Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
A hepatic carcinogen whose mechanism of activation involves N-hydroxylation to the aryl hydroxamic acid followed by enzymatic sulfonation to sulfoxyfluorenylacetamide. It is used to study the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of aromatic amines.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A class of chemicals that contain an anthracene ring with a naphthalene ring attached to it.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.
An alkylating agent that forms DNA ADDUCTS at the C-8 position in GUANINE, resulting in single strand breaks. It has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. This compound and its metabolite 4-HYDROXYAMINOQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE bind to nucleic acids. It inactivates bacteria but not bacteriophage.
7,8,8a,9a-Tetrahydrobenzo(10,11)chryseno (3,4-b)oxirene-7,8-diol. A benzopyrene derivative with carcinogenic and mutagenic activity.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.
A nitrosoguanidine derivative with potent mutagenic and carcinogenic properties.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties. It causes serious liver damage and is a hepatocarcinogen in rodents.
A very potent liver carcinogen.
A reagent used mainly to induce experimental liver cancer. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, p. 89) published in 1985, this compound "may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen." (Merck, 11th ed)
A family of diphenylenemethane derivatives.
Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.
A potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic mycotoxin produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi. It is also mutagenic, teratogenic, and causes immunosuppression in animals. It is found as a contaminant in peanuts, cottonseed meal, corn, and other grains. The mycotoxin requires epoxidation to aflatoxin B1 2,3-oxide for activation. Microsomal monooxygenases biotransform the toxin to the less toxic metabolites aflatoxin M1 and Q1.
A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
1,2-Benzphenanthrenes. POLYCYCLIC COMPOUNDS obtained from coal tar.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.
A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
Hydrazines substituted with two methyl groups in any position.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Pathological processes that tend eventually to become malignant. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Benzopyrenes saturated in any two adjacent positions and substituted with two hydroxyl groups in any position. The majority of these compounds have carcinogenic or mutagenic activity.
Furano-furano-benzopyrans that are produced by ASPERGILLUS from STERIGMATOCYSTIN. They are structurally related to COUMARINS and easily oxidized to an epoxide form to become ALKYLATING AGENTS. Members of the group include AFLATOXIN B1; aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2; AFLATOXIN M1; and aflatoxin M2.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A DNA alkylating agent that has been shown to be a potent carcinogen and is widely used to induce colon tumors in experimental animals.
A potent carcinogen and neurotoxic compound. It is particularly effective in inducing colon carcinomas.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.
A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A member of the BENZODIOXOLES that is a constituent of several VOLATILE OILS, notably SASSAFRAS oil. It is a precursor in the synthesis of the insecticide PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE and the drug N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA).
An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
Hydrazines substituted by one or more methyl groups in any position.
A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.
A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Highly reactive chemicals that introduce alkyl radicals into biologically active molecules and thereby prevent their proper functioning. Many are used as antineoplastic agents, but most are very toxic, with carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressant actions. They have also been used as components in poison gases.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
Salts of chromic acid containing the CrO(2-)4 radical.
Disinfectant used in vapor form to sterilize vaccines, grafts, etc. The vapor is very irritating and the liquid form is carcinogenic.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
An ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 enzyme that metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Substrates include ETHANOL; INHALATION ANESTHETICS; BENZENE; ACETAMINOPHEN and other low molecular weight compounds. CYP2E1 has been used as an enzyme marker in the study of alcohol abuse.
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Used in the form of its salts as a dye and as an intermediate in manufacture of Acid Yellow, diazo dyes, and indulines.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.
The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A colorless, odorless, highly water soluble vinyl monomer formed from the hydration of acrylonitrile. It is primarily used in research laboratories for electrophoresis, chromatography, and electron microscopy and in the sewage and wastewater treatment industries.
An acid-base indicator which is colorless in acid solution, but turns pink to red as the solution becomes alkaline. It is used medicinally as a cathartic.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
A derivative of acetic acid, N(CH2COOH)3. It is a complexing (sequestering) agent that forms stable complexes with Zn2+. (From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed.)
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
A potent nitrofuran derivative tumor initiator. It causes bladder tumors in all animals studied and is mutagenic to many bacteria.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Carcinogenic nitrosamine that may be formed from preservatives in meats during their preparation or in the liver during metabolism.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Induction and quantitative measurement of chromosomal damage leading to the formation of micronuclei (MICRONUCLEI, CHROMOSOME-DEFECTIVE) in cells which have been exposed to genotoxic agents or IONIZING RADIATION.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Nitro-phenanthrenes occurring in ARISTOLOCHIACEAE and other plants. They derive from stephanine (APORPHINES) by oxidative ring cleavage. The nitro group is a reactive alkylator (ALKYLATING AGENTS) that binds to biological macromolecules. Ingestion by humans is associated with nephropathy (NEPHRITIS). There is no relationship to the similar named aristolochene (SESQUITERPENES).
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
A 4-hydroxylated metabolite of AFLATOXIN B1, one of the MYCOTOXINS from ASPERGILLUS tainted food. It is associated with LIVER damage and cancer resulting from its P450 activation to the epoxide which alkylates DNA. Toxicity depends on the balance of liver enzymes that activate it (CYTOCHROME P-450) and others that detoxify it (GLUTATHIONE S TRANSFERASE) (Pharmac Ther 50.443 1991). Primates & rat are sensitive while mouse and hamster are tolerant (Canc Res 29.236 1969).
A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Aromatic diamine used in the plastics industry as curing agent for epoxy resins and urethane rubbers. It causes bladder, liver, lung, and other neoplasms.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Negative ions or salts derived from bromic acid, HBrO3.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.
Inorganic compounds that contain sodium as an integral part of the molecule.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Enzymes that catalyze reversibly the formation of an epoxide or arene oxide from a glycol or aromatic diol, respectively.
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
An arsenical that has been used as a dermatologic agent and as an herbicide.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Defective nuclei produced during the TELOPHASE of MITOSIS or MEIOSIS by lagging CHROMOSOMES or chromosome fragments derived from spontaneous or experimentally induced chromosomal structural changes.
Hydrazine substituted by one methyl group.
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Ring compounds having atoms other than carbon in their nuclei. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.
2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
The result of the test detects the majority of genotoxic carcinogens and genetic changes; the types of mutations detected are ... The purpose of in vitro testing is to determine whether a substrate, product, or environmental factor induces genetic damage. ... 2000). "Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing" (PDF). Environmental and ... In a specific mammalian tissue, one can perform a mouse lymphoma TK+/- assay to test for changes in the genetic material. Gene ...
Cells in the midgut of some insects take up the dsRNA molecules in the process referred to as environmental RNAi. In some ... RNA interference is a vital part of the immune response to viruses and other foreign genetic material, especially in plants ... Another effort decreased the precursors of likely carcinogens in tobacco plants. Other plant traits that have been engineered ... Fire A, Xu S, Montgomery MK, Kostas SA, Driver SE, Mello CC (February 1998). "Potent and specific genetic interference by ...
Farmer, P. "Biomarkers of exposure and effect for environmental carcinogens, and their applicability to human molecular ... Mutation Research/Reviews in Genetic Toxicology. 365 (1-3): 129-146. doi:10.1016/s0165-1110(96)90017-2. PMID 8898994. ... The presence of such an adduct indicates prior exposure to a potential carcinogen, but does not by itself indicate the presence ... the amount of carcinogen exposure to the subject organism, for example rats or other living animals.[citation needed] Under ...
His research at NCI centered on working out how the body metabolizes environmental carcinogens, such as one of the most common ... He developed the foundation for a genetic profile that could screen individuals for susceptibility to certain carcinogens, ... His laboratory identified the genes for the many cytochrome P-450 enzymes that detoxify various environmental carcinogens. ... That finding revealed how pro-carcinogens can be converted in the body to substances that damage DNA and that can lead to ...
These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and ... environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding these enzymes are ... These enzymes function in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, ...
