A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
An autosomal recessive disorder due to defects in PEROXISOME biogenesis which involves more than 13 genes encoding peroxin proteins of the peroxisomal membrane and matrix. Zellweger syndrome is typically seen in the neonatal period with features such as dysmorphic skull; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; visual compromise; SEIZURES; progressive degeneration of the KIDNEYS and the LIVER. Zellweger-like syndrome refers to phenotypes resembling the neonatal Zellweger syndrome but seen in children or adults with apparently intact peroxisome biogenesis.
Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
An X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the accumulation of saturated very long chain fatty acids in the LYSOSOMES of ADRENAL CORTEX and the white matter of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This disease occurs almost exclusively in the males. Clinical features include the childhood onset of ATAXIA; NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HYPERPIGMENTATION; ADRENAL INSUFFICIENCY; SEIZURES; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and DEMENTIA. The slowly progressive adult form is called adrenomyeloneuropathy. The defective gene ABCD1 is located at Xq28, and encodes the adrenoleukodystrophy protein (ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS).
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
A heterogeneous group of inherited metabolic disorders marked by absent or dysfunctional PEROXISOMES. Peroxisomal enzymatic abnormalities may be single or multiple. Biosynthetic peroxisomal pathways are compromised, including the ability to synthesize ether lipids and to oxidize long-chain fatty acid precursors. Diseases in this category include ZELLWEGER SYNDROME; INFANTILE REFSUM DISEASE; rhizomelic chondrodysplasia (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC); hyperpipecolic acidemia; neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy; and ADRENOLEUKODYSTROPHY (X-linked). Neurologic dysfunction is a prominent feature of most peroxisomal disorders.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A characteristic symptom complex.
Color of the iris.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A plant genus of the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. Members contain iridoid glucosides.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
The bony deposit formed between and around the broken ends of BONE FRACTURES during normal healing.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Peptides and proteins found in BODILY SECRETIONS and BODY FLUIDS that are PROTEASE INHIBITORS. They play a role in INFLAMMATION, tissue repair and innate immunity (IMMUNITY, INNATE) by inhibiting endogenous proteinases such as those produced by LEUKOCYTES and exogenous proteases such as those produced by invading microorganisms.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.

The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ETH1 gene, an inducible homolog of exonuclease III that provides resistance to DNA-damaging agents and limits spontaneous mutagenesis. (1/10927)

The recently sequenced Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome was searched for a gene with homology to the gene encoding the major human AP endonuclease, a component of the highly conserved DNA base excision repair pathway. An open reading frame was found to encode a putative protein (34% identical to the Schizosaccharomyces pombe eth1(+) [open reading frame SPBC3D6.10] gene product) with a 347-residue segment homologous to the exonuclease III family of AP endonucleases. Synthesis of mRNA from ETH1 in wild-type cells was induced sixfold relative to that in untreated cells after exposure to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). To investigate the function of ETH1, deletions of the open reading frame were made in a wild-type strain and a strain deficient in the known yeast AP endonuclease encoded by APN1. eth1 strains were not more sensitive to killing by MMS, hydrogen peroxide, or phleomycin D1, whereas apn1 strains were approximately 3-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 10-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide than was the wild type. Double-mutant strains (apn1 eth1) were approximately 15-fold more sensitive to MMS and approximately 2- to 3-fold more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and phleomycin D1 than were apn1 strains. Elimination of ETH1 in apn1 strains also increased spontaneous mutation rates 9- or 31-fold compared to the wild type as determined by reversion to adenine or lysine prototrophy, respectively. Transformation of apn1 eth1 cells with an expression vector containing ETH1 reversed the hypersensitivity to MMS and limited the rate of spontaneous mutagenesis. Expression of ETH1 in a dut-1 xthA3 Escherichia coli strain demonstrated that the gene product functionally complements the missing AP endonuclease activity. Thus, in apn1 cells where the major AP endonuclease activity is missing, ETH1 offers an alternate capacity for repair of spontaneous or induced damage to DNA that is normally repaired by Apn1 protein.  (+info)

Impaired translesion synthesis in xeroderma pigmentosum variant extracts. (2/10927)

Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) cells are characterized by a cellular defect in the ability to synthesize intact daughter DNA strands on damaged templates. Molecular mechanisms that facilitate replication fork progression on damaged DNA in normal cells are not well defined. In this study, we used single-stranded plasmid molecules containing a single N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) adduct to analyze translesion synthesis (TLS) catalyzed by extracts of either normal or XPV primary skin fibroblasts. In one of the substrates, the single AAF adduct was located at the 3' end of a run of three guanines that was previously shown to induce deletion of one G by a slippage mechanism. Primer extension reactions performed by normal cellular extracts from four different individuals produced the same distinct pattern of TLS, with over 80% of the products resulting from the elongation of a slipped intermediate and the remaining 20% resulting from a nonslipped intermediate. In contrast, with cellular extracts from five different XPV patients, the TLS reaction was strongly reduced, yielding only low amounts of TLS via the nonslipped intermediate. With our second substrate, in which the AAF adduct was located at the first G in the run, thus preventing slippage from occurring, we confirmed that normal extracts were able to perform TLS 10-fold more efficiently than XPV extracts. These data demonstrate unequivocally that the defect in XPV cells resides in translesion synthesis independently of the slippage process.  (+info)

Conserved residues of human XPG protein important for nuclease activity and function in nucleotide excision repair. (3/10927)

The human XPG endonuclease cuts on the 3' side of a DNA lesion during nucleotide excision repair. Mutations in XPG can lead to the disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne syndrome. XPG shares sequence similarities in two regions with a family of structure-specific nucleases and exonucleases. To begin defining its catalytic mechanism, we changed highly conserved residues and determined the effects on the endonuclease activity of isolated XPG, its function in open complex formation and dual incision reconstituted with purified proteins, and its ability to restore cellular resistance to UV light. The substitution A792V present in two XP complementation group G (XP-G) individuals reduced but did not abolish endonuclease activity, explaining their mild clinical phenotype. Isolated XPG proteins with Asp-77 or Glu-791 substitutions did not cleave DNA. In the reconstituted repair system, alanine substitutions at these positions permitted open complex formation but were inactive for 3' cleavage, whereas D77E and E791D proteins retained considerable activity. The function of each mutant protein in the reconstituted system was mirrored by its ability to restore UV resistance to XP-G cell lines. Hydrodynamic measurements indicated that XPG exists as a monomer in high salt conditions, but immunoprecipitation of intact and truncated XPG proteins showed that XPG polypeptides can interact with each other, suggesting dimerization as an element of XPG function. The mutation results define critical residues in the catalytic center of XPG and strongly suggest that key features of the strand cleavage mechanism and active site structure are shared by members of the nuclease family.  (+info)

Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation. (4/10927)

The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further characterization. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of bradyzoites with BAG1 antisera demonstrated expression of BAG1 in the Y8 and the PLK strain but no expression in H7. All three strains expressed a 116 kDa bradyzoite cyst wall antigen, a 29 kDa matrix antigen and the 65 kDa matrix reactive antigen MAG1. Mice inoculated with H7 parasites formed significantly fewer cysts than those inoculated with the Y8 and the PLK strains. H7 parasites were complemented with BAG1 using phleomycin selection. Cyst formation in vivo for the BAG1-complemented H7 parasites was similar to wild-type parasites. We therefore conclude that BAG1 is not essential for cyst formation, but facilitates formation of cysts in vivo.  (+info)

Isocitrate lyase of Ashbya gossypii--transcriptional regulation and peroxisomal localization. (5/10927)

The isocitrate lyase-encoding gene AgICL1 from the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii was isolated by heterologous complementation of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae icl1d mutant. The open reading frame of 1680 bp encoded a protein of 560 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 62584. Disruption of the AgICL1 gene led to complete loss of AgIcl1p activity and inability to grow on oleic acid as sole carbon source. Compartmentation of AgIcl1p in peroxisomes was demonstrated both by Percoll density gradient centrifugation and by immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections using specific antibodies. This fitted with the peroxisomal targeting signal AKL predicted from the C-terminal DNA sequence. Northern blot analysis with mycelium grown on different carbon sources as well as AgICL1 promoter replacement with the constitutive AgTEF promoter revealed a regulation at the transcriptional level. AgICL1 was subject to glucose repression, derepressed by glycerol, partially induced by the C2 compounds ethanol and acetate, and fully induced by soybean oil.  (+info)

Mitotic recombination in the heterochromatin of the sex chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. (6/10927)

The frequency of spontaneous and X-ray-induced mitotic recombination involving the Y chromosome has been studied in individuals with a marked Y chromosome arm and different XY compound chromosomes. The genotypes used include X chromosomes with different amounts of X heterochromatin and either or both arms of the Y chromosome attached to either side of the centromere. Individuals with two Y chromosomes have also been studied. The results show that the bulk of mitotic recombination takes place between homologous regions.  (+info)

Efflux-mediated aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei. (7/10927)

Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and polymyxins. We used Tn5-OT182 to mutagenize B. pseudomallei to identify the genes involved in aminoglycoside resistance. We report here on the identification of AmrAB-OprA, a multidrug efflux system in B. pseudomallei which is specific for both aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. We isolated two transposon mutants, RM101 and RM102, which had 8- to 128-fold increases in their susceptibilities to the aminoglycosides streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. In addition, both mutants, in contrast to the parent, were susceptible to the macrolides erythromycin and clarithromycin but not to the lincosamide clindamycin. Sequencing of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions revealed a putative operon consisting of a resistance, nodulation, division-type transporter, a membrane fusion protein, an outer membrane protein, and a divergently transcribed regulatorprotein. Consistent with the presence of an efflux system, both mutants accumulated [3H] dihydro streptomycin, whereas the parent strain did not. We constructed an amr deletion strain, B. pseudomallei DD503, which was hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides and which was used successfully in allelic exchange experiments. These results suggest that an efflux system is a major contributor to the inherent high-level aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance found in B. pseudomallei.  (+info)

Analysis of 4-phosphopantetheinylation of polyhydroxybutyrate synthase from Ralstonia eutropha: generation of beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5 mutants and cloning of the panD gene region. (8/10927)

The postulated posttranslational modification of the polyhydroxybutyrate (PHA) synthase from Ralstonia eutropha by 4-phosphopantetheine was investigated. Four beta-alanine auxotrophic Tn5-induced mutants of R. eutropha HF39 were isolated, and two insertions were mapped in an open reading frame with strong similarity to the panD gene from Escherichia coli, encoding L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15), whereas two other insertions were mapped in an open reading frame (ORF) with strong similarity to the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase (EC 1.6.1.1) alpha 1 subunit, encoded by the pntAA gene from Escherichia coli. The panD gene was cloned by complementation of the panD mutant of R. eutropha Q20. DNA sequencing of the panD gene region (3,312 bp) revealed an ORF of 365 bp, encoding a protein with 63 and 67% amino acid sequence similarity to PanD from E. coli and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Subcloning of only this ORF into vectors pBBR1MCS-3 and pBluescript KS- led to complementation of the panD mutants of R. eutropha and E. coli SJ16, respectively. panD-encoded L-aspartate-1-decarboxylase was further confirmed by an enzymatic assay. Upstream of panD, an ORF with strong similarity to pntAA from E. coli, encoding NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase subunit alpha 1 was found; downstream of panD, two ORFs with strong similarity to pntAB and pntB, encoding subunits alpha 2 and beta of the NAD(P)+ transhydrogenase, respectively, were identified. Thus, a hitherto undetermined organization of pan and pnt genes was found in R. eutropha. Labeling experiments using one of the R. eutropha panD mutants and [2-14C]beta-alanine provided no evidence that R. eutropha PHA synthase is covalently modified by posttranslational attachment of 4-phosphopantetheine, nor did the E. coli panD mutant exhibit detectable labeling of functional PHA synthase from R. eutropha.  (+info)

