A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*15 allele family.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is a small family of herbs and shrubs. Some produce GLUCOSINOLATES.
Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The most common of the microsatellite tandem repeats (MICROSATELLITE REPEATS) dispersed in the euchromatic arms of chromosomes. They consist of two nucleotides repeated in tandem; guanine and thymine, (GT)n, is the most frequently seen.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
Copies of DNA sequences which lie adjacent to each other in the same orientation (direct tandem repeats) or in the opposite direction to each other (INVERTED TANDEM REPEATS).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
A genus of toxic herbaceous Eurasian plants of the Plantaginaceae which yield cardiotonic DIGITALIS GLYCOSIDES. The most useful species are Digitalis lanata and D. purpurea.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of the family SALMONIDAE (salmons and trouts). They are named for their hooked (onco) nose (rhynchus). They are usually anadromous and occasionally inhabit freshwater. They can be found in North Pacific coastal areas from Japan to California and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean. Salmon and trout are popular game and food fish. Various species figure heavily in genetic, metabolism, and hormone research.
Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.
Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.
A family composed of spouses and their children.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.
The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A complication of pregnancy in which the UMBILICAL CORD wraps around the fetal neck once or multiple times. In some cases, cord entanglement around fetal neck may not affect pregnancy outcome significantly. In others, the nuchal cord may lead to restricted fetal blood flow, oxygen transport, fetal development, fetal movement, and complicated delivery at birth.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
Enzyme systems containing a single subunit and requiring only magnesium for endonucleolytic activity. The corresponding modification methylases are separate enzymes. The systems recognize specific short DNA sequences and cleave either within, or at a short specific distance from, the recognition sequence to give specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. Enzymes from different microorganisms with the same specificity are called isoschizomers. EC
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Allelic variants of the kappa light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN KAPPA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES.
A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A plant genus of the family OLEACEAE. Members contain suspensaside.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Mathematical procedure that transforms a number of possibly correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).

11q23.1 and 11q25-qter YACs suppress tumour growth in vivo. (1/12529)

Frequent allelic deletion at chromosome 11q22-q23.1 has been described in breast cancer and a number of other malignancies, suggesting putative tumour suppressor gene(s) within the approximately 8 Mb deleted region. In addition, we recently described another locus, at the 11q25-qter region, frequently deleted in breast cancer, suggesting additional tumour suppressor gene(s) in this approximately 2 Mb deleted region. An 11q YAC contig was accessed and three YACs, one containing the candidate gene ATM at 11q23.1, and two contiguous YACs (overlapping for approximately 400-600 kb) overlying most of the 11q25 deleted region, were retrofitted with a G418 resistance marker and transfected into murine A9 fibrosarcoma cells. Selected A9 transfectant clones (and control untransfected and 'irrelevant' alphoid YAC transfectant A9 clones) were assayed for in vivo tumorigenicity in athymic female Balb c-nu/nu mice. All the 11q YAC transfectant clones demonstrated significant tumour suppression compared to the control untransfected and 'irrelevant' YAC transfected A9 cells. These results define two discrete tumour suppressor loci on chromosome 11q by functional complementation, one to a approximately 1.2 Mb region on 11q23.1 (containing the ATM locus) and another to a approximately 400-600 kb subterminal region on 11q25-qter.  (+info)

Superimposed histologic and genetic mapping of chromosome 9 in progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia: implications for a genetic model of multistep urothelial carcinogenesis and early detection of urinary bladder cancer. (2/12529)

The evolution of alterations on chromosome 9, including the putative tumor suppressor genes mapped to the 9p21-22 region (the MTS genes), was studied in relation to the progression of human urinary bladder neoplasia by using whole organ superimposed histologic and genetic mapping in cystectomy specimens and was verified in urinary bladder tumors of various pathogenetic subsets with longterm follow-up. The applicability of chromosome 9 allelic losses as non-invasive markers of urothelial neoplasia was tested on voided urine and/or bladder washings of patients with urinary bladder cancer. Although sequential multiple hits in the MTS locus were documented in the development of intraurothelial precursor lesions, the MTS genes do not seem to represent a major target for p21-23 deletions in bladder cancer. Two additional tumor suppressor genes involved in bladder neoplasia located distally and proximally to the MTS locus within p22-23 and p11-13 regions respectively were identified. Several distinct putative tumor suppressor gene loci within the q12-13, q21-22, and q34 regions were identified on the q arm. In particular, the pericentromeric q12-13 area may contain the critical tumor suppressor gene or genes for the development of early urothelial neoplasia. Allelic losses of chromosome 9 were associated with expansion of the abnormal urothelial clone which frequently involved large areas of urinary bladder mucosa. These losses could be found in a high proportion of urothelial tumors and in voided urine or bladder washing samples of nearly all patients with urinary bladder carcinoma.  (+info)

Multiple target sites of allelic imbalance on chromosome 17 in Barrett's oesophageal cancer. (3/12529)

Twelve Barrett's adenocarcinomas have been analysed for the occurrence of allelic imbalance (LOH) on chromosome 17 using 41 microsatellite markers. This study provides evidence for 13 minimal regions of LOH, six on 17p and seven on 17q. Four of these centre in the vicinity of the known tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) TP53 (17p13.1), NFI (17q11.2), BRCA1 (17q21.1), and a putative TSG (17p13.3). The tumours all displayed relatively small regions of LOH (1-10 cM), and in several tumours extensive regions of LOH were detected. One tumour displayed only two very small regions of LOH; 17p11.2 and 17p13.1. The frequency of allelic imbalance has been calculated based on the LOH encompassing only one minimal region, and based on all the LOH observations. By both evaluations the highest LOH frequencies were found for regions II (p53), III (17p13.1 centromeric to p53), IV (17p12), V (17p11.2) and VII (NF1, 17q11.2). Our data supports the existence of multiple TSGs on chromosome 17 and challenges the view that p53 is the sole target of LOH on 17p in Barrett's adenocarcinoma.  (+info)

Correlation between the status of the p53 gene and survival in patients with stage I non-small cell lung carcinoma. (4/12529)

The association of p53 abnormalities with the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) has been extensively investigated to date, however, this association is still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the prognostic significance of p53 mutations through exons 2 to 11 and p53 protein expression in 103 cases of stage I NSCLC. p53 mutations were detected in 49 of 103 (48%) tumors. Two separate mutations were detected in four tumors giving a total of 53 unique mutations in 49 tumors. Ten (19%) of mutations occurred outside exons 5-8. Positive immunohistochemical staining of p53 protein was detected in 41 of 103 (40%) tumors. The concordance rate between mutations and protein overexpression was only 69%. p53 mutations, but not expression, were significantly associated with a shortened survival of patients (P<0.001). Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between the types of p53 mutations and prognosis. p53 missense mutations rather than null mutations were associated with poor prognosis (P < 0.001 in missense mutations and P=0.243 in null mutations). These results indicated that p53 mutations, in particular missense mutations, rather than p53 expression could be a useful molecular marker for the prognosis of patients with surgically resected stage I NSCLC.  (+info)

p73 at chromosome 1p36.3 is lost in advanced stage neuroblastoma but its mutation is infrequent. (5/12529)

p73, a novel p53 family member, is a recently identified candidate neuroblastoma (NBL) suppressor gene mapped at chromosome 1p36.33 and was found to inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in cell lines. To test the hypothesis that p73 is a NBL suppressor gene, we analysed the p73 gene in primary human NBLs. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for p73 was observed in 19% (28/151) of informative cases which included 92 mass-screening (MS) tumors. The high frequency of p73 LOH was significantly associated with sporadic NBLs (9% vs 34%, P<0.001), N-myc amplification (10% vs 71%, P<0.001), and advanced stage (14% vs 28%, P<0.05). Both p73alpha and p73beta transcripts were detectable in only 46 of 134 (34%) NBLs at low levels by RT-PCR methods, while they were easily detectable in most breast cancers and colorectal cancers under the same conditions. They found no correlation between p73 LOH and its expression levels (P>0.1). We found two mutations out of 140 NBLs, one somatic and one germline, which result in amino acid substitutions in the C-terminal region of p73 which may affect transactivation functions, though, in the same tumor samples, no mutation of the p53 gene was observed as reported previously. These results suggest that allelic loss of the p73 gene may be a later event in NBL tumorigenesis. However, p73 is infrequently mutated in primary NBLs and may hardly function as a tumor suppressor in a classic Knudson's manner.  (+info)