These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins as well as affect the toxicity and ... environmental toxins and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of ... The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including some carcinogens, therapeutic ... and GSTT1 genetic polymorphisms". Prostate. 58 (4): 414-20. doi:10.1002/pros.10348. PMID 14968442. S2CID 11087022. Gerhard DS, ...
These genetic variations can change an individual's susceptibility to carcinogens and toxins, as well as affect the toxicity ... likely due to an increased susceptibility to environmental toxins and carcinogens. Multiple protein isoforms are encoded by ... The mu class of enzymes functions in the detoxification of electrophilic compounds, including carcinogens, therapeutic drugs, ... environmental toxins, and products of oxidative stress, by conjugation with glutathione. The genes encoding the mu class of ...
... much can be done to reduce human exposure to environmental carcinogens. Her work Living Downstream: An Ecologist Looks at ... criticizes the imbalance between funding devoted to studies of genetic predisposition to cancer versus studies of environmental ... Steingraber writes and lectures on the environmental factors that contribute to reproductive health problems and environmental ... Raising Elijah: Protecting Our Children in an Age of Environmental Crisis (2011, a Merloyd Lawrence Book) ISBN 978-0-7382-1399- ...
Genotoxic carcinogens interact directly with DNA and genetic material or indirectly by their reactive metabolites. Toxicants ... and the pancreas have been linked to various environmental toxicants. Carcinogens preferentially target the liver in fish and ... carcinogens are classified as either genotoxic or nongenotoxic carcinogens. The effects of carcinogens are most often related ... Carcinogens are defined as any substance that causes cancer. The toxicodynamics of carcinogens can be complex due to the ...
Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 678 (2): 76-94. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2009.05.006. PMC ... Loechler, E. L. (1996). "The role of adduct site-specific mutagenesis in understanding how carcinogen-DNA adducts cause ... Mutagenesis may also occur as a result of the presence of environmental mutagens that induce changes to an organism's DNA. The ... Since the variety of environmental stresses is very broad, the mechanisms that enable it are also quite broad, as far as ...
This specific genetic makeup lends to self-renewal, differentiation, and propagation of neural stem cells in the brain. However ... Although cancer in general is caused by a variety of external factors, including carcinogens, dangerous chemicals, and viral ... At this point, no literature has indicated whether environmental factors increase the likelihood of astroblastoma. ... and environmental surroundings are expressed. These tumors can be present in major brain areas not associated with the main ...
... and that the most important environmental carcinogens may include some whose chief effect is to cause the chronic division of ... He contended that most human genetic damage arises from essential micronutrients lacking in poor diets and the oxidation of DNA ... He is a recipient of the Bolton S. Corson Medal in 1980, Tyler Prize for Environmental Achievement in 1985, the Japan Prize in ... The ease with which Ames test allows widely used chemicals to be identified as possible carcinogens made him an early hero of ...
... due to both genetic and environmental factors. It is much more common in people of Chinese ancestry (genetic), but is also ... linked to the Chinese diet of a high amount of smoked fish, which contain nitrosamines, well known carcinogens (environmental ... "A review of human carcinogens--Part B: Biological agents". The Lancet Oncology. 10 (4): 321-2. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70096- ...
Department of Energy and the International Commission for Protection Against Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens. 19 ... and much of his work since then has involved developing and using genomics and genetic tools to understand basic human biology ... a somatic cell genetic method for constructing high-resolution maps of mammalian chromosomes". Science. 250 (4978): 245-250. ...
Genetically based N-acetyltransferase metabolic polymorphism and low-level environmental exposure to carcinogens. Nature. 1994 ... identifies novel genetic loci associated with smoking. Hum Mol Genet. 2013 Mar 1;22(5):843-51 Khan AE, Scheelbeek PF, Shilpi AB ... "Genetically based N-acetyltransferase metabolic polymorphism and low-level environmental exposure to carcinogens". Nature. 369 ... The environmental roots of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and the epigenetic impacts of globalization. 2014 Aug;133:424-30. ...
Genetic background, dietary practices and environmental factors also likely contribute to the incidence of DNA damage and ... Common carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogens are agents that pose a risk of cancer in several ... Carcinogens can be classified as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. Genotoxins cause irreversible genetic damage or mutations by ... Note: In general, polymers are not known as carcinogens or mutagens,. however, residual monomers or additives can cause genetic ...
Genetic background, dietary practices and environmental factors also likely contribute to the incidence of DNA damage and ... Group A1: Confirmed human carcinogen Group A2: Suspected human carcinogen Group A3: Confirmed animal carcinogen with unknown ... Carcinogen List - NIOSH Safety and Health Topic Recognized Carcinogens American Cancer Society Database of Rodent Carcinogens ... Carcinogens can be classified as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. Genotoxins cause irreversible genetic damage or mutations by ...
Opinion on the environmental and health risks posed by depleted uranium by the Scientific Committee on Health and Environmental ... The origin and time of introduction of the carcinogenic agent causing the genetic stress the group will address in a separate ... High concentration could cause kidney damage." The IAEA concluded that, while depleted uranium is a potential carcinogen, there ... "Environmental Health Perspectives. 117 (6): 953-956. doi:10.1289/ehp.0800413. JSTOR 25549605. PMC 2702412 . PMID 19590689.. ...
Research into the cause of cancer involves many different disciplines including genetics, diet, environmental factors (i.e. ... chemical carcinogens). In regard to investigation of causes and potential targets for therapy, the route used starts with data ... in regard to the types of genetic and epigenetic changes that are associated with cancer development. The mouse is often used ... Percivall Pott identified the first environmental trigger (chimney soot) for cancer in 1775 and cigarette smoking was ...
Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis 2015, 780-781, 76-80 Lubet, R. A.; Connolly, G.; Kouri, R. E.; Nebert, D. W.; ... Sudan I was classified as a category three carcinogen and category three mutagen in Annex I of the Directive 67/548/EC. This ... Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 2000, 465 (1), 11-26 Larsen, John Chr. (2008). "Legal and ... Sudan 1 is also suspected of causing genetic defects. The mutagenicity and genetic hazard has been evaluated with the Ames-test ...
Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 775-776: 55-68. doi:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2014.10.005. PMID ... Ames, Bruce N.; McCann, Joyce; Yamasaki, Edith (1975). "Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the salmonella/ ... Auxotrophic genetic markers are often used in molecular genetics; they were famously used in Beadle and Tatum's Nobel prize- ... "Designing novel spectral classes of proteins with a tryptophan-expanded genetic code". Biol. Chem. 385 (10): 893-904. doi: ...
... carriers of genetic mutations in a specific protective response are more susceptible to an environmental carcinogen". Med. ... Friedenson B (November 2011). "A common environmental carcinogen unduly affects carriers of cancer mutations: ... Legal decisions surrounding the BRCA1 and BRCA2 patents will affect the field of genetic testing in general.[126] A June 2013 ... Shen J, Ambrosone CB, Zhao H (March 2009). "Novel genetic variants in microRNA genes and familial breast cancer". Int. J. ...
The majority of cancers, some 90-95% of cases, are due to genetic mutations from environmental and lifestyle factors. The ... These substances are called carcinogens. Tobacco smoke, for example, causes 90% of lung cancer. It also causes cancer in the ... The precise nature of the genetic damage and the genes that are affected by it. The consequences of those genetic changes on ... The vast majority of cancer cases are due to environmental risk factors. Many of these environmental factors are controllable ...
The purpose of in vitro testing is to determine whether a substrate, product, or environmental factor induces genetic damage. ... The result of the test detects the majority of genotoxic carcinogens and genetic changes; the types of mutations detected are ... Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis. 35 (3): 206-221. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2280(2000)35:3,206::AID-EM8,3.0.CO;2-J. ... "Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 13 (7-8): 509-526. doi:10.1080/10937404.2010.509013. PMC 5894094. PMID 21170807 ...
