Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Mice, Inbred DBAAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred C3HQuantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Mice, Inbred AKRMice, Inbred AInbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Mice, Inbred CBAAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rats, Inbred BNNucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Immunological Genome Project
"Variation and genetic control of gene expression in primary immunocytes across inbred mouse strains." J Immunol 193(9): 4485- ... Though most of the transcriptional profiling was done on B6 mice, the effect of genetic variation was also studied. The second ... As of August 2016, Immgen has profiled more than 250 naive cell populations in the mouse using microarrays, and several dozens ... Several groups of collaborating computational biologists (Regev & Koller) used the data to reverse-engineer the genetic ...
Selective breeding - Organisms, often mice, may be bred selectively among inbred strains to create a recombinant congenic ... Genetic engineering - The genome may also be experimentally-manipulated; for example, knockout mice can be engineered to lack a ... QTL mapping - The influence of a gene in some behavior can be statistically inferred by studying inbred strains of some species ... Most genetic manipulation techniques are also considered permanent. Temporary lesions can be achieved with advanced in genetic ...
"Evaluating genetic markers and neurobiochemical analytes for fluoxetine response using a panel of mouse inbred strains". ... Differences in Glo1 expression in mice appear to be caused by a copy number variant that is common among inbred strains of mice ... Experiments on three types of glyoxalase I (yeast, rat and mouse forms) supported the proton-transfer mechanism in every case. ... "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Ranganathan S, Walsh ES, Godwin AK, Tew KD (Mar 1993). "Cloning and characterization of human colon ...
The availability of inbred and mutant mouse strains can be advantageous when examining the genetic basis of murine ... Characterization of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection in different strains of mice. The Journal of Parasitology 76:377-382 ... Studies performed on lab mice revealed that mice previously infected with N. brasiliensis had developed massive emphysema with ... The life-cycle of N. brasiliensis can be passed through lab mice and due to this parasite is invaluable when it comes to being ...
... is a common inbred strain of laboratory mouse. It is the most widely used "genetic background" for genetically modified mice ... The dark coat make the mouse strain convenient for creating transgenic mice: it is crossed with a light-furred 129 mouse, and ... March 1999). "Heritability of nociception I: responses of 11 inbred mouse strains on 12 measures of nociception". Pain. 80 (1-2 ... They are the most widely used and best-selling mouse strain, due to the availability of congenic strains, easy breeding, and ...
Systematic inbreeding and maintenance of inbred strains of laboratory mice and rats is of great importance for biomedical ... The use of inbred strains is also important for genetic studies in animal models, for example to distinguish genetic from ... In order to achieve a mouse strain that is considered inbred, a minimum of 20 sequential generations of sibling matings must ... Inbreeding is especially problematic in small populations where the genetic variation is already limited. By inbreeding, ...
... human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to ... The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to ... 2002). "In human IgA nephropathy uteroglobin does not play the role inferred from transgenic mice". Am. J. Kidney Dis. 40 (3): ... The phenotype exhibited by these mice are; decreased bioaccumulation of biphenyls, susceptibility and increased IL-13, and IL-6 ...
... inbred mouse strain that is named after its susceptibility to Friend leukemia virus B. This strain was produced from mice ... They are suggested for use in studies where FVB genetic background is desired, but the animals must be sighted. For example, ... FVB Mouse , Charles River. (2017). Criver.com. Retrieved 24 November 2017. Festing, M. (1998). MGI - Inbred Strains: FVB. ... 1991). FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 88(6 ...
Mouse strains can be inbred, mutated or genetically engineered, while rat strains are usually inbred. Genetic isolate Race ( ... Coli Genetic Stock Center EcoliWiki E. coli strain index International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR) Rat strain index. ... A mouse or a rat strain is a group of animals that is genetically uniform. Strains are used in laboratory experiments. ... A strain is a genetic variant or subtype of a microorganism (e.g., virus or bacterium or fungus). For example, a "flu strain" ...
To create a coisogenic strain through breeding, a mouse with the specific mutation on a locus is mated to an inbred strain (e.g ... International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice (January 2016). "MGI-Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse ... There are numerous ways to create an inbred strain and each of these strains are unique. Genetically engineered mice can be ... C57BL/6J) mouse. The offspring of the mutated mouse with the inbred strain has a 50% chance of carrying the mutation. From this ...
"Rules for Nomenclature of Inbred Strains". In Green, Margaret C. Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... Recombinant inbred strain Coisogenic strain Congenic strain Inbreeding depression Inbreeding Jackson Laboratory genetic drift ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... "History of inbred strains". isogenic.info. Retrieved 2017-11-30. Dixon LK (1993). "Use of recombinant inbred strains to map ...
The genetic background, derived from inbred NOD mouse strain NOD/ShiLtJ, contributes reductions in innate immunity that include ... 1.^ Mouse Genome Informatics entry for Prkdcscid 2.^ Mouse Genome Informatics entry for Il2rgtm1Wjl NSG strain datasheet at The ... NOD scid gamma mice (NSG mice) is a brand of immunodeficient laboratory mice developed and marketed by The Jackson Laboratory ... NSG branded mice lack mature T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. NSG branded mice are also deficient in multiple ...
... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... immune system FVB Mice whose large litter sizes and large oocyte pronuclei expedite use in genetic research Transgenic mice, ... "BALB/c". Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. "BALB/cByJ". Jax Mice Data Sheet. Jackson Laboratory ... Over 400 standardized, inbred strains have been developed. Most laboratory mice are hybrids of different subspecies, most ...
Grüneberg, H. (1954). "Variation Within Inbred Strains of Mice". Nature. 173 (4406): 674-676. Bibcode:1954Natur.173..674G. doi: ... medical-dictionary Grüneberg, H. (1970). "Is there a viral component in the genetic background?". Nature. 225 (5227): 39-41. ... Grüneberg, H.; Burnett, J. B.; Snell, G. D. (1941). "The Origin of Jerker, a New Gene Mutation of the House Mouse, and Linkage ... Most of his work focused on mouse genetics, in which his speciality was the study of pleiotropic effects of mutations on the ...
Mouse News Letter
"Inbred Strains" issue edited by Michael Festing. This replaced Inbred Strains of Mice. The journal was run by a company Mouse ... 1996). "Chapter 4: Mouse Chromosome Atlas" in Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse 3rd Edition Eds MF Lyon, S. ... 1989) "Chapter 7: Linkage and Synteny Homologies in Mouse and Man" in Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse 2nd ... On behalf of the Committee for Standardised Genetic Nomenclature for Mice, nomenclature rules for naming mouse genes and mouse ...