High polymorphism level of genomic sequences flanking insertion sites of human endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats. (6/12529)

The polymorphism at the multitude of loci adjacent to human endogenous retrovirus long terminal repeats (LTRs) was analyzed by a technique for whole genome differential display based on the PCR suppression effect that provides selective amplification and display of genomic sequences flanking interspersed repeated elements. This strategy is simple, target-specific, requires a small amount of DNA and provides reproducible and highly informative data. The average frequency of polymorphism observed in the vicinity of the LTR insertion sites was found to be about 12%. The high incidence of polymorphism within the LTR flanks together with the frequent location of LTRs near genes makes the LTR loci a useful source of polymorphic markers for gene mapping.  (+info)

Structure of cag pathogenicity island in Japanese Helicobacter pylori isolates. (7/12529)

BACKGROUND: cag pathogenicity island (PAI) is reported to be a major virulence factor of Helicobacter pylori. AIM: To characterise cagA and the cag PAI in Japanese H pylori strains. METHODS: H pylori isolates from Japanese patients were evaluated for CagA by immunoblot, for cagA transcription by northern blot, and for cagA and 13 other cag PAI genes by Southern blot. cagA negative strains from Western countries were also studied. Induction of interleukin-8 secretion from gastric epithelial cells was also investigated. RESULTS: All Japanese strains retained cagA. Fifty nine of 63 (94%) strains had all the cag PAI genes. In the remaining four, cag PAI was partially deleted, lacking cagA transcripts and not producing CagA protein. Details of the PAI of these strains were checked; three lacked cagB to cagQ (cagI) and continuously cagS to cag13 (cagII), and the remaining one lacked cagB to cag8. Western cagA negative strains completely lacked cag PAI including cagA. Nucleotide sequence analysis in one strain in which the cag PAI was partially deleted showed that the partial deletion contained 25 kb of cag PAI and the cagA promoter. Interleukin-8 induction was lower with the cag PAI partial deletion strains than with the intact ones. All Japanese cag PAI deleted strains were derived from patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, whereas 41 of 59 (70%) CagA-producing strains were from patients with peptic ulcers or gastric cancer (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Most Japanese H pylori strains had the intact cag PAI. However, some lacked most of the cag PAI in spite of the presence of cagA. Thus the presence of the cagA gene is not an invariable marker of cag PAI related virulence in Japanese strains.  (+info)

Screening for mutations of the cationic trypsinogen gene: are they of relevance in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis? (8/12529)

BACKGROUND: In hereditary pancreatitis mutations of exons 2 (N21I) and 3 (R117H) of the cationic trypsinogen gene have been described. AIMS: To investigate whether the same mutations can also be found in patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. METHODS: Leucocyte DNA was prepared from 23 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis, 21 with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, 34 individuals from seven independent families with hereditary pancreatitis, and 15 healthy controls. DNA was also obtained from pancreatic tissue (n=7) and from pancreatic juice (n=5) of patients suffering from chronic alcoholic pancreatitis. R117H was detected by restriction digestion with Afl III. N21I was identified by an allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: R117H was detected in four families with hereditary pancreatitis. The N21I mutation was identified in three families. All mutations were confirmed by sequencing of the corresponding DNAs. In patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis neither the exon 2 nor exon 3 mutations were present in blood leucocytes, pancreatic juice, or pancreatic tissue. DNA of the patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis as well as all controls was of wild type. CONCLUSIONS: The allele specific PCR may be used to screen for the N21I mutation of cationic trypsinogen. Both trypsinogen mutations were found in hereditary pancreatitis but do not seem to be major pathogenic factors in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.  (+info)

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

These disorders are caused by changes in specific genes that fail to function properly, leading to a cascade of effects that can damage cells and tissues throughout the body. Some inherited diseases are the result of single gene mutations, while others are caused by multiple genetic changes.

Inherited diseases can be diagnosed through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: This involves analyzing a person's DNA to identify specific genetic changes that may be causing the disease.
2. Blood tests: These can help identify certain inherited diseases by measuring enzyme levels or identifying specific proteins in the blood.
3. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help identify structural changes in the body that may be indicative of an inherited disease.
4. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of an inherited disease, such as unusual physical features or abnormalities.

Inherited diseases can be treated in various ways, depending on the specific condition and its causes. Some treatments include:

1. Medications: These can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or repair damaged tissues.
3. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to treat or prevent inherited diseases.
4. Rehabilitation: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation can help individuals with inherited diseases manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Inherited diseases are a significant public health concern, as they affect millions of people worldwide. However, advances in genetic research and medical technology have led to the development of new treatments and management strategies for these conditions. By working with healthcare providers and advocacy groups, individuals with inherited diseases can access the resources and support they need to manage their conditions and improve their quality of life.

The hip joint is a ball-and-socket joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the pelvis. In a normal hip joint, the ball (the head of the femur) fits snugly into the socket (the acetabulum). However, in dogs with hip dysplasia, the ball and socket may not fit together properly, causing the joint to become loose or unstable. This can lead to inflammation, pain, and degenerative changes in the joint over time.

There are two main types of hip dysplasia in dogs: developmental hip dysplasia and degenerative hip dysplasia. Developmental hip dysplasia occurs when the hip joint does not form properly during fetal development, while degenerative hip dysplasia is caused by wear and tear on the joint over time.

The symptoms of hip dysplasia in dogs can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:

* Lameness or difficulty walking
* Pain or discomfort
* Stiffness or limited mobility
* Difficulty rising or climbing stairs
* Decreased activity level or reluctance to exercise
* Grinding or clicking sounds when the dog moves its hip joint

Hip dysplasia is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, radiographs (x-rays), and arthroscopy. Treatment options for the condition may include:

* Medication to manage pain and inflammation
* Weight management to reduce the strain on the joint
* Surgery to repair or replace the damaged joint
* Physical therapy to improve mobility and strength

Preventative measures such as feeding a balanced diet, providing plenty of exercise and weight management can help to reduce the risk of developing hip dysplasia in dogs. However, if the condition does occur, early diagnosis and treatment can help to manage the symptoms and improve the dog's quality of life.

Example sentence: "The nuchal cord was detected during an ultrasound examination, and further monitoring was recommended to ensure the health and well-being of the fetus."

There are several types of chromosome aberrations, including:

1. Chromosomal deletions: Loss of a portion of a chromosome.
2. Chromosomal duplications: Extra copies of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
3. Chromosomal translocations: A change in the position of a chromosome or a portion of a chromosome.
4. Chromosomal inversions: A reversal of a segment of a chromosome.
5. Chromosomal amplifications: An increase in the number of copies of a particular chromosome or gene.

Chromosome aberrations can be detected through various techniques, such as karyotyping, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), or array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). These tests can help identify changes in the chromosomal makeup of cells and provide information about the underlying genetic causes of disease.

Chromosome aberrations are associated with a wide range of diseases, including:

1. Cancer: Chromosome abnormalities are common in cancer cells and can contribute to the development and progression of cancer.
2. Birth defects: Many birth defects are caused by chromosome abnormalities, such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21), which is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21.
3. Neurological disorders: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to various neurological disorders, including autism and intellectual disability.
4. Immunodeficiency diseases: Some immunodeficiency diseases, such as X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), are caused by chromosome abnormalities.
5. Infectious diseases: Chromosome aberrations can increase the risk of infection with certain viruses, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
6. Ageing: Chromosome aberrations have been linked to the ageing process and may contribute to the development of age-related diseases.
7. Radiation exposure: Exposure to radiation can cause chromosome abnormalities, which can increase the risk of cancer and other diseases.
8. Genetic disorders: Many genetic disorders are caused by chromosome aberrations, such as Turner syndrome (45,X), which is caused by a missing X chromosome.
9. Rare diseases: Chromosome aberrations can cause rare diseases, such as Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), which is caused by an extra copy of the X chromosome.
10. Infertility: Chromosome abnormalities can contribute to infertility in both men and women.