Philip M. Service The author is in the Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011, USA. E-mail: Philip.Service{at}nau.edu. http://sageke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2004/12/pe13 Key Words: quantitative complementation test life-span gene Drosophila quantitative genetics QTL mapping. Abstract: Several recent studies have used quantitative complementation tests to identify relatively short chromosome regions that contain genes that influence life span and to screen for candidate life-span genes in flies. The methodology and logic of quantitative complementation tests are described. Arguments are presented that suggest that these tests may be misleading because there is a substantial, but unknown, likelihood of false positive results. The arguments are supported by the published results of quantitative complementation tests.. Citation: P. M. Service, How Good Are Quantitative Complementation Tests? Sci. Aging Knowl. Environ. 2004 (12), pe13 (2004). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery of YAC-end sequences through complementation of an Escherichia coli pyrF mutation. AU - Wright, David A.. AU - Park, Sei Kyoung. AU - Wu, Dongying. AU - Phillips, Gregory J.. AU - Rodermel, Steven R.. AU - Voytas, Daniel F.. PY - 1997/7/1. Y1 - 1997/7/1. N2 - We have developed a genetic means to recover sequences from YAC-ends near the yeast selectable marker URA3. This strategy is based on the ability of URA3 to complement mutations in pyrF, an Escherichia coli gene required for pyrimidine biosynthesis. We have developed an E. coli strain with a non-reverting allele of pyrF that is also suitable for cloning (recA-, hsdR-). We demonstrate the utility of this complementation strategy to obtain right-end clones from three YACs containing Arabidopsis thaliana DNA.. AB - We have developed a genetic means to recover sequences from YAC-ends near the yeast selectable marker URA3. This strategy is based on the ability of URA3 to complement mutations in pyrF, an Escherichia coli ...
population and evolutionary genetics. My research uses evolutionary and population genetic theory as a framework for understanding the evolutionary significance of mutation rates and mutational phenomena.. Because the ultimate source of genetic variation is mutation, the evolution of mutation rates is a subject of basic interest in genetics. Considerable health implications exist as well: Recent findings have linked high somatic mutation rates with certain cancers, and high mutation rates have also been linked to pathogenicity in E. coli and Salmonella. Defective methyl-directed mismatch repair (hereafter, MMR) is implicated as the underlying mechanistic basis for high mutation rates in both of these cases. However, the basis for the evolutionary success of MMR-defective alleles remains to be examined rigorously. I am currently studying experimental populations of the bacterium Escherichia coli in which strikingly elevated general mutation rates have evolved. Genetic complementation analyses ...
dna dna polymerase radioisotope virus dna adenovirus dna replication dna sequence genetic engineering heredity nonhuman Adenoviruses Human Base Sequence Cell Nucleus DNA Viral DNA Directed DNA Polymerase Genes Viral Genetic Complementation Test Hela Cells Human Mutation Plasmids Virus ...
Blotting; Northern, Cell Division, Centrifugation; Density Gradient, Escherichia coli/metabolism, Genetic Complementation Test, Immunoblotting, Mutation, Protein Binding, Protein Biosynthesis, RNA; Bacterial/*chemistry, RNA; Messenger/metabolism, RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism/*physiology, Research Support; Non-U.S. Govt, Ribosomes/*chemistry/metabolism, Subcellular Fractions, Sucrose/pharmacology, Time Factors ...
Thirty-three temperature-sensitive mutations defective in the start event of the cell division cycle of Saccharomyces cereuisiae were isolated and subjected to preliminary characterization. Complementation studies assigned these mutations to four complementation groups, one of which, cdc28, has been described previously. Genetic analysis revealed that these complementation groups define single nuclear genes, unlinked to one another. One of the three newly identified genes, cdc37, has been located in the yeast linkage map on chromosome IV, two meiotic map units distal to hom2.-Each mutation produces stage-specific arrest of cell division at start, the same point where mating pheromone interrupts division. After synchronization at start by incubation at the restrictive temperature, the mutants retain the capacity to enlarge and to conjugate.. ...
In bacteria, the highly conserved RsmA/CsrA family of RNA-binding proteins functions as global posttranscriptional regulators acting on mRNA translation and stability. Through phenotypic complementation of an rsmA mutant in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we discovered a family member, termed RsmN. Elucidation of the RsmN crystal structure and that of the complex with a hairpin from the sRNA, RsmZ, reveals a uniquely inserted alpha helix, which redirects the polypeptide chain to form a distinctly different protein fold to the domain-swapped dimeric structure of RsmA homologs. The overall beta sheet structure required for RNA recognition is, however, preserved with compensatory sequence and structure differences, allowing the RsmN dimer to target binding motifs in both structured hairpin loops and flexible disordered RNAs. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that, although RsmN appears unique to P. aeruginosa, homologous proteins with the inserted alpha helix are more widespread and arose as a consequence of ...
The ability of various B10 congenic resistant strains to respond to the alloantigen H-2.2 was tested. High and low antibody-producing strains were distinguished by their anti-H-2.2 hemagglutinating respones. However, these strains do not differ in their ability to respond to these antigenic differences in the mixed lymphocyte culture. The humoral response to the H-2.2 alloantigen was shown to be controlled by two interacting genes localized within the H-2 complex. Thus, F1 hybrids prepared between parental low responder strains could yield high level immune responses. In addition, strains bearing recombinant H-2 haplotypes were used to map the two distinct genes controlling the immune response. The alleles at each locus were shown to be highly polymorphic as evidenced by the asymmetric complementation patterns observed. The restricted interactions of specific alleles was termed coupled complementation. The significance of the results in the terms of mechanisms of Ir gene control are discussed. ...
The development of high-throughput and large-scale technologies have expanded the screening capacity for human-yeast complementation pairs. As a result, several systematic screens have reported testing the essential yeast genes for replaceability (Zhang et al. 2003; Hamza et al. 2015; Kachroo et al. 2015; Sun et al. 2016; Yang et al. 2017; Garge et al. 2019; Laurent et al. 2019). These studies generated overlapping lists of human-yeast complementation pairs and arrived at similar conclusions regarding features that predict the replaceability of essential yeast genes. However, compared to the essential yeast genes, the nonessential genes are a much larger set and have a variety of different phenotypic readouts, making them more difficult to screen systematically for complementation. In this study, we have started this process by focusing on a subset of the nonessential yeast genes, specifically those required for chromosome maintenance. We identified 20 complementation pairs that are replaceable ...
Occurs when wild type phenotype is restored in an F1 individual made by crossing two independent mutants, carrying different heteroalleles
It is not unusual to have series of mutations that confer similar phenotypes and also map to a identical or similar location on a chromosome. In such cases, the practicing geneticist performs a complementation test to determine if the mutations are allelic (that is, in the same gene) or non-allelic. If the mutations are allelic there should be no complementation whereas you could recover the wild type phenotype (though complementation) if the two mutations are on different genes. The specifics of strain construction vary depending on the experimental organism. However, the basic strategy in all cases is to construct a double heterozygote and then examine the phenotype of this organism. As mentioned above, a wild-type phenotype indicates that the two mutations complement one another and are therefore in different genes. Conversely, a mutant phenotype suggests the mutations are allelic to one another (that is, they fail to complement). We will construct double hets with the dumpy mutation of ...
In order to find out if a mutation under study in a forward genetics project is likely to be a newly discovered mutation or is, perhaps, in a previously characterized gene, we will perform a complementation analysis. If our mutation and gene has been previously characterized, this complementation analysis might tell us the name of our gene of interest. It is not unusual to have series of mutations that confer similar phenotypes and also map to a identical or similar location on a chromosome. Complementation testing can determine if two mutations are allelic (that is, in the same gene) or non-allelic (in different genes but both causing the same phenotype). This is done by crossing a mutant with a series of reference strains. In our case, we will use several different reference mutant strains. All have a Dpy phenotype, but in each strain the gene responsible for the dumpy defect has been located to a different known region of a chromosome ...
Creative Biolabs supplies Protein-fragment Complementation Assay (PCA) service to detect protein-protein interactions (PPIs) in vivo or in vitro.
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro complementation as an assay for purification of adenovirus DNA replication proteins. AU - Ostrove, J. M.. AU - Rosenfeld, P.. AU - Williams, J.. AU - Kelly, T.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - As an approach to the purification of adenovirusencoded DNA replication proteins, we have developed in vitro complementation assays that make use of viral mutants defective in DNA replication in vivo. Nuclear extracts prepared from cells infected with H5ts36 or H5ts125, two such mutants belonging to different complementation groups, were found to be defective in viral DNA replication in vitro. However, replication activity could be restored by mixing the two extracts. Replication activity in either extract also could be restored by addition of appropriate replication-deficient fractions purified from cells infected with wild-type adenovirus. By using such assays, H5ts36- and H5ts125-complementing activities were extensively purified. As expected, purified H5ts125-complementing activity ...
The temperature-sensitive prp24-1 mutation defines a gene product required for the first step in pre-mRNA splicing. PRP24 is probably a component of the U6 snRNP particle. We have applied genetic reversion analysis to identify proteins that interact with PRP24. Spontaneous revertants of the temperature-sensitive (ts) prp24-1 phenotype were analyzed for those that are due to extragenic suppression. We then extended our analysis to screen for suppressors that confer a distinct conditional phenotype. We have identified a temperature-sensitive extragenic suppressor, which was shown by genetic complementation analysis to be allelic to prp21-1. This suppressor, prp21-2, accumulates pre-mRNA at the non-permissive temperature, a phenotype similar to that of prp21-1. prp21-2 completely suppresses the splicing defect and restores in vivo levels of the U6 snRNA in the prp24-1 strain. Genetic analysis of the suppressor showed that prp21-2 is not a bypass suppressor of prp24-1. The suppression of prp24-1 by ...
I have analyzed the time course of phage PR4 protein synthesis and have identified at least 34 proteins present in phage infected cells not detected in uninfected control cultures. In addition, I have isolated a more extensive set of conditional-lethal nonsense mutants of this virus. This collection of mutants permitted the identification of seven additional phage PR4 gene products, including the terminal genome protein and an accessory lytic factor. The present collection of phage PR4 mutants has been assigned to 19 distinct genetic groups on the basis of genetic complementation tests and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the proteins produced in mutant infected UV irradiated cells ...
The use of genetic mutants has been invaluable in discovering components of molecular pathways. One of the most successful examples is the elucidation of intracellular mediators and signal transducers, which contribute to an IFN response. For example, the tyk kinase, which is associated with the receptor for type I IFN, was first discovered with the use of a gene complementation approach made possible by the availability of mutant cell lines defective in their responses to type I IFN (46). Similarly, a number of mutant cell lines defective in either type I or II IFN signaling have been instrumental in confirming the functional roles of Janus kinases and STAT molecules in the IFN pathway (47, 48).. Along the same vein, four mutant cell lines, G1 to G4, were genetically chosen on the basis of their selective loss of IFN-γ-induced MHC class II expression while retaining expression of other IFN-γ-induced genes (1). Analyses of these and other mutant lines clearly indicate that the IFN-γ induction ...
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The worlds first wiki where authorship really matters. Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts.
L h moglobinurie paroxystique nocturne (HPN) ou syndrome de Marchiafava-Micheli est une pathologie rare. Elle est due une mutation clonale acquise affectant les cellules souches h matopo tiques. Les manifestations cliniques sont variables, avec une fr quence accrue d h molyse.. L HPN est une maladie orpheline. La population concern e est surtout l adulte jeune. La pr valence exacte de cette maladie n est pas connue. L HPN r sulte d une mutation du g ne PIG-A (Phosphatidyl Inositol Glycan complementation class A). Cette mutation aboutit la production de cellules souches d ficientes en prot ines GPI ancr es. Deux de ces prot ines, CD55 et CD59, prot gent normalement les globules rouges de l action lytique du compl ment. Leur absence se traduit par une lyse cellulaire avec lib ration du contenu intracellulaire. Trois ph notypes sont d crits : ph notype I = cellules normales ; ph notype II = d ficit partiel en prot ine GPI ; ph notype III = d ficit total. C est la proportion de cellules de ph notype ...
BioAssay record AID 1077914 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiviral activity against HIV1 infected in human Jurkat cells assessed as inhibition of viral replication by CAT gene-based transcomplementation assay.
Trans-complementation of ∆-NS1-WNV with ectopically expressed WNV NS1. A. Scheme for construction of ∆-NS1-WNV. Nucleotides 87 to 928 of the NS1 gene were d
2001b, 2007, 2008). Mutation in the lytM gene was subsequently transduced into the S. aureus lyt− strain (Mani et al., 1993; Ramadurai & Jayaswal, 1997) to potentially create an autolysin-free lyt−:lytM double mutant. For genetic complementation of the lytM mutant, an approximately 2.2-kb DNA fragment was PCR amplified using primers P5 and P6 and S. aureus SH1000 genomic DNA as template. This amplicon represents a fragment starting 890 nt upstream and ending 364 nt downstream of the lytM gene that was cloned into the BamHI and HindIII Screening Library manufacturer sites. of shuttle plasmid pCU1 (Augustin et al., 1992) and subsequently transferred to a lytM mutant of S. aureus SH1000. Mid-exponential-phase cultures (OD600 nm=0.6) were diluted 50-fold in a nephelo culture flask (Wheaton) containing 50 mL fresh TSB with a flask-to-medium volume ratio of 6 : 1 and growth was followed by measurement of OD600 nm spectrophotometrically. In another experiment, cultures pregrown to an OD600 nm=0.5 ...
