made them desirable for engineering viral vectors to deliver the therapeutic genes. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Molecule structure genetic test. (shutterstock.com)
  • 39390742 - Set of digital backgrounds for dna molecule structure vector. (123rf.com)
  • Genetic diversity of C. hominis and C. parvum may therefore be an independent and complementary measure for quantifying disease incidence, for which only a moderate number of stool samples from each nation are sufficient data input. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Novel vector-based disease intervention strategies are largely based on two types of mosquito proteins: non-immune proteins that physically interact with the malaria parasite during parasite development and immune genes involved in the anti-malaria immune response. (cornell.edu)
  • The vector is part of a clinical trial investigating the use of gene therapy to cure choroideremia , a disease that affects an estimated 100,000 people worldwide. (healthcanal.com)
  • A classification approach is introduced with Genetic Fuzzy based Improved Kernel Support Vector machine (GF-IKSVM) classifier and a BICA based feature selection for the classification of cardiovascular heart disease dataset. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Bois Noir is caused by Candidatus Phytoplasma solani, cell wall-less bacteria belonging to the taxonomic group 16Sr-XII-A. In Germany, they are known to be vectored from plant to plant by the cixiid Hyalesthes obsoletus , but so far the prevalence of the disease in the vector population, as well as its spatio-temporal distribution is poorly understood. (peerj.com)
  • New opportunities for researchers to work in top-level facilities on different disease vectors, including the sandfly (pictured) are also posted on the site. (pasteur.fr)
  • Other effects may include changes in agricultural yields, addition of new trade routes, reduced summer streamflows, species extinctions, and increases in the range of disease vectors. (avsabonline.org)
  • LINCL is a genetic disease resulting from mutations in the CLN2 gene. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • and (2) that administration of the AAV2CUhCLN2 vector will slow down or halt the progression of the disease in the central nervous system. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hence by download bridging laboratory and field research for genetic control of disease vectors wageningen ur frontis series of the technical curator growth, fibers can wear associated for a energy of ones. (maldivesembassy.us)
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  • Researcher Dr. K. Reed Clark, director of the Clinical Manufacturing Facility at the Center for Gene Therapy , Nationwide Children's Hospital, and his team produced the clinical-grade vector that is administered to patients in the trial. (healthcanal.com)
  • The clinical vector manufacturing facility at Nationwide Children's Hospital is outstanding, and Dr. Clark and his team deserve congratulations for providing a clinical vector that for the first time offers these patients the possibility of an effective therapy. (healthcanal.com)
  • Currently most vectors used in vivo for preclinical and clinical studies express cDNAs under the control of heterologous eukaryotic or viral promoters. (nih.gov)
  • Following direct intracranial administration of the vector, there will be neurological assessment using the LINCL clinical rating scale and magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of the CNS in regions of vector administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Brainbow is a genetic cell-labeling technique where hundreds of different hues can be generated by stochastic and combinatorial expression of a few spectrally distinct fluorescent proteins. (genetics.org)
  • This development of transformation system and expression constructs, can facilitate further genetic investigation such as gene functionality in these fungi. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • The Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) project provides genotype information and gene expression levels across 49 human tissues from 838 donors, allowing us to examine the expression patterns of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, both across tissues as well as across individuals, and genetic regulation of the two genes revealed by expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) ( GTEx consortium, 2019, Biorxiv ). (medium.com)
  • Researchers are experimenting introducing a 47th (artificial human) alongside the standard 46 .Carrying substantial amounts of genetic code. (scribd.com)
  • The most common vector is a virus genetically altered to carry normal human DNA. (scribd.com)
  • DNA human genetic icon vector illustration graphic design. (vectorstock.com)
  • Based on 296 C. hominis and 195 C. parvum GP60 sequences from human origin, the genetic diversities of Cryptosporidium was estimated for several nations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic diversities of C. hominis were estimated in 10 nations in 5 continents, and that of C. parvum of human origin were estimated in 15 nations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hypothesis that genetic diversity at GP60 locus mirrors notification rates of human cryptosporidiosis was not rejected based on the data presented. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we test the hypothesis that the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium at the GP60 locus from human isolates positively correlates with the population risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In other words, the exposure to infectious oocysts in a human population could be indirectly measured by quantifying the genetic diversities of C. hominis and C. parvum DNA sequences, as found in human fecal samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The GAPscreener, a free SVM-based software tool, can be used to assist in screening PubMed abstracts for human genetic association studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • GAPscreener is the first free SVM-based application available for screening the human genetic association literature in PubMed with high recall and specificity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this paper, we report a novel method for feature selection and show that using it to train the SVM model significantly improved its ability to classify reports of human genetic association studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the USA, Ixodes scapularis also vectors the infectious agents that cause human babesiosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, tick-borne relapsing fever and Powassan encephalitis. (nature.com)
  • and to develop new vector control measures targeting the greatest threats to human health and animal industries. (pasteur.fr)
  • We have constructed and evaluated the utility of a helper-dependent virus vector system that is derived from Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • One important example of genetic humanization involves mice humanized for their Ig genes, allowing for human antibody responses within a mouse background (HumAb mice) and also providing a valuable platform for the generation of fully human antibodies as therapeutics. (pnas.org)
  • Heretofore, most genetic humanizations have involved disruption of the endogenous mouse gene with simultaneous introduction of a human transgene at a new and random location (so-called KO-plus-transgenic humanization). (pnas.org)
  • More recent efforts have attempted to replace mouse genes with their human counterparts at the same genetic location (in situ humanization), but such efforts involved laborious procedures and were limited in size and precision. (pnas.org)
  • To assess this concept, an adeno-associated virus vector encoding the normal human CLN2 gene (AAV2CUhCLN2) will be used as a vehicle to deliver and express the human CLN2 cDNA in the brain of children with LINCL. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The genetic vector may include adenovirus recombinants, DNA/adenovirus complexes, DNA/liposome complexes, or any other vectors capable of expressing transgenes. (google.com)
  • however, there is still work to be done in improvements to the vector system and moving the in vitro studies in vivo . (biotechniques.com)
  • Viral vectors can be used to modify specific cell type or tissue and can be directed to express therapeutic genes. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Evidence for multiple invasions and lack of subsequent regional spread emphasizes the importance of enforcing legislation prohibiting bullfrog importation and the need for continuing public education to prevent transport of bullfrogs in MT. More broadly, this study demonstrates how genetic approaches can reveal key properties of a biological invasion to inform management strategies. (altmetric.com)
  • However, we know very little about the selective forces shaping genetic variation of proteins involved in the mosquito-parasite interaction that could potentially be developed for intervention. (cornell.edu)
  • These developments have allowed for genetic targeting of multiple fluorescent proteins (FPs) to visualize different cell types or proteins that interact with one another. (genetics.org)
  • Development of B-lineage predominant lentiviral vectors for use in genetic therapies for B cell disorders. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In 2017, the European Commission gave its go-ahead to Infravec2, the EU-funded global source for no-cost vector research products and services. (pasteur.fr)
  • Viral vectors for gene therapy have to overcome several hurdles such as inactivation of vectors by the neutralizing antibodies, off-site targeting of the vectors, insertional mutagenesis of the integrating vectors which can turn on proto-oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes, etc. (medcraveonline.com)
  • A lacZ gene is also present and recombination of BAC vectors is done into E. coli by electropoartion. (sanfoundry.com)
  • Authors are urged to use these rules when naming genes or other genetic structures to avoid unsystematic and duplicate names. (vectorbase.org)