Understanding the causes and consequences of chromosome aberrations is important for developing effective treatments and improving human health.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.

Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.

In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.

Vivax malaria is characterized by a more gradual onset of symptoms compared to other types of malaria, such as Plasmodium falciparum. The symptoms of vivax malaria can include fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, kidney failure, seizures, coma, and death.

Vivax malaria is typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as blood smears or PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests. Treatment for vivax malaria typically involves the use of antimalarial drugs, such as chloroquine or primaquine, which are effective against the parasite but not against other types of malaria.

Prevention is key to avoiding malaria, and this includes taking antimalarial medications before traveling to areas where malaria is common, wearing protective clothing and applying insect repellent to prevent mosquito bites, and using bed nets that have been treated with insecticide. Eliminating standing water around homes and communities can also help reduce the number of mosquitoes and the risk of malaria.

In conclusion, vivax malaria is a serious and sometimes life-threatening disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It is important to be aware of the risk of malaria when traveling to areas where it is common, and to take preventive measures such as using antimalarial medications and protective clothing to avoid infection.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

Some common effects of chromosomal deletions include:

1. Genetic disorders: Chromosomal deletions can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, which is caused by a deletion of a portion of chromosome 21. Other examples include Prader-Willi syndrome (deletion of chromosome 15), and Williams syndrome (deletion of chromosome 7).
2. Birth defects: Chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of birth defects, such as heart defects, cleft palate, and limb abnormalities.
3. Developmental delays: Children with chromosomal deletions may experience developmental delays, learning disabilities, and intellectual disability.
4. Increased cancer risk: Some chromosomal deletions can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and breast cancer.
5. Reproductive problems: Chromosomal deletions can lead to reproductive problems, such as infertility or recurrent miscarriage.

Chromosomal deletions can be diagnosed through a variety of techniques, including karyotyping (examination of the chromosomes), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and microarray analysis. Treatment options for chromosomal deletions depend on the specific effects of the deletion and may include medication, surgery, or other forms of therapy.