The overall topic of this work is a graph operation known as edgelocal complementation (ELC) and its applications to iterative decoding of classical codes. Although these legacy codes are arguably not well-suited for graph-based decoding, they have other desirable properties resulting in much current research on the general problem of forging this alloy. From this perspective, these codes are typically referred to as highdensity parity-check codes. Our approach is to gain diversity by means of ELC. Based on the known link between ELC and the information sets of a code, C, we identify a one-to-one relationship between ELC operations and the automorphism group of a code, Aut(C). With respect to a specific parity-check matrix, H, we classify these code-preserving permutations into trivial and nontrivial permutations, based on whether the matrix is preserved (under ELC) up to row permutations, or not. The corresponding iso-ELC operations preserve the structure of the graph, and simulation data are ...
Complementation, as opposed to psychological integration, underlies a spiritual technique that requires a toning down of dominant consciousness.
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Compounds are evaluated for their binding to naturally occurring receptors, by employing the natural ligand conjugated to an enzyme donor fragment of β-galactosidase for competing with the sample compound for the natural acceptor binding site or in the absence of competition where the sample compound binds to an allosteric site. By adding the enzyme acceptor fragment of the β-galactosidase and substrate, the binding affinity of the sample compound may be evaluated as a measure of agonist or antagonist capability.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic diversity of UV-sensitive DNA repair mutants of Chinese hamster ovary cells. AU - Thompson, L. H.. AU - Busch, D. B.. AU - Brookman, K.. AU - Mooney, C. L.. AU - Glaser, D. A.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Mutant lines of Chinese hamster ovary cells that show hypersensitivity to killing and mutagenesis by UV light were analyzed by genetic complementation analysis to determine whether defects in different gene loci might underlie a common cellular phenotype. To facilitate rapid screening of mutant clones, a procedure was devised that allowed presumptive complementation to be assessed on the basis of the frequency of UV-resistant cells after fusion by polyethylene glycol. Four classes were identified among 44 clones tested. By using drug-resistance markers for selection of hybrid cells in crosses between UV mutant and wild type, a mutant from each of the four classes was shown to behave as phenotypically recessive. Hybrids were also isolated from crosses between each of the ...
The I-2 locus in tomato confers resistance to race 2 of the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici. The selective restriction fragment amplification (AFLP) positional cloning strategy was used to identify I-2 in the tomato genome. A yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clone covering ~750 kb encompassing the I-2 locus was isolated, and the AFLP technique was used to derive tightly linked AFLP markers from this YAC clone. Genetic complementation analysis in transgenic R1 plants using a set of overlapping cosmids covering the I-2 locus revealed three cosmids giving full resistance to F. o. lycopersici race 2. These cosmids shared a 7-kb DNA fragment containing an open reading frame encoding a protein with similarity to the nucleotide binding site leucine-rich repeat family of resistance genes. At the I-2 locus, we identified six additional homologs that included the recently identified I-2C-1 and I-2C-2 genes. However, cosmids containing the I-2C-1 or I-2C-2 gene could not confer ...
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare recessive disorder that is characterized by extreme sensitivity to UV light. UV light exposure results in the formation of DNA damage such as cyclobutane dimers and (6-4) photoproducts. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) orchestrates the removal of cyclobutane dimers and (6-4) photoproducts as well as some forms of bulky chemical DNA adducts. The disease XP is comprised of 7 complementation groups (XP-A to XP-G), which represent functional deficiencies in seven different genes, all of which are believed to be involved in NER. The main clinical feature of XP is various forms of skin cancers; however, neurological degeneration is present in XPA, XPB, XPD and XPG complementation groups. The relationship between NER and other types of DNA repair processes is now becoming evident but the exact relationships between the different complementation groups remains to be precisely determined. Using gene expression analysis we have identified similarities and differences after UV
DNA synthesis in vitro in Brij-treated Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the product of the CDC8 gene (Hereford, L. M. & Hartwell, L. H. (1971) Nature (London) New Biol. 234, 171-172). Extracts of wild-type A364a yeast restore DNA synthesis in Brij-treated cdc8, a mutant containing a thermolabile cdc8 gene product. This constitutes a complementation assay by which the cdc8 gene product can be monitored during purification. A heat-stable protein responsible for this complementation has been partially purified from both wild-type A364a cells and from a cdc8 temperature-sensitive mutant. The complementation activity from the mutant is thermolabile when compared to the wild-type activity, indicating that CDC8 is the structural gene for the protein. ...
In this study we demonstrated successful transcomplementation of KUN genomic RNAs with large in-frame deletions in the NS1 and NS3 genes by providing corresponding helper proteins from KUN replicon RNA persistently replicating in repBHK cells. Previously we showed trans complementation of KUN genomic RNAs with C-terminal deletions of more than half of the NS5 gene (23). By combining these individual deletions in the same RNA molecule, we were able to demonstrate trans complementation of RNAs containing double deletions in the NS1 and NS5 genes or triple deletions in the NS1, NS3, and NS5 genes. This is the first demonstration of trans complementation of replication of flavivirus RNAs containing deletions of as much as 84 to 97% of the NS1 gene, or of any deletion in the NS3 gene, or of deletions in two or three NS genes in the same RNA molecule.. In this and our previous studies we have attempted complementation of deletions introduced into over 80% of the nonstructural region of the infectious ...
MHC‐II deficiency is a genetic disease of gene regulation. It is due to defects in regulatory factors that are essential for both constitutive and IFN‐γ inducible expression of MHC‐II genes (Reith et al., 1995, 1997; Mach et al., 1996). Together with a number of in vitro generated regulatory mutants, MHC‐II deficiency patients have been classified into at least four different complementation groups (A, B, C and D) believed to correspond to at least four distinct regulatory genes (Hume and Lee, 1989; Benichou and Strominger, 1991; Seidl et al., 1992; Lisowska‐Grospierre et al., 1994). The disease thus provides a genetic approach to identify genes encoding several of the trans‐acting regulatory factors involved and therefore represents an ideal model system for the dissection of the molecular mechanisms controlling transcriptional activation of MHC‐II genes. The relevant regulatory genes can be identified on the basis of a powerful functional criterion, namely the ability to ...
For a simple example of a complementation test, suppose a geneticist is interested in studying two strains of white-eyed flies of the species Drosophila melanogaster, more commonly known as the common fruit fly. In this species, wild type flies have red eyes and eye color is known to be related to two genes, A and B. Each one of these genes has two alleles, a dominant one that codes for a working protein (A and B respectively) and a recessive one that codes for a malfunctioning protein (a and b respectively). Since both proteins are necessary for the synthesis of red pigmentation in the eyes, if a given fly is homozygous for either a or b, it will have white eyes. Knowing this, the geneticist may perform a complementation test on two separately obtained strains of pure-breeding white-eyed flies. The test is performed by crossing two flies, one from each strain. If the resulting progeny have red eyes, the two strains are said to complement; if the progeny have white eyes, they do not. If the ...
Cell division in Chlamydiae is poorly understood as apparent homologs to most conserved bacterial cell division proteins are lacking and presence of elongation (rod shape) associated proteins indicate non-canonical mechanisms may be employed. The rod-shape determining protein MreB has been proposed as playing a unique role in chlamydial cell division. In other organisms, MreB is part of an elongation complex that requires RodZ for proper function. A recent study reported that the protein encoded by ORF CT009 interacts with MreB despite low sequence similarity to RodZ. The studies in this paper expand on those observations through protein structure, mutagenesis and cellular localization analyses. Structural analysis indicated that CT009 shares high level of structural similarity to RodZ, revealing the conserved orientation of two residues critical for MreB interaction. Substitutions eliminated MreB protein interaction and partial complementation provided by CT009 in RodZ deficient Escherichia ...
We report here, to our knowledge, the first biochemical characterization of a plant biotin synthase reaction. Heterologous interactions between a plant recombinant Bio2 protein and bacterial proteins yield a functional biotin synthase complex, in good agreement with the successful functional complementation approach, using anE. coli bioB mutant, employed to isolate the bio2gene product from Arabidopsis (Baldet and Ruffet, 1996). The turnover number of the reaction was ,2 h−1 in the heterologous system with unfractionated protein extract from Bio2-overproducing strain and still ,1 h−1in the heterologous system comprising purified Bio2 protein (calculated from data in Table I). It appears from our results that biotin synthase from Arabidopsis acts as a catalyst and not, as suggested in bacteria, as a simple reactant (Gibson et al., 1999; Kiyasu et al., 2000).. The relative low levels of biotin synthase measured in our in vitro systems may reflect the limited proportion of recombinant Bio2 ...
Cell fusion is known to underlie key developmental processes in humans and is postulated to contribute to tissue maintenance and even carcinogenesis. The mechanistic details of cell fusion, especially between different cell types, have been difficult
For instance they could do some screens for temperature-sensitive mutants (huge, massive saunas in action). Imagine the figures in the papers to go along with this sort of experiments. Some allele crossing experiments in search of synthetic lethality - that would be great as well. With photos of F0 and F1. Auxotrophic humans with plasmids complementing their deficiency as useful tools - complementation experiments will be particularly cruel - no complementation - well, tough luck ...
A supplementary New Mutants Annual series began in 1984. These annuals were always written by whoever was the regular New Mutants writer at the time and often included significant changes to the status quo which were not explained in the parent series so that readers would have to buy New Mutants Annual in order to follow events in both series.1985 annual was solicited as New Mutants Annual #2, but published as New Mutants Special Edition #1 because it exceeded the maximum page count for an annual.[5] In 1986, Professor X was written out of the series. Before he left, he made the X-Mens one-time nemesis, Magneto, headmaster of his school.[6] Magneto would be the teams longest-running headmaster, holding the position from New Mutants #35 through to #75. Fiercely overprotective of his students, particularly after the events of the Mutant Massacre and Fall of the Mutants, he was increasingly used as an uptight foil for the adventurous New Mutants, setting rules that they would inevitably ...
Cellular biochemical machineries, what we call pathways, consist of dynamically assembling and disassembling macromolecular complexes. Although our models for the organization of biochemical machines...
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Molecular Cloning, also known as Maniatis, has served as the foundation of technical expertise in labs worldwide for 30 years. No other manual has been so popular, or so influential.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a complex chromosomal rearrangement maps the locus for In vitro complementation of xeroderma pigmentosum group D to human chromosome band 19q 13. AU - Flejter, W. L.. AU - McDaniel, L. D.. AU - Askari, M.. AU - Friedberg, E. C.. AU - Schultz, R. A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1992/11. Y1 - 1992/11. N2 - Microcell‐mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) is a powerful genetic technique that permits the transfer of a single chromosome from one mammalian cell to another. The utility of MMCT for gene mapping strategies is critically dependent on the careful characterization of the chromosomes being transferred. We have recently reported the identification of a single rearranged human chromosome, designated Tneo, which corrects the UV sensitivity and excision repair defect of cells of xeroderma pigmentosum genetic complementation group D (XP‐D) in culture (Flejter WL et al., Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:261-265, 1992). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The peroxin Pex6p gene is impaired in peroxisomal biogenesis disorders of complementation group 6. AU - Matsumoto, N.. AU - Tamura, S.. AU - Moser, Ann B.. AU - Moser, H. W.. AU - Braverman, N.. AU - Suzuki, Y.. AU - Shimozawa, N.. AU - Kondo, N.. AU - Fujiki, Y.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Human genetic peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs), such as Zellweger syndrome, comprise 13 different complementation groups (CGs). Eleven peroxin genes, termed PEXs, responsible for PBDs have been identified, whereas pathogenic genes for PBDs of 2CGs, CG-A (the same CG as CG8 in the United States and Europe) and CG6, remained unidentified. We herein provide several lines of novel evidence indicating that PEX6, the pathogenic gene for CG4, is impaired in PBD of CG6. Expression of PEX6 restored peroxisome assembly in fibroblasts from a CG6 PBD patient. This patient was a compound heterozygote for PEX6 gene alleles. Accordingly, by merging CG6 with CG4, human PBDs are now classified into 12 ...
To further our studies of protein sorting and biogenesis of the lysosome-like vacuole in yeast, we have isolated spontaneous mutations in 11 new VPL complementation groups, as well as additional alleles of the eight previously described VPL genes. These mutants were identified by selecting for cells that mislocalize vacuolar proteins to the cell surface. Morphological examination of the vpl mutants indicated that most contain vacuoles of normal appearance; however, some of the mutants generally lack a large vacuole, and instead accumulate smaller organelles. Of the 19 VPL complementation groups, 12 were found to be identical to 12 of 33 VPT complementation groups identified in a separate study. Moreover, the end1 mutant and all of the previously reported pep mutants, with the exception of pep4, were found to exhibit a profound vacuolar protein sorting defect, and complementation tests between the PEP, VPL VPT and END1 groups demonstrated that there are extensive overlaps between these groups. ...