Recombinant inbred strain
Williams RW, Gu J, Qi S, Lu L (2001). "The genetic structure of recombinant inbred mice: high-resolution consensus maps for ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ...
... mice are useful for research into both cancer and immunology. According to Michael Festing's Inbred Strains of Mice, ... though these are thought to be due to mutation rather than genetic contamination. For example, male BALB/c mice are aggressive ... Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. Potter M. History of the BALB/c family, pp 1-5. In: The BALB/ ... and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. The founding animals of the strain were ...
Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis
In 1909, Clarence C. Little developed the first inbred strain, the DBA (Dilute, brown non-Agouti) mouse. In 1915, N.M Haldane ... Tri-transgenic mouse models constitute of more than two genes. Multiple combinations and genetic modifications are made in such ... Mice have relatively short gestation periods. Mice take a brief time to reach sexual maturity. Mice have large litter sizes. ... In 1921, C57BL became one of the most widely used mice in genetics and was the first strain to have its genome sequenced. In ...
Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been ... Genetic analysis of 117 albino rat strains collected from all parts of the world carried out by a team led by Takashi Kuramoto ... is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an ... ISBN 978-0-89089-333-3. "Rules and Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains". "Outbred Stocks". *Clause, B. T. ( ...
Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. ... International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice / Rat Genome and Nomenclature Committee (January 2016). " ... is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an ... "Rules and Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains". Mouse Genome Informatics. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 5 ...
The average litter size is 10-12 during optimum production, but is highly strain-dependent. As a general rule, inbred mice tend ... "Discrete genetic modules are responsible for complex burrow evolution in Peromyscus mice". Nature. 493 (7432): 402-405. doi: ... "Mouse Info". Retrieved 15 August 2016. Tembo, Mwizenge S. "Mice as a Delicacy: the Significance of Mice in the Diet of the ... The mouse genome has been sequenced, and virtually all mouse genes have human homologs. The mouse has approximately 2.7 billion ...
Albinism in biology
Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits), but populations of ... In mice, a total of 100 genes are known to affect albinism. All the genetic traits for albinism are recessive traits. This ... Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, laboratory rabbits, guinea-pigs and ferrets. ... The Okinawa strain of this species is deficient in [His7]-corazonin and is albino. One of the typical features of Locusta ...
Paylor, R; Crawley, Jacqueline N (1997). "Inbred strain differences in prepulse inhibition of the mouse startle response". ... "Table 1: Mouse PPI pharmacology". from Geyer, M A; McIlwain, K L; Paylor, R (2002). "Mouse genetic models for prepulse ... Possible hearing impairment must be taken into account, as, for example, several strains of mice develop high frequency hearing ... Geyer, M A; McIlwain, K L; Paylor, R (2002). "Mouse genetic models for prepulse inhibition: An early review". Molecular ...
... inbred mouse strain and the systematic generation of other inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a model ... This usually will include characteristics such as short life-cycle, techniques for genetic manipulation (inbred strains, stem ... The classic model vertebrate is currently the mouse (Mus musculus). Many inbred strains exist, as well as lines selected for ... For example, E. coli was one of the first organisms for which genetic techniques such as transformation or genetic manipulation ...
C. C. Little
The lab was quickly rebuilt and most mouse strains were recovered from other labs around the world. By 1950 the lab was ... C. C. Little, Cancer and Inbred Mice by James F. Crow, "Genetics", Vol. 161, 1357-1361, August 2002. Clarence Cook Little (1888 ... The Genetic Basis of Transplant Immunology by Hugh Auchincloss Jr* and Henry J. Winn, "American Journal of Transplantation", ... Little developed the "DBA (Dilute, Brown and non-Agouti)" strain of mice while at Harvard. For his research, he received the ...
... strains are generated in the laboratory by mating two inbred strains (usually rats or mice), and back-crossing the ... the maximum amount of background genetic information from the donor strain. This is also known as marker-assisted congenics, ... Congenic strains are discussed in detail in Lee Silver's online book Mouse Genetics: Concepts and Applications: "Mouse Genetics ... Congenic mice or rats can then be compared to the pure recipient strain to determine whether they are phenotypically different ...
Gene mapping data sets were incorporated for several mouse recombinant inbred strains. By early 2003, the first large ... Massive collections of genetic, genomic, and phenotype data for large families Sophisticated statistical analysis and gene ... experimental crosses of strains of mice and rats, and organisms as diverse as Drosophila melanogaster, Arabidopsis thaliana, ... Williams, RW (1994). "The Portable Dictionary of the Mouse Genome: a personal database for gene mapping and molecular biology ...
Experiments on Recombinant Inbred strains (With D.W. Bailey) 1973 Associate professor of animal psychology, School of ... Genetic aspects of learning and memory in mice. Science. Bovet, D., McGaugh, J. L., & Oliverio, A. (1966). Effects of post ... Studies on learning and memory in inbred mice (With D. Bovet and J.L. McGaugh). 1967-70 Research Pharmacologist, University of ... Genetic approaches to behavior. Oliverio A. & Oliverio Ferraris A., Lo sviluppo comparato del comportamento, Boringhieri, Turin ...
Genes, Brain and Behavior
"Sociability and preference for social novelty in five inbred strains: An approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice". ... Crusio, Wim E. (2004). "Flanking gene and genetic background problems in genetically manipulated mice". Biological Psychiatry. ... The journal has developed standards for the publication of mouse mutant studies. Many mouse mutant studies have serious ... Crusio WE, Goldowitz D, Holmes A, Wolfer D (February 2009). "Standards for the publication of mouse mutant studies". Genes, ...
Major urinary proteins
Some inbred laboratory mouse strains, such as BALB/c and C57BL/6, also have different proteins expressed in their urine. ... In the house mouse, the major MUP gene cluster provides a highly polymorphic scent signal of genetic identity. Wild mice ... "The genetic basis of inbreeding avoidance in house mice". Curr Biol. 17 (23): 2061-2066. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.10.041. PMC ... using white-footed mice, it was found that when mice derived from wild populations were inbred there was reduced survival when ...
Genetic genealogy. *Haplodiploid sex-determination system. *Human Y chromosome DNA haplogroups. *List of Y-STR markers ... The wood lemming Myopus schisticolor, the Arctic lemming, Dicrostonyx torquatus, and multiple species in the grass mouse genus ... A sex-ratio theory for sex linkage and inbreeding has new implications in cytogenetics and entomology". Science. 156 (3774): ... Genetic driftEdit. Even if a well adapted Y chromosome manages to maintain genetic activity by avoiding mutation accumulation, ...