In addition, environmental factors such as carcinogens and radiation cause mutations that may contribute to the development of ... Genetic and epigenetic changes can occur at many levels, from gain or loss of entire chromosomes, to a mutation affecting a ... Many mutagens are also carcinogens, but some carcinogens are not mutagens. Examples of carcinogens that are not mutagens ... Often, the multiple genetic changes that result in cancer may take many years to accumulate. During this time, the biological ...
... of DNA that have been damaged due to things such as cigarette smoking and inhalation of other environmental carcinogens. ... "Genetic polymorphism - Biology-Online Dictionary , Biology-Online Dictionary". "Genetic Testing Report-Glossary". National ... "Genetic Polymorphism and How It Lasts over Generations". Karki, Roshan; Pandya, Deep; Elston, Robert C.; Ferlini, Cristiano ( ... A rule of thumb that is sometimes used is to classify genetic variants that occur below 1% allele frequency as mutations rather ...
The "Innate" potato is not a single cultivar, rather, it is a group of potato varieties that have had the same genetic ... Asparagine can become acrylamide during the frying of potatoes and is a probable human carcinogen, so reduced levels of it are ... In early 2012, Simplot submitted a report to the Environmental Protection Agency to explain its view regarding how and why ... The 'Innate' name comes from the fact that this variety does not contain any genetic material from other species (the genes ...
Environmental carcinogens and papillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of cancer". Proceedings of the Royal Society. 231 (1262): 1- ... The biochemical and genetic approach to the study of bioenergetics with the use of Escherichia coli: progress and prospects". ... Environmental carcinogens and paillomaviruses in the pathogenesis of cancer. 1985 Kenneth Murray, A molecular biologist's view ... The biochemical and genetic approach to the study of bioenergetics with the use of Escherichia coli: progress and prospects. ...
The majority of cancers, some 90-95% of cases, are due to genetic mutations from environmental and lifestyle factors.[3] The ... These substances are called carcinogens. Tobacco smoke, for example, causes 90% of lung cancer.[34] It also causes cancer in ... many genetic changes are required before cancer develops.[11] Approximately 5-10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic ... The vast majority of cancer cases are due to environmental risk factors. Many of these environmental factors are controllable ...
... a Ubiquitous Environmental Carcinogen". Cancer Res. 66: 5.. ... BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was ... The ultimate carcinogen is formed after another reaction with cytochrome P450 1A1 to yield the (+)benzo[a]pyrene-7,8- ... It is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC. In the 18th century a scrotal cancer of chimney sweepers, the chimney sweeps ... BaP's metabolites are mutagenic and highly carcinogenic, and it is listed as a Group 1 carcinogen by the IARC. Chemical agents ...
... dose-response relationship for any common environmental human carcinogen", according to report by the National Cancer Institute ... "Genetic radiation risks: a neglected topic in the low dose debate". Environmental Health and Toxicology. 31: e2016001. doi ... In the EPA's 1999 Federal Guidance Report #13(FGR 13), Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides, ... The earliest concerns raised about the health effects of exposure to nuclear fallout had to do with fears of genetic ...
a b Indian Health Service: Bemidji Area Office of Environmental Health and Engineering Environmental Health Services Section " ... high levels of carcinogen aflatoxin M1 in Mengniu brand milk were found to be associated with the consumption of mold- ... of the population have the genetic capability of experiencing chronic inflammation to mold exposure, but it is unknown how many ... "Environmental Health Perspectives. 119 (6): 748-756. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002410. PMC 3114807. PMID 21269928.. ...
"Working Group on Environmental Mineralogy and Geochemistry". Commissions, working groups and committees. International ... However, asbestos are known carcinogens, and cause various other illnesses, such as asbestosis; amphibole asbestos ( ... genetic history, or resource, for example, depending on the purpose to be served by the classification."[17] ... "Working Group on Environmental Mineralogy and Geochemistry " deals with minerals in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. ...
Lamb MJ, Jablonka E (2005). Evolution in four dimensions: genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic variation in the ... Such effects on cellular and physiological phenotypic traits may result from external or environmental factors, or be part of ... "Epigenetic factors in cancer risk: effect of chemical carcinogens on global DNA methylation pattern in human TK6 cells". PLoS ... These are normal genetic diseases caused by gene deletions or inactivation of the genes, but are unusually common because ...
Carcinogens[edit]. Soy sauce may contain ethyl carbamate, a Group 2A carcinogen.[58] ... Wilson, Kathy (2010). Biotechnology and genetic engineering. New York: Facts on File. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-8160-7784-7.. ... "Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 46 (6): 1435-1437. ISSN 0099-2240. PMC 239590. PMID 6660879.. ... The same carcinogens were found in soy sauces manufactured in Vietnam, causing a food scare in 2007.[63][64] ...
Genetic. Genetic background may contribute to prostate cancer risk, as suggested by associations with race, family, and ... Inhibition of 5-LOX activity is shown to block prostate cancer cell proliferation as well as carcinogen-induced lung ... Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews. 11 (3-4): 242-59. doi:10.1080/10937400701873548. PMID ... "Environmental and heritable factors in the causation of cancer--analyses of cohorts of twins from Sweden, Denmark, and Finland ...
... and helped to inspire an environmental movement that led to the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.[3][4] ... Report on Carcinogens, 12th Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institute of ... the most resistant insects survive and pass on their genetic traits to their offspring, which replace the pesticide-slain ... Lytle, Mark Hamilton (2007). The Gentle Subversive: Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, and the Rise of the Environmental Movement. ...
It is caused by the interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors.[124][125] These factors lead to ... An example target for targeted therapy is the protein produced by the Philadelphia chromosome, a genetic lesion found commonly ... Arnon J, Meirow D, Lewis-Roness H, Ornoy A (2001). "Genetic and teratogenic effects of cancer treatments on gametes and embryos ... In males previously having undergone chemotherapy or radiotherapy, there appears to be no increase in genetic defects or ...
"Tobacco Free Initiative: Environmental issues".. *^ Tobacco and its environmental impact: an overview World Health Organization ... Genetic modificationEdit. Because of its importance as a research tool, transgenic tobacco was the first GM crop to be tested ... and carcinogens which have been proven to cause heart and lung diseases and Cancer. According to the World Health Organization ... In 2017 WHO released a study on the environmental effects of tobacco.[55] ...
... a Ubiquitous Environmental Carcinogen". Cancer Res. 66 (5): 5. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-3478. PMID 16510580.. ... BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most malignant lung ... "Environmental Analysis (Volume 3 of Handbook of Analytical Separations). Elsevier. pp. 99-122. ISBN 978-0-08-050576-3. .. ... "Environmental Health Perspectives. 112 (9): 970-978. doi:10.1289/ehp.6895. PMC 1247189. PMID 15198916.. ...
RNAi could potentially be used to treat viruses,[136] bacterial diseases,[137] parasites,[138] maladaptive genetic mutations,[ ... Another effort decreased the precursors of likely carcinogens in tobacco plants.[178] Other plant traits that have been ... Cells in the midgut of some insects take up the dsRNA molecules in the process referred to as environmental RNAi.[181] In some ... RNA interference is a vital part of the immune response to viruses and other foreign genetic material, especially in plants ...
"United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved December 31, 2007.. *^ "Hudson River PCBs". U.S. Environmental ... Scientists identified the genetic mutation that conferred the resistance, and found that the mutated form was present in 99 ... and consists of dredging a 40-mile stretch of the river the Troy Dam to Fort Edward in order to remove the probable carcinogen ... "New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. Retrieved March 25, 2018.. *^ a b "Lake Tear of the Clouds - Source of ...
Environmental Health & Public Safety (North Carolina State University).. *^ Molecular basis of human nutrition, By Tom Sanders ... Seeds of concern: the genetic manipulation of plants, By David Ronald Murray, pagina 45 ... a fost interzis in 1989 ca si consecinta a posibilului sau caracter carcinogen[117]. ... a b c d Potassium (K) - Chemical properties, Health and Environmental effects ...