Generally co-dominant markers are more informative than the dominant markers. Genetic markers can be used to study the ... Genetic markers are employed in genealogical DNA testing for genetic genealogy to determine genetic distance between ... RAD markers (or Restriction site associated DNA markers) STS (using Sequence-tagged sites) Molecular genetic markers can be ... Autosomal markers are used for all ancestry. Genetic markers have to be easily identifiable, associated with a specific locus, ...
"New Research Sheds Light on Old Pedigrees". Genetic Markers. Thoroughbred Heritage. Retrieved 2008-02-17. which cites Hill, E. ... "Who's Your Momma III: Some Lines Misplaced". Genetic Markers. Thoroughbred Heritage. Retrieved 2008-02-17. which cites Hill, E ... However, modern genetic studies have revealed that there are some cases where the haplotype in the mtDNA of modern ... A basic understanding of these theories can also help the racing public understand a horse's theoretical genetic potential. The ...
"Who's Your Momma II: Some Lines Converge". Genetic Markers. Thoroughbred Heritage. Retrieved 2008-02-17. which cites Hill, E. W ... "New Research Sheds Light on Old Pedigrees". Genetic Markers. Thoroughbred Heritage. Retrieved 2008-02-17. which cites Hill, E. ... "Who's Your Momma III: Some Lines Misplaced". Genetic Markers. Thoroughbred Heritage. Retrieved 2008-02-17. which cites Hill, E ... One genetic study indicates that 95% of all male Thoroughbreds trace their direct male line (via the Y chromosome) to the ...
Such genetic markers[which?] suggest the genetic layout of Southern Chinese peoples is quite similar to that of Southeast ... Molecular anthropologists[who?] have used classical genetic markers and mtDNA to analyze the similarities between early Chinese ... Recent genetic and archeologic evidence found that both Australo-Melanesian (South-Eurasian) and East Asian-related (East- ... Oota, H., Kurosaki, K., Pookajorn, S., Ishida, T., & Ueda, S. (2001). "Genetic study of the Paleolithic and Neolithic Southeast ...
Anthropology and genetic markers". Hum. Immunol. 62 (10): 1063. doi:10.1016/S0198-8859(01)00350-0. PMID 11600210. Robin McKie ( ... for having found a marker on Chromosome 7 that is common to Black Africans and, among Caucasoid populations, is found only in ... However they used the same methodology (same gene markers) and same data samples like Arnaiz-Villena et al. Other authors ... They stated that "Using results from the analysis of a single marker, particularly one likely to have undergone selection, for ...
Sources Kole, Chittaranjan (2007). "Molecular Markers and Genetic Mapping". Oilseeds. Vol. 2 of Genome Mapping and Molecular ... "Genetic Diversity of Jatropha Curcas With SRAP Molecular Markers". Journal of Zhejiang Forestry College. 27 (3): 347-353. ISSN ... "DNA Polymorphisms Amplified by Arbitrary Primers Are Useful as Genetic Markers". Nucleic Acids Research. 18 (22): 6531-6535. ... "Discriminating Ability of Molecular Markers and Morphological Characterization in the Establishment of Genetic Relationships in ...
Genetic maps, markers and polymorphisms; The C. elegans physical map; Gene expression profiles (stage, tissue and cell) from ... Genetic regulatory relationships; Details of intra- and inter-specific sequence homologies (with links to other Model Organism ...
Bourgeron, T., Giros, B.,(2003). " Genetic Markers in Psychiatric Genetics". In Leboyer, M, Bellivier, F. Psychiatric genetics ... Several genetic risk factors have been found with the endophenotypes of psychiatric disorders, rather than with the diagnoses ... Genetic Linkage studies attempt to find a correlation between the diagnosis and inheritance of certain alleles within families ... Bellivier, F. (2003). "Genetic association studies: definition of cases and controls". In Leboyer, M, Bellivier, F. Psychiatric ...
The use of RAD markers for genetic mapping is often called RAD mapping. An important aspect of RAD markers and mapping is the ... Restriction site associated DNA (RAD) markers are a type of genetic marker which are useful for association mapping, QTL- ... Therefore, the genetic marker density that can be achieved with microarrays is much lower than what is possible with high- ... "Genome-wide genetic marker discovery and genotyping using next-generation sequencing". Nature Reviews Genetics. 12 (7): 499-510 ...
examined more STR markers in order to sharpen the "resolution" of these Kohanim genetic markers, thus separating both Ashkenazi ... Genetic genealogy Genetic studies on Jews Modal haplotype Ostrer H (2012). Legacy: A Genetic History of the Jewish People. ... Confusingly, because only four of the markers that Malaspina et al. tested were markers in common with the CMH study, three of ... "Genetic markers cannot determine Jewish descent". Frontiers in Genetics. 5: 462. doi:10.3389/fgene.2014.00462. PMC 4301023. ...
"Genetic markers for scoliosis are ID'd". Deseret News. 2008-09-14. Archived from the original on 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2009-10- ... Axial Biotech performed a genome-wide association study, testing millions of genetic markers to find any associated with ... Researchers at Axial Biotech identified 53 genetic markers (28 which, when positive, contribute to the progression of the ... The ScoliScore test was developed around these 53 markers. ScoliScore AIS Prognostic Test is a genetic test that analyzes the ...
Drewnowski, Adam; Henderson, Susan Ahlstrom; Barratt-Fornell, Anne (2001). "Genetic taste markers and food preferences". Drug ... Subsequent work revealed that the ability to taste PTC was genetic. In the 1960s, Roland Fischer was the first to link the ... Dinehart, M.E.; Hayes, J.E.; Bartoshuk, L.M.; Lanier, S.L.; Duffy, V.B. (2006). "Bitter taste markers explain variability in ... Knox, Richard (16 June 2010). "For Supertasters, A Desire For Salt Is Genetic". NPR.org. Retrieved 2020-06-04. "PTC the ...
Mourant AE (1977). "The genetic markers of the blood". In Harrison GA (ed.). Population Structure and Human Variation. ... Huang CH, Reid ME, Xie SS, Blumenfeld OO (May 1996). "Human red blood cell Wright antigens: a genetic and evolutionary ... Eriksson AW, Lehmann W, Simpson NE (1980). "Genetic Studies on circumpolar populations". In Milan FA (ed.). The Human Biology ... a genetic characteristic of early immigrants to South America". Science. 134 (3485): 1077-8. Bibcode:1961Sci...134.1077L. doi: ...
... but found no genetic markers in Ashkenazi Jews that would link them to peoples of the Caucasus/Khazar area. This and other ... published a genetic study that came up with the conclusion that there isn't genetic evidence for the Khazar origin of Ashkenazi ... Genetic history of Europe Genetic studies on Turkish people History of the Jews in Turkey Japanese-Jewish common ancestry ... "Genetic markers cannot determine Jewish descent". Frontiers in Genetics; 5: 462, online 21 January 2015 Gershowitz, Martin (16 ...
"Genetic markers cannot determine Jewish descent". Frontiers in Genetics. 2014, 5: 462: 462. doi:10.3389/fgene.2014.00462. PMC ... Genetic studies on Jews Interfaith marriage in Judaism Who is a Jew? Reviewed by Louis Jacobs, [1] Originally published in ...
Ancestry informative markers have a number of applications in genetic research, forensics, and private industry. AIMs that ... NGS enables the study of genetic markers by isolating specific gene sequences. One such method for sequence extraction is the ... "Genome-wide genetic marker discovery and genotyping using next-generation sequencing". Nature Reviews Genetics. 12 (7): 499-510 ... "Exploration of the utility of ancestry informative markers for genetic association studies of African Americans with type 2 ...
Genetic markers allow us to track genes. Eventually, biologists found the CAG chemical phrase on human Chromosome 4 responsible ... The book chronicles the history of the gene and genetic research, all the way from Aristotle to Crick, Watson and Franklin and ... However, it is also a cautionary message toward not letting genetic predispositions define a person or their fate, a mentality ... The girls are safe, healthy." He had performed pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). His competitor peers had hostile ...
Palo JU, Ulmanen I, Lukka M, Ellonen P, Sajantila A (April 2009). "Genetic markers and population history: Finland revisited". ... The majority of genetic diseases reported in Finland are not part of the Finnish disease heritage and their prevalence is not ... The diseases are not restricted to Finns; they are genetic diseases with far wider distribution in the world, but due to ... Some genetic diseases are disproportionately rare in Finns. These include cystic fibrosis and phenylketonuria. In Finland, ...
2019 identify a KASP genetic marker for a pore-forming toxin-like gene providing FHB resistance. Because wheat self-pollinates ... European Community, Community Research and Development Information Service (CORDIS) (24 February 2016). "Genetic markers signal ... Genetic analysis of wild einkorn wheat suggests that it was first grown in the Karacadaǧ Mountains in southeastern Turkey. ... The development of genetic assays which can distinguish the small differences between cultivars is allowing that question to be ...
December 1986). "Biology of the People of Sikkim, India: 1. Studies on the Variability of Genetic Markers". Zeitschrift für ... April 1992). "Genetic structure of the population of Sicily". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 87 (4): 395-406. doi: ... December 1987). "Genetic variation of five blood group polymorphisms in ten populations of Assam, India". International Journal ... He also did research on the Indian peoples' genetic variability with respect to the country's ethno-social, regional, and ...
Sporikova Z, Koudelakova V, Trojanec R, Hajduch M (October 2018). "Genetic Markers in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer". Clinical ... August 2014). "Development and validation of a new algorithm for the reclassification of genetic variants identified in the ... Stevens KN, Vachon CM, Couch FJ (2013). "Genetic susceptibility to triple-negative breast cancer". Cancer Research. 73 (7): ...
"Early genetic markers of Alzheimer's risk identified". BBC News. April 5, 2013. Retrieved July 16, 2016. AP via The Washington ... University scientists announce in a study published in the journal Neuron that they have identified a number of genetic markers ...
