The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The detection of RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS by selective PCR amplification of restriction fragments derived from genomic DNA followed by electrophoretic analysis of the amplified restriction fragments.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that contains dihydroayapin (COUMARINS) and phenanthraquinones.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
One of the two pairs of human chromosomes in the group B class (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 4-5).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP B CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A family composed of spouses and their children.
Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.
Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
The percent frequency with which a dominant or homozygous recessive gene or gene combination manifests itself in the phenotype of the carriers. (From Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed)
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
Mushrooms in the order AGARICALES containing B vitamins, cortinelin, and the polysaccharide LENTINAN.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of SPARTEINE, lupanine and other lupin alkaloids.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. The common name of white mustard sometimes refers to other plants (MUSTARD PLANT).
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Sesquiterpene lactone glucosides (SESQUITERPENES) have been found in it.
A plant genus of the family NELUMBONACEAE. The common name of lotus is also for LOTUS and NYMPHAEA.
A plant family of the order Gentianales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Common name for two families of FLATFISHES belonging to the order Pleuronectiformes: left-eye flounders (Bothidae) and right-eye flounders (Pleuronectidae). The latter is more commonly used in research.
A personality disorder characterized by the avoidance of accepting deserved blame and an unwarranted view of others as malevolent. The latter is expressed as suspiciousness, hypersensitivity, and mistrust.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.
A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A plant family of the order Lecythidales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida.
A specific pair of GROUP F CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Generalized or localized diffuse fibrous overgrowth of the gingival tissue, usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, but some cases are idiopathic and others produced by drugs. The enlarged gingiva is pink, firm, and has a leather-like consistency with a minutely pebbled surface and in severe cases the teeth are almost completely covered and the enlargement projects into the oral vestibule. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Form of epidermolysis bullosa characterized by atrophy of blistered areas, severe scarring, and nail changes. It is most often present at birth or in early infancy and occurs in both autosomal dominant and recessive forms. All forms of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa result from mutations in COLLAGEN TYPE VII, a major component fibrils of BASEMENT MEMBRANE and EPIDERMIS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.
Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A genus of basidiomycetous fungi, family POLYPORACEAE, order POLYPORALES, that grows on logs or tree stumps in shelflike layers. The species P. ostreatus, the oyster mushroom, is a choice edible species and is the most frequently encountered member of the genus in eastern North America. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, p531)
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.
An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).
A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.
A species of sheep, Ovis canadensis, characterized by massive brown horns. There are at least four subspecies and they are all endangered or threatened.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A characteristic symptom complex.
Tandem arrays of moderately repetitive, short (10-60 bases) DNA sequences which are found dispersed throughout the GENOME, at the ends of chromosomes (TELOMERES), and clustered near telomeres. Their degree of repetition is two to several hundred at each locus. Loci number in the thousands but each locus shows a distinctive repeat unit.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A form of congenital ichthyosis inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by ERYTHRODERMA and severe hyperkeratosis. It is manifested at birth by blisters followed by the appearance of thickened, horny, verruciform scales over the entire body, but accentuated in flexural areas. Mutations in the genes that encode KERATIN-1 and KERATIN-10 have been associated with this disorder.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Staining of bands, or chromosome segments, allowing the precise identification of individual chromosomes or parts of chromosomes. Applications include the determination of chromosome rearrangements in malformation syndromes and cancer, the chemistry of chromosome segments, chromosome changes during evolution, and, in conjunction with cell hybridization studies, chromosome mapping.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A group of autosomal dominant diseases characterized by the combined occurrence of tumors involving two or more ENDOCRINE GLANDS that secrete PEPTIDE HORMONES or AMINES. These neoplasias are often benign but can be malignant. They are classified by the endocrine glands involved and the degree of aggressiveness. The two major forms are MEN1 and MEN2 with gene mutations on CHROMOSOME 11 and CHROMOSOME 10, respectively.
Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.
A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
An autosomal dominant inherited disorder (with a high frequency of spontaneous mutations) that features developmental changes in the nervous system, muscles, bones, and skin, most notably in tissue derived from the embryonic NEURAL CREST. Multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions and subcutaneous tumors are the hallmark of this disease. Peripheral and central nervous system neoplasms occur frequently, especially OPTIC NERVE GLIOMA and NEUROFIBROSARCOMA. NF1 is caused by mutations which inactivate the NF1 gene (GENES, NEUROFIBROMATOSIS 1) on chromosome 17q. The incidence of learning disabilities is also elevated in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1014-18) There is overlap of clinical features with NOONAN SYNDROME in a syndrome called neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome. Both the PTPN11 and NF1 gene products are involved in the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway of Ras (RAS PROTEINS).
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Chromosomes in which fragments of exogenous DNA ranging in length up to several hundred kilobase pairs have been cloned into yeast through ligation to vector sequences. These artificial chromosomes are used extensively in molecular biology for the construction of comprehensive genomic libraries of higher organisms.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.

Linkage and gene localization of hereditary spherocytosis (HS). (1/10869)

Fifteen kindreds with dominant hereditary spherocytosis (HS) were studied. Expansion of the data from a family with an 8/12 translocation provided further evidence that at least one locus for HS is located near the breakpoint of the translocation. Linkage analysis of all families showed a lack of linkage with all marker loci studied except for Gm (IgG). Linkage between Gm and HS was shown to be significant with a maximum lod score of 3.42 at a recombination fraction of 22%. No heterogeneity of the recombination fraction was observed either between sexes or between families. These results are compatible with the hypothesis that HS is not a heterogeneous disorder.  (+info)

Enzymes and reproduction in natural populations of Drosophila euronotus. (2/10869)

Populations of Drosophila euronotus, one from southern Louisiana )3 samples), and one from Missouri (2 samples), were classified for allele frequencies at alkaline phosphatase (APH) and acid phosphatase (ACPH) loci. The two populations differed consistently in allele frequencies at both loci. The APH locus is on the inversion-free X chromosome; the chromosomal locus of the autosomal ACPH is unknown, and could involve inversion polymorphism. Wild females from Missouri and Louisiana populations heterozygous at the APH locus carried more sperm at capture than did the corresponding homozygotes. This heterotic association was significant for the combined samples, and whether it was the result of heterosis at the enzyme locus studied, or due to geographically widespread close linkage with other heterotic loci, it should help to maintain heterozygosity at the APH locus. In a Louisiana collection which included large numbers of sperm-free females, simultaneous homozygosity at both enzyme loci was significantly associated with lack of sperm. It is suggested that the latter association is the result of young heterozygous females achieving sexual maturity earlier than do the double homozygotes. The average effective sperm load for 225 wild females was only 29.4, suggesting the necessity for frequent repeat-mating in nature to maintain female fertility. A comparison of the sex-linked APH genotypes of wild females with those of their daughters indicated that among 295 wild-inseminated females from five populations, 35% had mated more than once, and of this 35%, six females had mated at least three times. Because of ascertainment difficulties, it is clear that the true frequency of multiple-mating in nature must have been much higher than the observed 35%. Laboratory studies indicate that multiple-mating in this species does not involve sperm displacement, possibly due to the small number of sperms transmitted per mating, and the fact that the sperm receptacles are only partially filled by a given mating.  (+info)

Marker effects on reversion of T4rII mutants. (3/10869)

The frequencies of 2-aminopurine- and 5-bromouracil-induced A:T leads to G:C transitions were compared at nonsense sites throughout the rII region of bacteriophage T4. These frequencies are influenced both by adjacent base pairs within the nonsense codons and by extracodonic factors. Following 2AP treatment, they are high in amber (UAG) and lower in opal (UGA) codons than in allelic ochre (UAA) codons. In general, 5BU-induced transitions are more frequent in both amber and opal codons than in the allelic ochre codons. 2AP- and 5BU-induced transition frequencies in the first and third positions of opal codons are correlated with those in the corresponding positions of the allelic ochre codons. Similarly, the frequencies of 2AP-induced transition in the first and second positions of amber codons and their ochre alleles are correlated. However, there is little correlation between the frequencies of 5BU-induced transitions in the first and second positions of allelic amber and ochre codons.  (+info)

Aldosterone excretion rate and blood pressure in essential hypertension are related to polymorphic differences in the aldosterone synthase gene CYP11B2. (4/10869)

Significant correlation of body sodium and potassium with blood pressure (BP) may suggest a role for aldosterone in essential hypertension. In patients with this disease, the ratio of plasma renin to plasma aldosterone may be lower than in control subjects and plasma aldosterone levels may be more sensitive to angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. Because essential hypertension is partly genetic, it is possible that altered control of aldosterone synthase gene expression or translation may be responsible. We compared the frequency of 2 linked polymorphisms, one in the steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) binding site and the other an intronic conversion (IC), in groups of hypertensive and normotensive subjects. In a larger population, the relationship of aldosterone excretion rate to these polymorphisms was also evaluated. In 138 hypertensive subjects, there was a highly significant excess of TT homozygosity (SF-1) over CC homozygosity compared with a group of individually matched normotensive control subjects. The T allele was significantly more frequent than the C allele in the hypertensive group compared with the control group. Similarly, there was a highly significant relative excess of the conversion allele over the "wild-type" allele and of conversion homozygosity over wild-type homozygosity in the hypertensive group compared with the control group. In 486 subjects sampled from the North Glasgow Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) population, SF-1 and IC genotypes were compared with tetrahydroaldosterone excretion rate. Subjects with the SF-1 genotypes TT or TC had significantly higher excretion rates than those with the CC genotype. The T allele was associated with higher excretion rates than the C allele. However, no significant differences were found in excretion rate between subjects of different IC genotype. Urinary aldosterone excretion rate may be a useful intermediate phenotype linking these genotypes to raised BP. However, no causal relationship has yet been established, and it is possible that the polymorphisms may be in linkage with other causative mutations.  (+info)

Familial antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: criteria for disease and evidence for autosomal dominant inheritance. (5/10869)

OBJECTIVE: To develop diagnostic criteria for a familial form of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), identify families with >1 affected member, examine possible modes of inheritance, and determine linkage to potential candidate genes. METHODS: Family members of probands with primary APS were analyzed for clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with APS. Families with > or =2 affected members were analyzed by segregation analysis and typed for candidate genetic markers. RESULTS: Seven families were identified. Thirty of 101 family members met diagnostic criteria for APS. Segregation studies rejected both environmental and autosomal recessive models, and the data were best fit by either a dominant or codominant model. Linkage analysis showed independent segregation of APS and several candidate genes. CONCLUSION: Clinical and laboratory criteria are essential to identify the spectrum of disease associated with APS. We believe a set of criteria was developed that can precisely define affected family members with APS. Modeling studies utilizing these criteria strongly support a genetic basis for disease in families with APS and suggest that a susceptibility gene is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. However, in these families, APS was not linked with HLA, Fas, or other candidate genes, including beta2-glycoprotein 1, HLA, T cell receptor beta chain, Ig heavy chain, antithrombin III, Fas ligand, factor V, complement factor H, IgK, and Fas.  (+info)

Four new mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene causing X-linked sideroblastic anemia: increased pyridoxine responsiveness after removal of iron overload by phlebotomy and coinheritance of hereditary hemochromatosis. (6/10869)

X-linked sideroblastic anemia (XLSA) in four unrelated male probands was caused by missense mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase gene (ALAS2). All were new mutations: T647C, C1283T, G1395A, and C1406T predicting amino acid substitutions Y199H, R411C, R448Q, and R452C. All probands were clinically pyridoxine-responsive. The mutation Y199H was shown to be the first de novo XLSA mutation and occurred in a gamete of the proband's maternal grandfather. There was a significantly higher frequency of coinheritance of the hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) HFE mutant allele C282Y in 18 unrelated XLSA hemizygotes than found in the normal population, indicating a role for coinheritance of HFE alleles in the expression of this disorder. One proband (Y199H) with severe and early iron loading coinherited HH as a C282Y homozygote. The clinical and hematologic histories of two XLSA probands suggest that iron overload suppresses pyridoxine responsiveness. Notably, reversal of the iron overload in the Y199H proband by phlebotomy resulted in higher hemoglobin concentrations during pyridoxine supplementation. The proband with the R452C mutation was symptom-free on occasional phlebotomy and daily pyridoxine. These studies indicate the value of combined phlebotomy and pyridoxine supplementation in the management of XLSA probands in order to prevent a downward spiral of iron toxicity and refractory anemia.  (+info)

Linkage relations of locus for X-borne type of Charcot-Marie-Tooth muscular atrophy and that for Xg blood groups. (7/10869)

The locus for the X-borne type of Charcot-Marie-Tooth muscular atrophy is not close to the Xg locus and probably not within direct measurable distance of it.  (+info)

A novel method for determining linkage between DNA sequences: hybridization to paired probe arrays. (8/10869)

Cooperative hybridization has been used to establish physical linkage between two loci on a DNA strand. Linkage was detected by hybridization to a new type of high-density oligonucleotide array. Each synthesis location on the array contains a mixture of two different probe sequences. Each of the two probes can hybridize independently to a different target sequence, but if the two target sequences are physically linked there is a cooperative increase in hybridization yield. The ability to create and control non-linear effects raises a host of possibilities for applications of oligonucleotide array hybridization. The method has been used to assign linkage in 50:50 mixtures of DNA containing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) separated by 17, 693, 1350 and 2038 bp and to reconstruct haplotypes. Other potential uses include increasing the specificity of hybridization in mutation detection and gene expression monitoring applications, determining SNP haplotypes, characterizing repetitive sequences, such as short tandem repeats, and aiding contig assembly in sequen-cing by hybridization.  (+info)