Environmental Working Group. Retrieved 1 September 2010.. *^ "Calories in Fresh Direct Gold Creamer Potato". The Daily Plate, ... Mattoo, A.K.; Shukla, V; Fatima, T; Handa, A.K.; Yachha, S.K. (2010). Genetic engineering to enhance crop-based phytonutrients ... 2002). "Analysis of acrylamide, a carcinogen formed in heated foodstuffs". J. Agric. Food Chem. 50 (17): 4998-5006. doi:10.1021 ... Genetic research has produced several genetically modified varieties. 'New Leaf', owned by Monsanto Company, incorporates genes ...
"Center for International Environmental Law (CIEL). Retrieved 16 May 2019.. *^ Plastic & Climate: The Hidden Costs of a Plastic ... The toxins that are components of plastic include diethylhexyl phthalate, which is a toxic carcinogen, as well as lead, cadmium ... a b c d e Daniel D. Chiras (2004). Environmental Science: Creating a Sustainable Future. Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 517-18 ... United States Environmental Protection Agency. 24 July 2015.. *^ Lavers, Jennifer L.; Bond, Alexander L. (2017). "Exceptional ...
"United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2012-05-06.. *^ Hecht SS (July 1999). "Tobacco smoke carcinogens and ... Smoke contains several carcinogenic pyrolytic products that bind to DNA and cause genetic mutations. Particularly potent ... There are over 19 known carcinogens in cigarette smoke.[165] The following are some of the most potent carcinogens: *Polycyclic ... Radioactive carcinogens[edit]. In addition to chemical, nonradioactive carcinogens, tobacco and tobacco smoke contain small ...
United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 8 September 2019.. *^ "The Nature of X-Ray Photoelectron Spectra". ... "US water has large amounts of likely carcinogen: study". Yahoo News. 19 December 2010. Archived from the original on 23 ... genetic, and histological responses". Biol Trace Elem Res. 148 (2): 187-197. doi:10.1007/s12011-012-9354-4. PMID 22351105.. ... Environmental issuesEdit. Because chromium compounds were used in dyes, paints, and leather tanning compounds, these compounds ...
Extrinsic staining, is largely due to environmental factors including smoking, pigments in beverages and foods, antibiotics, ... has concluded that there is insufficient evidence to prove that hydrogen peroxide is a carcinogen to humans.[64] Recently, the ... Genetic (amelogenesis imperfecta); K. and non-vital colouring. ...
"Glyphosate not classified as a carcinogen by ECHA". ECHA.. *^ a b c d e f g h Dill GM, Sammons RD, Feng PC, Kohn F, Kretzmer K ... California Office of Environmental Health Hazard AssessmentEdit. After the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard ... Genetic damageEdit. Several studies have not found mutagenic effects,[130] so glyphosate has not been listed in the United ... United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1993.. *^ a b c Giesy JP, Dobson S, Solomon KR (2000). Ecotoxicological risk ...
63,0 63,1 63,2 63,3 63,4 «Chapter 16: Physical Carcinogens»։ Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine (5th ed.)։ Hamilton, Ontario: B.C. ... Two genetic hits (more or less) to cancer»։ Nature Reviews. Cancer 1 (2): 157-62։ November 2001։ PMID 11905807։ doi:10.1038/ ... The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010»։ British Journal of Cancer։ 105 ... Differing patterns of genetic instability in mice deficient in the mismatch repair genes Pms2, Mlh1, Msh2, Msh3 and Msh6»։ ...
Knudson AG (November 2001). "Two genetic hits (more or less) to cancer". Nature Reviews Cancer. 1 (2): 157-62. doi:10.1038/ ... 2000). "Chapter 16: Physical Carcinogens". In Bast RC, Kufe DW, Pollock RE, (ed.). Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine (5th ed.). ... "Lifestyle-related factors and environmental agents causing cancer: an overview". Biomed. Pharmacother. 61 (10): 640-58. doi: ... comparative risk assessment of nine behavioural and environmental risk factors". Lancet. 366 (9499): 1784-93. doi:10.1016/S0140 ...
California Environmental Protection Agency (1997). "Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. California ... Tobacco smoking, genetic factors, radon gas, asbestos, air pollution[4][5]. Diagnostic method. Medical imaging, tissue biopsy[6 ... Tobacco smoking is by far the main contributor to lung cancer.[4] Cigarette smoke contains at least 73 known carcinogens,[24] ... "Reviews on Environmental Health. 23 (1): 1-37. doi:10.1515/REVEH.2008.23.1.1. PMC 2791455 . PMID 18557596.. ...
Interaction of environmental and genetic factors" ([halott link]). Chest 109 (Suppl 3), 14S-19S. o, Kiadó: American College of ... October). „Tobacco carcinogens, their biomarkers and tobacco-induced cancer". Nature Reviews. Cancer 3 (10), 733-744. o, Kiadó ... California Environmental Protection Agency (1997). „Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke". Tobacco Control ... environmental' tobacco smoke) causes lung cancer in humans. ... Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' ...
吸菸是目前为止导致肺癌的主要原因[4]。香菸菸雾中含有至少73种已知的致癌物质(英语:list of cigarette smoke carcinogens)[24],包括苯并芘[25]、NNK(英语:NNK)、1,3-丁二烯,以及钋-210等放射性物質 ... Environmental and occupational causes of cancer: new evidence 2005-2007. Reviews on Environmental Health. Jan-Mar 2008, 23 (1 ... Genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and co-morbidities. Journal of Thoracic Disease. October 2013,. 5 Suppl 5 (Suppl. 5): ... The
Chemist Environmental Risk Branch V, Environmental Fate and Effects Division grist.files.wordpress.com, accessed 11 June 2019 ... Clothianidin does not damage genetic material nor is there evidence that it causes cancer in rats or mice; it is unlikely to be ... a human carcinogen.[3][4][21] Permissible amounts of clothianidin residue on food and animal feed vary from crop to crop and ... Environmental persistence[edit]. Laboratory and field testing shows that clothianidin is persistent and mobile in the ...
These genetic tools also led to a simple test for carcinogens, the Ames test.[78] ... "Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 69 (7): 3687-94. doi:10.1128/aem.69.7.3687-3694.2003. PMC 165204. PMID 12839733.. ... in Typhimurium that allowed quick and easy genetic exchange that allowed fine structure genetic analysis. The large number of ... Through the loss of the genetic material that codes for a flagellum to form, Salmonella can evade a host's immune system.[71] ...
Interactions between environmental carcinogen exposure and genetic polymorphisms in human esophageal carcinogenesis. Zemin Wang ... Interactions between environmental carcinogen exposure and genetic polymorphisms in human esophageal carcinogenesis ... Interactions between environmental carcinogen exposure and genetic polymorphisms in human esophageal carcinogenesis ... Interactions between environmental carcinogen exposure and genetic polymorphisms in human esophageal carcinogenesis ...
The mission of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is to discover how the environment affects people in ... Initiatives in Environmental Health Science Initiatives in Environmental Health Science. Explore Initiatives in Environmental ... Nutrient in Cruciferous Vegetables Protects against Lung Cancer in Study of 18,244 Chinese; Benefit Depends on Genetic Factor ... Interagency Breast Cancer & Environmental Research Coordinating Committee. *National Advisory Environmental Health Sciences ...
Environmental Carcinogens Leave Distinctive Genetic Imprints in Tumors. * Education November 4, 2014 ... As Genetic Testing Goes Mainstream, Clinics Emerge to Guide Patients Through Information. ...
Genetic and epigenetic effects of environmental mutagens and carcinogens. In: BioMed Research International. 2015 ; Vol. 2015. ... Genetic and epigenetic effects of environmental mutagens and carcinogens. Alessandra Pulliero, Jia Cao, Luciana Dos Reis ... Genetic and epigenetic effects of environmental mutagens and carcinogens. BioMed Research International. 2015;2015:-. 608054. ... title = "Genetic and epigenetic effects of environmental mutagens and carcinogens",. author = "Alessandra Pulliero and Jia Cao ...