Inbreeding depression is the loss of fitness due to loss of genetic diversity. Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for ... "Hybrid vigor and transgenerational epigenetic effects on early mouse embryo phenotype". Biol. Reprod. 79 (4): 638-48. doi ... It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ...
Natural killer cell
... several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species. ... "Antigenicity of carcinogen-induced and spontaneous tumours in inbred mice". British Journal of Cancer. 20 (4): 831-7. doi: ... Recent research suggests specific KIR-MHC class I gene interactions might control innate genetic resistance to certain viral ... in the mouse, and by Hugh Pross and doctoral student Mikael Jondal in the human. The mouse and human work was ...
... , the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa. ... Genetic transformation of A. thaliana is routine, utilizing Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer DNA into the plant genome. ... Thousands of natural inbred accessions of A. thaliana have been collected from throughout its natural and introduced range. ... Having specialized as a spring ephemeral, it has been used to found several laboratory strains that take about six weeks from ...
Inbreeding, especially in small populations, is more likely to result in higher rates of genetic drift, which leads to higher ... Barriers are species specific; for example a river is a barrier to a field mouse, while a hawk can fly over a river. Corridors ... This stems from the fact that many microorganisms are not easily obtainable as cultured strains in the laboratory, which would ... Inbreeding depression. Inbreeding depression is the reduced fitness and survival of offspring from closely related ...
Selfish genetic element
The P element is typically present only in wild strains, and not in lab strains of D. melanogaster, as the latter were ... The mouse t-allele is a classic example of a segregation distorter system that has been modeled in great detail. ... A sex-ratio theory for sex linkage and inbreeding has new implications in cytogenetics and entomology". Science. 156 (3774): ... Some selfish genetic elements manipulate the genetic transmission process to their own advantage, and so end up being ...
Genetically modified crops
Typically, the seed company maintains two inbred varieties and crosses them into a hybrid strain that is then sold. Related ... Main articles: Regulation of genetic engineering and Regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms ... "Genetic Engineering: The Future of Foods?".. *^ Lemaux, Peggy (19 February 2008). "Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A ... One of these was isolated from an Agrobacterium strain CP4 (CP4 EPSPS) that was resistant to glyphosate. The CP4 ...
... the maintenance of outcrossing sexual reproduction as opposed to inbreeding and the evolution of sex and genetic ... doi:10.1016/j.str.2008.11.008. PMID 19141283.. *^ Bowmaker JK (May 1998). "Evolution of colour vision in vertebrates". Eye. 12 ... Human and mouse somatic cells have a mutation rate more than ten times higher than the germline mutation rate for both species ... inbred populations. These include: *Chromosomal translocations: interchange of genetic parts from nonhomologous chromosomes. ...
Recent molecular genetic research on primates, colugos, and treeshrews has shown that the two species of colugos are more ... The transfer of females or males from their native group is likely an adaptation for avoiding inbreeding. An analysis of ... They range in typical size from Madame Berthe's mouse lemur, which weighs only 30 g (1 oz), to the eastern gorilla, weighing ... which are put under strain during chewing. Strepsirrhines have a postorbital bar, a bone around the eye socket, to protect ...
... variability can readily be lost by inbreeding, selection against undesired traits, or genetic drift, while in Drosophila, ... The domesticated strain as was more uniform in its orientation, but the wild strains were larger and propagated faster. The ... 2010). "Accessing genetic diversity for crop improvement". Current Opinion in Plant Biology: 167-173. doi:10.1016/j.pbi.2010.01 ... Challenges facing genetic improvement. The semi-arid tropics, ranging from parts of North and South Africa,Asia ...
2002) Evolution of Wild Emmer and Wheat Improvement: Population Genetics, Genetic Resources, and Genome.... Springer. p. 8. ... In wild strains, a more fragile rachis allows the ear to easily shatter and disperse the spikelets. Selection for these ... The standard method of breeding inbred wheat cultivars is by crossing two lines using hand emasculation, then selfing or ... CSIRO Rodent Management Research Focus: Mice plagues Archived 21 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine ...
Recent molecular genetic research on primates, colugos, and treeshrews has shown that the two species of colugos are more ... The transfer of females or males from their native group is likely an adaptation for avoiding inbreeding. An analysis of ... A tiny mouse lemur holds a cut piece of fruit in its hands and eats ... which are put under strain during chewing. Strepsirrhines have a postorbital bar, a bone around the eye socket, to protect ...
... like an F2 or Recombinant inbred strains/lines (RILs). To scan for QTLs regions in a genome, a gene map based on linkage have ... Especially, in genetic studies, modern methods for data collection in field and laboratory should be considered, as high- ... As an example, consider groups of similar animals (mice, for example) under two different diet systems. The research question ... Zeng, Zhao-Bang (2005). "QTL mapping and the genetic basis of adaptation: Recent developments". Genetica. 123 (1-2): 25-37. doi ...
Neuroscience Information Framework
International Mouse Strain Resource. Organism supplier, Data repository Indeed. Job resource Immune Epitope Database and ... and genetic/genomic resources and provides many authoritative links throughout the neuroscience portal of Wikipedia. ... the Integrated Animal view combines data about experimental animal catalogs available to researchers from transgenic or inbred ... and Mouse Genome Informatics, the Connectivity view combines six databases that have statements about nervous system ...
Genetically modified crops
Typically, the seed company maintains two inbred varieties and crosses them into a hybrid strain that is then sold. Related ... The term genetic engineering is applied to genetic modifications made using biotechnology. The first plant produced in that way ... Main articles: Regulation of genetic engineering and Regulation of the release of genetic modified organisms ... Genetic change could make crops thrive on salty soils *^ a b Carpenter, J.; Gianessi, L. (1999). "Herbicide tolerant soybeans: ...
"Wild-derived inbred mouse strains have short telomeres". Nucleic Acids Research. 28 (22): 4474-78. doi:10.1093/nar/28.22.4474. ... Most known genetic interventions in C. elegans increase lifespan by 1.5 to 2.5-fold. As of 2009[update], the record for ... The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, and mouse strains with ... telomere length in wild mouse strains is unrelated to lifespan, and mice lacking the enzyme telomerase do not have a ...
"Recent approaches into the genetic basis of inbreeding depression in plants". Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 358 ( ... which showed outbreeding mice to exhibit MHC heterozygosity enhanced their health and survival rates against multiple-strain ... mouse had less secretory diarrhea than normal, noncarrier mice. Thus, it appeared for a time that resistance to cholera ... A mouse model of CF was used to study resistance to cholera, and the results were published in Science in 1994 (Gabriel, et al ...