Bacteria have evolved a wide range of chemoreceptors with different ligand specificities. Typically, chemoreceptors bind ligands with elevated specificity and ligands serve as growth substrates. However, there is a chemoreceptor family that has a broad ligand specificity including many compounds that are not of metabolic value. To advance the understanding of this family, we have used the PcaY_PP (PP2643) chemoreceptor of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 as a model. Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry we showed here that the recombinant ligand binding domain (LBD) of PcaY_PP recognizes 17 different C6-ring containing carboxylic acids with KD values between 3.7 and 138 µM and chemoeffector affinity correlated with the magnitude of the chemotactic response. Mutation of the pcaY_PP gene abolished chemotaxis to these compounds; phenotype that was restored following gene complementation. Growth experiments using PcaY_PP ligands as sole C-sources revealed functional relationships between their metabolic
Poliovirus RNA replicates in membrane-associated replication complexes in the cytoplasm of infected cells. By using a reversible inhibitor of poliovirus RNA replication, it is possible to synchronize viral RNA replication. The processing of the viral polyprotein results in the formation of the individual viral proteins along with stable intermediates in the processing pathway. To expand the utility of the in vitro complementation assay, experiments were designed to determine if all of the viral replication proteins could be provided in trans to support the replication of mutant RNA templates. The authors engineered two transcript RNAs (DJB2 and DJB15) that contained large out-of-frame deletions in the polyprotein coding sequence. The results to date using the in vitro complementation assay indicate that the 5 cloverleaf, the 3 nontranslated region (NTR), and the poly(A) tail are the minimum sequences required for negative-strand synthesis. Previous studies have shown that the 5 cloverleaf plays an
A split-EGFP bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay was used to visualise and locate three interacting pairs of proteins from the GAL genetic switch of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both the Gal4p-Gal80p and Gal80p-Gal3p pairs were found to be located in the nucleus under indu …
The dynamic assembly of multiprotein complexes is a central mechanism of many cell signaling pathways. This process is key to maintaining the spatiotemporal specificity required for an accurate, yet adaptive, response to rapidly changing cellular conditions. We describe a technique for the specific isolation and downstream proteomic characterization of any two interacting proteins, to the exclusion of their individual moieties and competing binding partners. We termed the approach bimolecular complementation affinity purification (BiCAP) because it combines the use of conformation-specific nanobodies with a protein-fragment complementation assay with affinity purification. Using BiCAP, we characterized the specific interactome of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family member ERBB2 when in the form of a homodimer or when in the form of a heterodimer with either EGFR or ERBB3. We identified dimer-specific interaction patterns for key adaptor proteins and identified a number of previously
Montibello - Spanish hair care philosophy bases on complementation of essential nourishing ingredients. Treat Naturtech product line is a 100% realisation of
This report describes mutants of the zebrafish having phenotypes causing a general arrest in early morphogenesis. These mutants identify a group of loci making up about 20% of the loci identified by mutants with visible morphological phenotypes within the first day of development. There are 12 Class I mutants, which fall into 5 complementation groups and have cells that lyse before morphological defects are observed. Mutants at three loci, speed bump, ogre and zombie, display abnormal nuclei. The 8 Class II mutants, which fall into 6 complementation groups, arrest development before cell lysis is observed. These mutants seemingly stop development in the late segmentation stages, and maintain a body shape similar to a 20 hour embryo. Mutations in speed bump, ogre, zombie, specter, poltergeist and troll were tested for cell lethality by transplanting mutant cells into wild-type hosts. With poltergeist, transplanted mutant cells all survive. The remainder of the mutants tested were autonomously but ...
Background Hereditary evidence in indicates that members from the Snf1-Related Kinases 2 family (SnRK2) are crucial in mediating different stress-adaptive responses. threonine due to systematic adjustments in the flanking amino acidity sequence. Our outcomes designate the ABA-responsive-element Binding Element 3 (ABF3), which settings area of the ABA-regulated transcriptome, as an authentic OST1 substrate. Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation experiments indicate that ABF3 interacts with OST1 in the nuclei of living plant cells directly. which phospho-T451 is very important to stabilization of ABF3. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, our results claim that OST1 phosphorylates ABF3 on T451 to make a 14-3-3 binding theme. Inside a wider physiological framework, we suggest that the future reactions to 507475-17-4 manufacture ABA that want sustained gene manifestation is, partly, mediated from the stabilization of ABFs powered by ABA-activated SnRK2s. Intro The vegetable hormone abscisic ...
1DP0: High resolution refinement of beta-galactosidase in a new crystal form reveals multiple metal-binding sites and provides a structural basis for alpha-complementation.
1DP0: High resolution refinement of beta-galactosidase in a new crystal form reveals multiple metal-binding sites and provides a structural basis for alpha-complementation.
MORAN, JAMES PAUL, POLAR EFFECTS ON THE RATES OF FORMATION AND DIMERIZATION OF FREE RADICALSFROM ETHYL ACETATE (1963). Doctoral Dissertations. AAI6403549 ...
XPA antibody (xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group A) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, IP, WB. Anti-XPA pAb (GTX103168) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Characterization of a Regulator pgsR on Endogenous Plasmid p2Sip and Its Complementation for Poly(γ-glutamic acid) Accumulation in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Eurofins DiscoverX has created a series of cell-based assays for biologics and small molecule applications based on our robust Enzyme Fragment Complementation (EFC) platform. This webinar series focuses on unique applications for protein degradation, signaling pathways, and more, and explores EFC cell-based assays in combination with PROTACs, CRISPR, biosensor development, and reporter technologies ...
... s are useful in the study of genetic interactions and complementation testing. A transheterozygote is a ... Transheterozygotes are useful in complementation testing, as pioneered by geneticist Edward B. Lewis. If a transheterozygote ... Yue L, Karr TL, Nathan DF, Swift H, Srinivasan S, Lindquist S (1999). "Genetic analysis of viable Hsp90 alleles reveals a ... Price JV, Savenye ED, Lum D, Breitkreutz A (1997). "Dominant enhancers of Egfr in Drosophila melanogaster: genetic links ...
... genetic complementation test MeSH E05.393.285.130 - chromosome banding MeSH E05.393.285.350 - in situ hybridization, ... anonymous testing MeSH E05.318.308.250.580.350 - genetic screening MeSH E05.318.308.250.580.510 - mass chest x-ray MeSH E05.318 ... neutralization tests MeSH E05.196.922.750 - potentiometry MeSH E05.196.922.875 - skin test end-point titration MeSH E05.196. ... limulus test MeSH E05.200.875.220 - colony count, microbial MeSH E05.200.875.595 - microbial sensitivity tests MeSH E05.200. ...
... thesis identified exceptions to the genetic complementation test that were useful for defining genetic interactions and for the ... His Ph.D. advisor at MIT was David Botstein, and the title of his thesis was "Genetic analysis of the yeast microtubule ...
A complementation test (sometimes called a "cis-trans" test) can be used to test whether the mutations in two strains are in ... Heterosis appears to be largely due to genetic complementation, that is the masking of deleterious recessive alleles in hybrid ... Complementation will ordinarily occur if the mutations are in different genes (intergenic complementation). Complementation may ... The complementation test was one of the main tools used in the early Neurospora work, because it was easy to do, and allowed ...
2 Complementation tests in fungi and bacteriophage. *3 Genetic complementation, heterosis and the evolution of sexual ... Example of a simple complementation test[edit]. Example of a complementation test. Two strains of flies are white eyed because ... A complementation test (sometimes called a "cis-trans" test) can be used to test whether the mutations in two strains are in ... Complementation tests in fungi and bacteriophage[edit]. Complementation tests can also be carried out with haploid eukaryotes ...
... transduction and conjugation Recombination and complementation Mutational analysis Genetic mapping and linkage analysis B. ... GRE Biology Test GRE Chemistry Test GRE Literature in English Test GRE Mathematics Test GRE Physics Test GRE Psychology Test ... After learning that test content from editions of the GRE® Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology (BCM) Test has been ... A sampling of test item content is given below: A Chemical and Physical Foundations Thermodynamics and kinetics Redox states ...
... genetic screen - DNA paternity testing - linkage map - genetic map Lists of notable biologists List of notable biologists List ... genetic mosaic - maternal effect - penetrance - complementation - suppression - epistasis - genetic linkage chromosomal effects ... genetic structure: DNA - DNA replication - nucleosome - genetic code - codon - transcription factor - transcription - ... Behavioral genetics - study of genetic and environmental influences on behaviors. Immunology - study of immune systems in all ...
Separately, the mutants were tested in pairwise combinations to measure complementation. An analysis of the results from such ... suppressive genetic interaction, additive genetic interaction, physical association, and other associations. Protein-protein ... In such a case, the phenomenon is referred to as intragenic complementation (also called inter-allelic complementation). ... To test two proteins for interaction, two protein expression constructs are made: one protein (X) is fused to the Gal4 DNA- ...
Separately, the mutants were tested in pairwise combinations to measure complementation. An analysis of the results from such ... Oti, M; Brunner, H. G. (2007). "The modular nature of genetic diseases". Clinical Genetics. 71 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... In such a case, the phenomenon is referred to as intragenic complementation (also called inter-allelic complementation). ... Intragenic complementation and oligomerization of the L subunit of the sendai virus RNA polymerase. Virology. 2002;304(2):235- ...
The techniques employed were complementation tests and crosses to detect recombination, particularly between deletion mutations ... Tobin at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge to perform genetic experiments that demonstrated the basic nature of the genetic ... Thus the genetic code is a triplet code, where each triplet (called a codon) specifies a particular amino acid. They also ... These genetic experiments led to the finding of a unique linear order of mutational sites within the genes. This result ...
In addition to genetic tests involving the sequencing of PEX genes, biochemical tests have proven highly effective for the ... A study using complementation analysis". Journal of Clinical Investigation (Free full text). 81 (6): 1710-1715. doi:10.1172/ ... "Genetic heterogeneity in the cerebrohepatorenal (Zellweger) syndrome and other inherited disorders with a generalized ...
The repair and complementation hypothesis assumes that genetic recombination is fundamentally a DNA repair process, and that ... Elena, S. F.; Lenski, R. E. (1997). "Test of synergistic interactions among deleterious mutations in bacteria". Nature. 390 ( ... Protection from major genetic mutationEdit. In contrast to the view that sex promotes genetic variation, Heng,[13] and Gorelick ... Genetic heritability cost of sexEdit. A sexually reproducing organism only passes on ~50% of its own genetic material to each ...
2005). "Genetic complementation reveals a novel human congenital disorder of glycosylation of type II, due to inactivation of ... "Sensitization and testing of guinea pigs with nickel sulfate". Dermatologica. 152 (6): 321-30. doi:10.1159/000251278. PMID ...
Complementation (genetics) DNA damage (naturally occurring) DNA damage theory of aging Epigenetics Gene mapping Genetic code ... Mutants exhibiting the phenotype of interest are isolated and a complementation test may be performed to determine if the ... was pivotal to molecular genetic research and enabled scientists to begin conducting genetic screens to relate genotypic ... The genetic code is made of four base pairs: adenine, cytosine, uracil, and guanine and is redundant meaning multiple ...
... genetic load can be assessed through a test analogous to an inbreeding depression test called an Autogamy depression test. Many ... see complementation (genetics)). In general, sexual reproduction in eukaryotes has two fundamental aspects: genetic ... In general, the higher the genetic variation or gene pool within a breeding population, the less likely it is to suffer from ... Backward evolution Genetic diversity Insular dwarfism Island gigantism Minimum viable population Population genetics Royal ...
Drastic genetic lesions in viral genomes are difficult to observe unless a mechanism such as complementation comes into the ... Apparent invariance may be the result of selection for long-term survival of populations that have previously frenziedly tested ... Additional examples of complementation among RNA viruses have been reported. Complementation is a means to maintain defective ... Complementation (often occurring when a functional protein encoded by a set of genomes is used by another set of genomes whose ...
The discovery of ts mutants of phage T4, and the employment of such mutants in complementation tests contributed to the ... Thus genes employed in the repair of DNA damages were identified, as well as genes affecting genetic recombination. For example ... a phenomenon referred to as intragenic complementation. Intragenic complementation of ts mutants defective in the same gene can ... Intragenic complementation among temperature sensitive mutants of bacteriophage T4D. Genetics. 1965 Jun;51(6):987-1002. PMID ...
Once mutagenized and screened, typically a complementation test is done to ensure that mutant phenotypes arise from the same ... A genetic map can then be created using linkage and genetic markers, and then the gene of interest can be cloned and sequenced ... Cystic fibrosis however demonstrates how the process of forward genetics can elucidate a human genetic disorder. Genetic- ... Discovering disease loci using old forward genetic techniques was a very long and difficult process and much of the work went ...