Chen, K. H.; Cann, H.; Chen, T. C.; Van West, B.; Cavalli-Sforza, L. (1985). "Genetic markers of an aboriginal Taiwanese ... Genetic studies have also found similarities between the Atayal and other people in the Philippines and Thailand, and to a ... However, genetic analysis suggests that the different peoples may have different ancestral source populations originating in ... Chow, Rachel A.; Caeiro, Jose L.; Chen, Shu-Juo; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph L.; Herrera, Rene J. (2005). "Genetic Characterization ...
"Early genetic markers of Alzheimer's risk identified". BBC. 4 April 2013. Retrieved 4 April 2013. Angela Stark (4 April 2013 ... American scientists announce that they have identified a number of genetic markers that are associated with an increased risk ... 21 May Genetic samples from a museum specimen have revealed the pathogen that caused the 19th-century Great Famine of Ireland. ... A new genetic analysis shows that the first rapid population growth of humans occurred in the Paleolithic (60,000-80,000 years ...
... genetic characterization by microsatellite markers. Italian Journal of Animal Science 2: 223-230. Documentary on Pentro Horse ... G. Cicia, E. D'Ercole, D. Marino (2003). Costs and benefits of preserving farm animal genetic resources from extinction: CVM ...
This was demonstrated using highly variable genetic markers. Sperm was also found stored in the spermathecas of queens. Sexual ... However, antibiotic assays and genetic screenings suggest that it is not an endosymbiont such as Wolbachia causing the ... "Cryptic sexual populations account for genetic diversity and ecological success in a widely distributed, asexual fungus-growing ... reproduction was suggested as a mechanism for maintaining the genetic diversity seen in this species. In summary, M. smithii is ...
1967 Genetic markers as tracers in cell culture. Nat Cancer Inst Monogr 26: 167-195 Gartler, SM. 1968 Apparent HeLa cell ... Since the use of genetic markers to characterize and distinguish cell lines at the time was virtually non-existent, ... Cross culture contamination is now a generally accepted risk, and there are many genetic markers available to accurately ... Examining isoenzymes, he typed them for a number of genetic polymorphisms, including the X linked G6PD variant. The cell lines ...
"Genetic markers for testosterone, estrogen level regulation identified". ScienceDaily. (CS1 Swiss High German-language sources ...
Holzman, Philip S. (1992). "Behavioral markers of schizophrenia useful for genetic studies". Journal of Psychiatric Research. ... He was one of the first to investigate the genetic basis of schizophrenia. Another key contribution to the study of ...
Initially PCA was used on allele frequencies at known genetic markers for populations, though later it was found that by coding ... It is also possible to use unlinked genetic markers to estimate each individual's ancestry proportions from some K ... Jombart T, Pontier D, Dufour AB (April 2009). "Genetic markers in the playground of multivariate analysis". Heredity (Edinb). ... Pritchard JK, Rosenberg NA (July 1999). "Use of unlinked genetic markers to detect population stratification in association ...
... landraces assessed by microsatellite markers and morphological analysis". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 63 (5): 801-811 ... There are 564 landraces and 203 cultivars of red oats listed in the European Plant Genetic Resources Search Catalogue (EURISCO ... Boczkowska, Maja; Podyma, Wiesław; Łapiński, Bogusław (2016). "Oat". Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals ... Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Bladenopoulos, Konstantinos; Katsiotis, Andreas (2016). "Structural patterns and genetic diversity ...
Genetic factors also contribute to cervical cancer risk. Cervical cancer typically develops from precancerous changes over 10 ... Bosch FX, de Sanjosé S (2007). "The epidemiology of human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer". Disease Markers. 23 (4 ...
Soft markers are variations from normal anatomy, which are more common in aneuploid fetuses compared to euploid ones. These ... the ISUOG recommends that pregnant patients who desire genetic testing have obstetric ultrasounds between 11 weeks' and 13 ... Second-trimester ultrasound screening for aneuploidies is based on looking for soft markers and some predefined structural ... Zare Mehrjardi, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Elham (2017-04-16). "Prefrontal Space Ratio-A Novel Ultrasound Marker in the Second ...
In this case, the use of the same-subject marker gɔ rather than the switch-reference marker nɔ indicates that the two subjects ... 1983). "Typological and Genetic Notes on Switch-Reference in North American Languages". In Haiman and Munro. Mithun, Marianne ( ... For instance, a switch-reference marker might mark a different subject and sequential events. Switch-reference markers often ... When the subject of one verb is the same as the subject of the following verb, the verb takes no switch-reference marker. ...
US law Qalipu First Nation While there are some genetic markers that are more common among Native Americans, these markers are ... Brett Lee Shelton, J. D.; Jonathan Marks (2008). "Genetic Markers Not a Valid Test of Native Identity". Counsel for Responsible ... a genetic marker does not make a person Indigenous. Isai, Vjosa (October 15, 2022). "Doubts Over Indigenous Identity in ... While a DNA test may bring up some markers associated with some Indigenous or Asian populations (and the science there is ...
In "Dimension Jump" (1991), a Kochanski from a dimension where Lister is more successful is mentioned but not seen as being ... Lister also realises that the in-vitro tube with Kochanski and Lister's genetic information is Lister himself, creating a ... Kochanski then temporarily stops Lister's heart, and tricks the virus into jumping to Caroline's arm, which Kochanski had ... Grant, Rob; Naylor, Doug (writers); Bye, Ed (director) (14 March 1991). "Dimension Jump". Red Dwarf. Series IV. Episode 5. BBC ...
... gains of genetic material in the p (or short) arm of chromosome 16, and gains of genetic material in the q arm of chromosome 1 ... cytokeratin 5/6 antibodies that detect two markers of myoepithelial cells, cytokeratin 5 and keratin 6A); 3) the presence of a ... No specific genetic alterations have been as yet been clearly associated with the tumor cells in individuals diagnosed with IPC ... analyses studies have reported that EPS tumor cells in some individuals have copy number variations such as loses of genetic ...
Gurling H, Pimm J, McQuillin A (January 2007). "Replication of genetic association studies between markers at the Epsin 4 gene ... Liou YJ, Lai IC, Wang YC, Bai YM, Lin CC, Lin CY, Chen TT, Chen JY (June 2006). "Genetic analysis of the human ENTH (Epsin 4) ... The CLINT1 gene has been shown to be involved in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia in four studies It is known that the ... is involved in the genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 76 (5): 902-7. doi:10.1086/430095. PMC 1199380 ...
Therefore, jumping from one part of the string to another would allow someone to travel back and forth within his own lifetime ... The explanation was that the simo-leap with Al had left Sam with enough of Al's genetic coding that he could leap back past his ... In the fifth-season episode "Trilogy (Part 2)," Sam fathers a child who proves to be his true genetic child, not the child of ... the explanation was that Sam's close genetic link with his ancestor allowed him to do this. This was also partly due to an " ...
A sample of encapsulated inments from a close genetic relative of H. salinarum is estimated to be 121 million years old[ ... "Homologous gene knockout in the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum with ura3 as a counterselectable marker". Molecular ... Scientists have previously recovered similar genetic material from the Michigan Basin,[clarification needed] the same region ...
Rioja-Mazza D, Lieber E, Kamath V, Kalpatthi R (2005). "Asymmetric crying facies: A possible marker for congenital ... Genetic disorder stubs). ...
It was found that the UK population displays lower levels of genetic diversity, and that there is genetic differentiation ... They run with rabbit-like jumps.[citation needed] In the groin of each leg is an inguinal gland used for scent marking; this ... Chinese population and the introduced UK population was analysed to infer each population's genetic structure and genetic ...
... thereby jump-starting the field of genetic engineering. By 1969, he performed studies on a couple of restriction enzymes of the ... The Boom In Genetic Engineering: Genentech's Herbert Boyer". Time. February 9, 2002. Cover. Retrieved May 7, 2019. Itakura, K; ...
also showed that UV-irradiation increased the frequency of recombination due to genetic exchange in S. acidocaldarius. Frols et ... showed that UV-induced cellular aggregation mediates chromosomal marker exchange with high frequency in S. acidocaldarius. ... Wood ER; Ghané F; Grogan DW (September 1997). "Genetic responses of the thermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius to ...
Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium; Genetic Risk Outcome of Psychosis (GROUP) Consortium (2013). " ... expressed early in mouse embryonic development and is thought to maintain the expression of undifferentiated ESC markers. By ...
They encountered Malcolm Merlyn (who will join to them 8 years later) and Darius when searching for Ashkiri marker (in fact, ... Respawn - A clone created with the genetic material of Deathstroke and Talia al Ghul. After escaping torture and captivity at ...
C M Thomas, and C A Smith: "Incompatibility Group P Plasmids: Genetics, Evolution, and Use in Genetic Manipulation", Annual ... leaving only genes essential for replication and one or more selectable markers. One such "mini-replicon" is the plasmid PFF1, ... An increase in copy number is useful for genetic engineering applications to increase the production yield of recombinant ... which makes it suitable as a genetic engineering tool. It is capable of transfer, replication, and maintenance in most genera ...
... for routine genetic analysis with modern equipment designed to generate genetic information from microsatellite markers, and ... Genetic information will be used to develop strategies for ensuring that genetic diversity is maintained in captive stocks, and ... Dexter's long-term goals for the Conservation Genetics program is to use the laboratory to address genetic components of multi ... Fish from each spawn will be taken and held at the station for future broodstock, ensuring genetic diversity. Different pairs ...