They are also capable of sexual reproduction by genetic hybridisation in the sandfly gut.) They then migrate back towards the ... DNA sequencing of different geographical strains indicates that the protozoan complex can be classified into two valid taxons, ... of mice and man". Parasite Immunology. 31 (5): 254-266. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3024.2009.01102.x. PMC 3160815 . PMID 19388946. ... "Genomic confirmation of hybridisation and recent inbreeding in a vector-isolated Leishmania population". PLoS Genet. 10 (1): ...
The usage of mice in behavioural mutation tests allows scientists to increase our understanding of the genetic basis of ... Females of other strains show no similar conditional sex ratio behaviours. Researchers find that these behaviours are indeed ... in which mutations are allowed to drift to fixation in inbred lines, to study the effect of spontaneous mutations on phenotype ... Wolfer, David P.; Lipp, Hans-Peter (2000-11-01). "Dissecting the behaviour of transgenic mice: Is it the mutation, the genetic ...
Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits | SpringerLink
... which is very extensive in mice, using an efficient mixed-model... ... We have developed an association-based approach using classical inbred strains of mice in which we correct for population ... Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits. ... Our approach includes inbred parental strains as well as recombinant inbred strains in order to capture loci with effect sizes ...
Effects of Genetic and Procedural Variation on Measurement of Alcohol Sensitivity in Mouse Inbred Strains | SpringerLink
Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT ... Effects of Genetic and Procedural Variation on Measurement of Alcohol Sensitivity in Mouse Inbred Strains. ... Ethanol-induced anesthesia in inbred strains on long-sleep and short-sleep mice: A genetic analysis of repeated measures using ... Genetic analysis of rapid tolerance to ethanols incoordinating effects in mice: Inbred strains and artificial selection. Behav ...
The genetic susceptibility/resistance to fluorosis among different inbred mouse strains
... McHenry, Melissa A.K., 1971- ... The genetic susceptibility/resistance to fluorosis among different inbred mouse strains. Login ... Mice, Inbred Strains. Fluorides -- Metabolism. Drug Resistance Abstract:. Fluoridation of community water supplies for the ... Furthermore, we found clustering of strains into distinct phenotypic groups. The A/J mouse strain was highly susceptible, with ...
Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for complex trait analysis,...
"Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for complex trait analysis, ... Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for complex trait analysis. Genetic ... Genetic structure of the LXS panel of recombinant inbred mouse strains: a powerful resource for complex trait analysis. ... lp/springer_journal/genetic-structure-of-the-lxs-panel-of-recombinant-inbred-mouse-strains-fo1oQUsEHl ...
FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. | PNAS
FVB/N mice offer a system suitable for most transgenic experiments and subsequent genetic analyses. The inbred FVB/N strain is ... FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses.. M Taketo, A C Schroeder, L E Mobraaten, K B Gunning, G ... FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses.. M Taketo, A C Schroeder, L E Mobraaten, K B Gunning, G ... FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses.. M Taketo, A C Schroeder, L E Mobraaten, K B Gunning, G ...
Mapping lipopolysaccharide response loci in mice using recombinant inbred and congenic strains
Assessment of 26 AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains … ... mice. Several strains and substrains mirrored the high and low responses of B6 and A/J. ... Assessment of 26 AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains identified 23 strains with a low (A/J-like), high (B6-like), or ... Mapping lipopolysaccharide response loci in mice using recombinant inbred and congenic strains Genomics. 1999 Nov 15;62(1):34- ...
The Changes in Genetic and Environmental Variance With Inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster | Genetics
1954 Variation within inbred strains of mice. Nature 173: 674-676. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMed ... Traditionally, the quantitative genetic view is that the amount of genetic variance would be reduced by inbreeding. The ... The Changes in Genetic and Environmental Variance With Inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster. Michael C. Whitlock and Kevin ... The Changes in Genetic and Environmental Variance With Inbreeding in Drosophila melanogaster. Michael C. Whitlock and Kevin ...
Genetic control of T-cell subset representation in inbred mice
Lyt-2+ T cells constitute a significantly greater proportion of the total peripheral T-cell population in C57BL mice than in ... BALB/c and other mouse strains. The inheritance of this differential representation of Lyt-2- vs. Lyt-2+ T cells was studied by ... Genetic control of T-cell subset representation in inbred mice Immunogenetics. 1983;18(6):585-92. doi: 10.1007/BF00345966. ... significantly greater proportion of the total peripheral T-cell population in C57BL mice than in BALB/c and other mouse strains ...
Glossary | Info Centre | Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research
mouse inbred strain. definition. A mouse inbred strain is…. Mice with an identical genetic profile. ... knockout mouse. definition. A knockout mouse is…. Mouse strain in which a particular gene has been purposely inactivated. From ... transgenic mouse. definition. A transgenic mouse is…. Genetically engineered mouse whose cells contain additional, artificially ... Genetic defects describe missing genes or genes that have mutated and thus lost their function. In most cases, genetic defects ...
Combinations of Nondiabetic Parental Genomes Elicit Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Mouse SMXA Recombinant Inbred Strains |...
Festing MF: Origins and characteristics of inbred strains of mice. In Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are derived by inbreeding different sets of F2 progeny from a cross between two inbred strains ... Male mice of parental (SM/J, A/J) strains, (SM/J × A/J)F1 mice, and 19 SMXA RI strains were obtained from The Institute for ... Belknap JK: Effect of within-strain sample size on QTL detection and mapping using recombinant inbred mouse strains. Behav ...
Unique Inbred Strain MSM/Ms Established from the Japanese Wild Mouse
Genetic comparison between subspecies groups and common inbred strains (CIS) have revealed that the genetic background of CIS ... This shows the importance of non-DOM wild mice as valuable genetic resources. We started to establish our unique strain, MSM/Ms ... Some of these alleles have avoided selection during breeding as either fancy mice or laboratory mice. The MSM-specific genetic ... The MSM/Ms inbred strain was established in 1986 and 21 years later it reached F100. During breeding, no significant ...
Mind the gap: analysis of marker-assisted breeding strategies for inbred mouse strains, Mammalian Genome | 10.1007/s00335-005...
... analysis of marker-assisted breeding strategies for inbred mouse strains, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online ... Genetic dissection of complex traits with chromosome substitution strains of mice. Singer, JB; Hill, AE; Burrage, LC; Olszens, ... Mind the gap: analysis of marker-assisted breeding strategies for inbred mouse strains. Armstrong, Nicola; Brodnicki, Thomas; ... Mind the gap: analysis of marker-assisted breeding strategies for inbred mouse strains. Mind the gap: analysis of marker- ...