Reflecting this cross-species genetic complementation method, the gene was called "Excision repair cross-complementing 1". ... Thus, European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) has not recommended ERCC1 testing prior to the use of oxaliplatin in routine ... Busch D, Greiner C, Lewis K, Ford R, Adair G, Thompson L (September 1989). "Summary of complementation groups of UV-sensitive ... Homologous integration of DNA, an important technique for genetic manipulation, is dependent on the function of ERCC1-XPF in ...
The repair and complementation hypothesis assumes that genetic recombination is fundamentally a DNA repair process, and that ... Elena, S. F.; Lenski, R. E. (1997). "Test of synergistic interactions among deleterious mutations in bacteria". Nature. 390 ( ... Organisms need to replicate their genetic material in an efficient and reliable manner. The necessity to repair genetic damage ... Another theory is that sexual reproduction originated from selfish parasitic genetic elements that exchange genetic material ( ...
The repair and complementation hypothesis assumes that genetic recombination is fundamentally a DNA repair process, and that ... Elena, S. F.; Lenski, R. E. (1997). "Test of synergistic interactions among deleterious mutations in bacteria". Nature. 390 ( ... Protection from major genetic mutation[edit]. In contrast to the view that sex promotes genetic variation, Heng,[13] and ... Advantages due to genetic variation[edit]. See also: Hill-Robertson effect. For the advantage due to genetic variation, there ...
... and this gene restored UV resistance to cells of complementation group 4. Reflecting this cross-species genetic complementation ... The colon crypts are shaped like microscopic thick walled test tubes with a central hole down the length of the tube (the crypt ... Lee E, Levine EA, Franco VI, Allen GO, Gong F, Zhang Y, Hu JJ (2014). "Combined genetic and nutritional risk models of triple ... Busch D, Greiner C, Lewis K, Ford R, Adair G, Thompson L (Sep 1989). "Summary of complementation groups of UV-sensitive CHO ...
This is sometimes called allelic complementation, or interallelic complementation. It may be caused by several mechanisms, for ... Quantitative genetics focuses on genetic variance due to genetic interactions. Any two locus interactions at a particular gene ... Experimentally, this idea has been tested in using digital simulations of asexual and sexual populations. Over time, sexual ... In this regression, the observed two locus genetic effects are treated as dependent variables and the "pure" genetic effects ...
Blood tests should always be interpreted using the reference range from the laboratory that performed the test. High ALP levels ... Garen A, Levinthal C (March 1960). "A fine-structure genetic and chemical study of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase of E. coli. ... In such a case, the phenomenon is referred to as intragenic complementation. E. coli alkaline phosphatase, a dimer enzyme, ... The level of alkaline phosphatase in the blood is checked through the ALP test, which is often part of routine blood tests. The ...
Lee, M. G.; Nurse, P. (1987). "Complementation used to clone a human homologue of the fission yeast cell cycle control gene ... Nurse, P.; Thuriaux, P.; Nasmyth, K. (1976). "Genetic control of the cell division cycle in the fission yeast ... for the constant testing of ideas." Furthermore, Nurse feels that scientific leaders "have a responsibility to expose the ...
... development of the use of a platelet complementation fixation test to identify which antigens are present, and the discovery ... particularly those examining the genetic basis for the antigens' transmission, along with publishing a number of other papers ... He was testing the ability of the antigen-presenting leucocytes in the recipient's body, which came originally from the donor's ... amongst the researchers of the immunohematology field as everyone was on the brink of making a major discovery in the genetic ...
Robert Cook-Deegan, MD et al (2010) Impact of Gene Patents and Licensing Practices on Access to Genetic Testing for Inherited ... Complementation Group S, a genetic disease associated with hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents. BRCA1 is part of a ... Legal decisions surrounding the BRCA1 and BRCA2 patents will affect the field of genetic testing in general. A June 2013 ... Methods to test for the likelihood of a patient with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 developing cancer were covered by patents ...
... genetic complementation)[40] and the avoidance of inbreeding depression. Botryllus schlosseri (class Ascidiacea) is a colonial ... The body of an ascidiacean is surrounded by a test or tunic, from which the subphylum derives its name. This varies in ... Section through the wall of a pyrosoma showing ascidiozooids; br) buccal siphon; at) atrial siphon; tp) process of the test; br ... Carl Schmidt first announced the presence in the test of some ascidians of a substance very similar to cellulose, he called it ...
Deletion tests with mutant strands have shown that residues 181 to 210 are integral to mRNA editing, and there is most likely a ... CUGBP2 modulates C to U editing of apolipoprotein B mRNA by interacting with apobec-1 and ACF, the apobec-1 complementation ... "Complete phenotypic characterization of apobec-1 knockout mice with a wild-type genetic background and a human apolipoprotein B ... Tests involving A1 mutants with various deleted amino acid sequences have shown that editing activity is dependent on residues ...
Dai J, Voloshin O, Potapova S, Camerini-Otero RD (2017). "Meiotic Knockdown and Complementation Reveals Essential Role of RAD51 ... "Genetic unmasking of an epigenetically silenced microRNA in human cancer cells". Cancer Res. 67 (4): 1424-9. doi:10.1158/0008- ... These microRNAs were then tested by over-expressing them in cells in vitro, and they were found to indeed repress RAD51. This ... Further tests directly showed that transfecting breast cancer cells with a vector over-expressing miR-155 represses RAD51, ...
Genetic basis[edit]. When a population is small or inbred, it tends to lose genetic diversity. Inbreeding depression is the ... the steady rise in IQ test scores around the world during the twentieth century. However, James R. Flynn has pointed out that ... see Complementation (genetics)). It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to the expression of homozygous ... Genetic basis of heterosis. Dominance hypothesis. Scenario A. Fewer genes are under-expressed in the homozygous individual. ...
In addition, through complementation and genetic recombination, two defective PERV genomes could give rise to an infectious ... Similarly to objections to animal testing, animal rights activists have also objected to xenotransplantation on ethical grounds ... Disease transmission (xenozoonosis) and permanent alteration to the genetic code of animals are also causes for concern. ... Patient derived tumor xenografts in animals can be used to test treatments.[19] ...
The latter test whether interacting proteins are expressed at the same time, share some common features (such as gene ontology ... A number of engineered genetic sequences must be incorporated into the host cell to perform two-hybrid analysis or one of its ... The Y2H is thus a protein-fragment complementation assay. ... If test proteins are not localized to the nucleus (because they ... The premise behind the test is the activation of downstream reporter gene(s) by the binding of a transcription factor onto an ...
Legal decisions surrounding the BRCA1 and BRCA2 patents will affect the field of genetic testing in general.[126] A June 2013 ... Complementation Group S,[36] a genetic disease associated with hypersensitivity to DNA crosslinking agents. BRCA1 is part of a ... Robert Cook-Deegan, MD et al (2010) Impact of Gene Patents and Licensing Practices on Access to Genetic Testing for Inherited ... Methods to test for the likelihood of a patient with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 developing cancer were covered by patents ...
The method is based on the principle of α-complementation of the β-galactosidase gene. This phenomenon of α-complementation was ... Complementation test. *Recombinant DNA. *pBLU. *pGreen. *pUC19. References[edit]. *^ Ullmann, A.; Jacob, F.; Monod, J. (1967 ... The concept is similar to α-complementation in which a DNA insert can disrupt the coding sequence within a vector and thus ... The blue/white screening method works by disrupting this α-complementation process. The plasmid carries within the lacZα ...
"Drug Testing and Analysis. 4 (7-8): 556-76. doi:10.1002/dta.1333. PMC 3722587. PMID 22517680.. ... One study has found that genetic variations between individuals in the HTR2A gene may to some extent account for the difference ... deoxycytidine in Cockayne syndrome cells and its complementation by Escherichia coli formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and ... Laje G, Paddock S, Manji H, Rush AJ, Wilson AF, Charney D, McMahon FJ (October 2007). "Genetic markers of suicidal ideation ...
This theory about the origin of maize has been refuted by modern genetic testing, which refutes Mangelsdorf's model and the ... "Functional conservation of plant secondary metabolic enzymes revealed by complementation of Arabidopsis flavonoid mutants with ... Glyphosate is an herbicide which kills all plants except those with genetic tolerance. This genetic tolerance is very rarely ... Genetic studies, published in 2004 by John Doebley, identified Zea mays ssp. parviglumis, native to the Balsas River valley in ...
These three mechanisms are: relativization, complementation and coordination.[4] Furthermore, there are actually two main ... Jan 2011). "Genetic variance in a component of the language acquisition device: ROBO1 polymorphisms associated with ... Researchers are unable to experimentally test the effects of the sensitive period of development on language acquisition, ... the relationship between cognitive neuroscience and language acquisition was compared through a standardized test procedure ...
Because the genetic disorder is incompletely recessive, a person with only one SCA allele and one unaffected allele will have a ... The latter claim has been tested in an experiment, which showed outbreeding mice to exhibit MHC heterozygosity enhanced their ... as discussed in the articles Heterosis and Complementation (genetics), but there were also findings of overdominance, ... Sickle-cell anemia (SCA) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of two incompletely recessive alleles. When a sufferer's ...
For complementation and complementation tests used in genetics research, see Complementation (genetics). ... They are generally believed to increase the coding potential of the genetic code and add an overall layer of complexity to gene ... This principle plays an important role in DNA replication, setting the foundation of heredity by explaining how genetic ...
Based on symptoms and confirmed by genetic testing[3]. Differential diagnosis. Trichothiodystrophy, Cockayne syndrome, ... There are seven complementation groups, plus one variant form: Type. Diseases Database. OMIM. Gene. Locus. Also known as / ... Since DNA repair is under genetic control, it can mutate. Many genetic disorders such as xeroderma pigmentosum (XP; MIM 278700 ... Diagnosis is typically suspected based on symptoms and confirmed by genetic testing.[3] ...
Kidney function tests (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) as well as blood tests for liver functions are performed. The latter ... Up to 13 different genetic types of Leptospira may cause disease in humans.[11] It is transmitted by both wild and domestic ... It is not virulent in guinea pigs and hamsters but can become virulent during complementation. Therefore, this protein may ... microscopic agglutination test), a serological test, is considered the gold standard in diagnosing leptospirosis. As a large ...
... after testing the genomes of Natufian and Pre-Pottery Neolithic culture-bearers. Alternatively, a recent (2013) genetic ... Deutscher, Guy (2007). Syntactic Change in Akkadian: The Evolution of Sentential Complementation. Oxford University Press US. ... "mtDNA from the Early Bronze Age to the Roman Period Suggests a Genetic Link between the Indian Subcontinent and Mesopotamian ...
Genetic fuzzy systems use algorithms or genetic programming which simulate natural evolutionary processes, in order to ... There are standard tests one can do. By contrast, there is no conclusive procedure which can decide the validity of assigning ... complementation and subset. However, at the time, their idea "fell on stony ground". J. Barkley Rosser Sr. published a treatise ... To obtain concepts which are not fuzzy, it must be possible to test out their application in some way. But in the absence of ...
This is done by searching for gene families and testing the validity of uncharacterized genes by comparison to already ... This can be performed by complementation and knock out experiments. In the process of characterizing putative genes, the genome ... April 2018). "Identification of novel putative causative genes and genetic marker for male sterility in Japanese cedar ( ...
ISBN 978-0-7817-4088-3. McLean WH; Epithelial Genetics, Group (2003). "Genetic disorders of palm skin and nail". J Anat. 202 (1 ... Hanke, William (30 August 2010). "Dermatology In-Review Study Guide" (PDF). Educational Testing and Assessment Systems. ... peroxisomal biogenesis disorder complementation group 11) Rombo syndrome Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (poikiloderma congenitale) ... Joel L. Spitz (2005). Genodermatoses: a clinical guide to genetic skin disorders. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ...
Schultz has pioneered a method for adding new building blocks, beyond the common twenty amino acids, to the genetic codes of ... For high-throughput bioassays which require freely soluble test-compounds, he uses microrobotic fluid-manipulation systems, ... "Reprogramming of murine fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells with chemical complementation of Klf4". Proceedings of ... "Context :: 21-amino-acid bacteria: Expanding the genetic code". "Research". Mehta, Angad P.; Wang, Yiyang; Reed, Sean A.; ...
191-208(18), "Genetic Testing of Language Replacement Hypothesis in Southwest Asia" Banoei, M. M.; Chaleshtori, M. H.; Sanati, ... Deutscher, Guy (2007). Syntactic Change in Akkadian: The Evolution of Sentential Complementation. Oxford University Press US. ... Yepiskoposian L, Khudoyan A, Harutyunian A (2006). "Genetic Testing of Language Replacement Hypothesis in Southwest Asia". Iran ... "shows that Assyrians have a distinct genetic profile that distinguishes their population from any other population." Genetic ...
It belongs to the Fanconi anaemia complementation group (FANC) family of genes of which 12 complementation groups are currently ... The primary diagnostic test for Fanconi anaemia is based on the increased chromosomal breakage seen in afflicted cells after ... Joenje H, Patel KJ (June 2001). "The emerging genetic and molecular basis of Fanconi anaemia". Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (6): 446-57. ... Fanconi anaemia, complementation group A, also known as FAA, FACA and FANCA, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ...
Complementation of Yeast Genes with Human Genes as an Experimental Platform for Functional Testing of Human Genetic Variants. ... Complementation of Yeast Genes with Human Genes as an Experimental Platform for Functional Testing of Human Genetic Variants. ... Complementation of Yeast Genes with Human Genes as an Experimental Platform for Functional Testing of Human Genetic Variants. ... Complementation of Yeast Genes with Human Genes as an Experimental Platform for Functional Testing of Human Genetic Variants ...