Asthma and allergy are complex multifactorial disorders, with both genetic and environmental components determining disease expression. The use of molecular genetics holds great promise for the identification of novel drug targets for the treatment of asthma and allergy. Genome-wide linkage studies have identified a number of potential disease susceptibility loci but replication remains inconsistent. The aim of the current study was to complete a meta-analysis of data from genome-wide linkage studies of asthma and related phenotypes and provide inferences about the consistency of results and to identify novel regions for future gene discovery. The rank based genome-scan meta-analysis (GSMA) method was used to combine linkage data for asthma and related traits; bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), allergen positive skin prick test (SPT) and total serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) from nine Caucasian asthma populations. Significant evidence for susceptibility loci was identified for quantitative traits
TY - JOUR. T1 - Meta-analysis of five genome-wide linkage studies for body mass index reveals significant evidence for linkage to chromosome 8p. AU - Johnson, L.. AU - Luke, A.. AU - Deng, H. W.. AU - Mitchell, B. D.. AU - Comuzzie, A. G.. AU - Cole, S. A.. AU - Blangero, J.. AU - Perola, M.. AU - Teare, M. Dawn. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - OBJECTIVE: To perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage scans using body mass index (BMI) to identify genetic loci predisposing to obesity. DATA: A total of 13 published genome scans on obesity have used BMI as their primary end point. Five of these 13 groups agreed to provide detailed results from their scans that were required for a meta-analysis. Collectively, these five studies included a total of 2814 individuals from 505 families. METHODS: The results of the five studies were analysed using the GSMA (genome scans meta-analysis) method. RESULTS: The analysis revealed significant evidence for linkage of the quantitative phenotype BMI to 8p (P , ...
OBJECTIVE: To test a high density of microsatellite markers from within a primary osteoarthritis (OA) locus on chromosome 6 for association with OA as a means of narrowing and focusing our search for the susceptibility gene. METHODS: One hundred forty-six families, each with 2 or more women concordant for primary OA (ascertained by total hip replacement), were genotyped for 36 microsatellite markers from within a narrow interval at 6p12.3-q13 which we had previously shown to be linked to OA. Each marker was tested for linkage and for association, the latter by means of the transmission disequilibrium test and by a case-control analysis. RESULTS: The highest 2-point logarithm of odds (LOD) score was 4.8, with 11 markers having LOD scores | or =2.0. Several markers demonstrated evidence of association, in particular, a cluster of markers positioned within or near the functional candidate gene BMP5. CONCLUSION: Our linkage data reinforce the evidence of a major susceptibility locus on chromosome 6. We had
Definition of Genetic linkage in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Genetic linkage? Meaning of Genetic linkage as a finance term. What does Genetic linkage mean in finance?
Analysis of meiotic tetrads is routinely used to determine genetic linkage in various fungi. Here we apply tetrad analysis to the study of genetic linkage in a vertebrate. The half-tetrad genotypes of gynogenetic diploid zebrafish produced by early-pressure (EP) treatment were used to investigate the linkage relationships of two recessive pigment pattern mutations, leopard (leo) and rose (ros). The results showed that ros is tightly linked to its centromere and leo maps 31 cM from its centromere. Analysis of half-tetrads segregating for ros and leo in repulsion revealed no homozygous ros individuals among 32 homozygous leo half-tetrads--i.e., a parental ditype (PD) to nonparental ditype (NPD) ratio of 32:0. This result shows that ros is linked to leo, a mutation previously mapped to Linkage Group I. Investigation of PCR-based DNA polymorphisms on Linkage Group I confirmed the location of ros near the centromere of this linkage group. We propose an efficient, generally useful method to assign new ...
Looking for sex linkage? Find out information about sex linkage. That sex of some species which produces two or more different kinds of gametes that differ in their sex chromosome content Explanation of sex linkage
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to find loci for major depression via linkage analysis of a large sibling pair sample. METHOD: The authors conducted a genome-wide linkage analysis of 839 families consisting of 971 affected sibling pairs with severe recurrent major depression, comprising waves I and II of the Depression Network Study cohort. In addition to examining affected status, linkage analyses in the full data set were performed using diagnoses restricted by impairment severity, and association mapping of hits in a large case-control data set was attempted. RESULTS: The authors identified genome-wide significant linkage to chromosome 3p25-26 when the diagnoses were restricted by severity, which was a maximum LOD score of 4.0 centered at the linkage marker D3S1515. The linkage signal identified was genome-wide significant after correction for the multiple phenotypes tested, although subsequent association mapping of the region in a genome-wide association study of a U.K. depression ...
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood onset disorder, for which there is good evidence that genetic factors contribute to the aetiology. Recently reported linkage findings suggested evidence of a susceptibility locus on chromosome 16p13 (maximum LOD score of 4.2, P=5 x 10(-6 …
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a complex disease that involves both environmental and genetic factors. Elucidation of the basic etiologic factors involved in RA is essential for preventing and treating this disease. However, the etiology of RA, like that of other complex diseases, is largely unknown. In the present study, we conducted autosomal multipoint linkage scans using affected sib pairs by incorporating the smoking status into analysis. We divided the affected sib pairs into three subgroups based on smoking status (ever, current, or never). Interactions between the susceptibility genes and smoking could then be assessed through linkage mapping. Results suggested that the genetic effect of chromosome 6p21.2-3 in concordant current smoker pairs was about two-fold greater than that of the concordant non-current smoker pairs or discordant pairs. With incorporation of smoking status, additional regions with evidence of linkage were identified, including chromosomes 4q and 20q; while evidence of linkage
BACKGROUND:. Meiotic linkage maps are the foundation of both linkage and linkage disequilibrium studies for mapping disease genes. Despite the importance of precise maps, existing genome-wide linkage maps were built using only a small collection of pedigrees, and so have wide confidence intervals surrounding estimates of map distance. Incorrect marker order and map distances can have a profound effect on linkage analyses. Using a sex-averaged map instead of a sex-specific map biases the lod scores upward, markedly increasing the false positive rate. Since it is very costly to follow-up many false-positive results, there is a clear need for more precise and accurate sex-specific genetic maps. Accurate estimates of meiotic map distance cannot be obtained by any means other than by linkage analysis using genotype data.. The study is in response to a Request for Applications entitled NHLBI Innovative Research Grant Program released in July, 2001. The purpose of the initiative is to support new ...
Recombination frequency (θ) is when crossing-over will take place between two loci (or genes) during meiosis. Recombination frequency is a measure of genetic linkage and is used in the creation of a genetic linkage map. A centimorgan (cM) is a unit that describes a recombination frequency of 1%.. During meiosis, chromosomes assort randomly into gametes, such that the segregation of alleles of one gene is independent of alleles of another gene. This is stated in Mendels Second Law and is known as the law of independent assortment. The law of independent assortment always holds true for genes that are located on different chromosomes, but for genes that are on the same chromosome, it does not always hold true.. As an example of independent assortment, consider the crossing of the pure-bred homozygote parental strain with genotype AABB with a different pure-bred strain with genotype aabb. A and a and B and b represent the alleles of genes A and B. Crossing these homozygous parental strains will ...
We analyzed a large group of Finnish type 2 diabetic families and found evidence for linkage to chromosome 20. Three linkage peaks were seen after analyses of diabetes and diabetes-related traits. These linkages were at approximately 0-25 cM, 50-60 cM, and 63-72 cM respectively from the marker D20S103. Although the second and third peaks could be explained by a single susceptibility locus, evidence for linkage on both arms on chromosome 20 argues for the presence of more than one susceptibility locus. As far as we know, we are the first group to show evidence for linkage to the proximal p arm of chromosome 20 in type 2 diabetes. Most of our evidence comes from families with affected sibships greater than two. Ordered subset analyses of our data revealed that a small number of families, with high or low values of important diabetes-related traits, give rise to large lod scores near the three peaks. These analyses provide additional evidence for more than one susceptibility locus on this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A genome scan for serum triglyceride in obese nuclear families. AU - Li, Wei Dong. AU - Dong, Chuanhui. AU - Li, Ding. AU - Garrigan, Cathleen. AU - Price, R. Arlen. PY - 2005/12/1. Y1 - 2005/12/1. N2 - Serum triglyceride (TG) levels are increased in extremely obese individuals, indicating abnormalities in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. We carried out a genome scan for serum TG in 320 nuclear families segregating extreme obesity and normal weight. Three hundred eighty-two Marshfield microsatellite markers (Screening Set 11) were genotyped. Quantitative linkage analyses were performed using family regression and variance components methods. We found linkage on the 7q36 region [D7S3058, 174 centimorgan (cM), Logarithm of Odds (LOD) = 2.98] for log-transformed TG. We also found suggestive linkages on chromosomes 20 (D20S164, 101 cM, LOD = 2.34), 13 (111 cM, LOD = 2.00), and 9 (104 cM, LOD = 1.90) as well as some weaker trends for chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 10, 12, and 22. In 58 ...
Given the absence of linkage on chromosome 16, and even exclusion on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12 in a smaller Belgian dataset of IBD families,37 a genome wide search in a larger Belgian IBD population was performed to see if other linkages could be identified. Lander and Kruglyak have proposed a classification with thresholds of linkage for genome wide scans.44 Although none of the identified regions in our genome scan meet the Lander and Kruglyak criteria for significant (Lod ,3.6, p = 2×10−5) or suggestive linkage (Lod,2.2, p = 7×10−4), several findings are noteworthy and deserve attention. Firstly, four of the susceptibility regions found in this genome scan coincided with regions found by other investigators. Intriguing is the fact that two of these regions-namely, on chromosomes 4 and 10-overlapped with findings from the European collaborative study.17 This study consisted of 353 affected sibling pairs originating from the UK, the Netherlands, and Germany mainly. The migration waves that ...
Background It has been suggested that efforts to identify genetic risk markers of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) would benefit from the analysis of more narrowly defined ASD phenotypes. software program MCLINK, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method that allows for multilocus linkage analysis on large extended pedigrees. Results Genome-wide significance was observed for IS at 2q37.1-q37.3 (dominant model heterogeneity lod score (hlod) 3.42) and for RSMA at 15q13.1-q14 (recessive model hlod 3.93). We found some linkage signals that overlapped and others that were not observed in our previous linkage analysis of the ASD phenotype in the same pedigrees, and regions varied in the range of phenotypes with which they were linked. A new finding with respect to Is Apilimod supplier usually was that it is positively associated with IQ if the IS-RSMA correlation is usually statistically controlled. Conclusions The finding that Is usually and Apilimod supplier RSMA are linked to different regions that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DSLINK. T2 - A computer program for gene-centromere linkage analysis in families with a trisomic offspring. AU - Halloran, S. L.. AU - Chakravarti, A.. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - Trisomic individuals provide information for gene-centromere mapping, since two of the four chromatids in a meiotic tetrad can be recovered. When centromeric markers are available, linkage analysis between the centromere and any marker locus can be performed in nuclear families having one or more trisomic offspring. Since conventional linkage programs consider only disomic individuals, we have written a FORTRAN computer program, DSLINK, that performs gene-centromere linkage analysis on the basis of information on trisomic and disomic offspring. This program makes it possible to study the relationship between recombination and chromosome segregation.. AB - Trisomic individuals provide information for gene-centromere mapping, since two of the four chromatids in a meiotic tetrad can be recovered. When ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exploring Positional Candidate Genes. T2 - Linkage Conditional on Measured Genotype. AU - Almasy, L.. AU - Blangero, J.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported in part by NIH Grants MH59490, AA08403, HL70751, HL45522, and GM31575.. PY - 2004/3. Y1 - 2004/3. N2 - Variance component methods for linkage analysis of quantitative traits are now well established and have been applied with great success. Numerous QTLs influencing both normal variation between individuals and biomedically relevant quantitative risk factors have been localized in recent years. These findings have motivated recent methodological developments focused on the next step in the analytical process, moving beyond QTL localization by linkage to identifying specific genes and the functional polymorphisms in them that influence the phenotype of interest. In this paper, we describe one approach to exploring positional candidate genes in a region of linkage, linkage analysis conditional on measured ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chromosomes 4 and 8 implicated in a genome wide SNP linkage scan of 762 prostate cancer families collected by the ICPCG. AU - Lu, Lingyi. AU - Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine. AU - Valeri, Antoine. AU - Cussenot, Olivier. AU - Lange, Ethan M.. AU - Cooney, Kathleen A.. AU - Farnham, James M.. AU - Camp, Nicola J.. AU - Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.. AU - Tammela, Teuvo L.J.. AU - Schleutker, Johanna. AU - Hoegel, Josef. AU - Herkommer, Kathleen. AU - Maier, Christiane. AU - Vogel, Walther. AU - Wiklund, Fredrik. AU - Emanuelsson, Monica. AU - Grönberg, Henrik. AU - Wiley, Kathleen E.. AU - Isaacs, Sarah D.. AU - Walsh, Patrick C.. AU - Helfand, Brian T.. AU - Kan, Donghui. AU - Catalona, William J.. AU - Stanford, Janet L.. AU - Fitzgerald, Liesel M.. AU - Johanneson, Bo. AU - Deutsch, Kerry. AU - McIntosh, Laura. AU - Ostrander, Elaine A.. AU - Thibodeau, Stephen N.. AU - McDonnell, Shannon K.. AU - Hebbring, Scott. AU - Schaid, Daniel J.. AU - Whittemore, Alice S.. AU - Oakley-Girvan, ...
Genome scan analyses and fine mapping investigations in the UCLA sample support significant linkage in three regions: 6q12 (MLS 3.30), 16p13 (MLS 3.73), and 17p11 (MLS 3.63), while the Utrecht two-stage genome scan supports significant linkage in two regions: 7p13 (MLS 3.04) and 15q15 (MLS 3.54). Both studies had lower linkage signals (1,MLS,3) at multiple locations, but only one region of overlap at 5p13 (UCLA MLS=2.55;6 Utrecht Broad Affection Criteria MLS=1.43 and Narrow Criteria MLS=0.478). In an attempt to better interpret the lack of replication across these two data sets, we pooled genotypic data and re-analyzed the pooled sample in two ways. First, we estimate linkage evidence across the whole genome using the pooled sample and empiric P-values generated by simulations (i.e. generating empiric P-values based on 1000 replicates per chromosome using the exact marker information from the individual scans; for methods, see Ogdie et al.4). For that analysis, we combined the data into a single ...
covers knowledge about gene linkage and linkage groups, crossing over with its role in variation and evolution and frequency of variation.. By: sci4you ...
Human breast cancer is usually caused by genetic alterations of somatic cells of the breast, but occasionally, susceptibility to the disease is inherited. Mapping the genes responsible for inherited breast cancer may also allow the identification of early lesions that are critical for the development of breast cancer in the general population. Chromosome 17q21 appears to be the locale of a gene for inherited susceptibility to breast cancer in families with early-onset disease. Genetic analysis yields a lod score (logarithm of the likelihood ratio for linkage) of 5.98 for linkage of breast cancer susceptibility to D17S74 in early-onset families and negative lod scores in families with late-onset disease. Likelihood ratios in favor of linkage heterogeneity among families ranged between 2000:1 and greater than 10(6):1 on the basis of multipoint analysis of four loci in the region. ...
Background: Localization of complex traits by genetic linkage analysis may involve exploration of a vast multidimensional parameter space. The posterior probability of linkage (PPL), a class of statistics for complex trait genetic mapping in humans, is designed to model the trait model complexity represented by the multidimensional parameter space in a mathematically rigorous fashion. However, the method requires the evaluation of integrals with no functional form, making it difficult to compute, and thus further test, develop and apply. This paper describes MLIP, a multiprocessor two-point genetic linkage analysis system that supports statistical calculations, such as the PPL, based on the full parameter space implicit in the linkage likelihood. Results: The fundamental question we address here is whether the use of additional processors effectively reduces total computation time for a PPL calculation. We use a variety of data - both simulated and real - to explore the question how close can ...
Interspecific mouse backcrosses provide almost limitless genetic variation for gene mapping. We have used interspecific backcrosses to develop the first comprehensive molecular genetic linkage map of the mouse genome. More than 600 loci have been positioned on the map; the current average map resolu …
We performed haplotype analysis in pedigree F233 by using 10 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers spanning 22 Mb along the RCA cluster at the 1q32 locus (6) (see SI Text and SI Fig. 4).. Seventeen subjects were haplotyped. Segregation of GFND in this family was consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance and age-related penetrance. Because the disease has progressive manifestations, the absence of the disease could not be determined with certainty in the four healthy subjects of the third generation (all ,35 years of age). Data were first evaluated on the basis of affecteds-only strategy. None of the haplotypes cosegregated with GFND and linkage analysis by GENEHUNTER software gave a multipoint logarithm of odds (lod) score less than −2 throughout the chromosomal area. In further analyses, liability classes were assigned according to age at examination, as described in Methods. Results of two-point and multipoint linkage analyses confirmed the exclusion of 1q32 as disease locus in this ...
Our study in healthy Mexican Americans individuals aimed to replicate a finding of shared genetic loci between HWM and quantitative BP traits, previously reported by Turner et al4 in a study of hypertensive sibships. We performed these analyses in a cohort of well-characterized population of Mexican Americans. Additional, post hoc analyses were performed in a cohort that excluded subjects taking antihypertensive medications. The genetic linkage analyses in both cohorts identified the same regions of significant and suggestive linkage and these loci overlapped with several loci reported by Turner and colleagues and with several loci previously identified by the univariate linkage analyses of BP, triglyceride levels, and atherosclerosis traits performed by this and other groups. The highest linkage value (LOD=3.82/3.62 full versus normotensive cohorts) was observed for the bivariate linkage analysis of WB HWM volume and PP. This locus (chromosome 1q24) was also significant in the bivariate ...
The data provided to Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15) were of several sorts. The basic collection was of data from large families, specifically 14 three-generation Centre dEtude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) Utah families (approximately 8 offspring per sibship and 14 individuals per family). The CEPH Utah families are the most uniform of the three-generation CEPH families (parents and grandparents are available) and cells are available for all four grandparents. The data provided were from 14 of these. In addition, gene expression data were provided from 30 HapMap trios: these are grandparent-parent trios that are partly included among those in the 14 families, plus approximately 12 additional grandparent-parent trios of CEPH Utah individuals. The 30 trios are also part of the International HapMap Project. The data included pedigree files with information on the structure of each family.. ...
Over 30 genomic regions show linkage to asthma traits. Six asthma genes have been cloned, but the putative loci in many linked regions have not been identified. To search for asthma susceptibility loci, we performed genomewide univariate linkage analyses of seven asthma traits, using 202 Australian families ascertained through a twin proband. House-dust mite sensitivity (Dpter) exceeded the empirical threshold for significant linkage at 102 cM on chromosome 20q13, near marker D20S173 (empirical pointwise P = .00001 and genomewide P = .005, both uncorrected for multiple-trait testing). Atopy, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) were also linked to this region. In addition, 16 regions were linked to at least one trait at the suggestive level, including 12q24, which has consistently shown linkage to asthma traits in other studies. Some regions were expected to be false-positives arising from multiple-trait testing. To address this, we developed a new ...
A genome-wide linkage study in a large kindred of individuals with PE detected strong evidence for linkage with polymorphic markers on chromosome 2q (35). Haplotype analysis in four additional families confirmed the locus, and recombinant events defined the critical interval to 7.94 cM. Subsequent analysis of another family allowed narrowing of the region to 5.98 cM (3). This interval contains five genes encoding sodium-channel α subunits. After confirming the presence of this genetic interval in two affected families, two candidate genes, including SCN9A, were tested (3). A missense mutation (L858H) in SCN9A was identified that segregated with the disease in a three-generation Chinese family while an I848T mutation was present in a single sporadic case. Both mutations affected conserved residues in the pore-forming α subunit of the Nav1.7 channel, and multiple alignment indicated that the affected amino acids are conserved in sodium channels. Subsequent independent studies confirmed these ...
BIONET.MOLBIO.GENE-LINKAGE FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ) AS OF 1997/10/27 1.0) FAQ ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION [1995/05/18] 1.1) Where can I obtain and/or access the bionet.molbio.gene-linkage FAQ? [1995/03/01] 1.2) Who created the bionet.molbio.gene-linkage FAQ? [1995/03/01] 1.3) How can I help improve this FAQ? [1995/03/01] 1.4) Contributors to this FAQ. [1995/09/09] 1.5) When was the FAQ last updated? [1996/04/28] 2.0) INFORMATION RESOURCES 2.1) What anonymous FTP sites have programs/utilities useful for linkage analysis? [1995/03/01] 2.2) What books are helpful when learning about linkage analysis? [1995/03/01] 2.3) What WWW sites have useful linkage information? [1996/01/02] 2.4) What gopher sites have useful linkage information? [1995/03/01] 2.5) What linkage centers make information and assistance available to researchers? [1995/12/11] 2.6) What journals are useful for linkage analysis? [1995/06/02] 2.7) What courses are offered in linkage analysis? [1995/09/09] 3.0) GENE-LINKAGE ...