Cardiovascular Response to Beta-Adrenergic Blockade or Activation in 23 Inbred Mouse Strains
where Var(G) is the genetic (i.e. the inter-strain) variance, and Var(E) is the environmental (i.e. the intra-strain) variance ... Mice. Inbred mouse strains were selected from the priority strains list of the Mouse Phenome Database (MPD: http://www.jax.org/ ... We report the characterisation of 27 cardiovascular-related traits in 23 inbred mouse strains. Mice were phenotyped either in ... Cardiovascular Response to Beta-Adrenergic Blockade or Activation in 23 Inbred Mouse Strains. Corinne Berthonneche,#1,2 Bastian ...
Genetic sensitivity to hot-plate nociception in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains: Possible sex-specific mediation by δ...
Genetic sensitivity to hot-plate nociception in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains: Possible sex-specific mediation by δ2 ... Genetic sensitivity to hot-plate nociception in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains: Possible sex-specific mediation by δ2 ... Genetic sensitivity to hot-plate nociception in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains : Possible sex-specific mediation by δ ... title = "Genetic sensitivity to hot-plate nociception in DBA/2J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains: Possible sex-specific ...
Effects of Genetic Background on Susceptibility and the Acceleration of Hearing Loss in Mice | IntechOpen
The genetic analysis of mouse models identified the genetic modifiers. We review the genetic research in mouse models for ... In this chapter, we suggest that mouse models are useful for studying genetic background effects for acquired hearing loss. ... One reason for phenotypic variability is influence of genetic background. The modifiers underlying genetic background are ... The complicated gene-gene and gene-environment interactions make genetic analysis of acquired hearing loss difficult. In ...
Nucleotide Variation in Wild and Inbred Mice | Genetics
Nine commonly used inbred strains contain only a small amount of the genetic variation seen in wild mice. The X chromosome ... First, the inbred strains of mice capture a small percentage of the variation seen in nature. The inbred strains were invariant ... strains for all 29 loci and found that inbred strains contain only a small amount of the genetic variation seen in wild mice. ... Amount of wild variation captured by classical inbred strains:. The haplotypes seen in the nine classical inbred strains are ...
Basal levels of glutathione peroxidase correlate with onset of radiation induced lung disease in inbred mouse strains | Lung...
The specific genetic differences among inbred strains that result in varied GSH levels are unknown at present, but recent ... Mice.. Female mice of eight inbred strains (C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6, A/J, AKR/J, 129S1/SvlmJ, CBA/J, NZW/LacJ, and KK/HIJ) were ... and groups of five mice per strain were killed at 6 h, 1 day, or 7 days after irradiation. The control mice of each strain were ... Pulmonary expression of GPx1, GPx2, GPx3, and GPx4 in unirradiated mice of eight inbred strains. A: the fold change in mRNA ...
2 Animal Environment, Housing, and Management | Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals | The National Academies...
Rules for the nomenclature of inbred strains. Pp.368-372 in Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, M. C. Green. ... Identification and genetic monitoring of mouse inbred strains using biomedical polymorphisms. Lab. Anim. (London) II(4):209-214 ... inbred mice (International Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice 1981 a,b,c), and transgenic animals (NRC ... Inbred Strains in Biomedical Research. London: MacMillan Press. 483 pp. Festing. M. F. W. 1982. Genetic contamination of ...
MGI - Inbred Strains: PL
Taylor B. A. (1972) Genetic relationship between inbred strains of mice. J. Hered. 63, 83-86. \par. Thomas P. E., Hutton J. J ... Inbred Strains of Mice: PL. PL Inbr: F130 (J). Albino. Genet: c, rd. Origin: Developed by Lynch from 200 non-inbred `Princeton ... Genetic and phenotypic variation in weight of brain and spinal cord between inbred strains of mice. Brain Res. 64, 345-353. \ ... polymorphism in mice. J. Exp. Med. 139, 313-322. \par. Staats J. (1976) Standardized nomenclature for inbred strains of mice: ...
MGI - Inbred Strains: AU
Taylor B. A. (1972) Genetic relationship between inbred strains of mice. J. Hered. 63, 83-86. \par. Thomas P. E., Hutton J. J ... Inbred Strains of Mice: AU. AU Inbr: F? + 35. Genet: a, U, rd+. Origin: R. A. Fisher, about 1937. 50% Grunebergs CBA, 28.5% ... INBRED STRAINS OF MICE. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Staats J. (1976) Standardized nomenclature for inbred strains of mice: Sixth listing. Cancer Res. 36, 4333-4377. \par. ...
Gde1 glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase 1 [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBI
The genetic architecture of NAFLD among inbred strains of mice. Hui ST, et al. Elife, 2015 Jun 12. PMID 26067236, Free PMC ... Characterization of mice lacking N-acyl ethanolamine biosynthetic enzymes. Title: Characterization of mice lacking candidate N- ... Characterization of mice lacking candidate N-acyl ethanolamine biosynthetic enzymes provides evidence for multiple pathways ... The glycerophospho metabolome and its influence on amino acid homeostasis revealed by brain metabolomics of GDE1(-/-) mice. ...
Parks BW[au] - PubMed - NCBI
Hybrid mouse diversity panel: a panel of inbred mouse strains suitable for analysis of complex genetic traits. ... The genetic architecture of NAFLD among inbred strains of mice.. Hui ST, Parks BW, Org E, Norheim F, Che N, Pan C, Castellani ... Genetic architecture of insulin resistance in the mouse.. Parks BW, Sallam T, Mehrabian M, Psychogios N, Hui ST, Norheim F, ... The Genetic Landscape of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Frequency in Mice.. Zhou X, Crow AL, Hartiala J, Spindler TJ, Ghazalpour A, ...
Influences of inbreeding and gene... preview & related info | Mendeley
We measured telomere lengths of blood leukocytes in several inbred and outbred mammalian species, using a telomere-specific ... the two inbred laboratory mouse strains display significantly different telomere lengths, suggesting the existence of strain- ... specific genetic determinants. To further examine the effects of inbreeding, we studied three Peromyscus leucopus inbred lines ... mice between parental strains displaying the phenotype of long and short telomeres. In all F(1) mice assayed, peripheral blood ...
Genotype and expression analysis of two inbred mouse strains and two derived congenic strains suggest that most gene expression...
... the context in this case being genetic background. A study of recombinant inbred strains of mice estimated that 1500 genes ... If this is the case then the large number of inbred mouse strains being generated by the collaborative mouse cross  are ... Genotype and expression analysis of two inbred mouse strains and two derived congenic strains suggest that most gene expression ... in inbred mouse strains has been used to construct a comprehensive haplotype map of the mouse genome . This makes it ...
