Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Mice, Inbred DBAAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred C3HQuantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Mice, Inbred AKRMice, Inbred AInbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Mice, Inbred CBAAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rats, Inbred BNNucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
  • Mice from eight inbred strains were studied for their acute sensitivity to ethanol as indexed by the degree of hypothermia (HT), indexed as the reduction from pre-injection baseline of their body temperature. (springer.com)
  • Mice of the eight inbred strains differing in their susceptibility to radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, and in the duration of asymptomatic survival, received 18 Gy whole thorax irradiation and were killed 6 h, 24 h, or 7 days later. (physiology.org)
  • In gene technology, low-virulence strains of adenovirus are used as vectors in gene transfer. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
  • Genetic dissection of this kind of diabetogenesis will increase our understanding of the complex gene-gene interaction and mode of inheritance in human type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Type 2 diabetes in humans is not a single gene disorder but rather is caused by the interaction of multiple genetic and environmental factors ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The complicated gene-gene and gene-environment interactions make genetic analysis of acquired hearing loss difficult. (intechopen.com)
  • Genetic Regulation of Adipose Gene Expression and Cardio-Metabolic Traits. (nih.gov)
  • Influences of inbreeding and gene. (mendeley.com)
  • To quantify cis and trans regulation we correlated haplotype data with gene expression in two inbred mouse strains and two derived congenic lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The evidence that most gene regulation is trans and strongly influenced by genetic background, suggests that pathways that are modified by an allelic variant, may only exhibit differential expression in the specific genetic backgrounds in which they were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The greatest success story for alcohol-related QTL mapping in rodents has been the discovery of a quantitative trait gene (QTG) (9) that affects acute withdrawal severity from both alcohol and pentobarbital in mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This unique characteristic makes these mice ideal for creation of novel strains with targeted mutations (gene knockouts). (jax.org)
  • And with these mice, researchers will be able to identify a gene associated with a particular disease within two to three years instead of the 10 to 15 years it takes now, says Prof. Iraqi. (bio-medicine.org)
  • According to Prof. Iraqi, the fact that humans have many genetic variances for the same gene means that they are "outbred" among individuals from different families. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Inbred mouse strains provide a relatively stable and restricted range of genetic and environmental variability that is valuable for disentangling gene-stress interactions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, based on differential expression and complementation analysis using Selp (selectin-P) knock-out mice, Selp was identified as a strong candidate gene for the Ity3.2 sub-locus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inbreeding also helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a trait. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inbreeding can significantly influence gene expression which can prevent inbreeding depression. (wikipedia.org)
  • These strains are being used to characterize the molecular basis of the effect and to ultimately clone the gene responsible . (mcgill.ca)
  • The practice of replacing a normal gene with an inactive gene in transgenic mice, thus generating knockout mice, was also mentioned. (cdc.gov)
  • To search for genetic markers that distinguish high-risk patients for PCSM, we conducted a hypothesis-driven candidate gene study focused on biological pathways (e.g., steroid hormones, DNA repair, inflammation, circadian rhythm, vitamin D) for which there is evidence for a role in modulating prostate cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Induction of the phospholipid transfer protein gene accounts for the high density lipoprotein enlargement in mice treated with fenofibrate. (currentprotocols.com)
  • And the $900 million project to knock out and test the effects of every last gene in the mouse, to create a vast, public warehouse of these tens of thousands of mutant lines-that's being done in Black-6, too. (slate.com)
  • I then proceeded to show that high resolution mapping could be achieved using mosaic populations of outbred mice, and that mapping down to the gene level was possible in some commercially available outbred mice. (ucla.edu)
  • This has led to the genetic characterization of outbred stocks, the realization that they can deliver gene level resolution(Yalcin et al. (ucla.edu)
  • Traditionally, the quantitative genetic view is that the amount of genetic variance would be reduced by inbreeding. (genetics.org)
  • With the need for more powerful resources, multiparent populations (MPP) ( de Koning and McIntyre 2017 ), a set of inbred lines using multiple lines as founders, can overcome the limitations of traditional RI lines and have become an innovative tool for fine quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. (g3journal.org)