BIONET.MOLBIO.GENE-LINKAGE FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ) AS OF 1995/12/11 1.0) FAQ ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION [1995/05/18] 1.1) Where can I obtain and/or access the bionet.molbio.gene-linkage FAQ? [1995/03/01] 1.2) Who created the bionet.molbio.gene-linkage FAQ? [1995/03/01] 1.3) How can I help improve this FAQ? [1995/03/01] 1.4) Contributors to this FAQ. [1995/09/09] 1.5) When was the FAQ last updated? [1995/09/14] 2.0) INFORMATION RESOURCES 2.1) What anonymous FTP sites have programs/utilities useful for linkage analysis? [1995/03/01] 2.2) What books are helpful when learning about linkage analysis? [1995/03/01] 2.3) What WWW sites have useful linkage information? [1996/01/02] 2.4) What gopher sites have useful linkage information? [1995/03/01] 2.5) What linkage centers make information and assistance available to researchers? [1995/12/11] 2.6) What journals are useful for linkage analysis? [1995/06/02] 2.7) What courses are offered in linkage analysis? [1995/09/09] 3.0) GENE-LINKAGE ...
Sex linkage explained Thomas Hunt Morgan in The Fly Room! (Columbia University 1910) Fruit Flies (Drosophila melanogaster) © 2007 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS
The potential contribution of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) genes to NIDDM susceptibility in African-American and Caucasian NIDDM-affected sibling pairs with a history of adult-onset diabetic nephropathy has been evaluated. Evidence for linkage to NIDDM was found with polymorphic loci that map to the long arms of human chromosomes 20 and 12 in regions containing the MODY1 and MODY3 genes. Nonparametric analysis of chromosome 20 inheritance data collected with the MODYl-linked marker D20S197 provides evidence forlinkage to NIDDM with a P value of 0.005 in Caucasian sib pairs using affected sibpair (ASP) analyses. Nonparametric analysis of chromosome 12 inheritance data collected with the MODY3-linked markers D12S349 and D12S86 provides evidence for linkage to NIDDM with P values of 0.04 and 0.006, respectively, in Caucasian sib pairs using similar analyses. No evidence for linkage of MODY1 and MODY3 markers to NIDDM in African-American sib pairs was observed. In addition, no ...
A linkage map is a chromosome map of a species that demonstrates the position of its known genes or markers with respect to each other, as opposed to as particular physical focuses on each chromosome.A Linkage map is unique in relation to quality map. Thomas Hunt Morgan watched that the measure of traverse between connected genes is distinctive. It gives hybrid recurrence shows the separation isolating genes on the chromosome. Morgans understudy Alfred Sturtevant built up the primary hereditary -map, additionally called a linkage map.. Sturtevant suggested that the more prominent the separation between connected genes, the more noteworthy the possibility of traverse between non-sister chromatids. On the off chance that number of recombinant is measured, at that point the separation between the genes can be measured. This separation is known as a hereditary map unit (m.u.), or a centimorgan. It is characterized as the separation between genes for which one result of meiosis in 100 is ...
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When you have allele frequency data of a particular gene and know which genes are in the same linkage group and want to know if they are under the same or similar environmental selections, would you say that the gene of interest is in LD with gene C and they may be under the same selection even if they are 140cM away (*allele frequency of gene C is not known)? If its too far away from each other to come to a valid evolutionary inference, what is a maximum map distance (cM) where you would confidently say the genes are under the same selection? If there is any paper on this topic, please let me know ...
When you have allele frequency data of a particular gene and know which genes are in the same linkage group and want to know if they are under the same or similar environmental selections, would you say that the gene of interest is in LD with gene C and they may be under the same selection even if they are 140cM away (*allele frequency of gene C is not known)? If its too far away from each other to come to a valid evolutionary inference, what is a maximum map distance (cM) where you would confidently say the genes are under the same selection? If there is any paper on this topic, please let me know ...
When DArcy Wentworth Thompsons On Growth and Form was published 100 years ago, it raised the question of how biological forms arise during development and across evolution. In light of the advances in molecular and cellular biology since then, a succinct modern view of the question states: how do genes encode geometry? Our new special issue is packed with articles that use mathematical and physical approaches to gain insights into cell and tissue patterning, morphogenesis and dynamics, and that provide a physical framework to capture these processes operating across scales.. Read the Editorial by guest editors Thomas Lecuit and L. Mahadevan, as they provide a perspective on the influence of DArcy Thompsons work and an overview of the articles in this issue.. ...
Introduction and Goals Previously we examined the relationship between gene segregation and meiosis. As you should now know, Mendel was able to infer independent assortment between different genes because they were located on different chromosomes (each o
F. H. C. Crick suggests that during protein formation the amino acid is carried to the template by an adaptor molecule containing nucleotides and that the adaptor is the part that actually fits on the RNA template. Crick thus predicts the discovery of transfer RNA. F. Jacob and E. L. Wollman demonstrate that the single linkage group of E. coli is circular and suggest that the different linkage groups found in different Hfr strains result from the insertion at different points of a factor in the circular linkage group that determines the rupture of the circle. M. Meselson and F. W. Stahl use the density gradient equilibrium centrifugation technique to demonstrate the semiconservative distribution of density label during DNA replication in E. coli. ...
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To start a mating, you will place 4 to 5 young adult (or L4) males on a plate with 4 young adult (or L4) hermaphrodites. We will use plates seeded with a very small drop of OP50 bacteria for our crosses. These seeded plates have been prepared for you by our hard working lab specialists. If you were working as an investigator in a worm lab, you would be doing this preparatory work yourself, including growing the bacteria to be used as worm food, pouring the agar into sterile plates, and seeding those plates with the bacteria. Yes, you should appreciate that this has been done for you! When setting up a mating, it is important to use only a small central area of the plate. Doing so helps our worms find each other quickly and helps insure a successful mating of the parental generation. In the F1 progeny, any self-cross progeny produced by the parental hermaphrodite must be distinguished from outcross progeny. Generally, the hermaphrodite is homozygous for a visible marker and the progeny from ...
Modern gene‐mapping can include linkage studies, which correlate the presence of disease to broad genomic regions in either small or large family units, and association studies, which can narrow the location of a disease‐predisposing trait to a single gene using either case‐control or family data
Agro-Ecosystem-wise Status of Technological Interventions Implemented under Institution-Village Linkage Programme (IVLP) in India (2003-2004 ...
Incomplete Dominance Heterozygous phenotype is a blend of the 2 homozygous phenotypes Ex. Red flower crossed with white flower  heterozygous flower is pink
In this study, conducted on a random sample of individuals from the isolated population of Campora, we detected a genome-wide significant linkage between BMI and a new locus on chr1q24. Interestingly, this linkage is also detected when focusing on obesity, and it is replicated for both BMI and obesity in the neighboring village of Gioi. However, in these three latter analyses, the linkage is located 7.7 cM away from the initial signal, at a position where no linkage is observed on the first BMI analysis. Whether this suggests the implication of two different loci remains an open question. Following Göring et al. (32), who demonstrated that the chromosomal position and genotype-phenotype relationship of a locus cannot both be estimated reliably by use of a single data set of current realistic size in linkage analysis, our results may well be generated by a single locus. We believe that having significant replication P values and detecting a linkage with obesity in Campora at the same marker as ...
Linkage analysis has been very successful in identifying genes for many Mendelian diseases, but has not enjoyed the same level of success for complex diseases
Dissimilarity linkage analysis (DLA) is a simple procedure for developing a typology from empirical attributes that permits the clustering of entities. First the procedure develops a taxonomy of types from empirical attributes possessed by entities in the sample. Second, the procedure assigns entities to one, and only one, type in the taxonomy. This two-step procedure clearly contrasts with many existing clustering techniques that are concerned only with the second step of the two-stage procedure. (Author)(*SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Three-Point Linkage with Drosophila In this lab students investigate the effects of gene linkage and crossing-over on the inheritance of three traits of Drosophila. They use the data they collect to construct a linkage map of the gene loci. View » ...
Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a major forage legume that has a strong self-incompatibility system and exhibits high genetic diversity within populations. For several crop species, integrated consensus linkage maps that combine information from multiple mapping populations have been developed. For red clover, three genetic linkage maps have been published, but the information in these existing maps has not been integrated. A consensus linkage map was constructed using six mapping populations originating from eight parental accessions. Three of the six mapping populations were established for this study. The integrated red clover map was composed of 1804 loci, including 1414 microsatellite loci, 181 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) loci and 204 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci, in seven linkage groups. The average distance between loci and the total length of the consensus map were 0.46 cM and 836.6 cM, respectively. The locus order on the consensus map correlated
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkage Analysis of Affective Disorder Using DNA Markers on Chromosomes 11 and X. AU - Nanko, Shinichiro. AU - Kobayashi, Masaru. AU - Gamou, Shinobu. AU - Kudoh, Jun. AU - Shimizu, Nobuyoshi. AU - Takazawa, Noboru. AU - Kazamatsuri, Hajime. AU - Furusho, Toshiyuki. PY - 1991/3. Y1 - 1991/3. N2 - Abstract: We have investigated two pedigrees in an attempt to detect the putative linkages between affective disorder and c‐Ha‐ras‐1 oncogene and the insulin gene on chromosome 11, or hypoxanthhte phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) on X chromosome. The linkage between affective disorders and the markers on chromosomes 11 and X was ruled out with the assumption of no recombination.. AB - Abstract: We have investigated two pedigrees in an attempt to detect the putative linkages between affective disorder and c‐Ha‐ras‐1 oncogene and the insulin gene on chromosome 11, or hypoxanthhte phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) on X chromosome. The linkage between affective disorders and the ...
Extended pedigrees are not only very useful to identify disease genes for rare Mendelian conditions, but they may also help unravel the genetics of complex diseases such as schizophrenia. In this study we performed genome-wide multipoint non-parametric linkage (NPL) score calculations using 825 microsatellites and 5,366 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively, and searched for haplotypes shared by affected individuals, in three multiplex families including 29 genotyped affected individuals which in total contains 49 relative pairs useful for linkage studies. The most consistent results for microsatellites and SNPs were observed on 2q12.3-q14.1 (NPL scores 2.0, empirical P-value 0.009). However, the overall highest NPL score was observed on chromosome 2q33.3 using SNPs (NPL score 2.2, empirical P-value 0.007). Other chromosomal regions were detected on 5q15-q22.1, with microsatellites (NPL scores 1.7, empirical P-value 0.021) and with SNPs (NPL scores 2.0, empirical P-value 0.010) ...
In population genetics, linkage disequilibrium is the non-random association of alleles at different loci in a given population. Loci are said to be in linkage disequilibrium when the frequency of association of their different alleles is higher or lower than what would be expected if the loci were independent and associated randomly.[1]. Linkage disequilibrium is influenced by many factors, including selection, the rate of recombination, the rate of mutation, genetic drift, the system of mating, population structure, and genetic linkage. As a result, the pattern of linkage disequilibrium in a genome is a powerful signal of the population genetic processes that are structuring it.. In spite of its name, linkage disequilibrium may exist between alleles at different loci without any genetic linkage between them and independently of whether or not allele frequencies are in equilibrium (not changing with time).[1] Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium is sometimes referred to as gametic phase ...
Objective: To map loci influencing normal adult height in 335 families from the Framingham Heart Study. Methods: We analyzed data consisting of 1,702 genotyped individuals who have been followed over time. The first height measurement for individuals between the ages 20-55 years was analyzed in a genome-wide scan using variance component linkage analysis. Sex, age, and cohort effects were removed before analysis. Results: Two regions (18pter-p11, 22q11.2) with multipoint LOD scores >1.0 (-log p values >2.0) were detected: we obtained LOD scores of 1.38 at D18S1364, and of 1.10 at D22S345. Analysis of height as a sex-limited phenotype revealed a peak in the 9p21 region near D9S319 with a maximum LOD score of 1.65 (-log p value >3.0) when only male height phenotypes were used. When only female phenotypes were used, a peak with a maximum LOD score of 1.85 (-log p value of 2.70) was observed in the 11q25-qter region near D11S2359. Conclusions: Our region of interest on chromosome 9 has been ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence for asthma susceptibility genes on chromosome 11 in an African-American population. AU - Huang, Shau Ku. AU - Mathias, Rasika A.. AU - Ehrlich, Eva. AU - Plunkett, Beverly. AU - Liu, Xin. AU - Cutting, Garry R.. AU - Wang, Xin Jing. AU - Li, Xiao Dong. AU - Togias, Alkis. AU - Barnes, Kathleen C.. AU - Malveaux, Floyd. AU - Rich, Stephen. AU - Mellen, Beverly. AU - Lange, Ethan. AU - Beaty, Terri H.. PY - 2003/7/1. Y1 - 2003/7/1. N2 - Initial genome-wide scan data provided suggestive evidence for linkage of the asthma phenotype in African-American (AA), but not Caucasian, families to chromosome 11q markers (peak at D11S1985; LOD=2). To refine this region, mapping analysis of 91 AA families (51 multiplex families and 40 asthmatic case-parent trios) was performed with an additional 17 markers flanking the initial peak linkage marker. Multipoint analyses of the 51 multiplex families yielded significant evidence of linkage with a peak non-parametric linkage score of 4.38 at ...
It is well established that gene interactions influence common human diseases, but to date linkage studies have been constrained to searching for single genes across the genome. We applied a novel approach to uncover significant gene-gene interactions in a systematic two-dimensional (2D) genome-scan of essential hypertension. The study cohort comprised 2076 affected sib-pairs and 66 affected half-sib-pairs of the British Genetics of HyperTension study. Extensive simulations were used to establish significance thresholds in the context of 2D genome-scans. Our analyses found significant and suggestive evidence for loci on chromosomes 5, 9, 11, 15, 16 and 19, which influence hypertension when gene-gene interactions are taken into account (5q13.1 and 11q22.1, two-locus lod score=5.72; 5q13.1 and 19q12, two-locus lod score=5.35; 9q22.3 and 15q12, two-locus lod score=4.80; 16p12.3 and 16q23.1, two-locus lod score=4.50). For each significant and suggestive pairwise interaction, the two-locus genetic ...
Bipolar affective disorder is one of the most common mental illnesses with a population prevalence of approximately 1%. The disorder is genetically complex, with an increasing number of loci being implicated through genetic linkage studies. However, the specific genetic variations and molecules involved in bipolar susceptibility and pathogenesis are yet to be identified. Genetic linkage analysis has identified a bipolar disorder susceptibility locus on chromosome 4q35, and the interval harbouring this susceptibility gene has been narrowed to a size that is amenable to positional cloning. We have used the resources of the Human Genome Project (HGP) and Celera Genomics to identify overlapping sequenced BAC clones and sequence contigs that represent the region implicated by linkage analysis. A combination of bioinformatic tools and laboratory techniques have been applied to annotate this DNA sequence data and establish a comprehensive transcript map that spans approximately 5.5 Mb. This map encompasses the
Eight families have been identified with cleft lip, with or without cleft palate (CL/P), inherited in an apparently autosomal dominant manner. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFA) has been tested as a candidate gene for clefting in these families. Negative lod scores were generated in an autosomal dominant model with 80% penetrance (Z = -3.152 at theta = 0.05 and Z = -2.49 at theta = 0.05 with only affected subjects scored). After testing with a reduced penetrance of 28%, less negative lod scores were generated (Z = -0.157 at theta = 0.00), but there was still no evidence of linkage. An autosomal recessive model with a penetrance of 35% was also tested. Regardless of the model used there was little evidence of linkage between TGFA and the CL/P phenotype, which is in contrast to the previously published findings of an association between TGFA and CL/P in unrelated subjects. ...
Recombination frequency is a measure of genetic linkage and is used in the creation of a genetic linkage map. Recombination frequency (θ) is the frequency with which a single chromosomal crossover will take place between two genes during meiosis. A centimorgan (cM) is a unit that describes a recombination frequency of 1%. In this way we can measure the genetic distance between two loci, based upon their recombination frequency. This is a good estimate of the real distance. Double crossovers would turn into no recombination. In this case we cannot tell if crossovers took place. If the loci were analysing are very close (less than 7 cM) a double crossover is very unlikely. When distances become higher, the likelihood of a double crossover increases. As the likelihood of a double crossover increases we systematically underestimate the genetic distance between two loci. During meiosis, chromosomes assort randomly into gametes, such that the segregation of alleles of one gene is independent of ...
We conducted a genome-wide scan using variance components linkage analysis to localize quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) influencing triglyceride (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and total cholesterol (TC) levels in 3,071 subjects from 459 families with atherogenic dyslipidemia. The most significant evidence for linkage to TG levels was found in a subset of Turkish families at 11q22 [logarithm of the odds ratio (LOD) = 3.34] and at 17q12 (LOD = 3.44). We performed sequential oligogenic linkage analysis to examine whether multiple QTLs jointly influence TG levels in the Turkish families. These analyses revealed loci at 20q13 that showed strong epistatic effects with 11q22 (conditional LOD = 3.15) and at 7q36 that showed strong epistatic effects with 17q12 (conditional LOD = 3.21). We also found linkage on the 8p21 region for TG in the entire group of families (LOD = 3.08). For HDL-C levels, evidence of linkage was identified on chromosome 15 in ...
The first and still the only book of its kind, this volume offers a concise introduction to human genetic linkage analysis and gene mapping. Jurg Ott provides mathematical and statistical foundations of linkage analysis for researchers and practitioners, as well as practical comments on available computer programs and websites. Each chapter ends with a set of problems, whose solutions are found at the end of the book.New to this edition is a chapter on complex traits, such as diabetes, some cancers, and psychiatric conditions. Also new is an overview of nonparametric approaches to linkage and association analysis. A chapter on two-locus inheritance introduces the reader to many of the intricate aspects of complex traits. Although the books primary audience is in the field of genetics, physicians and others without sophisticated training in genetics can understand and apply the principles and techniques discussed.
Abstract: A previous linkage study provided evidence for a prostate cancer-susceptibility locus at 1q24-25. Subsequent reports in additional collections of families have yielded conflicting results. In addition, evidence for locus heterogeneity has been provided by the identification of other putative hereditary prostate cancer loci on Xq27-28, 1q42-43, and 1p36. The present study describes a combined analysis for six markers in the 1q24-25 region in 772 families affected by hereditary prostate cancer and ascertained by the members of the International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) from North America, Australia, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Overall, there was some evidence for linkage, with a peak parametric multipoint LOD score assuming heterogeneity (HLOD) of 1.40 (P=.01) at D1S212. The estimated proportion of families (alpha) linked to the locus was.06 (1-LOD support interval.01-.12). This evidence was not observed by a nonparametric approach, presumably ...
In this study, we developed a high-density genetic linkage map, SKF2, of a total length of 2,166.4 cM consisting of 1,114 marker loci (Figure 1, Table 2, Additional file 6). Genetic linkage maps in Arachis spp. have been constructed using mapping populations derived from crosses between interspecific diploids [14, 19, 22, 23] or synthetic tetraploids [13, 27], as well as cultivated tetraploids [21, 24-26]. In addition, the integration of more than two maps by connecting common markers as anchors has been conducted to produce a higher number of marker loci than that on single maps [28-31]. While it is true that map integration is an effective way to increase marker loci on a single map, the development of new markers is still required to saturate linkage maps in peanut. As far as we know, the SKF2 map covering 2,166.4 cM with 1,114 loci is the highest-density genetic linkage map in Arachis, and probably covers a large portion of the peanut genome because the total length of the map is almost ...
Read Genome-wide linkage analysis of inherited hydrocephalus in the H-Tx rat, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A genome-wide linkage scan for age at menarche in three populations of European descent. AU - Anderson, Carl A.. AU - Zhu, Gu. AU - Falchi, Mario. AU - van den Berg, Stephanie M.. AU - Treloar, Susan A.. AU - Spector, Timothy D.. AU - Martin, Nicholas G.. AU - Boomsma, Dorret I.. AU - Visscher, Peter M.. AU - Montgomery, Grant W.. PY - 2008/10. Y1 - 2008/10. N2 - Context: Age at menarche (AAM) is an important trait both biologically and socially, a clearly defined event in female pubertal development, and has been associated with many clinically significant phenotypes.Objective: The objective of the study was to identify genetic loci influencing variation in AAM in large population-based samples from three countries.Design/Participants: Recalled AAM data were collected from 13,697 individuals and 4,899 pseudo-independent sister-pairs from three different populations (Australia, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) by mailed questionnaire or interview. Genome-wide variance ...
In the recent past, genetic analyses of grapevine focused mainly on the identification of resistance loci for major diseases such as powdery and downy mildew. Currently, breeding programs make intensive use of these results by applying molecular markers linked to the resistance traits. However, modern genetics also allows to address additional agronomic traits that have considerable impact on the selection of grapevine cultivars. In this study, we have used linkage mapping for the identification and characterization of flowering time and ripening traits in a mapping population from a cross of V3125 (Schiava Grossa × Riesling) and the interspecific rootstock cultivar Börner (Vitis riparia × Vitis cinerea). Comparison of the flowering time QTL mapping with data derived from a second independent segregating population identified several common QTLs. Especially a large region on linkage group 1 proved to be of special interest given the genetic divergence of the parents of the two ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A genomewide linkage study of 1,933 families affected by premature coronary artery disease: The British Heart Foundation (BHF) Family Heart Study. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Table 2. LOD scores for linkage between cataract with microcornea and 22q11.2-q12.2 markers. Two-point LOD scores for linkage in microsatellite markers across the β-crystallin gene cluster in the chromosomal regions 22q11.2-q12.2. The maximum two-point lod score was achieved for D22S1114 at θ=0. Zmax, the maximum lod score achieved, is given for each marker. Significant linkage was found with microsatellite marker D22S1144 with pair-wise lod score exceeding 3.0.. ...