Within-strain variation in behavior differs consistently between common inbred strains of mice.
Genetic and environmental factors interact throughout life and give rise to individual differences, i.e., individuality. The ... Within-strain variation in behavior differs consistently between common inbred strains of mice.. Journal. Mammalian Genome. ... Indeed, despite standardization and in line with previous studies, substantial variability among mice of the same inbred strain ... Together, these show that genetically inbred mouse strains consistently differ in phenotypic robustness against environmental ...
Genetic and cellular evidence of decreased inflammation associated with reduced incidence of posttraumatic arthritis in MRL/MpJ...
Genetic variability in adult bone density among inbred strains of mice. Bone 1996; 18: 397-403.. *CrossRef, ... Differential protein profile in the ear-punched tissue of regeneration and non-regeneration strains of mice: a novel approach ... Aberrant wound healing and TGF-β production in the autoimmune-prone MRL/+ mouse. Clin Immunol 1999; 92: 300-10.. *CrossRef, ... Heart regeneration in adult MRL mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001; 98: 9830-5.. *CrossRef, ...
Scientific Publications Highlights
Genetic polymorphisms among C57BL/6 mouse inbred strains Transgenic Reserach Zurita E, Chagoyen M, Cantero M, Alonso R, ... Mice from the inbred C57BL/6 strain have been commonly used for the generation and analysis of... ... Immunogenic profiling in mice of a HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate (MVA-B) expressing four HIV-1 antigens and potentiation by ...
Scientific Publications Highlights
Genetic polymorphisms among C57BL/6 mouse inbred strains Transgenic Reserach Zurita E, Chagoyen M, Cantero M, Alonso R, ... Mice from the inbred C57BL/6 strain have been commonly used for the generation and analysis of... ... Immunogenic profiling in mice of a HIV/AIDS vaccine candidate (MVA-B) expressing four HIV-1 antigens and potentiation by ... Environmental Microbiology Martínez-García E & de Lorenzo V . The genome of the soil bacterium Pseudomonas putida strain KT2440 ...
Mice, Inbred Strains | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
A natural mouse model reveals genetic determinants of systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson disease). Commun Biol. 2019; 2 ... Inbred Strains" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Mice, Inbred Strains" was a major or minor topic ... "Mice, Inbred Strains" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Mice, Inbred Strains*Mice, Inbred Strains. *Mouse, Inbred Strain. *Inbred Strain of Mouse ...
Rabbit and Mouse Models of HSV-1 Latency, Reactivation, and Recurrent Eye Diseases
Inbred strains of mice are used because of their genetic consistency and include C57BL/6 and BALB/c . The strain of HSV-1, ... most strains of HSV-1 reactivate more readily in inbred BALB/c mice than inbred C57BL/6 mice, which is thought to be caused by ... In mice, inbred strains and transgenic strains are readily available, which has led to the widespread use of mouse models for ... Mice are available as noninbred or inbred (genetically homogenous) strains. Noninbred mice are less expensive and include the ...
PhenotypicEight inbred strainsGeneMutationsCommon inbred strainsQuantitativeWild-derived strainsTraitPolymorphismsHumansBehaviorOrganismsGenomesIsogenicPopulationsDeterminantsGenotypesDifferCongenic mouse strainsLinkageDissectionSusceptibleAnalysesTransgenic miceCharacteristicsMammalianSignificantlyTumorsStarted to establishOccurMechanisms
- Furthermore, we found clustering of strains into distinct phenotypic groups. (iupui.edu)
- Changes in the phenotypic variance of these traits are largely due to changes in the genetic variance. (genetics.org)
- One factor long known to affect the amount and nature of phenotypic variation is genetic drift. (genetics.org)
- Phenotypic variation does change dramatically as a result of bottlenecks and inbreeding for a wide range of traits and species ( F owler and W hitlock 1999 ). (genetics.org)
- For minimizing the variation of glucose tolerance in each strain, all mice were fed the high-carbohydrate diet and subjected to phenotypic and genetic analyses. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Speed, Terence 2006-04-04 00:00:00 The development of congenic mouse strains is the principal approach for confirming and fine mapping quantitative trait loci, as well as for comparing the phenotypic effect of a transgene or gene-targeted disruption between different inbred mouse strains. (deepdyve.com)
- One reason for phenotypic variability is influence of genetic background. (intechopen.com)
- Together, these show that genetically inbred mouse strains consistently differ in phenotypic robustness against environmental variation, suggesting that genetic factors contribute to variation in robustness. (uva.nl)
- Reactivation can occur spontaneously with virus strains known to be high phenotypic reactivators (HPRs), or after induction in latently infected animals [ 8 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Collectively, our data support a model in which genetic variation in glutamatergic neuroplasticity in corticolimbic circuitry underlies phenotypic variation in responsivity to stress. (jneurosci.org)
- Cohen, H. , Geva, A.B. , Matar, M.A. , Zohar, J. & Kaplan, Z. ( 2008 ) Post-traumatic stress behavioural responses in inbred mouse strains: can genetic predisposition explain phenotypic vulnerability? (wiley.com)
- To provide further insight into a potential genetic basis for the phenotypic variability, we decided to perform DNA SNP screen analysis for animals from the different lines. (nih.gov)
- Several systems have been used to correlate resistance/susceptibility with Th1/Th2 responses but perhaps the most compelling one is that involving mice genetically deficient in either interferon g (IFN- g ) or interleukin 4 (IL-4), the phenotypic surrogates of the Th1 and Th2 CD4 + T cell responses, respectively. (scielo.br)
- Standard genetic analyses in model organisms have focused on laboratory-induced mutations with large phenotypic effects, which contrasts with the variation seen in natural populations, which is mostly continuous. (keystonesymposia.org)
- Any genetic change in a strain can potentially lead to phenotypic change. (imgs.org)
Eight inbred strains2
- Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT), indexed as the reduction from pre-injection baseline of their body temperature. (springer.com)
- Mice of the eight inbred strains differing in their susceptibility to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and in the duration of asymptomatic survival, received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were killed 6 h, 24 h, or 7 days later. (physiology.org)
- In gene technology, low-virulence strains of adenovirus are used as vectors in gene transfer. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
- Genetic dissection of this kind of diabetogenesis will increase our understanding of the complex gene-gene interaction and mode of inheritance in human type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Type 2 diabetes in humans is not a single gene disorder but rather is caused by the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The complicated gene-gene and gene-environment interactions make genetic analysis of acquired hearing loss difficult. (intechopen.com)
- Genetic Regulation of Adipose Gene Expression and Cardio-Metabolic Traits. (nih.gov)
- Influences of inbreeding and gene. (mendeley.com)
- To quantify cis and trans regulation we correlated haplotype data with gene expression in two inbred mouse strains and two derived congenic lines. (biomedcentral.com)
