Motor Skills Disorders: Marked impairments in the development of motor coordination such that the impairment interferes with activities of daily living. (From DSM-V)Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Usher Syndromes: Autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by congenital SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Genetically and symptomatically heterogeneous, clinical classes include type I, type II, and type III. Their severity, age of onset of retinitis pigmentosa and the degree of vestibular dysfunction are variable.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.United StatesDepressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Rotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Borderline Personality Disorder: A personality disorder marked by a pattern of instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects, and marked impulsivity beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. (DSM-IV)Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Lymphoproliferative Disorders: Disorders characterized by proliferation of lymphoid tissue, general or unspecified.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Impulse Control Disorders: Disorders whose essential features are the failure to resist an impulse, drive, or temptation to perform an act that is harmful to the individual or to others. Individuals experience an increased sense of tension prior to the act and pleasure, gratification or release of tension at the time of committing the act.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Combat Disorders: Neurotic reactions to unusual, severe, or overwhelming military stress.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder whose essential feature is a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. The individual must be at least age 18 and must have a history of some symptoms of CONDUCT DISORDER before age 15. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalBehavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Knowledge of Results (Psychology): A principle that learning is facilitated when the learner receives immediate evaluation of learning performance. The concept also hypothesizes that learning is facilitated when the learner is promptly informed whether a response is correct, and, if incorrect, of the direction of error.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Binge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Musculoskeletal Abnormalities: Congenital structural abnormalities and deformities of the musculoskeletal system.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Dissociative Disorders: Sudden temporary alterations in the normally integrative functions of consciousness.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
  • The grant from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke , part of the National Institutes of Health, provides $1.67 million over five years. (utdallas.edu)
  • The non-exclusive pathogenic mechanisms by which C9orf72 repeat expansions contribute to these neurological disorders include loss of C9orf72 function and gain-of-function determined by toxic RNA molecules and dipeptides repeats protein toxicity. (frontiersin.org)
  • We employ multi-modal neuroimaging methodologies, including task-production, resting-state, and pharmacological fMRI, high-resolution structural MRI, diffusion weighted imaging, and direct intracranial EEG to examine brain functional, effective and structural connectivity in healthy individuals, and patients with neurological disorders (dystonia and epilepsy). (masseyeandear.org)
  • Our analytic approaches include, but are not limited to, graph theoretical analysis of large-scale neural networks, the application of novel machine learning algorithms for diagnostic and predictive classification of neurological disorders, and neural population modeling. (masseyeandear.org)
  • In addition, we are examining the interplay between imaging, behavioral, and genetic factors that contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. (masseyeandear.org)
  • Of these rare neurological disorders, Autism is the most common. (mednews.com)
  • Human GRIN2B variants in neurodevelopmental disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But a recent study by researchers at the University of North Carolina (UNC) suggests that clinicians may have to go back even further in life to successfully minister to these diseases, as many genetic variants and brain structure changes associated with disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia can be observed even in newborns. (dana.org)
  • Among potentially deleterious variants, clinically reportable findings of interest occurred on a total of five chromosomes (Chr3, Chr6, Chr7, Chr9 and Chr17), which included six genes either strongly associated with CAS (FOXP1 and CNTNAP2) or associated with disorders with phenotypes overlapping CAS (ATP13A4, CNTNAP1, KIAA0319 and SETX). (apraxia-kids.org)
  • The detection of genetic variants associated with ASD. (uctv.tv)
  • However, each of these genetic variants raises the risk for developing ASD very slightly-often by as little as 5 percent, meaning that if you have any one of these variants, your risk of ASD is 1.05 times that of someone who doesn't carry it. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding how these genetic variants lead to ASD may help us understand particular features of risk. (nih.gov)
  • The complex genetic make-up of ASD has been extensively studied and both common and rare genetic variants in up to 1000 genes have been linked to increased ASD risk. (cra-rhone-alpes.org)
  • Defining the convergent pathways disrupted by this large number of ASD-associated genetic variants will help to understand disease pathogenesis and direct future therapeutic efforts for the groups of patients with distinct etiologies. (cra-rhone-alpes.org)
  • Scientists have identified hundreds of genetic variants associated with autism spectrum disorder, many of which individually confer only a small degree of risk. (mit.edu)
  • The characterization of motor profile is useful to study the trajectories of locomotion performance of children with genetic variants and may provide insights into neural pathway dysfunction based on genotype/phenotype model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There often are no physical signs of mild forms of ID, although there may be characteristic physical traits when it is associated with a genetic disorder (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • That disease has many traits of autoimmune disorders, in which the body perceives and attacks parts of itself as foreign, and it's a disease that Anderson had often seen in biopsies. (the-scientist.com)
  • This study assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely diffused organophosphate insecticide endowed with developmental neurotoxicity at sub-toxic doses, in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse strain, a validated model of idiopathic autism that displays several behavioral traits relevant to the autism spectrum. (autismweb.com)
  • These monkeys show some behavioral traits and brain connectivity patterns similar to those seen in humans with these conditions. (mit.edu)
  • In particular, mice lack the highly developed prefrontal cortex that is the seat of many uniquely primate traits, such as making decisions, sustaining focused attention, and interpreting social cues, which are often affected by brain disorders. (mit.edu)
  • If you need help finding a genetic counselor in your area, please see the National Society of Genetic Counselors' online directory . (prisms.org)
  • Online directories are provided by the American College of Medical Genetics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors . (cdc.gov)
  • Because the phenotype of CDK13 disorder is nonspecific and indistinguishable from many other inherited disorders, it is most likely to be diagnosed by either a multigene panel (see Option 1 ) or genomic testing (see Option 2 ). (nih.gov)
  • Gait and balance are quantifiable measures that may help to refine the motor phenotype in 16p11.2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder which involves upper and lower motor neuronal loss that finally leads to paralysis and death. (frontiersin.org)
  • As part of their study, researchers performed dozens of genetic, behavioral, and neural tests with growing mice to isolate and pinpoint where Cntnap4 acted in their brains, and how it affected chemical signaling among specific interneuron brain cells, which help relay and filter chemical signals between neurons in localized areas of the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • D'Mello's research, which the NIH has supported for several years, is focused in general on investigating the biological mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders, including Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (utdallas.edu)
  • It is caused by particular genetic changes on chromosomal region 17p11.2, which contains the gene RAI1. (prisms.org)
  • Historically, there has been much confusion with chromosomal disorders and distinguishing how they occur. (fcer.org)
  • Conduct at least one study to determine the positive predictive value and clinical utility (e.g., prediction of co-occurring conditions, family planning) of chromosomal microarray genetic testing for detecting genetic diagnoses for ASD in a clinical setting by 2012. (hhs.gov)