Methods and results A 26-family linkage study followed by fine mapping was performed in a cohort of 1284 KD subjects and their family members (total 3248 individuals). Suggestive evidence of disease linkage (logarithm of odds (LOD) ≥3.0, p,1.00×10−4) was found for five genomic locations (Chr 3q, 4q, 10p, 13q, 21q). Two of these loci (Chr 4q and Chr 13q) overlapped with validated findings from a recent KD genome-wide association study. Fine mapping analysis revealed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 4 (ABCC4) underlying the Chr 13q linkage peak showing evidence of association to KD (lowest p=8.82×10−5; combined OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.83). ABCC4 is a multifunctional cyclic nucleotide transporter that stimulates the migratory capacity of dendritic cells. It is also a mediator of prostaglandin efflux from human cells and is inhibited by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkage of a gene causing high bone mass to human chromosome 11 (11q12- 13). AU - Johnson, Mark L.. AU - Gong, Guodong. AU - Kimberling, William. AU - Recker, Susan M.. AU - Kimmel, Donald B.. AU - Recker, Robert R.. PY - 1997/6. Y1 - 1997/6. N2 - The purpose of this paper is to report the linkage of a genetic locus (designated HBM) in the human genome to a phenotype of very high spinal bone density, using a single extended pedigree. We measured spinal bone mineral density, spinal Z(BMD), and collected blood from 22 members of this kindred. DNA was genotyped on an Applied Biosystems model 377 (ABI PRISM Linkage Mapping Sets; Perkin Elmer Applied Biosystems), by use of fluorescence-based marker sets that included 345 markers. Both two-point and multipoint linkage analyses were performed, by use of affected/unaffected and quantitative-trait models. Spinal Z(BMD) for affected individuals (N = 12) of the kindred was 5.54 ± 1.40; and for unaffected individuals (N = 16) it was 0.41 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkage map of Salmonella typhimurium, edition VII. AU - Sanderson, K. E.. AU - Roth, J. R.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - The genes of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 are located on a closed circular linkage map. The original map was determined by interrupted mating in F-mediated conjugation. More recent data are derived primarily from bacteriophage P22- and P1-mediated transduction and frome gene cloning and molecular analysis. The circular linkage map is set at 100 U to correspond with the 100-min map of Escherichia coli K-12. In this seventh edition of the linkage map, 750 genes are listed, with 680 of these located on the map and the remaining 70 being genes for which mutant alleles are known or which are cloned but not yet mapped. The linkage maps of S. typhimurium and E. coli K-12 are very similar. A plasmid, pSLT, present in all strains of LT2 except those from which it has been intentionally eliminated can carry mutations which affect the phenotype of the cell. Genetic materials ...
Linkage refers to the association and co-inheritance of two DNA segments because they reside close together on the same chromosome. Recombination is the process by which they become separated during crossing over, Physical linkage of genes simply means they are on the same chromosome. To be genetically linked, a pair of genes must be close enough that they are unlikely to be separated by crossing over. which occurs during meiosis. The existence of linkage and the frequency of recombination allow chromosomes to be mapped to determine the relative positions and distances of the genes and other DNA sequences on them. Linkage analysis is also a key tool for discovering the location and ultimate identity of genes for inherited diseases.. ...
Background Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a complex disorder with multiple genetic risk factors. Using affected relative pair linkage analysis, we previously identified an AAA susceptibility locus...
Previously, we reported significant linkage of body mass index (BMI) to chromosomes 6 and 11 across six examinations, covering 28 years, of the Framingham Heart Study. These results were on all individuals available at each exam, thus the sample size varied from exam to exam. To remove any effect of sample size variation we have now constructed six subsets; for each exam individuals were only included if they were measured at every exam, i.e. for each exam, included individuals comprise the intersection of the original six exams. This strategy preferentially removed older individuals who died before reaching the sixth exam, thus the intersection datasets are smaller (n = 1114) and significantly younger than the full datasets. We performed variance components linkage analysis on these intersection datasets and on their sex-specific subsets. Results from the sex-specific genome scans revealed 11 regions in which a sex-specific maximum lodscore was at least 2.0 for at least one dataset. Randomization tests
A linkage study aims at establishing linkage between genes. Linkage is the tendency for genes and other genetic markers to be inherited together because of their location near one another on the same chromosome. A genetic marker is simply a segment of DNA with an identifiable physical location on a chromosome whose inheritance can be followed. A genetic marker can have a function and thus be a gene. Or a marker can be a section of DNA with no known function. Because DNA segments that lie near each other on a chromosome tend to be inherited together, markers are often used as tools for tracking the inheritance pattern of a gene that has not yet been identified but whose approximate location is known. The statistical estimate of whether two loci are likely to lie near each other on a chromosome and are therefore likely to be inherited together is called a LOD score. A LOD score of 3 or more is generally taken to indicate that the two loci are linked and are close to one another. Today linkage ...
The collaborative International Endogene Study consists of two data sets (Oxford and Australia) comprising 1176 families with multiple affecteds.. The aim of the research team was to investigate whether the apparent concentration of cases in a proportion of families could be explained by one or more rare variants with (near-)Mendelian autosomal inheritance.. Linkage analyses (aimed at finding chromosomal regions harbouring disease-predisposing genes) were conducted in families with three or more affected women with endometriosis. (Oxford: n=52; Australia: n=196). In the Oxford data set, a non-parametric linkage score (Kong & Cox (K&C) Log of ODds (LOD)) of 3.52 was observed on chromosome 7p (genome-wide significance P=0.011). A parametric MOD score (equal to maximum LOD maximized over 357 possible inheritance models) of 3.89 was found at 65.72 cM (D7S510) for a dominant model with reduced penetrance.. After including the Australian data set, the non-parametric K&C LOD of the combined data set ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Localization of a gene for familial recurrent arthritis. AU - Wise, Carol A.. AU - Bennett, Lynda B.. AU - Pascual, Virginia. AU - Gillum, Joseph D.. AU - Bowcock, Anne M.. PY - 2000/12/10. Y1 - 2000/12/10. N2 - Objective. To localize the gene for familial recurrent arthritis via a genome-wide linkage scan in an extended kindred with the disease. Methods. A 3-generation family in which 9 members were diagnosed with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) was ascertained. In this family the disease was of very early onset and included episodic inflammation leading to eventual destruction of joints, muscle, and skin. We treated this disorder as a distinct clinical entity that we have named familial recurrent arthritis. A genome-wide linkage scan with polymorphic microsatellites at 10 - 15-cM resolution was initiated. Results. The genome-wide scan generated a maximum 2-point logarithm of odds score with D15S211 (Z(max) = 3.27 at θ(max) = 0.0010). Haplotype reconstruction defined a ...
However, Cawthon and colleagues theorized that these mutations could be a biomarker for rates of aging and potentially predict lifespan in younger individuals as well as fertility in women.. The researchers sequenced DNA from 61 men and 61 women who were grandparents in 41 three-generational families. The families were part of the Centre dEtude du Polymorphisme Humain (CEPH) consortium, which was central to many key investigations that have contributed toward a modern understanding of human genetics.. The researchers analyzed blood DNA sequences in trios consisting of pairs of grandparents from the first generation and one of their children from the second generation. Thats because germline mutations are passed on to their offspring. Mutations found in the childs blood DNA that were not present in either parents blood DNA were then inferred to have originated in the parents germlines. The researchers were then able to determine which parent each germline mutation came from, and, therefore, ...
Patients with osteosarcoma were diagnosed at the Hemato-Oncology Unit, Hospital Infantil La Paz, Madrid. Linkage Analysis and genotyping analysis techniques with bioinformatics tools. Hashimoto T, Takahashi R, Yandell DW, et al. O ( Cawkwell L, Bell SM, Lewis FA, et al. Application of linkage analysis to genetic counselling in families with hereditary, 14. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. 800-638-3030 (within USA), 301-223-2300 (international). O In sporadic (hereditary nonfamilial) retinoblastoma, genotyping is irrelevant but the microsatellite analysis is important to the detection of large deletions, and functions as prescreening in the search of mutations that help to determine the risk in offspring. Lippincott Journals Subscribers, use your username or email along with your password to log in. Application of intragenic DNA probes in prenatal screening for, 29. Molecular detection of constitutional deletions in patients with, 2. Although ...
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Read High-resolution mapping of a linkage group on mouse chromosome 8 conserved on human chromosome 16Q, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Genes involved in pathways regulating body weight may operate differently in men and women. To determine whether sex-limited genes influence the obesity-related phenotype body mass index (BMI), we have conducted a general nonscalar sex-limited genome-wide linkage scan using variance components analysis in Mx (Neale, 2002). BMI measurements and genotypic data were available for 2053 Australian female and male adult twins and their siblings from 933 families. Clinical measures of BMI were available for 64.4% of these individuals, while only self-reported measures were available for the remaining participants. The mean age of participants was 39.0 years of age (SD 12.1 years). The use of a sex-limited linkage model identified areas on the genome where quantitative trait loci (QTL) effects differ between the sexes, particularly on chromosome 8 and 20, providing us with evidence that some of the genes responsible for BMI may have different effects in men and women. Our highest linkage peak was ...
Duration: Each subject who agrees to linkage will receive ALERT follow-up until successful linkage or 60 days following enrollment for linkage to care or 90 days following enrollment for linkage to PrEP, whichever comes first. The duration of the 593 project will be for 3.5 years or until all subjects have been enrolled and successfully linked, or 60 days pass for linkage to care or 90 days for linkage to PrEP.. Sample Size: Up to 600 subjects will be tested and offered linkage across all CCTG sites: LA County-USC Medical Center, Harbor-UCLA/City of Long Beach Department of Health and Human Services, UCSD/San Diego Health and Human Services Agency.. Study Population: Eligible subjects will include any persons 18 years of age or older who have been tested for HIV at one of the CCTG testing sites (LA County + USC, Long Beach Department of Health and Human Services, and San Diego Health and Human Services Agency). ...
To start a mating, place 4 to 5 young adult (or L4) males on a plate with 4 young adult (or L4) hermaphrodites. We will use plates seeded with a very small drop of OP50 bacteria for our crosses. Using only a small central area of the plate helps our worms find each other quickly and mate. The self-cross progeny produced by the hermaphrodite must be distinguished from outcross progeny. Generally, the hermaphrodite is homozygous for a visible marker and the progeny from self-crossing will show the same phenotype as the hermaphrodite, while progeny from a cross with a wild type male (outcross) will be heterozygous for the maternal marker and thus appear wild type if the mutation is recessive. When no other way is available to distinguish selfcross from outcross progeny, only males are scored. It is the outcross progeny of a mating that are of interest; essentially, all male progeny are crossprogeny. For this reason it is critical than the male transfer not be contaminated with any eggs or ...
A course for researchers who have a basic understanding of linkage analysis but little or no experience in using linkage programs will be held June 12-16 at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. Topics will include an introduction to linkage analysis, practical aspects of data collection, strategies and methods of linkage analysis, incomplete penetrance (narrow and wide definition), inbreeding loops, simple risk calculations, and introduction to computer simulation. A major part of the course will consist of exercises using LINKAGE software programs. Attendance is limited to 30. [Contact: Katherine Montague (212/960-2507, Fax: /568-2750, [email protected]).]. ...
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Linkage of genomewide scan: LOD=1.98, MLS=2.829, NPL=3 with ...... Linkage of genomewide scan: LOD=1.98, MLS=2.829, NPL=3 with marker D17S799; Family-specific linkage of fine mapping: LOD=3.4, NPLall Zb >12.0 with marker D17S1876;LOD=3.5, NPLall Zb >12.0 with marker D17S678;LOD=3.9, NPLall Zb >12.0 with marker D17S1881;LOD=3.8, NPLall Zb >12.0 with marker D17S1844;LOD=3.7, NPLall Zb >12.0 with marker D17S1791; Linkage of fine mapping in combined families: LOD=2.5, NPLall Zb >12.0 with marker D17S1876 More... ...
In contrast, Dupuis and Van Eerdewegh HST method [3] conditions on parental genotypes. They argue that if a parent is homozygous at all risk SNPs in a linked region, then it should not matter which haplotype is transmitted to affected offspring because they confer the same disease susceptibility. Hence, there should be no excess IBD sharing by affected siblings inherited from parents who are homozygous at all risk variants. However, if a particular set of SNPs is in linkage equilibrium with the susceptibility SNPs, the sharing probabilities should not depend on the parental genotypes, and the probabilities of IBD sharing from homozygous and heterozygous parents should be the same. For the intermediate situation in which the tested SNPs are in LD with risk variants, some increased sharing may be observed from homozygous parents, and the degree of excess sharing will depend on the LD between the tested SNPs and the disease SNPs. Therefore, they propose to compare the observed IBD sharing from ...
Linkage of at least two complementation groups of ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) to the chromosomal region 11q23 is now well established. We provide here an 18-point map of the surrounding genomic region, derived from linkage analysis of 40 CEPH families. On the basis of this map, 111 AT families from Turkey, Israel, England, Italy, and the United States were analyzed, localizing the AT gene(s) to an 8-cM sex-averaged interval between the markers STMY and D11S132/NCAM. A new Monte Carlo method for computing approximate location scores estimates this location as being at least 10(8) times more likely than the next most likely interval, with a support interval midway between STMY and D11S132 that is either 5 ...
Synonyms for linkage editor in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for linkage editor. 2 words related to linkage editor: editor program, editor. What are synonyms for linkage editor?
Genetic linkage analysis[edit]. During the 1990s and the first several years of this millenium, microsatellites were the ... They are also used in genetic linkage analysis to locate a gene or a mutation responsible for a given trait or disease. ... "Genetic linkage analysis in the age of whole-genome sequencing". Nat Rev Genet. 16 (5): 275-284. doi:10.1038/nrg3908. PMC ... specifically in genetic linkage analysis to locate a gene or a mutation responsible for a given trait or disease. As a special ...
"Genetic linkage & mapping". Khan Academy. AMGEN Foundation. Retrieved 2021-03-29.. ...
The early genetic research focused on linkage distance between various gross phenotypes using linkage analysis. Between 1924 ... Castle, W. E.; Sawin, P. B. (1941). "Genetic linkage in the rabbit". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 27 (11): ... Each of these groups has different needs for genetic information. In the biomedical research community and the pharmaceutical ... Carneiro, M. (2011). "The Genetic Structure of Domestic Rabbits". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 28 (6): 1801-1816. doi: ...
Ott, Jurg (1999). Analysis of human genetic linkage. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-6140-6. OCLC ...
Castle, WE; Sawin, PB (1941). "Genetic linkage in the rabbit". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 27 (11): 519- ... Of the 3 genetic sources of rex rabbits, the one due to the gene r1 is the most popular with fanciers and has the simple ... It was not linked with any other genes known at the time although it was eventually found to be in the same linkage group as r2 ... The diversity of genetic factors results in variable coat thickness/density and fur length. A great variety exists within rex ...
Recombination and genetic linkageEdit. Main articles: Chromosomal crossover and Genetic linkage ... researchers commonly use genetic linkage and genetic pedigree charts to find the location on the genome associated with the ... The amounts of linkage between a series of genes can be combined to form a linear linkage map that roughly describes the ... Some genes do not assort independently, demonstrating genetic linkage, a topic discussed later in this article.) ...
Penrose, L.S. (1938). "Genetic linkage in graded human characters". Annals of Eugenics. 8 (3): 233-7. doi:10.1111/j.1469- ... A much earlier source of sib-pair linkage implementation was, in 1935 and 1938, proposed by Lionel S. Penrose, who is father of ... Penrose, L.S. (1935). "The detection of autosomal linkage in data which consist of pairs of brothers and sisters of unspecified ... Haseman, J. K.; Elston, R. C. (March 1972). "The investigation of linkage between a quantitative trait and a marker locus". ...
The Autism Genome Project database contains genetic linkage and CNV data that connect autism to genetic loci and suggest that ... Genetic linkage analysis has been inconclusive; many association analyses have had inadequate power. For each autistic ... Exploratory subsetting of autism families based on savant skills improves evidence of genetic linkage to 15q11-q13. Journal of ... Mapping autism risk loci using genetic linkage and chromosomal rearrangements. Nat Genet. 2007;39(3):319-28. doi:10.1038/ng1985 ...
Siegmund, David (1998). "Genetic linkage analysis: An irregular statistical problem". Doc. Math. (Bielefeld) Extra Vol. ICM ...
"Welcome , Forensic DNA Profiling Facility" (PDF). Reis, Andre (1991). "PCR in Linkage Analysis of Genetic Diseases". PCR Topics ... Pathogen Identification High Throughput SNP Genotyping Mutation Analysis Gene Deletion Analysis Template Quantitation Linkage ...
This process is referred to sometimes as linkage analysis. By the 1990s ever advancing technology had made genetic analysis ... Tanzi RE (October 1991). "Genetic linkage studies of human neurodegenerative disorders". Current Opinion in Neurobiology. 1 (3 ... focusing in particular how the genetic code an organism carries affects its expressed traits. Mutations in this genetic ... The discovery of linkages could then lead to therapeutic drugs, which could reverse brain degeneration. One of the most ...
... is influenced by genetic linkage. Taylor, Duncan; Bright, Jo-Anne; Buckleton, John S. (2016). "Biological basis ...
This is the phenomenon of genetic linkage. The traits that the genes coded for will be coextensive in a population because the ... is wait around for the genetic material to be broken at just the right place between their respective genes. Once this happens ... process Darwin discovered can't tell the difference between these two genes or their traits until cross-over breaks the linkage ...
... genetic linkage to chromosome 9q21". American Journal of Human Genetics. 61 (4): 899-908. doi:10.1086/514876. PMC 1715977. PMID ... clinical and genetic findings in three families from the Arabian peninsula". Movement Disorders. 18 (4): 403-7. doi:10.1002/mds ...
"The 1993-94 Généthon human genetic linkage map". Nature Genetics. 7 (2 Spec No): 246-339. doi:10.1038/ng0694supp-246. PMID ...
Evidence for Linkage and Genetic Heterogeneity. Evidence for an inflammatory bowel disease locus on chromosome 3p26: linkage, ... Evidence for Linkage and Genetic Heterogeneity". Human Molecular Genetics. 7 (13): 2073-2078. doi:10.1093/hmg/7.13.2073. PMID ... linkage, transmission/disequilibrium and partitioning of linkage". Human Molecular Genetics. 11 (21): 2599-2606. doi:10.1093/ ... Learning genetic epistasis using Bayesian network scoring criteria. Comprehensive analysis of HLA-G: implications for recurrent ...
Fischer J, Bouadjar B, Heilig R, Fizames C, Prud'homme JF, Weissenbach J (1999). "Genetic linkage of Meleda disease to ...
... evidence for linkage and genetic heterogeneity". Human Molecular Genetics. 7 (13): 2073-8. doi:10.1093/hmg/7.13.2073. PMID ...
McKenzie, L; Sillence, D (1992). "Familial Scheuermann disease: A genetic and linkage study". Journal of Medical Genetics. 29 ( ...
"The 1993-94 Généthon human genetic linkage map". Nature Genetics. 7 (2 Spec No): 246-339. doi:10.1038/ng0694supp-246. PMID ... Hung RJ, Hall J, Brennan P, Boffetta P (Nov 2005). "Genetic polymorphisms in the base excision repair pathway and cancer risk: ...
A genetic linkage map was developed for P.blakesleeanus. This genetic map was constructed from 121 progeny of a cross between ... Chaudhary S, Polaino S, Shakya VP, Idnurm A (2013). "A new genetic linkage map of the zygomycete fungus Phycomyces ...
Drayna, D.; White, R. (1985-11-15). "The genetic linkage map of the human X chromosome". Science. 230 (4727): 753-758. doi: ... where he created the first full length genetic linkage map of the human X chromosome. After completing his post-doctoral ... "Mice with genetic defect for human stuttering offer new insight into speech disorder , Washington University School of Medicine ... In 2010, Drayna uncovered the first genetic basis of stuttering in humans. Since the initial discovery, he has expanded the ...
1987). "Coagulation factor XIII: genetic linkage studies with F13B". Genet. Epidemiol. 4 (1): 43-9. doi:10.1002/gepi.1370040106 ... 1993). "Two genetic defects in a patient with complete deficiency of the b-subunit for coagulation factor XIII". Blood. 82 (1 ...
"A Genetic Linkage Map of the Human Genome" (PDF). Cell. 51: 319-337. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(87)90158-9. Cook-Deegan, Robert ( ... During her time at Collaborative Research, her research group created the first genetic map of the human genome. Donis-Keller ...
His doctoral thesis was on genetic linkage in mice. Upon receiving the PhD from Harvard, George Snell was employed as a teacher ... Snell studied the genetic effects of x-rays on mice with Muller. This experience "served to convince me that research was my ... "discovered the genetic factors that determine the possibilities of transplanting tissue from one individual to another. It was ...
Genetic linkage analyses localized the mutations to chromosome 10. Molecular genetic studies aimed to identify the genetic ...
It is used in the analysis of genetic linkage. Lander, E.S. and Green, P. (1987) "Construction of multilocus genetic linkage ... "Handling Marker-Marker Linkage Disequilibrium: Pedigree Analysis with Clustered Markers", Am J Hum Genet., 77(5), 754-767. v t ...
1994). "The 1993-94 Généthon human genetic linkage map". Nat. Genet. 7 (2 Spec No): 246-339. doi:10.1038/ng0694supp-246. PMID ... 1992). "A second-generation linkage map of the human genome". Nature. 359 (6398): 794-801. doi:10.1038/359794a0. PMID 1436057. ...