- The evidence that most gene regulation is trans and strongly influenced by genetic background, suggests that pathways that are modified by an allelic variant, may only exhibit differential expression in the specific genetic backgrounds in which they were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
- The greatest success story for alcohol-related QTL mapping in rodents has been the discovery of a quantitative trait gene (QTG) (9) that affects acute withdrawal severity from both alcohol and pentobarbital in mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This unique characteristic makes these mice ideal for creation of novel strains with targeted mutations (gene knockouts). (jax.org)
- And with these mice, researchers will be able to identify a gene associated with a particular disease within two to three years instead of the 10 to 15 years it takes now, says Prof. Iraqi. (bio-medicine.org)
- According to Prof. Iraqi, the fact that humans have many genetic variances for the same gene means that they are "outbred" among individuals from different families. (bio-medicine.org)
- Inbred mouse strains provide a relatively stable and restricted range of genetic and environmental variability that is valuable for disentangling gene-stress interactions. (jneurosci.org)
- Furthermore, based on differential expression and complementation analysis using Selp (selectin-P) knock-out mice, Selp was identified as a strong candidate gene for the Ity3.2 sub-locus. (frontiersin.org)
- Inbreeding also helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a trait. (wikipedia.org)
- Inbreeding can significantly influence gene expression which can prevent inbreeding depression. (wikipedia.org)
- These strains are being used to characterize the molecular basis of the effect and to ultimately clone the gene responsible . (mcgill.ca)
- The practice of replacing a normal gene with an inactive gene in transgenic mice, thus generating knockout mice, was also mentioned. (cdc.gov)
- To search for genetic markers that distinguish high-risk patients for PCSM, we conducted a hypothesis-driven candidate gene study focused on biological pathways (e.g., steroid hormones, DNA repair, inflammation, circadian rhythm, vitamin D) for which there is evidence for a role in modulating prostate cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
- Induction of the phospholipid transfer protein gene accounts for the high density lipoprotein enlargement in mice treated with fenofibrate. (currentprotocols.com)
- And the $900 million project to knock out and test the effects of every last gene in the mouse, to create a vast, public warehouse of these tens of thousands of mutant lines-that's being done in Black-6, too. (slate.com)
- I then proceeded to show that high resolution mapping could be achieved using mosaic populations of outbred mice, and that mapping down to the gene level was possible in some commercially available outbred mice. (ucla.edu)
- This has led to the genetic characterization of outbred stocks, the realization that they can deliver gene level resolution(Yalcin et al. (ucla.edu)
- Although most rifampicin-resistant strains arise through mutations in the rpoB. (csic.es)
- Importantly, unlike genetic mutations, epigenetic modifications are reversible and therefore have the potential to be manipulated therapeutically. (coursera.org)
- Despite the increasing sophistication of genetically manipulating the mouse genome, naturally occurring spontaneous and chemically induced mutations continue to provide valuable human disease models in mice. (jax.org)
- 1999. Endotoxin-tolerant mice have mutations in Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4). (mcgill.ca)
- In the case of Legionella, we have shown that mouse strains susceptible to this infection carry mutations in a protein known as Naip5/Birc1e . (mcgill.ca)
- However, many inbred and congenic strains were based on observed spontaneous mutations. (cdc.gov)
- Another hypothesis is that sexual reproduction evolved to effectively weed out many of the harmful genetic mutations that occur every generation. (healthcanal.com)
Common inbred strains1
- Traditionally, the quantitative genetic view is that the amount of genetic variance would be reduced by inbreeding. (genetics.org)
- With the need for more powerful resources, multiparent populations (MPP) ( de Koning and McIntyre 2017 ), a set of inbred lines using multiple lines as founders, can overcome the limitations of traditional RI lines and have become an innovative tool for fine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. (g3journal.org)
- The discussed methods include: the qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids, apolipoproteins, and lipoproteins (with a specific emphasis on species‐specificities of mice and humans), and the activity assay of major enzymes involved in lipoprotein remodeling (LCAT, PLTP, and LPL). (currentprotocols.com)
- In order to develop a genetically enriched population of lab mice, the researchers took five classic inbred strains of mice and mixed them with three wild-derived strains, mating brothers and sisters for generations in order to reshuffle the genetic deck but keep the genotype consistent. (bio-medicine.org)
- Sperm Morphology in Two House Mouse Subspecies: Do Wild-Derived Strains and Wild Mice Tell the Same Story? (plos.org)
- MORPHOLOGICAL evolution by natural selection proceeds at a rate dependent on the amount of additive genetic variance for a trait ( F isher 1958 ). (genetics.org)
- 0.7) and significant correlations of trait values measured in baseline condition with independent multistrain datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. (g3journal.org)
- Multiparent populations (MPP) have become popular resources for complex trait mapping because of their wider allelic diversity and larger population size compared with traditional two-way recombinant inbred (RI) strains. (g3journal.org)
- For example, in livestock breeding , breeders may use inbreeding when trying to establish a new and desirable trait in the stock and for producing distinct families within a breed, but will need to watch for undesirable characteristics in offspring, which can then be eliminated through further selective breeding or culling . (wikipedia.org)
- Recombinant congenic inbred strains involved the separation of the unlinked components of a multigene trait into inbred strains. (cdc.gov)
- Thus, polymorphisms for the methylation patterns seen among laboratory inbred strains are also found in a free-living population. (biologists.org)
- In the 1980s and 1990s, DNA markers revolutionized genetic mapping: restriction fragment polymorphisms (RFLPs), simple sequence length polymorphisms (SSLPs) detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification (e.g. (jax.org)
- The creation of double congenic inbred strains for the study of two genetic polymorphisms was also addressed. (cdc.gov)
- Genetic polymorphisms in the infected host affect microbial pathogenesis. (asm.org)
- Humans, non-human primates, and three outbred populations of Peromyscus mice ( Peromyscus leucopus, Peromyscus maniculatus, and Peromyscus polionotus) have short telomeres. (mendeley.com)
- With a 95 percent genomic similarity to humans mice have long been us. (bio-medicine.org)
- With a 95 percent genomic similarity to humans, mice have long been used to learn about the genetic causes of human disease. (bio-medicine.org)
- But this process, called genetic mapping, is a long and difficult road, made more challenging by the 5% difference between the humans and lab mice. (bio-medicine.org)
- This kind of genetic diversity in humans influences diseases and helps researchers track their genetic causes. (bio-medicine.org)