Substances and exposures that can lead to cancer are called carcinogens. Learn how possible cancer causes are studied and ... Carcinogens and the cancer connection. Cancer is the result of changes in a cells DNA - its genetic "blueprint." Some of these ... Some state agencies also keep lists of known or probable carcinogens. For example, the California Environmental Protection ... Determining if Something Is a Carcinogen. What is a carcinogen?. Substances and exposures that can lead to cancer are called ...
... concerns regarding their potential for producing environmental and human health risks, including carcinogenesis, have been ... Nanotechnology; Environmental-health; Risk-factors; Carcinogens; Lung; Lung-cancer; Lung-cells; Lung-disease; Biomarkers; ... Humans; Genetic-factors; Genes; Author Keywords: Nanoparticles; Lung cancer; Biomarker; Gene expression; Molecular network ... concerns regarding their potential for producing environmental and human health risks, including carcinogenesis, have been ...
Carcinogens and Cancer Cancers are generally cause by a pair of genetic changes which can be caused by dietary or environmental ...
Library of Medicines Genetic Toxicology Database (GENE-TOX), Environmental Working Group resources, and the California State ... To date, smartphone apps for reducing exposures to known or suspected breast carcinogens in work or home environments have not ... On the Need for Research-Tested Smartphone Applications for Reducing Exposures to Known or Suspected Breast Carcinogens in Work ... Ethylene oxide is used in hospitals and other medical facilities to sterilize instruments[10]. Mammary carcinogens are also ...
... including genetic and environmental factors. ... This section applies to any area in which the 13 carcinogens ... The 13 carcinogens are the following:. 4-Nitrobiphenyl, Chemical Abstracts Service Register Number (CAS No.) 92933;. alpha- ... Open-vessel system means an operation involving a carcinogen addressed by this section in an open vessel that is not in an ... Where an employee has a known contact with a carcinogen addressed by this section, such employee shall be required to shower as ...
Both environmental and genetic factors are believed to contribute to the multistage process that results in carcinogenesis. ... environmental health effects, lung cancer, automobiles, human exposure, DNA adducts, carcinogens, ambient particle health ... Detection of Carcinogen-DNA Adducts: Development of New Methods. EPA Grant Number: R828112C061. Subproject: this is subproject ... Title: Detection of Carcinogen-DNA Adducts: Development of New Methods. Investigators: Giese, Roger W. , Vouros, Paul ...
Environmental Carcinogens Leave Distinctive Genetic Imprints in Tumors. November 4, 2014. Genetically engineering tumors in ... may not replicate important features of cancers caused by exposure to environmental carcinogens, according to a new study led ... Genetic Discovery Could Help Guide Doctors Treatment of Bladder Cancers. October 16, 2013 ...
... of seven substances known to affect sperm genetic integrity [116], six are known or suspected carcinogens [125]. In light of ... How many carcinogens are capable of producing sperm aneuploidy and how many sperm aneuploidogens are also carcinogens? A ... Sperm aneuploidogens and carcinogens. Carcinogens can be developmental and reproductive toxicants, but these effects may or may ... Both clastogens and aneuploidogens are more likely to be carcinogens [84, 85], many carcinogens are both clastogens and ...
Associations of genetic variations of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene and environmental carcinogens with oral cancer ... is a major head and neck cancer that is reported to be causally associated with genetic factors and environmental carcinogens. ... The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of eNOS gene polymorphisms combined with environmental carcinogens on ... According to behavioral exposure to environmental carcinogens, the presence of these two eNOS SNPs combined with tobacco use ...
Mounting research shows that breast cancer isnt simply genetic. Environmental exposures to toxic chemicals through art, food, ... A paper in the June 17, 2011 issue of Environmental Justice cites Avons "Kiss Goodbye to Breast Cancer" campaign as one of the ... but less than 2 percent of those funds have supported environmental research related to preventing breast cancer in ... a coalition of health and environmental groups dedicated to eliminating toxic chemicals from cosmetics and personal-care ...
Carcinogens are present in and around your home and workplace, and are often related to lifestyle. Being aware of and reducing ... substances labeled as carcinogens have varying levels of cancer-causing potential. Additionally, factors such as genetic makeup ... What are environmental carcinogens?. Cancer is caused by mutations in a cells DNA. Though some of these mutations may be ... Types of environmental carcinogens. Infectious agents. Research indicates that 15 to 20 percent of worldwide cancer cases are ...
Conclusions drawn from these investigations can be compromised by a variety of environmental and other genetic factors. To ... Polymorphic and monomorphic expression of arylamine carcinogen N-acetyltransferase isozymes in tumor target organ cytosols of ... Polymorphic and monomorphic expression of arylamine carcinogen N-acetyltransferase isozymes in tumor target organ cytosols of ... Polymorphic and monomorphic expression of arylamine carcinogen N-acetyltransferase isozymes in tumor target organ cytosols of ...
Langevin SM, Ioannidis JP, Vineis P, Taioli E; Genetic Susceptibility to Environmental Carcinogens group (GSEC). ... The influence of aging, environmental exposures and local sequence features on the variation of DNA methylation in blood. ...
Mechanisms of action of environmental toxicants and the genetic determinants of the susceptibility to toxicant-induced injury. ... Pharmacology; Toxicology; Risk assessment methods for carcinogens; Hepatic toxicity; DNA damage and repair; Mutagenesis; ... U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Areas of Expertise, Discipline, Relevant Experiences. EPA expert on EPA national ambient ... Professor, Department of Environmental Health. Professor, Department of Epidemiology. Rollins School of Public Health. Emory ...
Buy Mechanisms of Environmental Mutagenesis-Carcinogenesis by A. Kappas from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your ... techniques and methodologies in the area of biomonitoring of humans exposed to environmental mutagens-carcinogens were ... ly-induced genetic effects on molecular, chromosomal and cell division level; adaptability and repair mechanisms; chemical ... biomonitoring and epidemiology of humans exposed to environmental mutagens-carcinogens. For the sake of evaluating and ...
Genetic mutations can be inherited. They can also occur after birth as a result of environmental forces. Some of these forces ... exposure to cancer-causing chemicals, called carcinogens. *exposure to radiation. *unprotected exposure to the sun ...
Genetic susceptibility to environmental mutagens and carcinogens. Other Authors. Author. Title of a Work. ... Genetic Toxicology Div.. Publisher. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Health Effects ... Environmental pollutants ; Mutagens ; Risk assessment ; Toxicology Environmental exposure pathways ; Mutagenicity tests ; DNA ... of Environmental Sciences and Engineering. ;National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC. Lab. ...
Genetic Basis of Cancer. Veterinary Cancer Etiology. Environmental, Chemical, and Physical Carcinogens. Viral Carcinogenesis. ...
environmental carcinogens and • genetic factors determine cancer susceptibility.. How the Study was Done The Johns Hopkins ... They did not study people and they did not study environmental or genetic causes of cancers. To show that cancer is caused by ... Why Cancer is More Likely to be Caused by Environmental or Genetic Factors The researchers only set up a mathematical model ... If they had, they would probably have found that these cancers are predominantly caused by genetic and environmental factors. ...
... a persistent environmental pollutant; dioxin, a known human carcinogen; and gasoline and other petroleum-based products. These ... Lantern fish have no "genetic ability to differentiate between zooplankton and plastic", Moore says. "We have been screwing up ... Rather, it is a tale of environmental and human-health disaster in the making, as the lantern fishs bounteous numbers give it ... It also happens to be, vom Saal says, an environmental estrogen-an endocrine disruptor mimicking a natural sex hormone produced ...
Smoking; Cigarette-smoking; Cancer; Cancer-rates; Carcinogens; Environmental-exposure; Genetic-factors; Molecular-biology; Lung ... other environmental risk factors, or both. However, subgroups in the population share more than one environmental or genetic ... we expect that the simultaneous presence of both environmental and genetic factors is the basis for "sufficient" causal ... In general, the inverse relation that applies between the frequency of a genetic allele in the population and its penetrance ...