Cody JD, Singer FR, Roodman GD, Otterund B, Lewis TB, Leppert M, Leach RJ (1997). "Genetic linkage of Paget disease of the bone ... Hughes AE, Shearman AM, Weber JL, Barr RJ, Wallace RG, Osterberg PH, Nevin NC, Mollan RA (1994). "Genetic linkage of familial ... evidence for a susceptibility locus on chromosome 18q and for genetic heterogeneity". J. Bone Miner. Res. 13 (6): 911-7. doi: ...
... correlation between clinical and genetic linkage studies". Clinical Dysmorphology. 3 (2): 96-103. doi:10.1097/00019605- ... In individuals without an identified mutation in one of these genes, the genetic cause of the condition is unknown. The TCOF1, ... Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a genetic disorder characterized by deformities of the ears, eyes, cheekbones, and chin. The ... Diagnosis is generally suspected based on symptoms and X-rays, and potentially confirmation by genetic testing. Treacher ...
While schizophrenia is widely believed to be multifactorially genetic by biopsychiatrists, no characteristic genetic markers ... 2008). Family-based linkage and association has been successfully implemented (Rosyara et al. 2009)[26] ... then there is a strong chance that the disease is genetic[citation needed] and that the patient will also be a genetic carrier ... If a genetic cause is suspected and little else is known about the illness, then it remains to be seen exactly how many genes ...
It was used by Punnett in early studies of genetic linkage.[8] Complementary factor inheritance was also elucidated in sweet ... Punnett, R.C. (1923). Linkage in the sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus). Journal of Genetics 13: 101-123. ... It is highly suitable as a genetic subject because of its ability to self-pollinate and its easily observed Mendelian traits ... Many genetic principles were discovered or confirmed in this species. ...
What's the linkage between technology and this fundamental problem?. - Bernstein, Jared, "It's Not a Skills Gap That's Holding ... "Philosophical and Ethical Problems of Technicism and Genetic Engineering". Society for Philosophy and Technology. 3.. ... Nikolas Kompridis has also written about the dangers of new technology, such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology, synthetic ... Essentially, he stands for a neutral approach of the linkage between technology and American issues concerning unemployment and ...
... together with the linkages or dependencies between species. ...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ... "Critical evaluation of the linkage between tick-based risk measures and the occurrence of Lyme disease cases". J Med Entomol ... this is more common after infection by certain Borrelia strains in people with certain genetic and immunologic characteristics. ... and show a great deal of genetic diversity. ...
... is increased in patients and the genetic susceptibility to SLE cannot be distinguished.[33] Linkage could not be extended to ... And while the level of A-B linkage in general was nowhere near Cw-B linkage, the linkage between A1-Cw7-B8 was reasonably ... genetic) linkage between A1 and B1, this was extended to Cw7 locus.[6] ... Linkage with disease could more firmly be attributed to B8::DQ2 portion of A1::DQ2 relative to A30-B18::DQ2, indicating some ...
This linkage is further evidenced by the fact that two of the genes, HAO1 and BMP2, affecting medullary bone (the part of the ... Pleiotropy describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. The underlying mechanism is genes that ... Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease that causes deformed red blood cells with a rigid, crescent shape instead of the normal ... This article is about genetic pleiotropy. For drug pleiotropy, see Pleiotropy (drugs). ...
"The genetic code" (PDF). Nobel Lecture (en inglés). nobelprize.org. Arquivado dende o orixinal (pdf) o 09 de xaneiro de 2009 ... "A second-generation linkage map of the human genome". Nature 359 (6398). ... "FDA Clears First of Kind Genetic Lab Test". FDA News (en inglés). FDA. Consultado o 13 de setembro de 2008 ... "Biochemical Method for Inserting New Genetic Information into DNA of Simian Virus 40: Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing ...
"Genetic linkage evidence for a familial Alzheimer's seasesease locus on chromosome 14". Science. 258 (5082): 668-71. Bibcode: ... These rare genetic variants are autosomal dominant.[26] Cancer[edit]. In addition to its role in Alzheimer's disease, ...
Ambros V, Baltimore D (August 1978). "Protein is linked to the 5' end of poliovirus RNA by a phosphodiester linkage to tyrosine ... Like most positive sense RNA genomes, the genetic material alone is infectious; although substantially less virulent than if ...
Detailed genetic and physiological studies on these foxes have been done by Trut and colleagues. For example, the "star-shaped ... "A meiotic linkage map of the silver fox, aligned and compared to the canine genome". Genome Research. 17: 387-399.. ... "A marker set for construction of a genetic map of the silver fox (Vulpes vulpes)". Journal of Heredity. 95: 185-194.. ...
Powers PA, Gregg RG, Hogan K (Sep 1992). "Linkage mapping of the human gene for the alpha 1 subunit of the cardiac DHP- ... Hedley PL, Jørgensen P, Schlamowitz S, Moolman-Smook J, Kanters JK, Corfield VA, Christiansen M (Sep 2009). "The genetic basis ... Large-scale genetic analyses have shown the possibility that CACNA1C is associated with bipolar disorder [21] and subsequently ... "Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci". Nature. 511 (7510): 421-427. doi:10.1038/nature13595 ...
Ether linkages are more chemically stable than the ester linkages found in Bacteria and Eukarya, which may be a contributing ... Gene transfer and genetic exchangeEdit. Halobacterium volcanii, an extreme halophilic archaeon, forms cytoplasmic bridges ... Top, an archaeal phospholipid: 1, isoprene chains; 2, ether linkages; 3, L-glycerol moiety; 4, phosphate group. Middle, a ... Current knowledge on genetic diversity is fragmentary and the total number of archaeal species cannot be estimated with any ...
... can act only on linear chains of glycogen (α1-4 glycosidic linkage). Its work will immediately come to a ... "McArdle disease: molecular genetic update". Acta Myol. 26 (1): 53-7. PMC 2949323 . PMID 17915571 ... Once the Schiff base linkage is formed, holding the PLP molecule in the active site, the phosphate group on the PLP readily ... 4 glycosidic linkage. PLP is readily deprotonated because its negative charge is not only stabilized within the phosphate group ...
The covalent linkage impedes replication fork progression. Thus unlinking the ICL is required before replication can resume. ... Hall JD, Scherer K (1981). "Repair of psoralen-treated DNA by genetic recombination in human cells infected with herpes simplex ... mechanism and genetic control". J. Mol. Biol. 103 (1): 39-59. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(76)90051-6. PMID 785009.. ... effects of mutations influencing genetic recombination and DNA metabolism". J. Bacteriol. 136 (2): 538-47. doi:10.1128/JB.136.2 ...
Lobo, Ingrid; Shaw, Kelly (2008). "Discovery and Types of Genetic Linkage". Nature Education Knowledge. SciTable (Nature ... Jacob F; Monod J (June 1961). "Genetic regulatory mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins". J Mol Biol. 3 (3): 318-56. doi: ... Andrews, Christine A. (2010). "Natural Selection, Genetic Drift, and Gene Flow Do Not Act in Isolation in Natural Populations ... April 2010). "Analysis of genetic inheritance in a family quartet by whole-genome sequencing". Science 328 (5978): 636-9. ...
4 linkages. This type of beta-glucan is also referred to as a mixed-linkage (1→3), (1→4)-beta-D-glucan. The (1→3)-linkages ... Genetic evidence shows the ancestral forms of A. sterilis grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East.[6] Oats are usually ... Oat beta-glucan is composed of mixed-linkage polysaccharides. This means the bonds between the D-glucose or D-glucopyranosyl ... beta-D-linkages.[citation needed] The percentages of beta-glucan in the various whole oat products are: oat bran, having from ...
... a physical trait may also be selected for due to mechanisms like linkage disequilibrium. Often, juvenile behaviors are selected ... Evolution of genetic systems. *Evolvability. *Mutational robustness. *Neutral networks. *Evolution of sexual reproduction ...
Human genetic variation. *Genetic linkage. *Single-nucleotide polymorphisms. *Identity by descent. *Genetic disorder ...
Association and linkage studies. In genetic epidemiology, a genome-wide association study (GWA study, or GWAS) is an ... Genetic origins. Main article: Genetic studies on Jews. Efforts to identify the origins of Ashkenazi Jews through DNA analysis ... The genome-wide genetic study carried out in 2010 by Behar et al. examined the genetic relationships among all major Jewish ... Genetic counseling and genetic testing are often undertaken by couples where both partners are of Ashkenazi ancestry. Some ...
"Genetic determinants of disease progression in Alzheimer's disease". Journal of Alzheimer's Disease. 43 (2): 649-55. doi ... "Genome-wide association and linkage identify modifier loci of lung disease severity in cystic fibrosis at 11p13 and 20q13.2" ...
There are many violations of independent assortment due to genetic linkage.. Of the 46 chromosomes in a normal diploid human ... Along with crossing over, independent assortment increases genetic diversity by producing novel genetic combinations. ... However, Mendel's laws stop short of explaining some patterns of genetic inheritance. For most sexually reproducing organisms, ...
Genetic modification. Main article: Genetically modified tomato. Tomatoes that have been modified using genetic engineering ... For instance, linkage drag is a phenomenon that has been responsible for alterations in the metabolism of the tomato fruit. ... Genetic evidence has now shown that Linnaeus was correct to put the tomato in the genus Solanum, making Solanum lycopersicum ... Hence genetic design of a commercial variety that combines the advantages of types u and U requires fine tuning, but may be ...
11-cis-retinal + aporhodopsin → rhodopsin + H2O; forms Schiff base linkage to lysine, -CH=N+H-, ... Fernald, Russell D. (2006). "Casting a Genetic Light on the Evolution of Eyes". Science. 313 (5795): 1914-1918. Bibcode:2006Sci ... Formation of the Schiff base linkage involves removing the oxygen atom from retinal and two hydrogen atoms from the free amino ... binds covalently to a lysine on the transmembrane helix nearest the C-terminus of the protein through a Schiff base linkage. ...
It serves two biological functions: a site of redox reactions and a mechanical linkage that allows proteins to retain their ... a rare genetic disease. ...
Lamb MJ, Jablonka E (2005). Evolution in four dimensions: genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic variation in the ... The acetylation event converts the positively charged amine group on the side chain into a neutral amide linkage. This removes ... These are normal genetic diseases caused by gene deletions or inactivation of the genes, but are unusually common because ... It could confer an adaptive advantage by giving cells the ability to switch into a PSI+ state and express dormant genetic ...
Genetic driftEdit. Even if a well adapted Y chromosome manages to maintain genetic activity by avoiding mutation accumulation, ... A sex-ratio theory for sex linkage and inbreeding has new implications in cytogenetics and entomology". Science. 156 (3774): ... National Library of Medicine's Genetic Home Reference *^ "Definition of holandric , Dictionary.com". www.dictionary.com. ... In human genetic genealogy (the application of genetics to traditional genealogy), use of the information contained in the Y ...
Biomedical: all aspects of health, physical and mental, developed within the human body as influenced by genetic make-up. ... An increasing number of studies and reports from different organizations and contexts examine the linkages between health and ... There are also genetic disorders that are inherited by the person and can vary in how much they affect the person and when they ...
Linkage analysis and chromosomal rearrangement revealed the cause of SCS to be mutations in the TWIST gene (twist transcription ... Wynbrandt, James (2008). Genetic Disorders and Birth Defects. New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 340. ISBN 9780816063963. " ... Allanson, Judith, Cassidy, Suzanne (2010). Management of Genetic Syndromes. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 230-235. ... or other tissues in order to find genetic disorders. Direct gene testing can determine whether an individual has SCS by testing ...
Utilizing genetic testing in health care raises many ethical, legal and social concerns; one of the main questions is whether ... The TBI community is specifically motivated with the development of approaches to identify linkages between fundamental ... 2001). A Model for Understanding and Affecting Cancer Genetic Information Seeking, Elsevier Science Inc. ... In the USA, several companies offer direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing. The company that performs the majority of testing ...
... this volume offers a concise introduction to human genetic linkage analysis and gene mapping. Jurg Ott provides mathematical ... Also new is an overview of nonparametric approaches to linkage and association analysis. A chapter on two-locus inheritance ... and statistical foundations of linkage analysis for researchers and practitioners, as well as practical comments on available ... Genetic_Linkage.html?id=plqENXLNAN0C&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAnalysis of Human Genetic Linkage. ...
The site of a particular genetic system on a chromosome is called a locus. Each locus may be the site of several alleles ( ... Blood groups and genetic linkage: Red cell groups act as markers (inherited characteristics) for genes present on chromosomes, ... Genetic and evolutionary significance of blood groups*Blood groups and genetic linkage ... Blood groups and genetic linkage. Red cell groups act as markers (inherited characteristics) for genes present on chromosomes, ...
Recombination frequency is a measure of genetic linkage and is used in the creation of a genetic linkage map. Recombination ... A linkage map is not a physical map (such as a radiation reduced hybrid map) or gene map. Linkage analysis is a genetic method ... Linkage maps help researchers to locate other markers, such as other genes by testing for genetic linkage of the already known ... A linkage map (also known as a genetic map) is a table for a species or experimental population that shows the position of its ...
A genetic linkage map for cattle.. M D Bishop, S M Kappes, J W Keele, R T Stone, S L Sunden, G A Hawkins, S S Toldo, R Fries, M ... A genetic linkage map for cattle.. M D Bishop, S M Kappes, J W Keele, R T Stone, S L Sunden, G A Hawkins, S S Toldo, R Fries, M ... A genetic linkage map for cattle.. M D Bishop, S M Kappes, J W Keele, R T Stone, S L Sunden, G A Hawkins, S S Toldo, R Fries, M ... Three-hundred thirteen genetic markers ordered in 30 linkage groups, anchored to 24 autosomal chromosomes (n = 29), the X and Y ...
Recombination frequency is a measure of genetic linkage and is used in the creation of a genetic linkage map. Recombination ... Linkage mapEdit. Thomas Hunt Morgans Drosophila melanogaster genetic linkage map. This was the first successful gene mapping ... Linkage analysisEdit. Linkage analysis is a genetic method that searches for chromosomal segments that cosegregate with the ... Linkage maps help researchers to locate other markers, such as other genes by testing for genetic linkage of the already known ...
The map consists of 238 DArT array and SSR based markers in 21 linkage groups with a total genetic distance of 608.3 cM. In ... Construction of a genetic linkage map and QTL analysis in bambara groundnut. *Ahmad N ... We report here the construction of the first genetic linkage map of bambara groundnut using a F3 population derived from a ... Ahmad, N. S., Redjeki, E. S., Ho, W. K., Aliyu, S., Mayes, K., Massawe, F., … Belzile, F. (2016). Construction of a genetic ...
Genetic record matching via linkage disequilibrium. Michael D. Edge, Bridget F. B. Algee-Hewitt, Trevor J. Pemberton, Jun Z. Li ... Genetic record matching via linkage disequilibrium. Michael D. Edge, Bridget F. B. Algee-Hewitt, Trevor J. Pemberton, Jun Z. Li ... Linkage disequilibrium matches forensic genetic records to disjoint genomic marker sets. Michael D. Edge, Bridget F. B. Algee- ... Linkage disequilibrium matches forensic genetic records to disjoint genomic marker sets Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ...
A key step in such a genetic improvement scheme is the generation of a genetic linkage map. Genetic maps allow the ... Linkage map:. The Atlantic halibut linkage map consists of 604 unique markers on 24 linkage groups. Centromere location was ... on the basis of total genetic distance and gene-centromere data for each linkage group. Linkage groups AH-4, AH-14, AH-17, and ... Lee, B. Y., W. J. Lee, J. T. Streelman, K. L. Carleton, A. E. Howe et al., 2005 A second-generation genetic linkage map of ...
... Yong-Hyuk Kim1 and Yourim Yoon2 ... Yong-Hyuk Kim and Yourim Yoon, "Linkage-Based Distance Metric in the Search Space of Genetic Algorithms," Mathematical Problems ...
Genetic Linkage Studies of Stuttering. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ...
Genetic Recombination and Linkage. Bacteria and Viruses. Clinicians Perspective: Pathology Meets Engineering. Classical ... Which of the following would not disrupt genetic balance?Let us now begin with some problems based on chromosomal basis of ... on bioengineering and interface with biology and engineers.In todays class we will study genetic recombination and linkage the ... And that is whereour understanding of molecular biology.And lots of genetic tools are becoming really important in medical ...
Using disease symptoms to improve detection of linkage under genetic heterogeneity.. Bureau A1, Labbe A, Croteau J, Mérette C. ... In this paper, we propose approaches to use the resulting latent class probabilities in linkage analysis. We present results ... In an analysis of autism symptoms in families from the Autism Genetics Research Exchange, linkage signals obtained with latent ...
Genetic map: an ordered list of the. genetic loci along a particular. chromosome. Linkage map: a genetic map based. on ... Genetic recombination: the. production of new combinations of. traits inherited from two parents. yellow-round x green-wrinkled ... data to map a chromosomes genetic. loci. ...
... - up-to-the-minute news and headlines. ... In this study, we developed a genetic linkage map to improve breeding programs of Japanese gentians. Results: Enriched simple ... Conclusions: This is the first reported genetic linkage map for Japanese gentians and for any species belonging to the family ... As demonstrated by mapping of functional markers and the stem color trait, our results will help to explain the genetic basis ...
Refining the clinical diagnostic criteria in light of genetic linkage studies.. Johnston RL1, Seller MJ, Behnam JT, Burdon MA, ... On genetic analysis, a haplotype was identified in each family, which was found in all definitely affected members but not in ... diagnostic criteria for dominant optic atrophy based on eight British families in which the diagnosis was confirmed by linkage ... were classified clinically as definitely or possibly affected on the basis of the domiciliary examination before genetic ...
Genetic Linkage Study of Idiopathic Talipes Equinovarus (ITEV) (Clubfoot). Further study details as provided by University of ... Genetic Linkage Study of Idiopathic Talipes Equinovarus (ITEV) (Clubfoot). This study has been completed. ... The goal of this study is to identify and characterize the genetic loci causing idiopathic talipes equinovarus (clubfoot). ... Hechts group has identified two genes, NAT2 and CASP10, which demonstrate evidence for linkage and association to ITEV. ...
Genetic and biochemical dissection of protein linkages in the cadherin-catenin complex. T S Jou, D B Stewart, J Stappert, W J ... Genetic and biochemical dissection of protein linkages in the cadherin-catenin complex ... Genetic and biochemical dissection of protein linkages in the cadherin-catenin complex ... Genetic and biochemical dissection of protein linkages in the cadherin-catenin complex ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about BJPsych Bulletin.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
A genetic linkage map for the zebrafish. By JH Postlethwait, SL Johnson, CN Midson, WS Talbot, M Gates, EW Ballinger, D Africa ... A genetic linkage map for the zebrafish. By JH Postlethwait, SL Johnson, CN Midson, WS Talbot, M Gates, EW Ballinger, D Africa ... To facilitate molecular genetic analysis of vertebrate development, haploid genetics was used to construct a recombination map ...
Technological advances have made possible the development of high-resolution genetic linkage maps for the mouse. These maps in ... A genetic linkage map of the mouse: current applications and future prospects ... A genetic linkage map of the mouse: current applications and future prospects ... A genetic linkage map of the mouse: current applications and future prospects ...
Genetic Linkage, Genetic Map, Genetics, Homologous Recombination, Inheritance, Linked Genes, Meiosis, Nonparental Type, ... Genetic Linkage and Distances Mendels work suggested that traits are inherited independently of each other. Morgan identified ... Genetic Maps. Janssen did not have the technology to demonstrate crossing over so it remained an abstract idea that was not ... Sturtevant divided his genetic map into map units, or centimorgans (cM), in which a recombination frequency of 0.01 corresponds ...
... which DNA sample is from an individual having a family genetic background in which family ancestors of the family have DNA ... presence or absence of one or more cystic fibrosis alleles in a DNA sample taken from an individual having a family genetic ... Since the RFLPs are stably inherited they can be used as genetic markers useful in the construction of a human genetic linkage ... Recently gene linkage testing for a dominant genetic trait, i.e. Huntingtons Chorea has been carried out by others using the D ...
Pooled genome-wide linkage data on 424 ADHD ASPs suggests genetic heterogeneity and a common risk locus at 5p13. *M N Ogdie1. ... Ogdie, M., Bakker, S., Fisher, S. et al. Pooled genome-wide linkage data on 424 ADHD ASPs suggests genetic heterogeneity and a ... In aggregate, both the pooled linkage analysis and the GSMA indicate that there is a lack of overlap of linkage peaks with the ... These data further support that one or more of the significant linkage signals within each sample reflect true linkage and that ...
Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was measured overall and within chromosomes, allelic frequency groups, subgroups related by ... A total of 1229 informative SNPs and 1749 haplotypes within 327 loci was used to estimate the genetic diversity, population ... Genetic loci Is the Subject Area "Genetic loci" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Clear guidelines for the interpretation of linkage results are needed to avoid a flood of false positive claims. At the same ... Genetic studies are under way for many complex traits, spurred by the recent feasibility of whole genome scans. ... Genetic dissection of complex traits: guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results Nat Genet. 1995 Nov;11(3):241-7 ... Genetic studies are under way for many complex traits, spurred by the recent feasibility of whole genome scans. Clear ...
What is Genetic linkage? Meaning of Genetic linkage as a finance term. What does Genetic linkage mean in finance? ... Definition of Genetic linkage in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to Genetic linkage: genetic map, Complete linkage. Linkage. The ability to buy and sell the same security on different ... Genetic linkage financial definition of Genetic linkage https://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Genetic+linkage ...
In humans many genetic linkages and association studies have attempted to identify genetic variations that are involved in ... So, the strategy that we chose for genetic analysis was to analyze the linkage between the mortality and survival phenotypes ... with the susceptible parental LIII mice, to carry out the genetic linkage analysis. Backcrosses are more powerful than ... E. Lander and L. Kruglyak, "Genetic dissection of complex traits: guidelines for interpreting and reporting linkage results," ...
Illumina-based genetic linkage map for wheat leaf rust.. Joly, D.L., Mulock, B.S., Cuomo, C.A., Saville, B.J., McCallum, B.D., ... In order to generate a high-resolution genetic linkage map, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified ... Illumina-based genetic linkage map for wheat leaf rust., 27th American Genetics Society meeting on Fungal Genetics, Asilomar, ... more than 25,000 SNPs were selected and used to generate a genetic linkage map. Although they were obtained from different ...
1. A comparison of linkage groups associated with the 56 homeologous linkage groups of the RG × H linkage map and homologous ... A genetic linkage map of the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and its comparison to the diploid Fragaria reference ... As a precursor to the development of such tools, a genetic linkage map was developed from a F1 population comprising 174 ... Nier S, Simpson DW, Tobutt KR, Sargent DJ (2006) Construction of a genetic linkage map of an interspecific diploid Fragaria BC1 ...