June 1998). "Genetic relationship of Prunus yedoensis, native and cultivar, based on internal transcribed spacer sequences of ... analyzed king cherry and Yoshino cherry with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and sequence analysis of two ... reported that the Sequence-level comparison of Prunus Conserved Orthologous Gene Set (Prunus COS) markers suggested that king ... using four different Rosaceae Conserved Orthologous Set (RosCOS) markers, provided evidence that king cherry originated from ...
Since animal mtDNA evolves faster than nuclear genetic markers, it represents a mainstay of phylogenetics and evolutionary ... Once, there was thought to be a positive feedback loop at work (a 'Vicious Cycle'); as mitochondrial DNA accumulates genetic ... The DNA oxidation product 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is a well-established marker of oxidative DNA damage. In persons with ... The rapid mutation rate (in animals) makes mtDNA useful for assessing genetic relationships of individuals or groups within a ...
Concerned about the risk of transmitting genetic male infertility or other genetic issues to offspring with the use of modern ... Through his published work, he is a proponent of the theory that male infertility is an early marker for other diseases that ... PROGENI's methodology is based on the classic genetic counseling philosophy that advocates non-prescriptive testing for genetic ... Compound Genetic Defects as a Cause of Male Infertility. Human Reproduction. 15: 449-51, 2000 , Cayan S, Erdemir F, Ozbey I, ...
Cakmak, I. (2008). "Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification?". Plant Soil. 302 (1-2): 1-17 ... Int J Biol Markers. 18 (3): 162-169. doi:10.1177/172460080301800302. PMID 14535585. Theocharis SE, Margeli AP, Klijanienko JT, ...
The full list of case markers is shown below. Note that there are two accusative case markers. Accusative 2 typically is used ... While there have been previous claims of genetic ties or language contact of Aʼingae to Barbacoan, Chicham, and Chibchan, it ... with no known genetic relatives. Although still robustly learned by children in Ecuadorian communities, it is considered an ' ... Case markers are constituent-level clitics. Tayupija tayupi=ja former=CNTR charapa charapa charapa.turtle dû'sûchuve dû'sûche= ...
The gene pool of Ukrainians revealed by different systems of genetic markers: the origin and statement in Europe] (PhD) (in ... 2015) Origin hypotheses of the Serbs Genetic studies on Croats Genetic studies on Bosniaks Genetic studies on Bulgarians Y-DNA ... September 2011). "Genetic variation in the Sorbs of eastern Germany in the context of broader European genetic diversity". ... This distinction could be explained by a genetic contribution of pre-Slavic Balkan populations to the genetic heritage of some ...
Schulte PA; Lomax GP; Ward EM; Colligan MJ (August 1999). "Ethical issues in the use of genetic markers in occupational ... Current genetic testing guidelines supported by the health care professionals discourage purely predictive genetic testing of ... The grim prospect of discrimination based on a person's genetic make-up can lead to a "genetic underclass" which does not ... Myriad Genetics is already generating revenue from genetic tests for BRCA1 and BRCA2. Aside from genetic testing, predictive ...
Archaeological and genetic data suggest that the source populations of Paleolithic humans survived in sparsely-wooded areas and ... and other El Niño markers. The Paleolithic is often held to finish at the end of the ice age (the end of the Pleistocene epoch ... According to current archaeological and genetic models, there were at least two notable expansion events subsequent to peopling ...
The character was originally introduced as Big Boss (ビッグ・ボス, Biggu Bosu), the genetic father of Solid Snake, Liquid Snake and ... and also climb and jump around in trees with ease. He uses two crossbows in battle, the Little Joe and the William Tell, ... "genetic destiny" from Big Boss. The character's young iteration is one of the main antagonists of Metal Gear Solid V: The ... though Paz was not aware of this when she jumped from the helicopter, and the explosion was actually caused by an enemy rocket ...
Chen, Shu-Juo (2009). How Han are Taiwanese Han? Genetic inference of Plains Indigenous ancestry among Taiwanese Han and its ... In time, this migration and the gradual removal of ethnic markers (coupled with the acculturation, intermarriage and ... found that the Taiwanese Han shared a common genetic background with Han Chinese populations worldwide but were quite distant ... However, this study was criticised by other researchers and refuted by subsequent genetic studies. Not long after Lin's 2007 ...
O'Donald, Peter (1980). Genetic Models of Sexual Selection. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521225335. Kokko, H.; Jennions ... suggesting that male elaborations might serve as a marker of health, by exaggerating the effects of disease and deficiency. ... Long-tailed widowbird offspring of both sexes inherit both sets of genes, with females expressing their genetic preference for ... Newcomer, Scott D.; Zeh, Jeanne A.; Zeh, David W. (31 August 1999). "Genetic benefits enhance the reproductive success of ...
... assessed by simple sequence repeat markers". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 66 (1): 17-25. doi:10.1007/s10722-018-0692-8 ... Tanhuanpää, Pirjo; Suojala-Ahlfors, Terhi & Hartikainen, Merja (2019). "Genetic diversity of Finnish home garden rhubarbs ( ...
... markers DXS6807, DXS8378, DXS9895, DXS9902, DXS6810, DXS7132, DXS981, DXS6800, DXS9898, DXS6789, DXS101, DXS6797, GATA172D05, ... The population genetic data of 18 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) ... Genetic analysis of 18 X-linked short tandem repeat markers in Korean population Forensic Sci Int. 2005 Jan 6;147(1):35-41. doi ... The population genetic data of 18 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers DXS6807, DXS8378, DXS9895, DXS9902, DXS6810, ...
Health aspects of marker genes in genetically modified plants : report of a WHO workshop  ... WHO Workshop on Health Aspects of the Use of Marker Genes in Plants and Possibilities of their Use in Identification and ... Browsing Technical Documents by Subject "Genetic Markers". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. ...
Theres also research finding that genetic material attributed to Neanderthals also appears to be linked to a much higher need ... Under a new theory, modern mans interbreeding with Neanderthals may have left certain populations with a genetic ... that the homo sapiens who migrated out of Africa and interbred with Neanderthals around 100,000 years ago inherited a genetic ...
2011/7th European Symposium on Poultry Genetics, Peebles Hydro, near Edinburgh, Scotland, 5-7 October 2011/20_adebambo_genetics_2011.pdf ...
... the genetic diversity and relationships within accessions were studied using AFLP markers. This characterization using both ... germplasm from Côte dIvoire using agromorphological and molecular markers. Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and ... From the accessions used for the agromorphological study, 148 were able to be differentiated by the AFLP markers. A range of 52 ... Genetic characterization of oleaginous bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) germplasm from Côte dIvoire using agromorphological ...
... Show full item record ... Genetic Markers Enhance Coronary Risk Prediction in Men: The MORGAM Prospective Cohorts. ... Genetic Markers Enhance Coronary Risk Prediction in Men: The MORGAM Prospective Cohorts. ... Genetic Markers Enhance Coronary Risk Prediction in Men: The MORGAM Prospective Cohorts , PLoS One , vol. 7 , no. 7 , pp. ...
Molecular genetic markers are a possibility to detect relationships between species, populations, variants or even individuals ... Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a widely used type of genetic markers. They are applied e.g. to distinguish between ... Therefore, different analytical goals require different types of genetic markers.. Within our group, we work mostly on SNP ( ... An other type of commonly used genetic markers are microsatellites. Microsatellites are short fragments of DNA (mostly up to ...
You Can Test Your Pups DNA For Genetic Markers With A $95 Orivet DNA Kit ... You Can Test Your Pups DNA For Genetic Markers With A $95 Orivet DNA Kit. ... Genetic testing is incredibly popular in the U.S., where many Americans ponder the roots of their ancestry. With a simple cheek ... swab, you can learn where your ancestors lived thousands of years ago, as well as which genetic conditions you may be ...
This location is close to that of pdxA, the first pdx marker in S. coelicolor A3(2) identified and mapped genetically in Sir ... and is a marker for the genetically mapped cluster of genes associated with chloramphenicol biosynthesis. A gene regulating ... The pdx genetic marker adjacent to the chloramphenicol biosynthesis gene cluster in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: functional ... The pdx genetic marker adjacent to the chloramphenicol biosynthesis gene cluster in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: functional ...
Genetic markers. Other potential risk factors for developing CAD have yet to be defined. However, as data are deciphered from ... What is the role of genetic markers in stratifying risk for coronary artery disease? ... 6] and other markers of inflammation have all been widely reported to contribute to the development of CAD. ... What is the role of biomarkers markers in stratifying risk for coronary artery disease? ...
... catalogue of mapped genes and other markers.Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ (1)Call number: QH 447 91FR. ... GENATLAS : un catalogue de la carte des gènes = a catalogue of mapped genes and other markers / Jean Frézal, Marie-Sophie Baule ...
NIDA (3/22) , By combing through genomic data of over 1 million people, scientists have identified genes commonly inherited across addiction disorders, regardless of the substance being used. This dataset - one of the largest of its kind - may help reveal new treatment targets across multiple substance use disorders, including for people diagnosed with more than one. The findings also reinforce the role of the dopamine system in addiction, by showing that the combination of genes underlying addiction disorders was also associated with regulation of dopamine signaling. Cont. ...