Chromium; Chromium compounds; Toxic effects; Carcinogens; Cellular effects; Environmental pollution; Carcinogenicity; DNA; ... Deoxyribonucleic acids; Genetic factors; Author Keywords: DNA adducts; DNA protein cross-links; reductive intermediates ... However, the precise mechanisms by which chromium is both an essential metal and a carcinogen are not yet fully clear. The ... Chromium is widely used in numerous industrial processes, and as a result is a contaminant of many environmental systems. ...
The result of the test detects the majority of genotoxic carcinogens and genetic changes; the types of mutations detected are ... The purpose of in vitro testing is to determine whether a substrate, product, or environmental factor induces genetic damage. ... 2000). "Single cell gel/comet assay: guidelines for in vitro and in vivo genetic toxicology testing" (PDF). Environmental and ... In a specific mammalian tissue, one can perform a mouse lymphoma TK+/- assay to test for changes in the genetic material. Gene ...
Genetic background, dietary practices and environmental factors also likely contribute to the incidence of DNA damage and ... Common carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogens are agents that pose a risk of cancer in several ... Carcinogens can be classified as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. Genotoxins cause irreversible genetic damage or mutations by ... Note: In general, polymers are not known as carcinogens or mutagens,. however, residual monomers or additives can cause genetic ...
Genetic background, dietary practices and environmental factors also likely contribute to the incidence of DNA damage and ... Common carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogensEdit. Occupational carcinogens are agents that pose a risk of cancer in several ... Carcinogens can be classified as genotoxic or nongenotoxic. Genotoxins cause irreversible genetic damage or mutations by ... Major carcinogens implicated in the four most common cancers worldwideEdit. In this section, the carcinogens implicated as the ...
  • Recent findings, techniques and methodologies in the area of biomonitoring of humans exposed to environmental mutagens-carcinogens were presented and considerable attention was also paid to the aspects and issues of collaborative environmental policy. (waterstones.com)
  • biomonitoring and epidemiology of humans exposed to environmental mutagens-carcinogens. (waterstones.com)
  • Note: In general, polymers are not known as carcinogens or mutagens, however, residual monomers or additives can cause genetic mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Commission for Protection Against Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens. (nih.gov)
  • 1985. Suitability of the P388F mouse lymphoma system for detecting potential carcinogens and mutagens. (cdc.gov)
  • Even synthetic dyes added to food for coloring are potential mutagens (substances that cause mutations in the genetic material of cells). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In searching for environmental factors, most research focused on the identity of mutagens and the mechanisms by which they cause mutations in experimental systems using bacteria through rodents as models. (mit.edu)
  • Thilly found that these mutations occur just as regularly in cultured human cells in the laboratory that were not exposed to any environmental mutagens. (mit.edu)
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, or PAHs are known human carcinogens and genetic mutagens. (honorearth.org)
  • In 2005, Avon shareholders voted 95 percent to 5 percent against a resolution to reformulate, in a reasonable time frame, all its products to be free of chemicals banned by the European Union for known or suspected associations with cancer, genetic mutations, or birth defects. (inhabitat.com)
  • Genetic mutations can be inherited. (healthline.com)
  • The authors support their theory of random genetic mutations causing cancer by giving the example that the colon has a lifetime cancer risk of 4.8 percent that is 24 times higher than in the small intestine, where it is 0.2 percent. (drmirkin.com)
  • To show that cancer is caused by random chances of gene mutation, they would have had to study how environmental and genetic factors affect gene mutations. (drmirkin.com)
  • In genetics, genotoxicity describes the property of chemical agents that damages the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gathering information about gene mutations and environmental exposure may help doctors learn more about the causes of retinoblastoma in young patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A carcinogen may directly damage the DNA in cells (cause mutations), which in turn leads to a disruption in the normal process of growth and cell division of cells. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Smoking and obesity are both carcinogens in that they can be responsible for the mutations which result in cancer. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Carcinogens cause cancer by producing changes (or mutations) in the genetic material, or DNA, of a cell. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Repeated exposure to radiation from medical X rays or other sources also may increase a person's risk of developing genetic mutations. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When carcinogens interact with DNA, they can cause genetic alterations, or mutations, which cells pass along as they divide. (qualityhealth.com)
  • There are other types of cancer-related genetic mutations as well. (qualityhealth.com)
  • These mutations are triggered by environmental carcinogens or by naturally occurring errors in the course of cell division and DNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--Environmental chemicals are probably not producing human cancers by causing the mutations found in those cancers, an MIT toxicologist and epidemiologist says in the July 1 issue of Nature Genetics. (mit.edu)
  • Most environmental cancer research is based on the assumption that environmental agents in food, air and water enter our bodies and cause the mutations known to cause human cancers. (mit.edu)
  • Thilly found that instead of causing mutations in the first place, environmental carcinogens may accelerate the growth of cells in which a mutation has already occurred spontaneously as our DNA replicates and repairs itself over a lifetime. (mit.edu)
  • His lab provided the data for his challenge and a general means to test the idea that environmental agents such as cigarette smoke cause cancer by causing mutations in the tissue at risk. (mit.edu)
  • Weighing various forms of evidence, he concluded, "The widely held hypothesis that environmental chemicals induce a significant fraction of human point mutations has not been supported by observation. (mit.edu)
  • There is no doubt that genetic mutations--inherited or not--accumulate in cells during stages of cancer. (mit.edu)
  • 1. Greater awareness of risk factors and earlier diagnosis can cut UK cancer toll A healthy lifestyle, increased awareness, and more widespread vaccination and screening have great potential to reduce the risk and rate of cancer E stimates suggest about 80 per cent of cancers are caused by environmental factors, as op- posed to endogenous agents, such as genetic mutations, oxidative stress and inflammation. (slideshare.net)
  • This finding is particularly important because it could open the door to therapeutic interventions that aren't practical with a DNA approach, since no clinician wants to introduce even more genetic mutations into cancer cells just to make them more immunogenic," explains Demehri. (sciencecodex.com)
  • NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. (nih.gov)
  • Substances and exposures that can lead to cancer are called carcinogens . (cancer.org)
  • To date, smartphone apps for reducing exposures to known or suspected breast carcinogens in work or home environments have not been tested for acceptability, feasibility, or effectiveness in randomized controlled trials. (mbcc.org)
  • However, the process of assessing cancer risk is hampered by the limited information regarding carcinogen exposures. (epa.gov)
  • Recently, there have been major advances in the development of sensitive biomarkers for measuring human exposures to chemical carcinogens. (epa.gov)
  • Because such adducts can be detected in tissues and blood cells, scientists are testing their usefulness as molecular biomarkers of human exposures to chemical carcinogens. (epa.gov)
  • I. To investigate the role of genotypes for carcinogen metabolizing enzymes (CME) and DNA repair proteins(DRPs) of the father of children diagnosed with retinoblastoma (RB) and his environmental exposures prior to the child's conception in the etiology of sporadic bilateral retinoblastoma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To test if the prevalence of preconception environmental exposures and polymorphisms with known or predicted functional consequences in genes for CMEs and DRPs is different in fathers of children with sporadic bilateral RB compared with fathers of the control group. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To test if the prevalence of the father's preconception environmental exposures and his polymorphisms in CMEs and DRPs differs between subsets of cases defined by the type of mutation at the RB1 gene locus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Topics discussed in this area include an introduction to molecular epidemiology, the uses of molecular biological markers in cancer risk assessment, specific environmental carcinogens found in foods, measuring DNA adducts and mutation frequencies to assess environmental toxic exposures and effect, and using the extent of gene inducibility as a dosimeter of toxic exposure. (routledge.com)
  • We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 2009) ( 13 ) by reviewing below the following etiological influences on lung cancer incidence and mortality in never smokers: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, inherited genetic susceptibility, occupational and environmental exposures to carcinogens, hormonal factors, pre-existing lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • By combining early genetic alterations with disease-relevant exposures, we developed an integrative mouse model to study gastric premalignancy. (nih.gov)