Genetic complementation test also proved that Mo-01947_9 protein induces avirulence response in the pathogen in the presence of ... Genetic complementation test also proved that Mo-01947_9 protein induces avirulence response in the pathogen in the presence of ... Genetic Complementation Test of Candidate AvrPi54 Gene. Complementation of avirulence function of the cloned candidate AvrPi54 ... Genetic complementation test also proved that Mo-01947_9 protein induces avirulence response in the pathogen in presence of ...
... is an autosomal recessive disorder with diverse clinical symptoms and extensive genetic heterogeneity. Of eight FA genes that ... have been implicated on the basis of complementation studies, four have been identified and two have been mapped to different ... Genetic Complementation Test* * Genotype * Humans * Hybrid Cells / drug effects * Hybrid Cells / metabolism ... Complementation analysis in Fanconi anemia: assignment of the reference FA-H patient to group A Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Sep;67(3): ...
Genetic Complementation Test. Humans. Microbodies / metabolism*, ultrastructure. Oxidation-Reduction. Zellweger Syndrome / ... Since this disorder is genetically heterogeneous and several complementation groups are known, we were able to study the ... normalization of peroxisomal activity during the process of complementation. The restoration of catalase and dihydroxyacetone ...
complementation See genetic complementation.. complementation test; trans test Introduction of two mutant chromosomes into the ... chi-squared test (c2 test) A significance test used to statistically assess the goodness of fit of observed data to a ... crossing-over unit A measure of distance between two loci on genetic maps that is based on the average number of crossing-over ... co-segregation When two genetic conditions appear to be inherited together.. cosmid A plasmid vector which contains the two cos ...
2 Complementation tests in fungi and bacteriophage. *3 Genetic complementation, heterosis and the evolution of sexual ... Example of a simple complementation test[edit]. Example of a complementation test. Two strains of flies are white eyed because ... A complementation test (sometimes called a "cis-trans" test) can be used to test whether the mutations in two strains are in ... Complementation tests in fungi and bacteriophage[edit]. Complementation tests can also be carried out with haploid eukaryotes ...
Genetic Complementation Test * Genotype * Methyltransferases / biosynthesis * Methyltransferases / genetics * ... Complementation of coq3 Mutant Yeast by Mitochondrial Targeting of the Escherichia Coli UbiG Polypeptide: Evidence That UbiG ...
Genetic Complementation Test. Light. Malus / genetics*, growth & development, metabolism. Molecular Sequence Data. Plant ... the interaction between MdCRY2 and AtCOP1 using a yeast two-hybrid assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. ...
Complementation Test Allelism Test Partial Deficiency Salivary Gland Chromosome Genetic Mosaic These keywords were added by ... Procunier, J.D., and Tartof, K., 1975, Genetic analysis of the 5S RNA genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Genetics, 81: 515. ... Lindsley, D.L., and Grell, E.H., 1968, Genetic variations of Drosophila melanogaster, Carnegie Institution of Washington, ... Segmental aneuploidy and the genetic gross structure of the Drosophila genome, Genetics, 71:157.PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... which was mediated by oxidative stress and was restored by genetic complementation. As expected, NTHi 86-028NP dps had a ... The role of dps persistence in vivo was tested in animal infection studies. NTHi 86-028NP dps had decreased resistance to ... which was mediated by oxidative stress and was restored by genetic complementation. As expected, NTHi 86-028NP dps had a ... The role of dps persistence in vivo was tested in animal infection studies. NTHi 86-028NP dps had decreased resistance to ...
We tested the tip deletions by genetic complementation where possible: Df(2L)ED50001 failed to complement Df(2L)net-PMF or ... has been confirmed both by a molecular assay and by a complementation test. A total of 23 putative deletions failed the genetic ... confirmed by genetic complementation, and 54% by both methods. Data on molecular and genetic confirmation are provided for each ... Although a single complementation test cannot assess the extent of a deletion or confirm the precision of the breakpoints, we ...
Genetic Complementation Test. publications Timeline , Most Recent This graph shows the total number of publications written ... "Crosses, Genetic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... about "Crosses, Genetic" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Crosses, Genetic" was a major or minor ... Plasmodium vivax chloroquine resistance links to pvcrt transcription in a genetic cross. Nat Commun. 2019 09 20; 10(1):4300. ...
This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. ... Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA. J L Campbell, C C Richardson ... Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA ... Genetic recombination and complementation between bacteriophage T7 and cloned fragments of T7 DNA ...
Genetic Complementation Test Glycosylation Golgi Apparatus/enzymology Mutagenesis, Insertional Mutation Phylogeny Plant Roots/ ...
Genetic complementation testing indicated that wei2 and wei3 were not alleles of the EIN2 gene. The wei2 mutant was further ... 6). Genetic complementation analysis indicated that wei1 and tir1-1 were allelic (data not shown). Sequencing of the TIR1 gene ... Genetic and Phenotypic Characterization.. Genetic analysis of the progeny produced from backcrosses of these five mutants to ... To test this hypothesis, we crossed the eil1 mutants to ein3-1. The F1 progeny of the crosses between eil1-1 or eil1-2 and ein3 ...
Genetic Complementation Test (+8). Promoter Regions, Genetic (+24). PA5471. Ribosomes. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ... 2) Multiplicity of tests * As described above, in ORA, several thousand statistical tests are conducted simultaneously. Such an ... The hypergeometric test (or Fishers exact test) is widely used to calculate such probabilities. Several thousand statistical ... Genetic Epidemiol. 2002; 23:70-86.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Durinck S, Spellman PT, Birney E, Huber W. Mapping identifiers ...
... by complementation genetic tests using both deletions and specific locus mutations near the Adh locus. Following the genetic ... in Drosophila melanogaster were first characterized by genetic complementation tests to determine if a multi-locus deletion has ... Mutants that are intragenic as defined by the complementation test are then placed opposite a deficiency so that the DNA from ... was used first to study a dose response curve for tritium using as a genetic endpoint the sex-linked recessive lethal test. 3 ...
... classified by complementation tests and genetic mapping were later sequenced to provide a cross-reference between the genetic ... More recent genetic tests have identified a seventh complementation group, eutT (54, 67). ... Point mutations in this gene constituted a clear complementation group in the original genetic tests; they complemented mutants ... suggesting that 11 eut genes escaped detection by the initial genetic analysis. Here we correlate the genetic and physical maps ...
Transheterozygotes are useful in the study of genetic interactions and complementation testing. A transheterozygote is a ... Transheterozygotes are useful in complementation testing, as pioneered by geneticist Edward B. Lewis. If a transheterozygote ... Yue L, Karr TL, Nathan DF, Swift H, Srinivasan S, Lindquist S (1999). "Genetic analysis of viable Hsp90 alleles reveals a ... Price JV, Savenye ED, Lum D, Breitkreutz A (1997). "Dominant enhancers of Egfr in Drosophila melanogaster: genetic links ...
All mapping, complementation, and deficiency testing were performed by standard genetic methods (Herman and Horvitz, 1980). ... Additional genetic studies in C. elegans such as those used to identify the RAB-3 effector AEX-3 (Iwasaki et al., 1997) provide ... Genetic analysis of the S. cerevisiae rab mutants ypt1 and sec4demonstrates that certain rab molecules are essential for ... A, Genetic map of a portion of chromosome II, illustrating the position of genes and deficiencies used for the mapping and ...
complementation analysis A genetic test for determining whether 2 mutations producing a similar phenotype are allelic.. ... genetic lethal A genetic disease that prevents fertility.. genetic mapping Determination of the relative positions of genes on ... Genetic Conditions & Support Groups , Genetic Societies , Clinical Resources , Labs , Clinics , Genetics Education , Careers , ... genetic marker A polymorphic genetic property that can be used to distinguish the parental origin of alleles.. ...
Genetic Complementation Test. *HeLa Cells. *Humans. *Methylation. *Mice. *Mice, Inbred C57BL. *Mice, Knockout ...
We then performed genetic complementation tests of the Ric-8A- or Ric-8B-null cell defects. A Ric-8A−/− mES cell line made to ... We tested the effects of complete ablation of Ric-8A or Ric-8B on steady-state G protein amounts in crude membrane fractions ( ... A genetic selection for Caenorhabditis elegans synaptic transmission mutants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93, 12593-12598 ( ... Gα and Gβγ subunit abundances are interdependent (33). We tested whether transient transfection of Ric-8A−/− and Ric-8B−/− mES ...
Genetic complementation assay for Ccdc39. We next performed a complementation test with an independently developed targeted ... Genetic mapping and sequencing of the prh mutation. Microsatellite markers were tested on at least 30 affected animals to ... 2015). Global genetic analysis in mice unveils central role for cilia in congenital heart disease. Nature 521, 520-524. doi: ... The progressive hydrocephalus (prh) mouse allele was isolated in a forward genetic screen and causes a dramatic and highly ...
Genetic Complementation Test. publications Timeline , Most Recent This graph shows the total number of publications written ... A genetic basis of variation in eccrine sweat gland and hair follicle density. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Aug 11; 112(32): ... "Crosses, Genetic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... about "Crosses, Genetic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Crosses, Genetic" was a major or minor topic of these ...
Genetic complementation tests also unexpectedly revealed that αTub84D is a non-essential gene (Table 1). Combined, these data ... 1A). We tested whether the function of the α-tubulin C-terminal tails from flies and mammals might be conserved despite these ... Two-tailed Students t-tests were used to compare two conditions. *P=0.05-0.01; **P=0.01-0.001; ***P=0.0001-0.001; ****P,0.0001 ... To test the role of αTub84B K40 acetylation in survival and neuronal morphogenesis, we introduced K40A and K40R mutations to ...
B) Genetic complementation test using various truncated versions of KCBP. The genotype column shows the individual constructs ... The asterisk indicates the GFP-KCBP genomic fusion used in the complementation test. ... Genetic identification of the kcbp-1/zwiA mutant.. (A) Gene structure of the KCBP gene. Black rectangles indicate exons, gray ... Genetic analyses on the role of individual domains of KCBP in trichome development.. (A) Schematic diagram of the domain ...
Genetic complementation tests have shown allelism between the mdfw (modifier of deaf waddler) locus and the ahl locus. Further ... The Jackson Laboratory has rigorous genetic quality control and mutant gene genotyping programs to ensure the genetic ... Genetic Background. Pricing. Availability. The right model for my research. Other. Submit. ... we suggest ordering and performing tests on a small number of mice to determine suitability for your particular project. We do ...
Our preclinical efficacy testing services offer scientific expertise and an array of target-based and phenotype-based outcome ... p,A/J inbred mice are widely used to model cancer and for carcinogen testing given their high susceptibility to carcinogen- ... Genetic complementation tests have shown allelism between the mdfw (modifier of deaf waddler) locus and the ahl locus. Further ... In addition, a standard genetic test of allelism between clf1 and a Wnt9b targeted mutation demonstrated noncomplementation, ...
Filters: Keyword is Genetic Complementation Test [Clear All Filters]. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
  • To this end, we performed two parallel screens, a one-to-one complementation screen for essential yeast genes implicated in chromosome instability and a pool-to-pool screen that queried all possible essential yeast genes for rescue of lethality by all possible human homologs. (genetics.org)
  • Complementation will occur only if the mutations are in different genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complementation test (sometimes called a " cis-trans " test) can be used to test whether the mutations in two strains are in different genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The convenience and essence of this test is that the mutations that produce a phenotype can be assigned to different genes without the exact knowledge of what the gene product is doing on a molecular level. (wikipedia.org)
  • [2] [3] The complementation test was one of the main tools used in the early Neurospora work, because it was easy to do, and allowed the investigator to determine whether any two nutritional mutants were defective in the same, or different genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic mapping studies indicate that wei2 and wei3 correspond to previously unidentified ethylene pathway genes that may control cell-elongation processes functioning at the intersection of the ethylene and auxin response pathways. (pnas.org)
  • Nonpolar insertion and deletion mutations made with the Tn 10 -derived transposable element T-POP showed that at least 10 of the 11 previously undetected eut genes have no Eut phenotype under the conditions tested. (asm.org)
  • The genes were cloned by complementation in vivo of trp deletion strains of Escherichia coli. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Complementation will ordinarily occur if the mutations are in different genes (intergenic complementation). (wikipedia.org)
  • To identify the responsible genes, we performed a forward genetic screen and isolated 12 mutants that can survive in excess iodide. (g3journal.org)
  • These mutations define at least 14 complementation groups, four of which correspond to previously identified genes. (zfin.org)
  • Despite extensive genetic studies, little is known about the transcriptional control of SOC1, and we are just starting to explore the network of genes under the direct control of SOC1 transcription factor complexes. (mpg.de)
  • Here we report on the genetic and molecular characterization of one of the genes identified from this screen, named hypnos-2. (jci.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 12244167 Previous genetic analyses have shown that the relative representation of subsets of gammadelta intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (i-IELs) is influenced by genes linked to the TCRgamma, TCRdelta, and MHC loci. (jove.com)
  • Using combined genetic mapping, Illumina sequencing, bioinformatics analyses, and experimental validation, we identified 60 essential genes from 104 lethal mutations in two genomic regions of Caenorhabditis elegans totaling ∼14 Mb on chromosome III(mid) and chromosome V(left). (g3journal.org)
  • Genome-wide forward genetic screens are capable of isolating genes that play important roles in given phenotypes, including lethality. (g3journal.org)
  • For over 35 yr, researchers have taken advantage of genetic balancers and forward genetic screens to isolate lethal mutations and identify essential genes in C. elegans . (g3journal.org)