  • Since the blood groups are inherited in a regular fashion, they can be used as genetic markers in family studies to investigate whether any two particular loci are sited on the same chromosome-i.e., are linked. (britannica.com)
  • These methods are useful in classical linkage studies to locate blood group loci. (britannica.com)
  • This map provides the skeletal framework prerequisite to development of a comprehensive genetic map for cattle and analysis of economic trait loci (ETL). (genetics.org)
  • We show that records can be matched across genotype datasets that have no shared markers based on linkage disequilibrium between loci appearing in different datasets. (pnas.org)
  • Linkage analysis is used to map genetic loci by use of observations of related individuals. (nih.gov)
  • In an effort to accelerate halibut broodstock productivity through genetic selection, a coordinated breeding scheme that includes phenotypic selection, family effects, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) based on quantitative trait loci (QTL) has been implemented in Atlantic Canada. (genetics.org)
  • When we confi ned analysis to samples from northeast- the summers of 2004, 2005, 2006, and 2007, as described ern states, we confi rmed linkage disequilibrium between ospC and IGS1 loci ( 7 , 10 , 14 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Our map will also be an important resource for further genetic analyses such as mapping of quantitative trait loci and map-based cloning of genes in this species. (7thspace.com)
  • The goal of this study is to identify and characterize the genetic loci causing idiopathic talipes equinovarus (clubfoot). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Is the Subject Area "Genetic loci" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • There was no significant genetic linkage disequilibrium, suggesting that all 9 loci are transmitted to offspring independently. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genetic linkage and association studies have identified many chromosomal regions and quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with complex phenotypes related to alcohol induced behaviors and/or alcoholism. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Genetic linkage relationships between two enzyme loci, Est-2 and Acph, in the mosquito Aedes ( Finlaya) togoi. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The female (Redgauntlet) and male (Hapil) linkage maps are composed, respectively of 170 loci in 32 linkage groups covering 1,675.3 cM and 182 loci in 37 linkage groups covering 1,440.7 cM, with 37 markers common to both maps. (springer.com)
  • However, the occurrence of duplicated loci on homologues of linkage groups FG1 and FG6 provided evidence of a putative chromosomal duplication or translocation event in Fragaria . (springer.com)
  • 1985 ) The information content of phase-known matings for ordering genetic loci. (biologists.org)
  • Evidence for linkage to NIDDM was found with polymorphic loci that map to the long arms of human chromosomes 20 and 12 in regions containing the MODY1 and MODY3 genes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A maximum LOD score of 1.48 was calculated for linkage to MODYl-linked loci and 1.45 to MODY3-linked loci in Caucasian sib pairs. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This opens up the possibility of using a classical genetic approach to identify genetic loci that determine important phenotypic traits in this parasite, such as host specificity, drug resistance, and pathogenicity. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The ability of the T.brucei genetic maps to pinpoint loci underlying phenotypic variation is limited by the number of recombination events, and therefore progeny, available for analysis. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Genetic linkage between the loci for colour blindness and Duchenne type muscular dystrophy. (bmj.com)
  • The approaches used in this study will contribute to two loci linkage mapping techniques in segregating plant populations. (academicjournals.org)
  • Two high density genetic linkage maps were constructed based on 21,478 single nucleotide polymorphism loci mapped in the Williams 82 x G. soja (Sieb. (unl.edu)
  • Based upon the plots of the genetic on physical distance of the loci, the euchromatic and heterochromatic regions along each chromosome in the new assembly were delimited. (unl.edu)
  • The information will facilitate the study of recombination hot spots in the soybean genome, identification of genes or quantitative trait loci controlling yield, seed quality and resistance to biotic or abiotic stresses as well as other genetic or genomic research. (unl.edu)
  • In this study, a population of 97 F 1 seedlings from a cross between the interspecific hybrid (European × Chinese species) pear 'Bayuehong' (BYH) and the Chinese pear 'Dangshansuli' (DS) was used for establishing linkage maps and for quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery. (springer.com)
  • Blas AL, Yu Q, Veatch OJ, Paull RE, Moore PH, Ming R (2011) Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling fruit size and shape in papaya. (springer.com)
  • Identification of quantitative trait loci controlling sucrose content based on an enriched genetic linkage map of sugarcane ( Saccharum spp. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of DArT markers differentiation between the identified genetic groups pointed out outlier loci potentially linked to genes controlling traits of interest, including disease resistance genes for which evidence of selection had already been reported. (www.gov.uk)
  • Distances are established by linkage analysis, which determines the frequency at which two gene loci become separated during chromosomal recombination. (webref.org)
  • Linkage between the loci was identified by an LOD score of ≥3. (ijbs.com)
  • This linkage map may be used to map quantitative trait loci associated with important traits of the species and may assist in breeding programs. (ijbs.com)
  • Each linkage group is named based on M. truncatula , with four homologs ordered A to D based on the number of loci. (g3journal.org)
  • To determine the extent to which high myopia in a cohort of 51 U.K. families can be attributed to currently identified genetic loci. (arvojournals.org)
  • Quantitative genetics studies aiming to identify the adaptively important genomic loci will require a high-resolution genetic linkage map. (utexas.edu)
  • Genetic maps provide an important genomic resource for understanding genome organization and evolution, comparative genomics, mapping genes and quantitative trait loci, and associating genomic segments with phenotypic traits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have developed a near-saturated and complete genetic linkage map of black spruce using a three-generation outbred pedigree and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL), expressed sequence tag polymorphism (ESTP), and microsatellite (mostly cDNA based) markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic maps provide an important genomic resource for understanding genome organization and evolution, comparative genomics, mapping genes and quantitative trait loci, and associating genes and genomic segments with phenotypic traits, especially in those species whose genomes are not yet completely sequenced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic diversity values, based on the 7 loci , ranged from 0.821 both for HLA-DPA1 and -DQB1 to 0.934 for HLA-B, with a mean value of 0.846. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, preliminary calculations suggest that the MHC explains between 17 and 62% of the genetic etiology of MS. This heterogeneity is also supported by the minority of families showing no linkage or association with loci within the MHC. (oup.com)
  • The map in this report considered to be one of the most high-density genetic linkage map in sunflower and could lay a foundation for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) fine mapping or map-base gene cloning. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Linkage and copy number variation analyses implicate chromosome 11p12-p13 and neurexins, respectively, among other candidate loci. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • In genetics, complete linkage is defined as the state in which two loci are so close together that alleles of these loci are virtually never separated by crossing over. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linkage between two loci can have significant implications regarding the inheritance of certain types of diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutation for adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD) has previously been localised to chromosome 16 by the demonstration of genetic linkage with the loci for the alpha-chain of haemoglobin and phosphoglycolate phosphatase. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These studies were carried out, however, on only nine families so that the possibility remained that mutations at other genetic loci might produce the disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 5 Identification of genetic loci underlying the elastin content is the first step toward understanding which facet of elastin biology leads to a deficit of this parameter in the BN rat. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this study, we have performed a genetic analysis in an F2 cohort of 161 rats derived from BN and LOU rat strains to detect genetic loci contributing to quantitative variations of aortic elastin, collagen, and cell protein contents and to test a possible relationship between these loci and those linked to susceptibility to aortic IEL ruptures. (ahajournals.org)
  • 69 genes and 145 loci have been discovered to be involved in the genetic heterogeneity of non-syndromic hearing loss, and the phenotype of the disorder is largely associated with its pattern of inheritance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial research on genetic heterogeneity was conducted using genetic linkage analyses, which map genetic loci of related individuals to identify genomic differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Americans contain marker alleles that are in admixture linkage disequilibrium with ESRD susceptibility alleles. (knowcancer.com)
  • To achieve this goal, we will employ Mapping by Admixture Linkage Disequilibrium (MALD) analysis, a specialized form of linkage disequilibrium mapping, to perform a genome-wide association study in approximately 2,500 African-American participants from the FIND and CHOICE studies. (knowcancer.com)
  • Fine map putative chromosomal region in admixture linkage disequilibrium with ESRD with densely-spaced single nucleotide polymorphisms. (knowcancer.com)
  • Cui C, Mei H, Liu Y, Zhang H and Zheng Y (2017) Corrigendum: Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium of an Association-Mapping Panel Revealed by Genome-Wide SNP Markers in Sesame. (frontiersin.org)
  • García-Dorado 2012 ) but, so far, these analyses are confined to the simplistic assumption of no linkage disequilibrium. (g3journal.org)
  • Linkage disequilibrium between four intragenic polymorphic microsatellites of the NF1 gene and its implications for genetic counselling. (bmj.com)
  • Because of linkage disequilibrium, the informativeness of marker combinations for genotyping of NF1 families is diminished. (bmj.com)
  • Population structure, extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) as well as signatures of selection were investigated in sorghum using a core sample representative of worldwide diversity. (www.gov.uk)
  • Whole genome linkage disequilibrium as measured by mean r2 decreased from 0.18 (between 0 to 10 kb) to 0.03 (between 100 kb to 1 Mb), stabilizing at 0.03 after 1 Mb. (www.gov.uk)
  • Glaszmann, J.C. Genetic Structure, Linkage Disequilibrium and Signature of Selection in Sorghum: Lessons from Physically Anchored DArT Markers. (www.gov.uk)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are characterized by high levels of polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD), important characteristics to study the genetic background of human populations and their genetic structure. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium in Drosophila melanogaster with Different Rates of Development. (escholarship.org)
  • Some models specifically predict that individuals with faster rates of development (i.e., greater fitness) should be more heterozygous (and exhibit more linkage disequilibrium) than individuals with slower development. (escholarship.org)
  • When co-inheritance is non-random the genes are in linkage disequilibrium . (stackexchange.com)
  • Note that factors other than genetic linkage can affect linkage disequilibrium. (stackexchange.com)
  • Evidence for significant linkage disequilibrium in this interval was also found. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Multiple markers in the region exhibit transmission disequilibrium, with the peak single marker multiallelic linkage disequilibrium noted at D1S490 (pedigree disequilibrium test [PDT] global P value = 0.0091). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The finding of linkage together with significant transmission disequilibrium provides strong evidence for a susceptibility locus at 1q41 in human SLE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though there is much work left to do, the available evidence is particularly convincing (by repetition and independent replication) that a group of markers, spanning 22 kb and presumed to be in linkage disequilibrium with the causative variant(s) of the candidate gene, is strongly associated with SLE. (grantome.com)
  • Two genetic markers that are physically near to each other are unlikely to be separated onto different chromatids during chromosomal crossover, and are therefore said to be more linked than markers that are far apart. (wikipedia.org)
  • A linkage map (also known as a genetic map) is a table for a species or experimental population that shows the position of its known genes or genetic markers relative to each other in terms of recombination frequency, rather than a specific physical distance along each chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A linkage map is a map based on the frequencies of recombination between markers during crossover of homologous chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The greater the frequency of recombination (segregation) between two genetic markers, the further apart they are assumed to be. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linkage maps help researchers to locate other markers, such as other genes by testing for genetic linkage of the already known markers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three-hundred thirteen genetic markers ordered in 30 linkage groups, anchored to 24 autosomal chromosomes (n = 29), the X and Y chromosomes, four unanchored syntenic groups and two unassigned linkage groups spanning 2464 cM of the bovine genome are summarized. (genetics.org)
  • The map consists of 238 DArT array and SSR based markers in 21 linkage groups with a total genetic distance of 608.3 cM. (mendeley.com)
  • By using correlations among genetic markers close to one another in the genome, the method can succeed even if the datasets contain no overlapping markers. (pnas.org)
  • What if no markers are shared between two genetic datasets? (pnas.org)
  • Genetic record matching with no overlapping markers has many potential uses. (pnas.org)
  • Using 93 BC1 progeny from G. scabra backcrossed with a G. triflora double haploid line, 19 linkage groups were constructed with a total of 263 markers (97 SSR, 97 AFLP, 39 RAPD, and 30 REMAP markers). (7thspace.com)
  • One phenotypic trait (stem color) and 10 functional markers related to genes controlling flower color, flowering time and cold tolerance were assigned to the linkage map, confirming its utility. (7thspace.com)
  • As demonstrated by mapping of functional markers and the stem color trait, our results will help to explain the genetic basis of agronomic important traits, and will be useful for marker-assisted selection in gentian breeding programs. (7thspace.com)
  • 4 ). For that analysis, we combined the data into a single sample and used a single linkage map constructed from the deCODE high-density map, Marshfield genetic maps, and the UCSC Genome Browser to validate the relative order of markers, and performed multipoint MLS analysis under the possible triangle (i.e. (nature.com)
  • The maximum number of markers in one linkage group was 15, the minimum was two. (springer.com)
  • The development of this linkage map will facilitate the study and dissection of QTL associated with traits of economic importance such as disease resistance and fruit quality, and provides a foundation for the development of markers for the purpose of marker assisted breeding and selection in the cultivated strawberry, F. × ananassa . (springer.com)
  • Adjacent markers were marked by an average genetic distance of 1.01 cm, corresponding to a 128.80 kb physical distance. (mdpi.com)
  • The map spans 1436.12 CentiMorgans (cM), with an average of 8.11 cM among markers, and consists of 177 EST-SSR markers distributed in 14 linkage groups (LG) with an average of 102.58 cM per LG. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our newly developed EST-SSR markers and linkage map are very useful for gene mapping, comparative genomics and molecular marker-assisted breeding. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nonparametric analysis of chromosome 12 inheritance data collected with the MODY3-linked markers D12S349 and D12S86 provides evidence for linkage to NIDDM with P values of 0.04 and 0.006, respectively, in Caucasian sib pairs using similar analyses. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • No evidence for linkage of MODY1 and MODY3 markers to NIDDM in African-American sib pairs was observed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A robust linkage map for chromosome 2 was established, and additional markers were assigned to the third and X chromosomes by linkage to morphological markers of known physical location. (ajtmh.org)
  • This study significantly increases the number of genetic markers available for An. (ajtmh.org)
  • The genetic linkage map was constructed from the analysis of 119 polymorphic microsatellite markers in a population of 38 F1 progeny, obtained from the genetic cross of a T.b.gambiense group 2 strain, STIB 386, with a T.b.brucei strain, STIB 247. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The aim of the study was to determine genetic linkage between gene pairs, Co-4 2 / Phg-2 , on bean-chromosome Pv08 and Co-5 /"P.ult" on-chromosome Pv07, to increase the efficiency of dual selection of resistance genes for major bean diseases, with molecular markers. (academicjournals.org)
  • However, because the assembly was primarily built based on the linkage maps constructed with a limited number of markers and recombinant inbred lines (RILs), the assembled sequence, especially in some genomic regions with sparse numbers of anchoring markers, needs to be improved. (unl.edu)
  • Molecular markers are being used by researchers in the soybean community, however, with the updating of the Glyma1.01 build based on the high-resolution linkage maps resulting from this research, the genome positions of these markers need to be mapped. (unl.edu)
  • Data were statistically analysed to obtain two genetic linkage maps and identify putative QTL regions and markers associated to the resistance trait. (ishs.org)
  • We have constructed a genetic map for a tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, using DNA markers. (stir.ac.uk)
  • We have identified linkages among 162 (93.1%) of these markers. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Using amplified length polymorphism (AFLP), simple sequence repeat (SSR), and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers, along with the S locus for self-incompatibility, two parental linkage maps were constructed. (springer.com)
  • The map of BYH consisted of 214 markers (143 AFLPs, 64 SRAPs, 6 SSRs, and S) mapped on all 17 linkage groups of the pear genome with a total length of 1,352.7 cM. (springer.com)
  • The map of DS was comprised of 122 markers (83 AFLPs, 37 SRAPs, 1 SSR, and S) distributed along all 17 linkage groups and covering 1,044.3 cM. (springer.com)
  • Genetic linkage analysis of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis using human chromosome 21 microsatellite DNA markers. (harvard.edu)
  • Linkage disequilirium between each pair of markers was evaluated. (bmj.com)
  • Based on the segregation of 294 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, two mating type factors, and the sporeless trait, the linkage map consisted of 11 linkage groups with a total length of 837.2 centimorgans (cM). (asm.org)
  • The gene region responsible for the sporeless trait was located in linkage group IX with 32 amplified fragment length polymorphism markers and the B mating type factor. (asm.org)
  • Recombination and low informativity of markers lead to a reduction of the effective sample size in multipoint linkage analysis. (uni-marburg.de)
  • For meta-analysis of linkage studies, a common map of genetic markers is necessary to align results obtained in different studies with different markers. (uni-marburg.de)
  • All markers showing a LOD score greater than 1 in this analysis correspond to previously reported linkage regions, including chromosome 6q with a maximum LOD score of 2.45 and chromosomes 9, 12, 14, 18 and 22. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Aitken KS, Jackson PA, McIntyre CL (2005) A combination of AFLP and SSR markers provide extensive map coverage and identification of homo(eo)logous linkage groups in a sugarcane cultivar. (springer.com)
  • The properties of DArTs to describe sorghum genetic structure were compared to those of SSRs and of previously published RFLP markers. (www.gov.uk)
  • As the first step for better understanding the genomic structure and functional analysis, we constructed a genetic linkage map for olive flounder based on 180 microsatellites and 31 expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived markers. (ijbs.com)
  • Dotplot of the positions of markers mapped on the DM3 linkage map relative to their position on the M. truncatula physical map. (g3journal.org)
  • The genetic positions of markers are shown in Kosambi centiMogan (cM). (g3journal.org)
  • Genetic linkage maps are important tools to develop markers linked to important phenotypic characters. (ishs.org)
  • The consensus map included a total of 168 SSR markers in eight linkage groups (LGs). (ishs.org)
  • Average number of SSR markers per linkage group was 21. (ishs.org)
  • The linkage map will help to develop markers linked to important traits when phenotyping data was completed. (ishs.org)
  • The map contains 429 markers (393 gene-based SNPs and 36 microsatellites) distributed in 14 linkage groups, and spans 1,493 cM with an average marker interval of 3.4 cM. (utexas.edu)
  • The maternal map had 816 and the paternal map 743 markers distributed over 12 linkage groups each. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic linkage maps are maps that show the relative positions and distances between markers or genes along the chromosomes as determined by their recombination frequency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently available genetic linkage maps of L . edodes were constructed mainly using the fingerprinting type of markers such as randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) [ 8 - 10 ] or amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers [ 11 , 12 ] that are strain-specific, difficult to reproduce and lack DNA sequence information. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Distorted markers were found distributed throughout the genetic linkage map, leading to the hypothesis that distortion was caused by the high level of genomic divergence between the parental isolates. (up.ac.za)
  • A genetic map of the lettuce downy mildew pathogen, Bremia lactucae, constructed from molecular markers and avirulence genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genetic linkage map of EST-SSR and SRAP markers in the endangered Chinese endemic herb Dendrobium (Orchidaceae). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dense genetic linkage maps of three Populus species (Populus deltoides, P. nigra and P. trichocarpa) based on AFLP and microsatellite markers. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1999) [ 6 ] developed three separate linkage maps containing a total of 1421 markers including 606 SSRs, 689 RFLPs, 79 RAPDs and 47 other markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These markers were mapped using three RIL populations: the Minsoy × Noir 1 population with 240 RILs, the A81-356022 × PI468916 population with 57 F2 plants, and the Clark × Harosoy population with 59 F 2 plants and resulted in 20 linkage groups which were assumed to correspond to the 20 pairs of soybean chromosomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition to establishing routine parentage verification using genetic markers that are polymorphic in this species, this study established a technique powerful enough to estimate ancestry in cheetahs of unknown antecedents. (up.ac.za)