Key diagnostic markers for autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with molecular genetic diagnosis.. Molnár, Emese; Radwan, ... Genetic analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing. Clinical background data were collected from patients records. ... Lymphoproliferation, apoptosis functional test, and DNTs are the most sensitive markers; elevated IL-10 and IL-18 are ... and molecular genetic results of 215 patients referred as possibly having ALPS. Double-negative T-cell (DNT) percentage and in ...
Genetic markers and breast cancer: Q&A with Dr Zdenko Herceg. Dr Zdenko Herceg, Head of the Epigenetics Group at the ... www.iarc.who.int/news-events/genetic-markers-and-breast-cancer-qa-with-dr-zdenko-herceg/ ...
Return to Article Details Potential of Microsatellites Markers for the Genetic Analysis of Bryophytes Download Download PDF ...
The level of genetic diversity was estimated in a local population of Colorado potato beetle using ISSR-markers and specific ... Detection of intrapopulation genetic variation of leptinotarsa decemlineata (say) using issr-markers and phenoforms. Berezovska ... Berezovska O.P., Podolich O.V., Sidorenko A.P. Detection of intrapopulation genetic variation of leptinotarsa decemlineata (say ... The results also show the difference in the level of genetic diversity of females comparing to males.. Tsitologiya i Genetika ...
Genetic Markers Still Influence Testosterone Levels. Genes likely play a part in an individuals testosterone level, says Magid ... "There is a good amount of evidence that testosterone levels within populations do correlate with some genetic markers, and ...
Molecular Identification, Genetic Relationships and Development of DNA Markers of Spirogyra spp. ... This study was aimed to investigate the molecular identification, genetic relationships and development of DNA markers of ... In addition, DNA markers of 36 Spirogyra specimens were investigated using 10 ISSR primers (UBC 809, UBC 826, UBC 835, UBC 808 ... which DNA sequences of rbcL gene could use as DNA markers of Spirogyra spp. The DNA sequences of the ITS 2 region of 5 patterns ...
Genetic markers for virulence absent. Genetic markers for virulence present. Animal models, evaluation of morbidity and ... Genetic markers for transmissibility absent. Genetic markers for transmissibility present. Animal models, transmission studies ...
Genetic markers. ctxB7, tcpACIRS101, VSP-IIΔ‡. AMR profile, antimicrobial drug (MIC)†. ...
To identify microsatellite markers associated with wheat grain iron content,38Iranian prevalent wheat genotypes were assessed ... The results of this research can be used in further studies and marker assisted breeding of wheat to increase grain iron ... The stepwise regression analysis has been used for estimating the relationship between microsatellite markers and grain iron ... using 30 pairs of genomic and EST microsatellite markers. Based on field experiments, significant difference was observed among ...
Genes Are Prognostic Markers of Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality ... Genetic Variants in the ,i,LEPR,/i,, ,i,CRY1,/i,, ,i,RNASEL,/i,, ,i,IL4,/i,, and ,i,ARVCF,/i, ... Genetic Variants in the LEPR, CRY1, RNASEL, IL4, and ARVCF Genes Are Prognostic Markers of Prostate Cancer-Specific Mortality. ... CONCLUSION: Five genetic markers were validated to be associated with lethal prostate cancer. ...
However, this association may be dependent on the marker of kidney function used, and studies assessing modification by ... Interaction between kidney function markers and a polygenic risk score for general cognitive function was also assessed. ... but this may depend on genetic risk. Cystatin C-based eGFR may better predict cognitive performance than creatinine-based ... Post quality control, genetic data is available for 488,377 subjects on 805,426 genetic markers and 92,693,895 imputed variants ...
The highest genetic similarity coefficient (0.56) was observed between group I accessions BGFAB6 and BGFAB9 and BGFAB 7 and ... The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic similarities of ten accessions of P. moniliformis available in the active ... However, the scarcity of information regarding genetic variability within the species limits its possible exploitation as an ... The results revealed that genetic variability is present in the accessions of P. moniliformis. ...
... markers. Out of 22 screened UBC primers set No. 9, ten primers amplified a total of 27 loci with 23 be polymorphic (85.19 %). ... The study of genetic diversity in different Jatropha curcas L. accessions cultivated in Taiwan comprises a necessary first step ... Genetic variations of 78 Jatropha curcas L. accessions representing origin of eight countries, cultivated in two locations in ... Genetic diversity analysis of Jatropha curcas L. accessions cultivated in Taiwan using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) ...
Cross-species testing of nuclear markers in Pelophylax water frogs in Greece and examination of their power to detect genetic ... Cross-species testing of nuclear markers in Pelophylax water frogs in Greece and examination of their power to detect genetic ... Using genetic data from populations among species inhabiting contact zones could prove vital in filling these gaps. We tested ... We suggest their future use in genetic studies for the genus Pelophylax in Greece, including the identification of contact ...
... a few of SSR markers gene-associated markers, for example, LEaat002 and LEaat008 markers are related to MEIS1 Transcription ... the SSR LEga003 marker was related to the Carbonic anhydrase gene (Solyc09g010970). The genetic variation of tomato landraces ... High genetic diversity was detected (0.998) based on the average polymorphism information. Therefore, the used SSRs in the ... Furthermore, the landraces were also genetically characterized using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The studied ...
Assessment of genetic diversity revealed by morphological traits and ISSR markers in hazelnut germplasm (Corylus avellana L.) ... is very rich in hazelnut genetic resources. This study aims to assess phenotypic variation in nut traits and genetic diversity ... Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, vol.70, no.2, pp.525-537, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) ... Journal Name: Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution * Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, ...
The inducible chemical-genetic fluorescent marker FAST outperforms classical fluorescent proteins in the quantitative reporting ...
The RAPD data was analyzed to determine the genetic similarity coefficients which ranged from 0.46 to 0.81. Cluster analysis ... The RAPD data was analyzed to determine the genetic similarity coefficients which ranged from 0.46 to 0.81. Cluster analysis ... The genetic diversity in 26 selected cultivars of rice, Oryza sativa L. using 20 decamer random primers. Out of 20, 15 ... The genetic diversity in 26 selected cultivars of rice, Oryza sativa L. using 20 decamer random primers. Out of 20, 15 RAPD ...
  • Within our group, we work mostly on SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) and microsatellite markers, analyzing relationships between different inbred lines (in maize) as well as between different species. (uni-bonn.de)
  • To identify microsatellite markers associated with wheat grain iron content,38Iranian prevalent wheat genotypes were assessed using 30 pairs of genomic and EST microsatellite markers. (jpmb-gabit.ir)
  • The stepwise regression analysis has been used for estimating the relationship between microsatellite markers and grain iron content. (jpmb-gabit.ir)
  • We tested 17 microsatellite markers for cross-species amplification in mainland Pelophylax species distributed in southern Balkans and evaluated their power to successfully detect population/species structure. (figshare.com)
  • The pdx-4 mutation in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230 confers a growth requirement for pyridoxal (pdx) and is a marker for the genetically mapped cluster of genes associated with chloramphenicol biosynthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • GENATLAS : un catalogue de la carte des gènes = a catalogue of mapped genes and other markers / Jean Frézal, Marie-Sophie Baule, Thérèse de Fougerolle. (who.int)
  • catalogue of mapped genes and other markers. (who.int)
  • Antimicrobial resistance occurs through different mechanisms, which include spontaneous (natural) genetic mutations and horizontal transfer of resistant genes through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (who.int)
  • Among the 15 genes chosen for the examine of variety, solely 7 genes (sbp-2, sbp-4, lure, msa-1, msa-2b, msa-2c, Bv80) and the ITS area introduced ample genetic variation for the research of phylogeny. (ja-tec.com)
  • Association of Genetic Polymorphisms on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Receptor Genes with Susceptibility to Coronary Heart Disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Isoenzymes and molecular markers were used to analyse field isolates of P. falciparum and P. vivax. (who.int)
  • Study supports the feasibility of using molecular markers for the identification of recrudescence in P. falciparum from fresh infection. (who.int)
  • Use of molecular markers can help to understand the genetic diversity of Babesia bovis. (ja-tec.com)
  • Despite this genetic variety noticed into teams, there was not ample info obtainable to affiliate molecular markers with virulence of isolates. (ja-tec.com)
  • The level of genetic diversity was estimated in a local population of Colorado potato beetle using ISSR-markers and specific pronotum patterns. (cytgen.com)
  • Berezovska O.P., Podolich O.V., Sidorenko A.P. Detection of intrapopulation genetic variation of leptinotarsa decemlineata (say) using issr-markers and phenoforms, Tsitol Genet. (cytgen.com)
  • Genetic variations of 78 Jatropha curcas L. accessions representing origin of eight countries, cultivated in two locations in Taiwan were determined using inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) markers. (gov.tw)