  • Using traditional genetic methods, including genetic mapping and transgenic rescue assays, many essential genes have been identified. (g3journal.org)
  • A major challenge of modern biology is to understand the networks of interacting genes regulating complex traits, and the subset of these genes that affect naturally occurring quantitative genetic variation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we tested the efficacy of whole-genome transcriptional profiling for identifying genes affecting starvation stress resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Approximately 5% of the genome exhibited genetic variation in transcript abundance, which was largely attributable to regulation by unlinked genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Advances in medicine, agriculture, and an understanding of adaptive evolution depend on discovering the genes that regulate these complex traits, and determining the genetic and molecular properties of alleles at loci that cause segregating genetic variation in natural populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling. (ageing-map.org)
  • These mutants, representing six different complementation groups, all map near genes that encode subunits of the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome, and, here, we show that one of the genes, emb-27 , encodes the C. elegans CDC16 ortholog. (rupress.org)
  • Genetic screen for cloned release factor genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Finding a number of mutants with the same phenotype tells you little about how many genes you are dealing with, and how mutable those genes are until you can assign those mutations to genetic loci. (wormbook.org)
  • This robust phenotype has been used extensively for genetic screens to identify Arabidopsis mutants affected in hormone biosynthesis, perception, and signal transduction pathways ( 3 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mutants are described at the molecular level after having been characterized by classical genetic techniques in Drosophila melanogaster, therefore tying together the molecular studies with previous work in mutagenesis. (osti.gov)
  • Mutants that are intragenic as defined by the complementation test are then placed opposite a deficiency so that the DNA from the mutant allele may be extracted and analyzed. (osti.gov)
  • The initial genetic analysis of the eut operon was done with mutants defective in aerobic degradation of ethanolamine on medium including cobalamin. (asm.org)
  • Genetic analysis of the S. cerevisiae rab mutants ypt1 and sec4 demonstrates that certain rab molecules are essential for specific vesicular transport steps (for review, see Ferro-Novick and Novick, 1993 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • RIC-8 was discovered during a genetic screen of Caenorhabditis elegans that was designed to uncover mutants with defective neurotransmitter release ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Ku86 defines the genetic defect and restores X-ray resistance and V(D)J recombination to complementation group 5 hamster cell mutants. (asm.org)
  • Adult and embryonic phenotypes of a zygotic mutant of Src42A and genetic interaction with mutants for other Src-family kinases and Hep-Bsk pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • All of the esx-3 mutants tested, including the ΔmycP3ms mutant, failed to export the native Esx-3 substrates EsxHms and EsxGms to quantifiable levels, as determined by targeted mass spectrometry. (nih.gov)
  • Although we were able to restore low-iron growth to the esx-3 mutants by genetic complementation, we found a wide range of complementation levels for protein export. (nih.gov)
  • Since the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster , is extraordinarily tolerant to O 2 deprivation, we have performed a genetic screen in the Drosophila to search for loss-of-function mutants that are sensitive to low O 2 . (jci.org)
  • Genetic analysis of mutants affected in the Pst inorganic phosphate transport system. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ionizing radiation-sensitive mutant/Complementation test/Interspecific hybrid/Mouse cell/Hamster cell Interspecific and intraspecific hybrids were formed between mouse and Chinese hamster cell mutants hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and their radiosensitivities were examined. (elsevier.com)
  • Chinese hamster cell mutants irsl, irs2 and irs3 and mouse mammary carcinoma cell mutants SX9 and SX10 have been found to belong to five different complementation groups. (elsevier.com)
  • A radiosensitive mouse lymphoma cell line L5178Y-S has been demonstrated to be different from the X-ray sensitive mouse cell mutants M10 and LX830, both of which are derived from L5178Y cells, in their complementation groups. (elsevier.com)
  • The present collection of phage PR4 mutants has been assigned to 19 distinct genetic groups on the basis of genetic complementation tests and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the proteins produced in mutant infected UV irradiated cells. (illinois.edu)
  • Intra- and interspecific complementation of membrane-inexcitable mutants of Paramecium. (rupress.org)
  • According to standard genetic tests, inexcitable mutants fell into three complementation groups for both Paramecium tetraurelia (pwA, pwB, and pwC) and Paramecium caudatum (cnrA, cnrB, and cnrC). (rupress.org)
  • Transfusions between genetically defined complementation groups of the same species effected curing, whereas transfusions between different mutants (alleles) of the same group or between sister cells of the same mutant clone did not. (rupress.org)
  • Testing of single and double mutants along with selective tissue expression of the js127 mutation revealed that acy-1 acts in neurons within a Gαs-PKA-UNC-13-dependent pathway to regulate behavior and isoflurane sensitivity. (asahq.org)
  • In genetic screens for temperature-sensitive maternal effect embryonic lethal (Mel) mutants, we have identified 32 mutants in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in which fertilized embryos arrest as one-cell embryos. (rupress.org)
  • To describe the genetic basis of the Rhodococcus oleaginous metabolism, we sequenced and performed comparative analysis of the 9.27 Mb R. opacus PD630 genome. (prolekare.cz)
  • A genetic understanding of the oleaginous metabolism of chemoheterotrophic species like Rhodococcus provides critical insight for biofuels development. (prolekare.cz)
  • In genetics , complementation occurs when two strains of an organism with different homozygous recessive mutations that produce the same mutant phenotype (for example, a change in wing structure in flies) produce offspring with the wild-type phenotype when mated or crossed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complementation test was also used in the early development of molecular genetics when bacteriophage T4 was one of the main objects of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic mapping experiments and interspecific complementation tests indicate that this difference is caused, in its entirety, by evolution at the ovo/shaven-baby locus. (janelia.org)
  • Our preclinical efficacy testing services offer scientific expertise and an array of target-based and phenotype-based outcome measures, both in vivo and at endpoint, for flexible study designs and assay development in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. (jax.org)
  • To test whether the newly identified barren stalk plants have a different problem, the researchers performed genetic crosses, known as a complementation test, and concluded that the phenotype they observed in their plant was caused by a mutation in a totally different gene. (phys.org)
  • In this study we proved that the uar mutation lies in the gene for RF1 by complementation of the uar phenotype with plasmids carrying the RF1 gene and by cloning the uar allele onto the RF1 plasmid by means of homologous recombination. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • If a mutant phenotype is still observed, then the trans complementation test was leading you to the wrong conclusion. (wormbook.org)
  • This resulted in a set of human-yeast gene complementation pairs that allow human genetic variants to be readily characterized in yeast, and a prioritized list of somatic mutations that could contribute to chromosome instability in human tumors. (genetics.org)
  • Based on sequence conservation, human variants can be tested by introducing homologous mutations in the yeast ortholog. (genetics.org)
  • Complementation will not occur if the mutations are in the same gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations induced at the alcohol dehydrogenase locus (Adh) in Drosophila melanogaster were first characterized by genetic complementation tests to determine if a multi-locus deletion has occurred. (osti.gov)
  • A large set of mutations were sorted into six complementation groups ( eutABCDER ) and ordered by deletion mapping ( 44 , 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Complementation may also occur if the two mutations are at different sites within the same gene (intragenic complementation), but this effect is usually weaker than that of intergenic complementation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Complementation ordinarily will occur more weakly or not at all if the mutations are in the same gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a large-scale genetic screen for zygotic effect, embryonic lethal mutations in zebrafish we have identified 25 mutations that affect specification of cell fates and/or cellular rearrangements during gastrulation. (zfin.org)
  • These mutations provide an approach to understanding the genetic control of gastrulation in vertebrates. (zfin.org)
  • The mutations presented here might provide a genetic framework to aid in the understanding of the etiology of degenerative and physiological disorders within the CNS and the activation of inappropriate programmed cell death. (zfin.org)
  • An emc allele was identified from a genetic screen designed to identify factors that, when overexpressed, cooperate with mutations in rbf1 , which encodes one of the two Rb proteins found in Drosophila . (biologists.org)
  • The physical-genetic map localizes mutations in 13 phage PR4 genetic groups on the viral DNA molecule. (illinois.edu)
  • This assay requires that the mutation in question is genetically linked to the test mutation and that both mutations are recessive. (wormbook.org)
  • Through mapping and complementation tests, he was able to place 256 autosomal ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) induced mutations into 77 complementation groups, making the genetic analysis of C. elegans much easier to approach ( Brenner, 1974 ). (wormbook.org)
  • if the mutations do not complement one another when they are present in the trans configuration, the mutations should then be combined in cis and tested over the wild-type allele ( Pontecorvo, 1958 ). (wormbook.org)
  • The correct conclusion is that the mutations do not define alleles of the same gene, rather they are exhibiting non-allelic non-complementation (see text). (wormbook.org)
  • Fanconi anemia (FA) is an autosomal recessive disorder with diverse clinical symptoms and extensive genetic heterogeneity. (nih.gov)
  • This method of exposing Drosophila was used first to study a dose response curve for tritium using as a genetic endpoint the sex-linked recessive lethal test. (osti.gov)
  • 75 Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D: An autosomal recessive pigmentary skin disorder characterized by solar hypersensitivity of the skin, high predisposition for developing cancers on areas exposed to sunlight and, in some cases, neurological abnormalities. (malacards.org)
  • Heterosis appears to be largely due to genetic complementation, that is the masking of deleterious recessive alleles in hybrid individuals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outcrossing is proposed to be adaptive because it facilitates complementation, that is the masking of deleterious recessive alleles (also see Heterosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • We have cloned the his7+ gene of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe by complementation of the recessive mutant allele his7-366. (nih.gov)
  • Previously the human nucleotide excision repair gene ERCC3 was shown to be responsible for a rare combination of the autosomal recessive DNA repair disorders xeroderma pigmentosum (complementation group B) and Cockayne's syndrome (complementation group C). The human and mouse ERCC3 proteins contain several sequence motifs suggesting that it is a nucleic acid or chromatin binding helicase. (eur.nl)
  • It is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, but X-linked inheritance has also been reported. (rarediseases.org)
  • [4] In this case the test depends on mixed infections of host bacterial cells with two different bacteriophage mutant types. (wikipedia.org)
  • An isogenic NTHi 86-028NP dps mutant was generated and tested for resistance to environmental stress, revealing a significant survival defects in high-iron conditions, which was mediated by oxidative stress and was restored by genetic complementation. (frontiersin.org)
  • As can be seen in the following Punnett square, approximately one fourth of the offspring of this cross will inherit both the A* and A' mutant alleles, resulting in a transheterozygote genotype of A*A'. Transheterozygotes are useful in complementation testing, as pioneered by geneticist Edward B. Lewis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that in two mutant cell lines (XR-V15B and XR-V9B) from group 5, the genetic defects are in the gene encoding the 86-kDa subunit of the Ku autoantigen, a nuclear protein that binds to the double-stranded DNA ends. (asm.org)
  • Genetic identification of the kcbp-1/zwiA mutant. (elifesciences.org)
  • A number of mutant alleles affecting the Pst phosphate transport system have been divided into three complementation groups on the basis of constitutive alkaline phosphatase activity in appropriate partial diploid strains. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The ba2 mutant was discovered in a large genetic screen for corn plants unable to make ears, and the gene was identified by molecular mapping to chromosome 2. (phys.org)
  • a collection of MUTANT ALLELES that fails to complement and restore the WILD TYPE when tested in all pair-wise combinations (see CIS-TRANS TEST ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Moreover, analyses of Ca 2+ signatures in mutant backgrounds, genetic complementation of the mutant phenotypes and expression of sensor variants targeted to different subcellular localizations can be readily performed. (wur.nl)
  • In addition, complementation and P1 mapping data suggest that sueB is also a mutation in the same position as the RF1 gene. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Gross J, Gross M. Genetic analysis of an E. coli strain with a mutation affecting DNA polymerase. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The complementation test will not work if either mutation exhibits dominance over the wild-type allele. (wormbook.org)
  • Assigning a dominant mutation to a locus requires other methods (see Genetic suppression ). (wormbook.org)
  • X-ray-sensitive hamster cells in complementation groups 4, 5, 6, and 7 are impaired for both double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. (asm.org)
  • This is followed by a lengthy prophase in which homologous chromosomes pair, the synaptonemal complex (SC) is elaborated, and a high level of genetic recombination occurs. (asm.org)