  • Genetic linkage analysis was done by testing microsatellite markers detected linked to Tabby for linkage to a conserved region in the cheetah that potentially codes for the King coat colour. (up.ac.za)
  • Genetic linkage analysis was not detected between the King locus and the domestic cat microsatellite markers used for this study, with LOD scores remaining non-significant for all the markers. (up.ac.za)
  • We have investigated a family with typical XLMTM in which no linkage to these markers was found. (mysciencework.com)
  • Our findings strongly suggest genetic heterogeneity in myotubular myopathy and indicate that great care should be taken when using Xq28 markers in linkage studies for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. (mysciencework.com)
  • Objective: In this study, we proposed to construct a high-density genetic linkage map by an F7 population of sunflower using SNP and SSR Markers. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Method: The SLAF-seq strategy was employed to further develop SNP markers with SSR markers to construct the high-density genetic map by the HighMap software. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The final high-density genetic map included 4,912 SNP and 93 SSR markers distributed in 17 linkage groups (LGs) and covered 2,425.05 cM with an average marker interval of 0.49 cM. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Pin Lyu*, Jianhua Hou, Haifeng Yu and Huimin Shi, "High-density Genetic Linkage Map Construction in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Using SNP and SSR Markers", Current Bioinformatics (2020) 15: 1. (eurekaselect.com)
  • [5] The increasing availability of DNA amplification by PCR at the beginning of the 1990s triggered a large number of studies using the amplification of microsatellites as genetic markers for forensic medicine, for paternity testing, and for positional cloning to find the gene underlying a trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Computerized lod score analysis is a simple way to analyze complex family pedigrees in order to determine the linkage between mendelian traits (or between a trait and a marker, or two markers). (blogspot.com)
  • three are putative translocations and affect homeologous linkage groups 3, 7 and 11, where highly distorted markers are found. (gva.es)
  • Such genetic heterogeneity of linkage would invalidate the general use of chromosome 16 markers for the purposes of detection of the disease, and complicate the characterisation of APKD at the molecular level. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Genetic linkage is the tendency of DNA sequences that are close together on a chromosome to be inherited together during the meiosis phase of sexual reproduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The site of a particular genetic system on a chromosome is called a locus . (britannica.com)
  • Such effects within a genetic complex can be due to determinants on the same chromosome-they are then said to be cis-or to determinants on the opposite chromosome of a chromosome pair-trans. (britannica.com)
  • Twenty-four linkage groups were identified, consistent with the 24 chromosomes seen in chromosome spreads. (genetics.org)
  • Genetic Dissection of Seed Dormancy using Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines in Rice ( Oryza sativa L. (mdpi.com)
  • The total genetic distance corresponding to all 12 chromosome linkage maps was 2,840.12 cm. (mdpi.com)
  • Comparison of Medicago sativa linkage group 1 maps with the M. truncatula chromosome 1 physical map. (g3journal.org)
  • Analyses of five key fermentation kinetic parameters among the F1 progeny identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome I with a significant degree of linkage to maximal fermentation rate (Vmax) at low temperature. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • The maternal, paternal, and consensus maps in our study consistently coalesced into 12 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number (1n = 1x = 12) of 12 in the genus Picea . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Linkage is the tendency of genes on the same chromosome to remain together during the process of inheritance. (stackexchange.com)
  • Genetic Linkage is the tendency of alleles, which are located closely together on a chromosome, to be inherited together during the process of meiosis in sexually reproducing organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of linkage, similarity equates to physical proximity on a chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further, since the X chromosome is not considered in any of the genetic linkage studies, he figures that the genes might be present on both the sex chromosomes. (wordpress.com)
  • However, previous studies have yielded conflicting evidence for linkage to chromosome Xq28. (cambridge.org)
  • In the early stages of developing a linkage map, the data are used to assemble linkage groups, a set of genes which are known to be linked. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linkage analysis is a genetic method that searches for chromosomal segments that cosegregate with the ailment phenotype through families and is the analysis technique that has been used to determine the bulk of lipodystrophy genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Towards this goal, in preliminary studies, Dr. Hecht's group has identified two genes, NAT2 and CASP10, which demonstrate evidence for linkage and association to ITEV. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Moreover, at least 9 seedling and 2 adult-plant avirulence genes were shown to segregate in this F2 population and candidate genes identified using the genetic map are currently being investigated. (gc.ca)
  • The genetic linkage map presented here is the first available for T.b.gambiense and can now be utilised to find the location within the genome of genes responsible for phenotypic traits in this clinically important sub-species. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Generally, the weak or incomplete genetic linkage between marker pairs studied showed that all the four genes mentioned earlier have to be tagged with a corresponding linked marker during selection. (academicjournals.org)
  • We conclude that Prx -Profiling was effective in finding the genetic location of Prx genes on the barley genome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Molecular and genetic studies indicated different structural arrangements of blaZ and qacA/B , including variable intergenic distances and transcriptional directions of the two genes on the same plasmid within the strains. (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that qac resistance genes are common and that linkage between resistance to disinfectants and penicillin resistance occurs frequently in clinical isolates in Norway. (asm.org)
  • Resistance genes on transferable genetic elements such as plasmids and transposons may lead to the epidemic spread of resistance between species. (asm.org)
  • No significant linkage was found to the MYP2 locus on 18p, or to the COL2A1 , COL11A1 , and FBN1 genes. (arvojournals.org)
  • High-density genetic maps and identification of genes or genetic factors controlling traits related to productivity, health, and adaptation to climatic change could accelerate forest tree improvement programs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Until recently, most genetic studies in MS have been association studies using the case-control design testing specific candidate genes and studying only sporadic cases. (oup.com)
  • Genetic maps are the foundation for anchoring and orienting annotated genome assemblies and positional cloning of candidate genes. (nature.com)
  • Meiotic recombination, the reshuffling of genes derived from ancestral gametes during meiosis, allows segregation of parental alleles to be detected in zygote progeny, and hence the inference of order and distance of genes to generate a genetic linkage map that represents a model of the physical chromosomes. (nature.com)
  • As a tool for genetic research and breeding, genetic linkage maps have been widely used to discover the position and to clone genes controlling biotic and abiotic stress resistance, agronomic and seed quality traits and to facilitate marker-assisted selection of the traits with low heritability and/or high phenotyping cost. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genetic linkage between genes is measured in centimorgans . (stackexchange.com)
  • These probabilities of recombination can be used to construct a linkage map, or a graphical representation of the location of genes and gene in respect to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • This project, AI242717, has established or confirmed 17 different robust genetic effects, including two susceptibility genes. (grantome.com)
  • The identified genes and resulting more complete genetic model of lupus will provide better understanding of the pathophysiology of lupus, improved prognostic tools for disease assessment in lupus as well as, perhaps, in other autoimmune diseases, and new molecular targets for therapeutics. (grantome.com)
  • IQ genetic database permits the exploration of intelligence quotient (IQ)-associated human genes. (omictools.com)
  • Morgan (and his people) soon realized that a chromosomal inheritance implied linkage between genes. (wordpress.com)
  • For well-studied organisms the linkage groups correspond one-to-one with the chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, these observations led to the development of the Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance , which identified chromosomes as the genetic material responsible for Mendelian inheritance. (oercommons.org)
  • Even though male and female gametes (sperm and egg) differ in size and morphology, they have the same number of chromosomes, suggesting equal genetic contributions from each parent. (oercommons.org)
  • Eleven major linkage groups were resolved, one for each of the megabase chromosomes, resulting in a total genetic map length of 733 cM, and an average map unit size of 24 Kb/cM. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The map spans 704 Kosambi cM in 30 linkage groups covering the 22 chromosomes of this species. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Twenty-four linkage groups were identified, consistent with the 24 chromosomes of this species. (ijbs.com)
  • Integrating linkage and comparative maps with cytogenetic map analyses assigned two linkage groups to their particular chromosomes. (nature.com)
  • RAD-seq linkage mapping and patterns of segregation distortion in sedges: meiosis as a driver of karyotypic evolution in organisms with holocentric chromosomes. (uchicago.edu)
  • A genome-wide sib-pair scan for quantitative language traits reveals linkage to chromosomes 10 and 13. (uchicago.edu)
  • When Thomas Morgan started to work with Drosophila , he didn't believe that chromosomes were carrying the genetic information . (wordpress.com)
  • Inspired by Theodor Boveri hypothesis, Morgan started to believe that chromosomes were, indeed, the carriers of the genetic information. (wordpress.com)
  • Welcome to MOOC-NPTEL course on bioengineering and interface with biology and engineers.In todays class we will study genetic recombination and linkage the production of off springswith combination of traits that differ from those found in either parental generations.Morgan in addition to making contribution for understanding the chromosomal basis ofthe inheritance he was also making many interesting fundamental observations. (alison.com)
  • To facilitate molecular genetic analysis of vertebrate development, haploid genetics was used to construct a recombination map for the zebrafish Danio (Brachydanio) rerio. (sciencemag.org)
  • Recombination fraction r, among gene pairs, the likelihood of linkage, L(r), and logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were computed using the statistical relationship of likelihood which assumes a binomial distribution. (academicjournals.org)
  • The different organizations may be due to the presence of various genetic elements involved in cointegration, recombination, and rearrangements. (asm.org)
  • Sex differences in recombination were observed in a few linkage groups, which may be caused by haploid selection. (utexas.edu)
  • This process is known as genetic recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • If linkage is complete, there should be no recombination events that separate the two alleles, and therefore only parental combinations of alleles should be observed in offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • Click here for more information on Linkage Maps [1]) In diploid eukaryotic cells, recombination can occur during the process of Meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through recombination, daughter cells have the greatest amount of genetic diversity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombination frequency is a measure of genetic linkage and is used in the creation of a genetic linkage map . (blogspot.com)
  • A linkage map is not a physical map (such as a radiation reduced hybrid map) or gene map. (wikipedia.org)
  • books.google.com - The first and still the only book of its kind, this volume offers a concise introduction to human genetic linkage analysis and gene mapping. (google.com)
  • Linkage analysis methods can be applied to both major gene disorders (parametric linkage) and complex diseases (model-free or non-parametric linkage). (nih.gov)
  • As shown in Figure 1 , there is evidence for linkage within each individual study and significant evidence for a risk gene on 5p13 (MLS 3.67, empiric P =0.011) based on the pooled data. (nature.com)
  • FSGS attacks the kidney's filtering system, causing proteins to be lost into the urine and reducing the kidney's ability to filter wastes from the blood The research team, led by Elizabeth Brown, MD of Children's Division of Nephrology, working in the laboratory of Martin Pollak, MD of the Renal Division at Brigham and Women's Hospital, identified the gene by performing a genetic linkage analysis in two large families with FSGS. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Coverage includes high fidelity whole genome amplification, procedures that are a prelude to genetic linkage analysis, the molecular profiling of genomic DNA in a variety of guises, transcriptional profiling, alternative strategies for protein profiling, approaches for gene characterization and the identification of protein interaction networks, and a detailed tutorial about genomics technology useful in the elucidation of gene function. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All linkage groups resolved contained at least one transferable marker (SSR or gene-specific) that had been mapped on the diploid Fragaria reference map (FV × FB), and therefore all linkage groups could be identified as homologous to one of the seven diploid Fragaria linkage groups. (springer.com)
  • We have therefore confirmed the linkage of SLE to 13q32, which was reported previously, and suggested that an SLE susceptibility gene in this region is specific to predisposition of African Americans to a specific form of SLE, with males at high risk. (springer.com)
  • The SCAR marker pair SAB3/PYAA19 for the gene pair Co-5 /"P.ult" exhibited moderate linkage (r = 32 cM with a high LOD score of 9.2) for BC 3 F 6 population, but relatively stronger linkage for the F 2 population (r = 21 cM with a high LOD score of 18.7). (academicjournals.org)
  • However, the linkage among SCAR marker pair SH18/SN02, for the gene pair Co-4 2 / Phg- 2 was incomplete for BC 3 F 6 population (r = 47 cM with a low LOD score of 0.16) as well as F 2 population (r = 44 cM with a low LOD score of 0.7). (academicjournals.org)
  • Two-point linkage analyses were performed using the same disease gene segregation model as was used in the original publications, followed by nonparametric and multipoint analyses using Genehunter (http://linkage.rockefeller.edu/soft/gh/ provided in the public domain by Rockefeller University, New York, NY), with additional maximization over the parameter α, the proportion of linked families. (arvojournals.org)
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae FLO1 Gene Demonstrates Genetic Linkage to Increased Fermentation Rate at Low Temperatures. (auckland.ac.nz)
  • This multifaceted study primarily aimed at understanding the genetic make-up of captive versus wild cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) populations in South Africa, with a specific emphasis on a valuable gene pool of a recessive phenotype that is increasingly being maintained in captive population country-wide. (up.ac.za)
  • Is there a term for when a detrimental gene can be positively selected for because of linkage to a very fit gene? (stackexchange.com)
  • They are also used in genetic linkage analysis to locate a gene or a mutation responsible for a given trait or disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centerpiece of the competitive renewal is to identify the gene responsible for the autosomal dominant linkage at 5q14 with SLE in pedigrees containing an SLE affected with autoimmune thyroid disease. (grantome.com)
  • We have explored 599 SNPs for association in the linkage interval and have identified a strong candidate gene. (grantome.com)
  • There are many thousands of untested SNPs in the 5q14 linkage interval from 91 mb to 100 mb available to help find genetic association if subsequent results do not continue to support candidate gene involvement, including 2051 dbSNPs. (grantome.com)
  • Once this work with the responsible gene at 5q14 is complete we will redeploy the experimental capacity of AI24717 to explore the next most promising linkage. (grantome.com)
  • A genetic map is not a gene map . (blogspot.com)
  • Through a genetic screen, we identified the causative gene of autosomal recessive AI in AMI and analyzed its role in amelogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found the novel genetic linkage between a 2-bp insertional mutation of Sp6 gene and the AI phenotype in AMI rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cystic fibrosis is an inherited autosomal recessive genetic disorder that occurs through a mutation in a single gene that codes for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disorders on the Autism spectrum have high levels of genetic heterogeneity and result from multiple genetic pathways including single gene mutation disorders (such as Fragile X Syndrome), regional and submicroscopic variations in the number of gene copies (either heritable or de novo), rare and common genetic variants, and chromosomal aberrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an analysis of autism symptoms in families from the Autism Genetics Research Exchange, linkage signals obtained with latent class-derived phenotypes were stronger than those obtained using the original autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. (nih.gov)
  • albimanus and provides useful tools for population genetics and genetic mapping studies in this important malaria vector. (ajtmh.org)
  • The current literature on cheetah genetics has very little information on diversity levels of wild South African cheetahs, and no information on founder dynamics and genetic make-up of South African captive populations. (up.ac.za)
  • Browse other questions tagged genetics genetic-linkage or ask your own question . (stackexchange.com)
  • These studies are called genetic linkage studies, and the basic laws of genetics were derived by Mendel using them to study a pea plant. (wordpress.com)
  • Genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity can also affect the success of a study, and several methods exist to address such problems. (nih.gov)
  • Using disease symptoms to improve detection of linkage under genetic heterogeneity. (nih.gov)
  • These studies report a high genetic variability and heterogeneity of the Azorean population, explained by the settling history of the islands, where a major contribution of mainland Portugal individuals is evident. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To date, published linkage studies have provided no evidence of genetic heterogeneity in severe neonatal myotubular myopathy (XLMTM). (mysciencework.com)
  • The genetic architecture of ASDs is complex, requiring large samples to overcome heterogeneity. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • A study of genetic linkage heterogeneity in adult polycystic kidney disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • No evidence was found to suggest heterogeneity of genetic linkage between alpha-globin and the APKD locus in this population. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Genetic heterogeneity occurs through the production of single or similar phenotypes through different genetic mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marked genetic heterogeneity is correlated to multiple levels of causation in many common human diseases including cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorders, inherited predisposition to breast cancer, and non-syndromic hearing loss. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased understanding of the role of genetic heterogeneity and the mechanisms through which it produces common disease phenotypes will facilitate the development of effective prevention and treatment methods for these diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 Mathematical Modelling and Genetic Epidemiology Division of Genomic Medicine, Henry Wellcome Laboratories for Medical Research, University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield S10 2RX, UK. (nih.gov)
  • Recent genetic and genomic analyses of fish (see V olff 2005 for review) have provided insights into the genomic organization and evolution process that underlie the diversity of teleosts. (genetics.org)
  • These characteristics of the halibut genome suggest that the halibut linkage map may facilitate comparative genomic studies and provide insights into teleost genome evolution and the mechanisms that guide it. (genetics.org)
  • Importantly, the utility of a genetic map together with genomic sequence data was demonstrated, and the genetic basis of a growth QTL determined. (up.ac.za)
  • Most recently, two of four genomic screens demonstrated linkage to the MHC, although specific allelic associations were not tested. (oup.com)
  • In addition, two meta-analyses of linkage genome scans for the complex phenotypes asthma and adult stature are performed and discussed. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Jurg Ott provides mathematical and statistical foundations of linkage analysis for researchers and practitioners, as well as practical comments on available computer. (google.com)
  • Also new is an overview of nonparametric approaches to linkage and association analysis. (google.com)
  • He is editor-in-chief of Human Heredity and the author of the first generally available computer program on human linkage analysis (LIPED). (google.com)
  • In this paper, we propose approaches to use the resulting latent class probabilities in linkage analysis. (nih.gov)
  • To describe the clinical findings and refine the clinical diagnostic criteria for dominant optic atrophy based on eight British families in which the diagnosis was confirmed by linkage analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Subjects were classified clinically as definitely or possibly affected on the basis of the domiciliary examination before genetic analysis, and these results were compared with the haplotype analysis. (nih.gov)
  • On genetic analysis, a haplotype was identified in each family, which was found in all definitely affected members but not in those regarded as unaffected. (nih.gov)
  • While direct analysis of pooled genotype data is a more powerful method for detection of linkage, 10 the unweighted GSMA relies entirely upon the rank order of linkage peaks within the samples and indicates the likelihood of the observed overlap between the two studies, independent of differing sample sizes and the absolute magnitude of linkage peaks in a single study. (nature.com)
  • Their blood test, called a genetic linkage analysis, yielded accurate positive or negative results for more than two-thirds of the volunteers but was inconclusive for the remaining participants (SN: 2/16/91, p.103). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Multipoint model-based linkage analysis generated a lod score of 3.13 in the same chromosomal region with a low-disease allele frequency of 0.0004 and a disease penetrance of 0.5 for the 18 African American male families. (springer.com)
  • Clerget-Darpoux F, Bonaiti-Pellie C, Hochez J (1986) Effects of misspecifying genetic parameters in lod score analysis. (springer.com)
  • 1993 ) Genetic analysis of hedgehog signalling in the Drosophila embryo. (biologists.org)
  • A genetic map of the non human-infective subspecies, T.b.brucei, has already been assembled and successfully used in quantitative trait analysis of a number of traits specific to this pathogen. (gla.ac.uk)
  • A comparative analysis of the T.b.gambiense and T.b.brucei genetic maps revealed synteny and marker order to be conserved between the two sub-species. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Twelve new progeny clones were isolated by this approach during the trial and incorporated into the analysis, representing a step toward a higher resolution second-generation genetic map. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Derdakova M , Beati L , Pet'ko B , Stanko M , Fish D . Genetic variability within Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genospecies established by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer in Ixodes ricinus ticks from the Czech Republic. (cdc.gov)