  • The discussed methods include: the qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids, apolipoproteins, and lipoproteins (with a specific emphasis on species‐specificities of mice and humans), and the activity assay of major enzymes involved in lipoprotein remodeling (LCAT, PLTP, and LPL). (currentprotocols.com)
  • MORPHOLOGICAL evolution by natural selection proceeds at a rate dependent on the amount of additive genetic variance for a trait ( F isher 1958 ). (genetics.org)
  • 0.7) and significant correlations of trait values measured in baseline condition with independent multistrain datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In sum, awareness of the genetic diversity of an animal colony is paramount as it allows researchers to properly replicate experiments and also to capitalize on other genetically distinct individuals to explore the genetic basis of a trait. (g3journal.org)
  • Multiparent populations (MPP) have become popular resources for complex trait mapping because of their wider allelic diversity and larger population size compared with traditional two-way recombinant inbred (RI) strains. (g3journal.org)
  • For example, in livestock breeding , breeders may use inbreeding when trying to establish a new and desirable trait in the stock and for producing distinct families within a breed, but will need to watch for undesirable characteristics in offspring, which can then be eliminated through further selective breeding or culling . (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombinant congenic inbred strains involved the separation of the unlinked components of a multigene trait into inbred strains. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, acute stress typically produces heightened anxiety-like behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activation in some strains (e.g. (jneurosci.org)
  • Recent studies strengthen the belief that physical activity as a behavior has a genetic basis. (hindawi.com)
  • Our laboratory is interested in the neurobiological and genetic mechanisms of social behavior development, as well as biological mechanisms underlying social motivation, social learning, and social skill acquisition and generalization. (upenn.edu)
  • The Brodkin laboratory studies the neurobiology and genomics of social behavior development in mouse models relevant to autism. (upenn.edu)
  • One impetus for this has been the completion of sequence drafts for human, mouse and recently the rat genomes. (imgs.org)
  • This is in part because of the complexity associated with myriad genetic and environmental factors in human populations. (jneurosci.org)
  • however, because the increased proportion of deleterious homozygotes exposes the allele to natural selection , in the long run its frequency decreases more rapidly in inbred populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains also have been found to differ in the new LRR test, as well as in the development of acute functional tolerance (AFT) to this response. (springer.com)
  • These features make the FVB/N strain advantageous to use for research with transgenic mice. (pnas.org)
  • The protocol should make it possible to undertake a large number of experiments with MSCs in transgenic mice that have previously not been possible. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These features of mMSCs greatly limited the ability to test the cells in the large number of interesting genetic models that are now available as transgenic mice. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Cholesterol efflux, lecithin‐cholesterol acyltransferase activity, and pre‐beta particle formation by serum from human apolipoprotein A‐I and apolipoprotein A‐I/apolipoprotein A‐II transgenic mice consistent with the latter being less effective for reverse cholesterol transport. (currentprotocols.com)
  • We measured telomere lengths of blood leukocytes in several inbred and outbred mammalian species, using a telomere-specific fluorescent probe and flow cytometry. (mendeley.com)
  • The next step, called KOMP2, turned these targeted ES cells into mice on a large scale, which are being phenotyped to provide a comprehensive resource of unparalleled value for biologists seeking to understand the genetic basis of mammalian biology and disease progression. (jax.org)
  • We demonstrate that adult Loa loa worms in subcutaneous tissues, circulating microfilariae (mf) and presence of filarial biomarkers in sera occur following experimental infections of lymphopenic mice deficient in interleukin (IL)-2/7 gamma-chain signaling. (bioportfolio.com)
  • High-dose (10 mg/kg) NAL lowered HP latencies in D2, but not B6 mice, suggesting that the higher HP latencies exhibited by D2 mice reflect opioid mechanisms. (elsevier.com)
  • The diversifying effect of environmental factors is counteracted by genetic mechanisms to yield persistence of specific features (robustness). (uva.nl)
  • Auditory pathology and function of these strains has been extensively studied and can be used to elucidate mechanisms of human AHL. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) invites applications on research employing genetically defined and/or modified mouse models, other animal models such as dogs and monkeys, or archived human joint tissues to explore the biological mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)