  • After identification of the underlying genetic defect in several disorders of cholesterol biosynthesis, we have shifted our research focus primarily to pathogenetic aspects of the inflammatory metabolic disorder mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD), which is characterized by recurring episodes of inflammation and high fever. (amc.nl)
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group D, also known as xeroderma pigmentosum, group d , is related to cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group a , and has symptoms including ataxia , photophobia and muscle spasticity . (malacards.org)
  • An important gene associated with Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group D is ERCC2 (ERCC Excision Repair 2, TFIIH Core Complex Helicase Subunit), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Transcription-Coupled Nucleotide Excision Repair (TC-NER) and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair . (malacards.org)
  • RePub, Erasmus University Repository: Cloning and characterization of the Drosophila homolog of the xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group B correcting gene, ERCC3. (eur.nl)
  • For a simple example of a complementation test, suppose a geneticist is interested in studying two strains of white-eyed flies of the species Drosophila melanogaster , more commonly known as the common fruit fly. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include: autonomy of the rate of the mitotic division in some Minutes (Morata and Ripoll, 1975), induction of non-disjunction in the X-chromosome (Miklos, 1970), cell autonomy of some Minutes in chaetae differentiation, and cell lethality in genetic mosaics (Stern and Tokunaga, 1971), and their high rate of induction by ethylmethanesulfonate (Huang and Baker, 1976). (springer.com)
  • The three complementation groups were represented by the alleles pstA2 and phoT32 and the newly described allele pstB401. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Together, we propose that Lrp6 is one of the key genetic components for the pathogenesis of vertebral segmentation defects and of osteoporosis in humans. (biologists.org)
  • The big (and still somewhat controversial) conclusion from this study is that for species evolving in relatively small Ne (for example, trees and humans), genetic drift is too strong and natural selection is too weak to keep deleterious genomic features (such as transposons and other forms of 'extra genome space') out of the genome. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Complementation tests can also be carried out with haploid eukaryotes such as fungi, with bacteria and with viruses such as bacteriophage. (wikipedia.org)
  • For additional general information and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Fanconi anemia, see 227650. (malacards.org)
  • Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group L, also known as fanconi anemia complementation group l , is related to fanconi anemia, complementation group a and fanconi anemia, complementation group b . (malacards.org)
  • An important gene associated with Fanconi Anemia, Complementation Group L is FANCL (FA Complementation Group L), and among its related pathways/superpathways are BRCA1 Pathway and DNA damage_ATM/ATR regulation of G1/S checkpoint . (malacards.org)
  • 75 Fanconi anemia complementation group L: A disorder affecting all bone marrow elements and resulting in anemia, leukopenia and thrombopenia. (malacards.org)
  • Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder, in the category of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes. (rarediseases.org)
  • Knowing this, the geneticist may perform a complementation test on two separately obtained strains of pure-breeding white-eyed flies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vector should be useful for genetic manipulation of S. aureus and for marking strains for in vivo studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This is, to our knowledge, the first molecular genetic characterization of NBAD hydrolase and carcinine hydrolase activity in any organism and is central to the understanding of pigmentation and photoreceptor function. (nih.gov)
  • By means of a genetic screen that exploits the cross talk between ethylene (ET) and JAs, we describe the identification of several new loci involved in JA signaling and the characterization and positional cloning of one of them, JASMONATE-INSENSITIVE1 ( JAI1 / JIN1 ). (plantcell.org)
  • 600 different patients with a defect in peroxisome biogenesis to different genetic complementation groups followed by characterization of the gene defects. (amc.nl)
  • In this study, we tested the hypothesis that bacterial stress-responses are activated within biofilms. (frontiersin.org)
  • To test this possibility, transgenic mice were generated with 145- and 207-kb bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that contained the human apoB gene and more extensive 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences. (caltech.edu)
  • We set out to predict and experimentally test the functions of such proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since this disorder is genetically heterogeneous and several complementation groups are known, we were able to study the normalization of peroxisomal activity during the process of complementation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The function of this gene was determined by heterologous genetic complementation in E. coli. (ualg.pt)
  • The role of dps persistence in vivo was tested in animal infection studies. (frontiersin.org)
  • For a number of case studies, additional experiments (such as in vivo genetic complementation) were performed to determine function so that the reliability of the NMR screen could be independently assessed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To avoid the pitfall of reversion, future assignment of patients with FA to new complementation groups should conform with more-stringent criteria. (nih.gov)
  • On the basis of these criteria, the current number of complementation groups in FA is seven. (nih.gov)
  • Since the pawns and the caudatum nonreversals complement one another through transfusion, they appeared to belong to six different complementation groups. (rupress.org)
  • We show that rs is a hypomorphic Lrp6 allele by a genetic complementation test with Lrp6 -null mice, and that the mutated protein cannot efficiently transduce signals through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. (biologists.org)
  • Genetic mapping, sequencing, and transformation phenocopy showed that js127 was an allele of acy-1, which encodes an adenylate cyclase expressed throughout the C. elegans nervous system and in muscle. (asahq.org)
  • Cloning and manipulation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe his7+ gene as a new selectable marker for molecular genetic studies. (nih.gov)
  • In essence, the complementation test is a very simple test and can quite satisfyingly give you an idea of the number of loci involved in a process after a successful mutagenesis experiment. (wormbook.org)
  • As a means of biologically testing this finding, we cloned a segment of DNA from Escherichia coli that encodes this enzyme. (asm.org)
  • A genome-scale metabolic network of E. coli B was reconstructed and used to identify genetic bases of the phenotypes unique to B compared with K-12 through in silico complementation testing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An in silico genome-scale metabolic model of E. coli B REL606 was reconstructed and used to determine the genetic basis of the phenotypic differences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Silver P, Wickner W. Genetic mapping of the Escherichia coli leader (signal) peptidase gene (lep): a new approach for determining the map position of a cloned gene. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This chapter reviews the complementation test and its various outcomes, highlighting relatively rare but nonetheless interesting exceptions such as intragenic complementation and non-allelic non-complementation. (wormbook.org)
  • Have a diagnosis of mut, cblA, cblB, cblC, cblD, or cblF type MMA based on complementation status determination in cultured fibroblasts and/or genetic testing. (genome.gov)
  • Using cross-species complementation, model organisms like the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , can be utilized to fill this gap and serve as a platform for testing human genetic variants. (genetics.org)
  • Budding yeast can be exploited to screen these human genetic variants for prioritizing and directing functional studies in mammalian models (reviewed in Dunham and Fowler 2013 ). (genetics.org)
  • There are several approaches for studying human genetic variants in yeast. (genetics.org)
  • A more desirable approach is functionally testing variants directly in the context of the human protein sequence by utilizing cross-species complementation to "humanize" the yeast strain. (genetics.org)
  • Furthermore, we examined the interaction between MdCRY2 and AtCOP1 using a yeast two-hybrid assay and a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Not surprisingly, genetic studies of yeast mitosis suggest that the transition out of metaphase and through anaphase is highly regulated both in terms of the sequence of events and the existence of checkpoint regulators. (rupress.org)
  • We are using genetic knockouts and complementation assays to test these predictions. (escholarship.org)
  • Gene expression and physiological analyses revealed that D. salina Lcy-beta steady-state transcript and carotenoid levels were up-regulated in response to all stress conditions tested (salt, light and nutrient depletion). (ualg.pt)
  • ascertainment The selection of individuals for inclusion in a genetic study (severity, age of onset, certain features of the trait). (kumc.edu)
  • The quantitatively reduced colonisation suggests that genetic redundancy might account for the absence of stronger AM phenotypes. (nature.com)
  • The complementation test was developed by American geneticist Edward B. Lewis . (wikipedia.org)
  • A/J inbred mice are widely used to model cancer and for carcinogen testing given their high susceptibility to carcinogen-induced tumors. (jax.org)
  • By using Toll-like receptor (TLR)-deficient mice and genetic complementation, we show that murine TLR7 and human TLR8 mediate species-specific recognition of GU-rich ssRNA. (sciencemag.org)
  • RNase protection, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemical, and genetic complementation studies revealed that the BAC transgenic mice manifested appropriate apoB gene expression in both the intestine and the liver, indicating that both BACs contained the distant intestinal element. (caltech.edu)
  • backcross A genetic crossing of a heterozygous organism and one of its homozygous parents. (kumc.edu)
  • Twenty-one predicted functions have been experimentally tested or are currently under investigation by our group in at least one prokaryotic organism (nine of them have been validated, four invalidated, and eight are in progress). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Crosses, Genetic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Crosses, Genetic" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Crosses, Genetic" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Crosses, Genetic" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Complementation in Zellweger syndrome: biochemical analysis of newly generated peroxisomes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • I have used this collection of plasmids to generate a physical-genetic map of the PR4 genome. (illinois.edu)
  • One of the most common genetic manipulations is the complementation test, which is typically carried out using plasmid vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided a powerful system for dissecting the genetic mechanisms controlling animals' intrinsic biology and interaction with environmental factors. (g3journal.org)
  • Genetic evidence in Caenorhabditis elegans has shown that a major mechanism of action of volatile anesthetics acting at clinical concentrations in this animal is presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmission. (asahq.org)
  • Here we present evidence indicating that the patient who has been the sole representative of the eighth complementation group (FA-H) in fact belongs to group FA-A. Previous exclusion from group A was apparently based on phenotypic reversion to wild-type rather than on genuine complementation in fusion hybrids. (nih.gov)
  • More recent genetic tests have identified a seventh complementation group, eutT ( 54 , 67 ). (asm.org)
  • The complementation group is initially used to define the basic genetic unit of function or CISTRON (now synonymous with GENE ). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Transheterozygotes are useful in the study of genetic interactions and complementation testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seed quality and seedling vigour are mainly determined by the interactions of the following three components: genetic background, physiological quality and the environmental conditions during seed set, seed ripening, storage, seed germination and early seedling development. (wur.nl)
  • One factor that was shown to have both physical and genetic interactions with pRb is inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation 2 (ID2). (biologists.org)
  • Genetic studies suggest that in the absence of ethylene, the receptors are active and positively regulate the activity of CTR1, a Raf-like serine/threonine kinase ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Blood tests to assess liver and thyroid function, blood counts and blood chemistries, methylmalonic acid levels, and for genetic tests and basic research studies. (genome.gov)
  • Mapping and complementation studies of the gene for release factor 1. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Genetic studies of the lac repressor. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While the pace of discovery of human genetic variants in tumors, patients, and diverse populations has rapidly accelerated, deciphering their functional consequence has become rate-limiting. (genetics.org)
  • Database of human genetic variants associated with longevity. (ageing-map.org)
  • Genetic complementation test also proved that Mo-01947_9 protein induces avirulence response in the pathogen in presence of Pi54 gene. (frontiersin.org)
  • To test whether CG12120 possesses these predicted activities, we produced recombinant CG12120 protein using a baculovirus expression system in insect cell culture (Figure 4). (nih.gov)
  • We spent time discussing one molecular test for the effects of natural selection on protein-coding sequences: the Ka/Ks test. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This is at its core a very simple test that is also very broadly applicable - all you need is two homologous protein-coding sequences to compare to each other. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Complementation analysis of his7 subclones. (nih.gov)
  • Such settings limit the usage of these Ca 2+ biosensors to particular reporter variants and plant genetic backgrounds, which can be a severe constraint in genetic pathway analysis. (wur.nl)
  • We tested a range of endogenous and pathogenderived elicitors in seedlings and protoplasts of the corresponding apoaequorin-expressing reporter line. (wur.nl)
  • Readthrough of these RNAs into the intended transcriptional unit potently stimulated reporter activity when the inserted test sequence contained a 3' splice site (ss). (elsevier.com)
  • Introduction of test sequences containing 30 ss into monocistronic luciferase reporter vectors widely used in the study of transcriptional regulation also created the false appearance of promoter function via the same mechanism. (elsevier.com)

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