  • Further analysis of the linkage-trees, grounded on the knapsack-core concept, enabled interesting conclusions about the reason that linkage-learning did not provide useful information to solve MKPs in the settings used for the experiments. (uc.pt)
  • Linkage genome scans for genetically complex diseases have low power with the sample sizes that were often used in the past, and hence meta-analysis of several scans for the same disease might be a promising approach. (uni-marburg.de)
  • A new meta-analysis method is introduced which is based on a weighted combination of non-parametric linkage scores. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The proposed meta-analysis method was applied to four linkage genome scans for the phenotype asthma and five studies of a candidate genetic region. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Multipoint nonparametric linkage analysis is performed and different weighting schemes are used to combine the score statistics of individual studies to an overall statistic. (uni-marburg.de)
  • This meta-analysis of nine asthma linkage studies does not identify significant regions of genetic linkage to asthma. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The statistical methods that can be applied for a meta-analysis of linkage studies depend crucially on the available data, especially any additional information besides the usually reported linkage statistics. (uni-marburg.de)
  • For the meta-analysis of linkage genome scans for the highly heritable trait adult height, only LOD scores from variance components linkage analysis, which are measures of significance and not effect estimates, could be obtained. (uni-marburg.de)
  • A variance components linkage analysis in this sample unselected for height gave evidence for linkage in several regions. (uni-marburg.de)
  • Classical genetic linkage analysis is an effective method for eliminating a large fraction of the candidate causal variants discovered, even in small families that lack a unique linkage peak. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For this reason, exome sequencing is often preceded by genetic linkage analysis, which allows variants outside of linkage peaks to be excluded. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Classical linkage analysis using the multipoint Lander-Green algorithm [ 32 ], which is a HMM, incorporates genetic map and allele frequency information and allows for great flexibility in the disease model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unlike the methods just mentioned, linkage analysis allows dominant, recessive or X-linked inheritance models, as well as permitting variable penetrances, non-parametric analysis and formal haplotype inference. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We inferred genotypes at the location of HapMap Phase II SNPs, [ 34 ] as this resource provides comprehensive annotation, including the population allele frequencies and genetic map positions required for linkage analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We adapted our existing software [ 35 ] to extract HapMap Phase II SNP genotypes from WES data and format them for linkage analysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During PGD, one blastomere is biopsied from each day-3 embryo (6-8 cells) and, after whole genome amplification (WGA), mutations can be detected directly by minisequencing and/or indirectly by linkage analysis. (hkmj.org)
  • Such WGA amplifies a major portion of the genome of single cells with good reproducibility, 4 and enables direct mutation detection and linkage analysis simultaneously for accurate determination of the genotype of embryos. (hkmj.org)
  • Although the first genetic linkage map in conifers was constructed for a single white spruce ( Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) tree in 1992 from the analysis of haploid megagametophytes [ 5 ], the progress in the spruce genome mapping has been rather slow, particularly compared with the genus Pinus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic analysis of growth, morphology and pathogenicity in the F(1) progeny of an interspecific cross between Fusarium circinatum and Fusarium subglutinans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Genetic analysis of the fungus, Bremia lactucae, using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To date, neither a linkage map nor molecular cytogenetic analysis has ever been developed for L. campestre . (nature.com)
  • Again, under this type of analysis, a single resultant cluster signifies complete-linkage, since all data points are within the range of assigned similarity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lod score (logarithm (base 10) of odds, also called logit by mathematicians) is a statistical test often used for linkage analysis in human populations, and also in animal and plant populations. (blogspot.com)
  • Familial cancer linkage analysis. (anaairporthotel.ro)
  • Genetic linkage analysis was performed between Sp6 and AI phenotype in AMI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • linkage analysis program I have ever run! (bio.net)
  • The programs are based on paramtric linkage analysis one has to know how to parameterize the linkage model/problem. (bio.net)
  • 20 infected I. pacifi cus adults from Contra Costa County, Genetic Locus California (J. Bunikis and A.G. Barbour, unpub. (cdc.gov)
  • The map provides a 90% probability of a marker being within 268 Kb of any genetic locus. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Six of the other seven families described in this report were also consistent with linkage to this locus, which has since been named MYP2 . (arvojournals.org)
  • A follow-up study in Hong Kong 10 reported evidence of linkage to this locus in 5 of the 15 participating families, and an association study 11 showed that the MYP2 locus was an important contributor to the inheritance of high myopia in an isolated community in Sardinia. (arvojournals.org)
  • Among these, the 1q41 locus is of particular interest, because evidence for linkage has been found in several independent SLE family collections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here the construction of the first genetic linkage map of bambara groundnut using a F3 population derived from a 'narrow' cross between two domesticated landraces (Tiga Nicuru and DipC) with marked divergence in phenotypic traits. (mendeley.com)
  • Genetic studies are under way for many complex traits, spurred by the recent feasibility of whole genome scans. (nih.gov)
  • In order to study the genetic basis of two interspecific reproductive isolation traits, we constructed a genetic linkage map using an F2 population derived from a cross between S1174 [ L. acutangula (L.) Roxb. (frontiersin.org)
  • On the basis of genetic linkage map, we conducted QTL mapping of two reproductive isolation traits in sponge gourd, which were the flowering time and hybrid male sterility. (frontiersin.org)
  • An AFLP, SRAP, and SSR Genetic Linkage Map and Identification of QTLs for Fruit Traits in Pear ( Pyrus L. (springer.com)
  • Pharmacogenomic variants have larger effect sizes than genetic variants associated with other dichotomous complex traits. (uchicago.edu)
  • To their surprise, they observed an increased frequency of PL and pl and a decreased frequency of Pl and pL: Their experiment revealed linkage between the P and L alleles and the p and l alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their experiment revealed linkage between the P and L alleles and the p and l alleles. (wikipedia.org)
  • We find that linkage tends to cause increased inbreeding load due to the build up of coupling groups of (partially) recessive deleterious alleles. (g3journal.org)
  • However, selection against recessive alleles induces some positive correlation between individual fitness and heterozygosity at neutral sites, known as associative overdominance ( Ohta 1971 ) and, under very restrictive conditions, can cause some increase in neutral genetic diversity ( Pálsson and Pamilo 1999 ). (g3journal.org)
  • Stratifying the results by HLA-DR2 status showed that the linkage results were limited to families segregating HLA-DR2 alleles. (oup.com)
  • By looking for some more information about it I found that 'reduplication' and 'linkage' were competing interpretations to explain the coupling and repulsion of alleles. (wordpress.com)
  • Genome scan analyses and fine mapping investigations in the UCLA sample support significant linkage in three regions: 6q12 (MLS 3.30), 16p13 (MLS 3.73), and 17p11 (MLS 3.63), while the Utrecht two-stage genome scan supports significant linkage in two regions: 7p13 (MLS 3.04) and 15q15 (MLS 3.54). (nature.com)
  • There are few constraints upon the sampling design, with unaffected individuals able to contribute information to parametric linkage analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Genetic linkage maps are important tools in breeding programmes and quantitative trait analyses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We used the shiitake mushroom as an example to provide a proof-of-principle that low-coverage resequencing could allow rapid genotyping of basidiospore-derived progenies, which could in turn facilitate the construction of high-density genetic linkage maps of basidiomycetous fungi for quantitative trait analyses and improvement of genome assembly. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our principal goal was to construct a genetic map using integrated approaches of genetic, comparative and cytogenetic map analyses. (nature.com)
  • In order to generate a high-resolution genetic linkage map, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. (gc.ca)
  • Employing the genome sequence information from the two parents and the F1 isolate, more than 25,000 SNPs were selected and used to generate a genetic linkage map. (gc.ca)
  • Of the polymorphic SLAFs, 2,472,245 SNPs were developed and finally 5,700 SNPs are ideal to construct genetic map after filtering. (eurekaselect.com)
  • PL analyzed the molecular and phenotypic data, constructed the genetic and QTL map, and drafted the manuscript. (springer.com)
  • Why does allele linkage cause disproportionate phenotypic ratios? (stackexchange.com)
  • Alzheimer's disease is a complicated neurodegenerative disorder with multiple phenotypic subtypes, including clinical and preclinical, that result from different genetic origins. (wikipedia.org)
  • So far, there are a lack of reports of controlled breeding populations that could be used for variety development and genetic studies. (mendeley.com)
  • Currently, three genome-wide linkage studies from distinct ADHD populations have been published, one using extended kindreds from a population isolate, 4 and two others using affected sibling pair (ASP) sampling. (nature.com)
  • Genetic structure of natural populations of Anopheles albimanus in Colombia. (ajtmh.org)
  • To increase the utility of this approach for future studies, an improved method for progeny isolation from uncloned genetic cross populations was also developed. (gla.ac.uk)
  • It also induces associative overdominance at neutral sites but rarely causes increased neutral genetic diversity in equilibrium populations. (g3journal.org)
  • 2004) [ 7 ] constructed an integrated soybean linkage map using the three mapping populations used by Cregan et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For 741 Ixodes ticks from northeastern and north-cen- the extent of genomewide genetic exchange in this spe- tral United States or from northern California, 1 ospC allele cies may have been underestimated ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This method does not incorporate genetic map or allele frequency information, which could help to eliminate regions from consideration, and is applicable only to recessive diseases resulting from consanguinity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This method incorporates genetic map information but not allele frequency information and requires a strict genetic model (recessive and fully penetrant) and sampling scheme (exomes of two or more affected siblings must be sequenced). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, a dataset of 98 multiplex families was studied to test for an association to the HLA-DR2 allele in familial MS and to determine if genetic linkage to the MHC was due solely to such an association. (oup.com)
  • In 127 multiplex SLE pedigrees, the best evidence for linkage was at D1S229, with the greatest extent of allele sharing in the white families at the D1S2616 marker. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Significant linkage has subsequently been established for the linkage group comprised of DXS304, DXS15, DXS52, and F8C in several studies. (mysciencework.com)
  • Using diploid gynogens, we estimated centromere locations in 19 of 24 linkage groups. (genetics.org)
  • however, this trend was not consistent along the linkage groups. (genetics.org)
  • 2006) constructed a genetic linkage map spanning 983.5 cM and aligning to the 10 linkage groups of sorghum in which two brix-related QTLs were sited on SBI-04 and SBI-10. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In total, 69 linkage group fragments were recovered, more than the 56 linkage groups expected for the cultivated strawberry, however, all fragments contained a transferable marker that could be associated with one of 56 linkage group scaffolds. (springer.com)
  • A comparison of linkage groups associated with the 56 homeologous linkage groups of the RG × H linkage map and homologous linkage groups on the diploid Fragaria reference map FV × FB. (springer.com)
  • Twenty-four of these linkage groups contain at least one microsatellite polymorphism. (stir.ac.uk)
  • When QTL locations from both years were compared, Pfl-7-1 and Pfl-7-2 for fruit length, Pfi-2-1 and Pfi-2-2 for fruit shape index, and Pfm-8-1 and Pfm-8-2 for fruit maturity date were stably mapped onto the same linkage groups, respectively. (springer.com)
  • A preliminary genetic linkage map of Louisiana sugarcane cultivar 'LCP 85-384' from a previous study was enriched using 65 additional polymorphism simple-sequence-repeats (SSR) primer-pairs to identify more co-segregated and homologous groups (CGs and HGs) and QTLs controlling sucrose content. (springer.com)
  • The 32 linkage groups for the maternal parent DM3 of the DM35 alfalfa mapping population. (g3journal.org)
  • The parental alfalfa genetic maps are labeled DM3 and DM5 and the four homologous linkage groups of each parent are labeled A, B, C, or D. One unit on the physical map reflects 5×10 5 bp. (g3journal.org)
  • 5 The strongest evidence that this is the case comes from genetic linkage studies, in which the continuous distribution of refractive error is dichotomized to give affected and unaffected groups corresponding to high myopes and non-high myopes, respectively. (arvojournals.org)
  • The linkage map spanned a total genetic distance of 637.1 cM and contained 13 linkage groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A genetic linkage map was produced using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) and twelve linkage groups were identified. (up.ac.za)
  • Segregation distortions were also observed at the zygotic level towards a reduction in the observed frequency of homozygotes from that expected in linkage groups 5 and 7. (gva.es)
  • Maternal, paternal, and consensus genetic linkage maps were constructed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Five genetic linkage maps were constructed for the parents of three progenies: Citrus aurantium (A) x Poncirus trifoliata var. (gva.es)
  • Our approach can assist in maintaining backward compatibility with databases of existing forensic genetic profiles as systems move to new marker types. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, using a sporeless P. eryngii strain, we constructed a genetic linkage map to introduce a molecular breeding program like marker-assisted selection. (asm.org)
  • In particular, the effects of different genetic marker sets and sample sizes between genome scans were investigated. (uni-marburg.de)
  • nonparametric linkage [NPL] = 1.49, P = 0.07 for marker D12S1607 ). (arvojournals.org)
  • Total estimated length of the genetic map was 1,770 cM, with an average of one marker every 1.6 cM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For understanding the genetic architecture of species, genetic maps with high levels of genome coverage and confidence in the marker order are required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A high quality genetic map is the foundation of marker-assisted selection (MAS). (eurekaselect.com)
  • These data confirm the modest evidence for linkage at 1q41 in our family collection (LOD = 1.21 at marker D1S2616). (biomedcentral.com)
  • AFLPs have been used to fingerprint accessions, to determine genetic linkage mapping, and to analyze genetic diversity (Young et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Using computer simulation we explore the consequences of linkage on the inbreeding load of an equilibrium population, and on the efficiency of purging and the loss of genetic diversity after a reduction in population size. (g3journal.org)
  • Furthermore, it can slow the loss of genetic diversity compared to that expected from the variance of gametic contributions to the breeding group and even from pedigree inbreeding. (g3journal.org)
  • Under some conditions, this can lead to a smaller loss of genetic diversity, even below that expected from population size in the absence of selection. (g3journal.org)
  • In addition, purging can also affect the loss of genetic diversity caused by the reduction of population size, particularly in the presence of linkage. (g3journal.org)
  • This should be ascribed to genetic purging which, operating on the basis of the association between individual fitness and individual inbreeding, affects the dynamics of neutral genetic diversity. (g3journal.org)
  • In this work, we investigate the consequences of linkage on inbreeding depression and purging, and on their impact upon genetic diversity. (g3journal.org)
  • The large number of spores released by these cultivars also gives rise to various other problems, such as damage to cultivation facilities, reduced commercial value (due to spores deposited on the mushrooms), and depletion of genetic diversity in the natural population of the mushroom species cultivated ( 11 , 34 ). (asm.org)
  • They have a higher mutation rate than other areas of DNA [3] leading to high genetic diversity . (wikipedia.org)
  • In a classical pedigree linkage study, all the members of a family are examined for a test character and for evidence of the nonindependent segregation of pairs of characters. (britannica.com)
  • Evidence for linkage is most commonly expressed as a logarithm of the odds score. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, no evidence for linkage to MODY2 (glucokinase-associated MODY) was observed with either study population. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using the genetic linkage design, however, evidence for and against linkage of the MHC to MS has. (oup.com)
  • Using the genetic linkage design, however, evidence for and against linkage of the MHC to MS has been found, fostering suggestions that sporadic and familial MS have different etiologies. (oup.com)
  • The current evidence suggests that SLE is a complex genetic disease, with contributions from both environmental (e.g. ultraviolet light, viral infections) and genetic factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This linkage has been established (LOD=4.96) and independently confirmed (LOD=3.15), thereby providing convincing evidence for linkage. (grantome.com)
  • By convention, a lod score greater than 3.0 is considered evidence for linkage. (blogspot.com)
  • On the other hand, a lod score less than -2.0 is considered evidence to exclude linkage. (blogspot.com)
  • In a simulation study, the power of different methods to combine multipoint linkage scores, namely Fisher's p-value combination (Fisher 1932), the truncated product method (Zaykin et al. (uni-marburg.de)
  • The book by Terwilliger and Ott, 'Handbook of Human Genetic Linkage' is lucid with many worked-out examples. (bio.net)
  • We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan on 409 independent pairs of homosexual brothers (908 analyzed individuals in 384 families), by far the largest study of its kind to date. (cambridge.org)
  • Refining the clinical diagnostic criteria in light of genetic linkage studies. (nih.gov)
  • The integrated physical map presented here, in conjuction with the already existing genetic linkage map, would be useful for future high-density genetic mapping and whole-genome studies in C. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Studies on the Genetic and Antigenic Basis of Tumour Transplantation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The phylogenetic position of corals also suggests important applications for a coral genetic map in studies of ancestral metazoan genome architecture. (utexas.edu)
  • The genetic maps developed in our study can serve as a reference map for various genomics studies and applications in Picea a nd Pinaceae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, this knowledge is being fundamental for the design and development of pharmacogenetic research and genetic studies in common diseases, such as cardiovascular and autoimmune diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we broaden coverage and sample size relative to other studies of ASDs by using Affymetrix 10K SNP arrays and 1,181 [corrected] families with at least two affected individuals, performing the largest linkage scan to date while also analyzing copy number variation in these families. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Aims to advance studies of eye diseases and their genetic causes by giving researchers access to DNA samples, clinical information, and patients looking to participate in research studies and clinical trials. (omictools.com)
  • He reasons that there is a strong connection between sex and onset of disease, and thus, if the variation is epigenetic , it is likely to occur during meiosis.His theory is that the disease-state is somehow epigenetically triggered, which is why it is not detected by genetic linkage studies. (wordpress.com)
  • Findings from family and twin studies support a genetic contribution to the development of sexual orientation in men. (cambridge.org)
  • Genetic studies of the aortic content of extracellular matrix molecules are impossible in humans, for obvious reasons, and remain impractical in the mouse because of the relatively small amount of aortic tissue that can be obtained, thus making the accurate quantification of these molecules difficult. (ahajournals.org)
  • In this context, rat models provide essential tools for such genetic studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our findings expand the spectrum of genetic causes of autosomal recessive AI and sheds light on the molecular diagnosis for the classification of AI. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The complete genome sequence of T.brucei is now available and the diploid genetic system has recently been demonstrated to be Mendelian. (gla.ac.uk)
  • As with most genetic variation in humans, most of the variants in Geno2MP are not causal for a Mendelian condition. (omictools.com)
  • Thomas Hunt Morgan's Drosophila melanogaster genetic linkage map. (wikipedia.org)
  • The significance of Hhg-1 genetic linkage, patterning activity and proteolytic processing in Drosophila and chick embryos is discussed. (biologists.org)
  • To report the outcomes of more than 100 cycles of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for monogenetic diseases. (hkmj.org)
  • Patients undergoing preimplantation genetic diagnosis for monogenetic diseases at the Centre of Assisted Reproduction and Embryology, Queen Mary Hospital-The University of Hong Kong between 1 August 2007 and 30 April 2014 were included. (hkmj.org)
  • We studied 64 male families by a genome-wide scan for SLE and found the largest signal (lod=3.08) at 13q32 in 18 African American male families using an affected-relative-pair model-free linkage method. (springer.com)
  • Initially, a linkage genome scan for this quantitative trait was performed in the extended pedigrees of the Framingham Heart Study. (uni-marburg.de)
  • In this study, we developed a genetic linkage map to improve breeding programs of Japanese gentians. (7thspace.com)
  • The study addressed concerns regarding excessive Namibian genetic introgression into the native captive population and established the extent of genetic variability and Namibian ancestry within the captive population. (up.ac.za)
  • A study of genetic linkages over a larger dataset actually weakens, and in a particular case, refutes, the results obtained by a smaller study. (wordpress.com)
  • We demonstrate that accurate genetic linkage mapping can be performed using SNP genotypes extracted from exome data, removing the need for separate array-based genotyping. (biomedcentral.com)
  • They also indicate that sporadic and familial MS share a common genetic susceptibility. (oup.com)