  • Several web-based databases -for example, the Chemical Hazard and Alternatives Toolbox (ChemHat), the Pharos Project, Haz-Map, the U.S. Library of Medicine's Genetic Toxicology Database (GENE-TOX), Environmental Working Group resources, and the California State Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment's Proposition 65 list of chemicals[4-9] have been developed for providing information about toxic chemicals, including known or suspected breast cancer carcinogens. (mbcc.org)
  • Yet the beauty firm has far to go before it walks the walk, according to the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics , a coalition of health and environmental groups dedicated to eliminating toxic chemicals from cosmetics and personal-care products. (inhabitat.com)
  • For the sake of evaluating and controlling the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of our environment it is indispens- able to understand the mechanisms and processes by which chemicals act on the genetic material, causing either heredi- tary disease or cancer. (waterstones.com)
  • Human infants, arguably the pinnacle of the food chain, ingest environmental chemicals through breast-feeding-contaminants glom on to the proteins and fats in breast milk. (straight.com)
  • Co-carcinogens are chemicals that do not necessarily cause cancer on their own, but promote the activity of other carcinogens in causing cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unintended side effects from the use of agricultural chemicals are further complicated by the dispersal of these substances well beyond the area of immediate use, through food chains, atmospheric transport, irrigation runoff, percolation to and diffusion through ground- water, sometimes giving rise to public health and environmental problems at a distance from the place of application. (springer.com)
  • This resulted in the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency in 1970, and the Toxic Substances Control Act in 1976, which requires all uses of new chemicals be reported to the EPA prior to their use. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Carcinogens include both naturally occurring and artificially produced chemicals, ultraviolet light, and radioactive substances such as radon (a radioactive gas that is present in rock). (encyclopedia.com)
  • About 23 chemicals have been identified as carcinogens in humans, with many more shown to cause cancer in laboratory animals. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In addition, various chemicals used in industrial processes, such as vinyl chloride and certain dyes, are known human carcinogens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These types of environmental carcinogens include various chemicals, gases and other substances found in the air, water and food. (mydr.com.au)
  • Other environmental factors, such as chemicals and radiation, are carcinogens as well. (qualityhealth.com)
  • WASHINGTON - Three weeks after an environmental group reported that herbicides are common in Midwestern drinking water, the EPA has called for a thorough examination of the chemicals to determine if they are too risky to use. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Due to the fibrous shape and durability of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), concerns regarding their potential for producing environmental and human health risks, including carcinogenesis, have been raised. (cdc.gov)
  • Both environmental and genetic factors are believed to contribute to the multistage process that results in carcinogenesis. (epa.gov)
  • C polymorphisms in the progression of oral cancer and support the interaction between eNOS gene polymorphisms and environmental carcinogens as a predisposing factor of oral carcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • The programme was chosen to explore what is currently known about the mechanisms of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, induced by environmental agents, and the questions regarding the relationship of these two processes. (waterstones.com)
  • A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide , or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis , the formation of cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular Epidemiologic Approaches in Environmental Carcinogenesis (R.M. Santella and F.P. Perera). (routledge.com)
  • The carcinogenesis of GC involved numerous genetic and epigenetic alterations, as well as many environmental risk factors. (scienceblog.com)
  • Carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer by altering cellular metabolism or damaging DNA directly in cells , which interferes with biological processes, and induces the uncontrolled, malignant division, ultimately leading to the formation of tumors. (wikipedia.org)
  • After completing the course you will have gained a detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of chemical toxicity (e.g. polymorphisms and metabolism, genotoxic and non-genotoxic carcinogens, mechanisms of apoptosis, cDNA microarray and other high throughput screening strategies). (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • In this report, we show that both receptors can induce specific UGT1A isoforms including those involved in estrogen, thyroxin, bilirubin, and carcinogen metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • The ability of PXR and constitutive androstane receptor and their ligands to transduce both the phase I and phase II adaptive hepatic response defines a unique transcriptional interface that bridges the ingestion and metabolism of environmental compounds to body physiology. (pnas.org)
  • However, in some cases, these reactions can also convert a less toxic carcinogen into a more toxic carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focus on toxicology has increased in recent years because of concerns for environmental pollutants and worries over toxic food additives . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The asthma bronchiale project focuses on investigating and understanding the effects of air pollution on gene expression and the individual genetic susceptibility to the effects of toxic air pollutants in selected children cohorts from various regions of the Czech Republic. (prweb.com)
  • Neoplastic development may begin with impairment ofJmdy defenses by a toxic material (carcinogen) which acts as an initiator, followed by promotion and progression to an overt neoplastic state. (springer.com)
  • But Richard Wiles, vice president of the Environmental Working Group, said risk assessments are useful to determine just how toxic carcinogens are. (chicagotribune.com)
  • AhR is a ligand-activated transcription factor and can mediate the carcinogenic and other toxic effects of a variety of environmental pollutants. (scienceblog.com)
  • Specific topics discussed include the use of molecular techniques in the population biology of wild animals and in the management of fisheries, bioremediation, cloning and characterization of the genes responsible for degradation of PCBs and related environmental pollutants, molecular analysis of aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by soil bacteria, and molecular biological techniques in assessing environmental damage to natural habitats. (routledge.com)
  • Genes and environmental factors that influence the origins of cancer are not necessarily the same as those that contribute to its progression and metastasis. (waterstones.com)
  • Genetic variations in DNA repair genes are thought to modulate DNA repair capacity and are suggested to be related to lung cancer risk. (medsci.org)
  • We identified a sufficient number of epidemiologic studies on lung cancer to conduct a meta-analysis for genetic polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair pathway genes, focusing on xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA), excision repair cross complementing group 1 (ERCC1), ERCC2/XPD, ERCC4/XPF and ERCC5/XPG. (medsci.org)
  • Environmental carcinogens can induce specific genetic and epigenetic alterations in lung tissue, leading to aberrant function of lung cancer oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. (intechopen.com)
  • It also summarizes the main protein-coding and non-coding genes affected by exposure to these environmental agents, and the underlying molecular mechanisms promoting their deregulation in lung cancer. (intechopen.com)
  • Humans, eumetazoan animals and vascular plants genes, and selected environmental carcinogens. (springer.com)
  • If you are exposed to a carcinogen, regardless of how small, it's an incremental effect," he said, and each factor-from pesticides to genes to diet-contributes to each individual's chances of getting cancer. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the influences of eNOS gene polymorphisms combined with environmental carcinogens on the predisposition for oral cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • While many cancers are caused by a carcinogen or combination of carcinogens, the tendency (genetic predisposition) to develop cancer may also be inherited as part of our genome. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The two major causes of lung cancer are inhalation of carcinogenic substances and genetic predisposition inherited from family members. (openpr.com)
  • On the other hand genetic predisposition either directly causes cancer or increases the chances of developing lung cancer due to exposure to certain environmental factors. (openpr.com)
  • Most commonly, cancer is caused by multiple factors including age, inherited predisposition, general health and exposure to carcinogens. (mydr.com.au)
  • Cancer results from the complex interplay of an individual's genetic predisposition, lifestyle, and environmental exposure. (endocrine.org)
  • Several radioactive substances are considered carcinogens, but their carcinogenic activity is attributed to the radiation, for example gamma rays and alpha particles , which they emit. (wikipedia.org)
  • CERCLA identifies all radionuclides as carcinogens, although the nature of the emitted radiation ( alpha , beta , gamma , or neutron and the radioactive strength), its consequent capacity to cause ionization in tissues, and the magnitude of radiation exposure, determine the potential hazard. (wikipedia.org)