- So, this was a surprise that even within an inbred mouse which will have many copies of rDNA just like humans would - even with an inbred mouse, individual copies within a single mouse will be genetically different. (thenakedscientists.com)
- For example, coxsackievirus B3 (CB3) infection of susceptible mice results in inflammation of the heart (myocarditis) that resembles myocarditis in humans. (cdc.gov)
- Drugs which would have worked on humans, but don't on mice, for similar reasons. (ycombinator.com)
- My laboratory investigates the genetic basis of common psychiatric disorders, in particular the determination of the genetic basis of anxiety and depression in animal models and in humans. (ucla.edu)
- For example, acute stress typically produces heightened anxiety-like behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activation in some strains (e.g. (jneurosci.org)
- Recent studies strengthen the belief that physical activity as a behavior has a genetic basis. (hindawi.com)
- Our laboratory is interested in the neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of social behavior development, as well as biological mechanisms underlying social motivation, social learning, and social skill acquisition and generalization. (upenn.edu)
- The Brodkin laboratory studies the neurobiology and genomics of social behavior development in mouse models relevant to autism. (upenn.edu)
- Of considerable value in this regard are isogenic inbred mouse strains. (jneurosci.org)
- In the present study, we exploited the isogenic nature of inbred mice, in combination with a tractable mouse model of delayed reinforcement, to look for evidence of genetic effects on impulsivity. (jneurosci.org)
- Some inbred strains have been bred for over 150 generations, leaving individuals in the population to be isogenic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
- This is in part because of the complexity associated with myriad genetic and environmental factors in human populations. (jneurosci.org)
- however, because the increased proportion of deleterious homozygotes exposes the allele to natural selection , in the long run its frequency decreases more rapidly in inbred populations. (wikipedia.org)
- Moreover, the two inbred laboratory mouse strains display significantly different telomere lengths, suggesting the existence of strain-specific genetic determinants. (mendeley.com)
- Genetic determinants play an important role in a variety of conditions from diabetes and obesity to different types of cancers. (bio-medicine.org)
- A natural mouse model reveals genetic determinants of systemic capillary leak syndrome (Clarkson disease). (harvard.edu)
- Despite these examples, most host-pathogen interactions are more complex and modified by several genetic determinants. (asm.org)
- We used simulation studies to investigate the efficiency of different marker-assisted breeding schemes by examining the trade-off between the number of backcrosses, the number of mice produced per generation, and the number of genotypes per mouse required to achieve a quality congenic mouse strain. (deepdyve.com)
- This is a marked improvement on the previously existing 450 genetic strains of lab mice with varying genotypes, making Prof. Iraqi's new strain ideal for genetic mapping. (bio-medicine.org)
- This would be expected based on the fact that the congenic CBA.B6 mice genotypes included the mutant Ahl locus. (cdc.gov)
Congenic mouse strains1
- The A/J mouse strain was highly susceptible, with a rapid onset and severe development of dental fluorosis compared with the other strains tested. (iupui.edu)
- I have developed mouse pharmacogenetic models for dependence on ethanol by selectively breeding lines of mice resistant, or susceptible, to the severity of withdrawal from ethanol dependence. (ohsu.edu)
- We have created special mouse strains in which the resistance-associated copy of chromosome 9 has been isolated on a genetically susceptible background. (mcgill.ca)
- We have found that CB3 triggers autoimmune disease in susceptible mice by stimulating elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines from mast cells during the innate immune response. (cdc.gov)
- FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. (pnas.org)
- FVB/N mice offer a system suitable for most transgenic experiments and subsequent genetic analyses. (pnas.org)
- Extensive genetic analyses of chromosome C-banding pattern, biochemical markers and microsatellite DNA (MIT) markers of this strain have demonstrated the characteristics of MUS. (go.jp)
- These features make the FVB/N strain advantageous to use for research with transgenic mice. (pnas.org)
- The protocol should make it possible to undertake a large number of experiments with MSCs in transgenic mice that have previously not been possible. (bloodjournal.org)
- These features of mMSCs greatly limited the ability to test the cells in the large number of interesting genetic models that are now available as transgenic mice. (bloodjournal.org)
- Cholesterol efflux, lecithin‐cholesterol acyltransferase activity, and pre‐beta particle formation by serum from human apolipoprotein A‐I and apolipoprotein A‐I/apolipoprotein A‐II transgenic mice consistent with the latter being less effective for reverse cholesterol transport. (currentprotocols.com)
- These zoologists bred their mice for specific characteristics, such as coat color, and began analysis of the genetic control of such characteristics. (encyclopedia.com)
- The isolated mMSCs from 5 inbred strains shared a number of characteristics, such as rapid growth from single-cell-derived colonies if plated at low densities. (bloodjournal.org)
- Advantages of inbred strains included the stability of strain characteristics, genetic reliability and homogeneity, and the elimination of genetic confounders. (cdc.gov)
- We measured telomere lengths of blood leukocytes in several inbred and outbred mammalian species, using a telomere-specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry. (mendeley.com)
- The next step, called KOMP2, turned these targeted ES cells into mice on a large scale, which are being phenotyped to provide a comprehensive resource of unparalleled value for biologists seeking to understand the genetic basis of mammalian biology and disease progression. (jax.org)
- Antioxidant measures were not dramatically changed postirradiation and varied significantly among the strains. (physiology.org)
- They report that mice fed a soy diet exhibited significantly worse HCM than mice fed a soy-free (milk protein) diet. (jci.org)
- These estimates suggest that although genetic factors are important, nongenetic factors also contribute significantly to the risk for alcohol dependence. (thefreelibrary.com)
- B6 mice expressed significantly more VCAM-1 than their C3H counterparts. (ahajournals.org)
- 4 In response to OxLDL, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells from B6 mice express significantly more MCP-1, M-CSF, and VCAM-1 than cells from C3H mice. (ahajournals.org)
Started to establish1
- High-dose (10 mg/kg) NAL lowered HP latencies in D2, but not B6 mice, suggesting that the higher HP latencies exhibited by D2 mice reflect opioid mechanisms. (elsevier.com)
- The diversifying effect of environmental factors is counteracted by genetic mechanisms to yield persistence of specific features (robustness). (uva.nl)
- Auditory pathology and function of these strains has been extensively studied and can be used to elucidate mechanisms of human AHL. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) invites applications on research employing genetically defined and/or modified mouse models, other animal models such as dogs and monkeys, or archived human joint tissues to explore the biological mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)