  • We then performed genome-wide mapping of the IL1beta results and found a significant marker (quantitative trait locus) on distal chromosome 7. (cdc.gov)
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic similarities of ten accessions of P . moniliformis available in the active germplasm collection of Embrapa Meio-Norte, using the RAPD markers to select those most suitable for cultivation and/or plant breeding. (geneticsmr.com)
  • The study of genetic diversity in different Jatropha curcas L. accessions cultivated in Taiwan comprises a necessary first step in germplasm evaluation towards improving this plant species. (gov.tw)
  • Molecular genetic markers are a possibility to detect relationships between species, populations, variants or even individuals. (uni-bonn.de)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Markers for population genetic analysis of human plasmodia species, P. falciparum and P. vivax. (who.int)
  • Joshi H. Markers for population genetic analysis of human plasmodia species, P. falciparum and P. vivax. (who.int)
  • However, the scarcity of information regarding genetic variability within the species limits its possible exploitation as an animal forage. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Using genetic data from populations among species inhabiting contact zones could prove vital in filling these gaps. (figshare.com)
  • Finally, a thorough genetic marker discovery pipeline led to the retrieval of 85,189 SNPs and 29,076 microsatellites enriching the available genetic markers for this species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We obtained a nearly complete source of transcriptomic sequence as well as marker information for sharpsnout seabream, laying the ground for understanding the complex process of sex differentiation of this economically valuable species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Present report deals with the genetic diversity existing among the field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in India. (who.int)
  • With a WGS file upload and a few clicks of a mouse, public health scientists are minutes away from an easy-to-read report that summarizes information about the isolates in question, including sequence type and genetic mutations associated with reduced antibiotic susceptibility - the information they need to monitor locally circulating strains and to detect emerging resistant gonorrhea and potential transmission clusters. (cdc.gov)
  • However, this association may be dependent on the marker of kidney function used, and studies assessing modification by genetics are lacking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Under a new theory, modern man's interbreeding with Neanderthals may have left certain populations with a genetic predisposition for contracting COVID in a way that defied initial expectations. (nationalcenter.org)
  • Although the grouping was not related to cultivation locations, there was close genetic relationship among the Jatropha populations. (gov.tw)
  • Comparison of genetic distances revealed a pattern closer to the Caucasoid population than to the Mongoloid, Oriental or Black populations. (who.int)
  • La comparaison des distances génétiques a mis en évidence un schéma plus proche de la population caucasienne que des populations mongoliennes, orientales ou afro-américaines. (who.int)
  • An other type of commonly used genetic markers are microsatellites. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Then, the genetic diversity and relationships within accessions were studied using AFLP markers. (cipotato.org)
  • From the accessions used for the agromorphological study, 148 were able to be differentiated by the AFLP markers. (cipotato.org)
  • The highest genetic similarity coefficient (0.56) was observed between group I accessions BGFAB6 and BGFAB9 and BGFAB 7 and BGFAB 8, while the lowest coefficient (0.11) was observed between accessions BGFAB3 (group IV) and BGFAB10 (group III). (geneticsmr.com)
  • The results revealed that genetic variability is present in the accessions of P . moniliformis . (geneticsmr.com)
  • This characterization using both morphological and AFLP markers was realized in order to ultimately build a reliable core collection. (cipotato.org)
  • They also created a tool that will allow public health laboratories to analyze their own Ng samples for genomic markers of antimicrobial resistance. (cdc.gov)
  • The RAPD data was analyzed to determine the genetic similarity coefficients which ranged from 0.46 to 0.81. (ijcmas.com)
  • Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a widely used type of genetic markers. (uni-bonn.de)
  • The pdx genetic marker adjacent to the chloramphenicol biosynthesis gene cluster in Streptomyces venezuelae ISP5230: functional characterizationThe GenBank accession number for the sequence reported in this paper is AF286159. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The sequences data of Pattern 1 revealed definitive identity matches in the range of 99% for consensus sequences of S. ellipsospora Kütz, while Pattern 3 indicated definitive identity matches in the range only 93% with S. neglecta Kütz, which DNA sequences of rbcL gene could use as DNA markers of Spirogyra spp. (cmu.ac.th)
  • This is the first population-based study to show that germline genetic variants provide prognostic information for prostate cancer-specific survival. (edu.au)
  • Being difficult to regenerate and maintain the seeds, the oleaginous bottle gourd was investigated using nine agromorphological traits and 31 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. (cipotato.org)
  • This location is close to that of pdxA , the first pdx marker in S. coelicolor A3(2) identified and mapped genetically in Sir David Hopwood's laboratory. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • the combination of an abnormal in vitro apoptosis functional test and elevated sFASLs was a predictive marker for ALPS-FAS group identification . (bvsalud.org)
  • CMU Intellectual Repository: Molecular Identification, Genetic Relationships and Development of DNA Markers of Spirogyra spp. (cmu.ac.th)
  • This study was aimed to investigate the molecular identification, genetic relationships and development of DNA markers of Spirogyra spp. (cmu.ac.th)
  • We suggest their future use in genetic studies for the genus Pelophylax in Greece , including the identification of contact zones. (figshare.com)
  • The JAK2 genetic marker occurs in more than 95% of PV patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic analysis was performed by next-generation sequencing . (bvsalud.org)
  • Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Identifying the Different Molecular Genetic Markers Related to Production Performance and Meat Quality in Longissimus Dorsi Tissues of MG × STH and STH Sheep. (ja-tec.com)
  • For most genetic disorders, genetic counseling is advised. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many experts believe people with PV and related blood disorders may test positive for the JAK2 marker for a number of years before ever exhibiting symptoms of PV. (cdc.gov)
  • Information on HLA antigens can be utilized to assess genetic risk in such disorders. (who.int)
  • The genetic diversity in 26 selected cultivars of rice, Oryza sativa L. using 20 decamer random primers. (ijcmas.com)
  • The chromosomes are made up of strands of genetic information called DNA. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This study evaluated the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and molecular genetic results of 215 patients referred as possibly having ALPS. (bvsalud.org)
  • A recent JASN paper discusses the possibility of using podocytes captured in the urine for genetic testing. (medscape.com)
  • Key diagnostic markers for autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with molecular genetic diagnosis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The results also show the difference in the level of genetic diversity of females comparing to males. (cytgen.com)
  • The results of this research can be used in further studies and marker assisted breeding of wheat to increase grain iron content. (jpmb-gabit.ir)
  • Studies have demonstrated the presence of podocyte protein markers in the urine of women with preeclampsia. (medscape.com)
  • These data help CDC track genetic markers of antibiotic resistance, and this information is then used to develop evidence-based treatment guidelines. (cdc.gov)
  • The exact test for genotype distribution of the markers showed no significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. (nih.gov)
  • Plant Genetic Resources: Characterization and Utilization. (cipotato.org)
  • Apart from the intriguing reproductive biology, it is economically important with a continuously growing aquaculture in the Mediterranean Sea, but limited available genetic resources. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In an academic paper, Bejan suggested that the homo sapiens who migrated out of Africa and interbred with Neanderthals around 100,000 years ago inherited a genetic predisposition to the coronavirus that is evident now. (nationalcenter.org)
  • A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event. (bvsalud.org)
  • To get an overview of the genetic toolkit deployed for the development and maintenance of the differences between sexes, whole-transcriptome approaches are required [ 24 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interaction between kidney function markers and a polygenic risk score for general cognitive function was also assessed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increased urine albumin is associated with worse cognition, but this may depend on genetic risk. (biomedcentral.com)
  • of multiple genetic, environmental, and behavioral influences making it possible to measure concentrations of several high- and (7). (cdc.gov)
  • of genetic, environmental, and behavioral interactions in adult- exposure to the causal agent and treatment with inhaled glucocorti- onset asthma (8). (cdc.gov)
  • With a simple cheek swab, you can learn where your ancestors lived thousands of years ago, as well as which genetic conditions you may be predisposed to later in life. (iflscience.com)
  • The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry has released its final report regarding the Community Health Screening for the JAK2 genetic marker. (cdc.gov)

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