  • Three somatic genetic biomarkers and covariates in radiation-exposed Russian cleanup workers of the chernobyl nuclear reactor 6-13 years after exposure. (nih.gov)
  • Evaluation of three somatic genetic biomarkers as indicators of low dose radiation effects in clean-up workers of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. (nih.gov)
  • Both radiation used medically for diagnostic tests and that used to treat cancer are considered carcinogens. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Environmental factors (e.g. tobacco smoke, dietary factors, infectious agents and radiation) add to the carcinogenic load to which humans are exposed, but exact numbers for added risk are generally less well established. (medsci.org)
  • Environmental factors that increase sarcoma risk include radiation exposure and chemical carcinogens. (garvan.org.au)
  • Environmental causes such as skin cancer from radiation (from the Sun), or lack of food (e.g. scurvy from lack of Vitamin C), genetic disorders, or any source other than an infection. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Using Expressionist, researchers demonstrated how transcriptomic analysis can be effectively used as a promising biomarker detection method for the effect of environmental carcinogens. (prweb.com)
  • image: New research from Massachusetts General Hospital explores how the mutation-independent effect of environmental carcinogens leads to the recruitment of CD8+ T cells, the dominant antitumor cell type. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Substances labeled as carcinogens can have different levels of cancer-causing potential. (cancer.org)
  • however, substances labeled as carcinogens have varying levels of cancer-causing potential. (sheknows.com)
  • Many other environmental substances are potentially carcinogenic and under study to determine their level of cancer-causing potential. (sheknows.com)
  • The genotoxic substances induce damage to the genetic material in the cells through interactions with the DNA sequence and structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinogens are substances or factors that can cause cancer. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Substances that either start or promote the process are called carcinogens, and there are many types. (mydr.com.au)
  • Many substances in the environment have been identified as carcinogens but, generally, high levels or long-term exposure to these are needed to cause cancer. (mydr.com.au)
  • This means individuals must do their best to protect themselves and their children (who are more susceptible to damage from environmental carcinogens) from exposure to known cancer-causing substances. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Using UDP-glucuronic acid as a cosubstrate, UGT enzymes convert a diverse set of lipophilic substances to water-soluble glucuronides and function as the principal means to eliminate steroids, heme metabolites, environmental toxins, and drugs from the body ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Not all of these databases, however, are intended for use by lay persons who are not well-versed in toxicology, occupational health and safety, or environmental epidemiology, and some key resources require a paid subscription. (mbcc.org)
  • A carcinogen is a carcinogen," said Marvin Legator, director of the University of Texas at Galveston's Division of Environmental Toxicology. (chicagotribune.com)
  • He completed two years of postdoctoral research in the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch (OEEB), and became a staff scientist in 2012. (cancer.gov)
  • Various DNA alterations can be caused by exposure to environmental and endogenous carcinogens. (medsci.org)
  • Most of these alterations, if not repaired, can result in genetic instability, mutagenesis and cell death. (medsci.org)
  • Genedata will examine the study data and apply Genedata Expressionist ® to process and analyze transcriptomics data in conjunction with genetic polymorphism and clinical data. (prweb.com)
  • Karimova, L. 2004-10-07 00:00:00 Genetic polymorphism of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes responsible for individual susceptibility to different environmental factors was examined in a cohort of petrochemical workers occupationally exposed to adverse action of chemical compounds. (deepdyve.com)
  • The specificity of cancer biomarkers is further reduced because of epidemiological heterogeneity, including differences in age, sex and genetic background. (wiley.com)
  • Plus you'll learn about emerging tests - so called biomarkers and even genetic-based tests. (harvard.edu)
  • The chemical nature of chromium compounds and how these properties impact upon the interactions of chromium with cellular and genetic targets, including animal and human hosts, are discussed. (cdc.gov)
  • Mitchell, and G. Klopman (1985) Artificial intelligence and Bayesian decision theory in the prediction of chemical carcinogens. (springer.com)
  • The environment includes all that surrounds us, and environmental influences include not only chemical, physical and biological toxicants, but also diet and lifestyle. (waterstones.com)
  • Another important risk factor is environmental exposure to chemical carcinogens or occupational carcinogens. (dovepress.com)
  • Apart from the excess risk of leukemia and cancer, Dow Chemical Co. in 1980 reported genetic damage in workers exposed to only 1 p.p.m. benzene. (latimes.com)
  • It is the overwhelming consensus of the independent scientific community that there is no way of setting safe exposure levels or tolerances to any chemical agent such as benzene that can induce genetic damage or cancer. (latimes.com)
  • Molecular Environmental Biology is the first book to illustrate molecular biological approaches to major issues in environmental biology. (routledge.com)
  • International experts have contributed representative chapters that cover how molecular methods and concepts apply to wildlife management, ecology, pollution control and remediation, and environmental health. (routledge.com)
  • The Use of Molecular Genetic Techniques to Address Conservation Questions (M.W. Bruford and R.K. Wayne). (routledge.com)
  • Assessment of Environmental Degradation by Molecular Analysis of a Sentinel Species: Atlantic Tomcod (I.I. Wirgin and S.J Garte). (routledge.com)
  • Molecular Dosimetry of Ingested Carcinogens (P.T. Strickland and J.D. Groopman). (routledge.com)
  • Molecular genetic analysis of the I462V mutation in exon 7 of the CYP1A1gene demonstrated close similarity between the genotype and allele frequency distribution patterns in the industrial and control groups. (deepdyve.com)
  • Genetically engineering tumors in mice, a technique that has dominated cancer research for decades, may not replicate important features of cancers caused by exposure to environmental carcinogens, according to a new study led by UC San Francisco scientists. (ucsf.edu)
  • According to behavioral exposure to environmental carcinogens, the presence of these two eNOS SNPs combined with tobacco use and/or betel quid chewing profoundly enhanced the risk of oral cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • 3 For these reasons, it is possible that secular trends in incidence may partly be explained by increased exposure to environmental or occupational agents. (bmj.com)
  • It is striking that several carcinogens induce aneuploidy in somatic cells, and also adversely affect the chromosome compliment of germ cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Uno2015JaCVAMorganizedIV, title={JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for the detection of genotoxic carcinogens: I. Summary of pre-validation study results. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Aneuploidy, defined as structural and numerical aberrations of chromosomes, continues to draw attention as an informative effect biomarker for carcinogens and male reproductive toxicants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human Gene Inducibility: A Marker of Exposure and Susceptibility to Environmental Toxicants (G.N. Cosma and S.J. Garte). (routledge.com)
  • specifically as a model for human risk assessment studies involving drug or environmental toxicants that may be substrates for cytochrome P450 family members. (jax.org)
  • Many studies show that some societies have fewer cancers apparently because they avoid certain carcinogens. (drmirkin.com)
  • We showed how cells exposed to certain carcinogens become immunogenic, that is, become targets for the immune attack, and how that exposure might be exploited to treat such major forms of cancer as breast and other epithelial cancers. (sciencecodex.com)
  • To further investigate the role of the environmental and genetic factors in the formation of ESCC in this endemic area, in this study we focused on inflammation pathway and interactions between gene-gene and gene-environment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • which are often referred to as environmental factors . (cancer.org)
  • And for any particular person, the risk of developing cancer depends on many factors, including how they are exposed to a carcinogen, the length and intensity of the exposure, and the person's genetic makeup. (cancer.org)
  • Cancers are generally cause by a pair of genetic changes which can be caused by dietary or environmental factors. (ck12.org)
  • Oral cancer is a major head and neck cancer that is reported to be causally associated with genetic factors and environmental carcinogens. (cdc.gov)
  • Additionally, factors such as genetic makeup, as well as length and intensity of carcinogenic exposure, affect your risk of developing cancer. (sheknows.com)
  • Conclusions drawn from these investigations can be compromised by a variety of environmental and other genetic factors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • genetic factors determine cancer susceptibility. (drmirkin.com)
  • Why Cancer is More Likely to be Caused by Environmental or Genetic Factors The researchers only set up a mathematical model that associated rates of cancer with rates of cell division. (drmirkin.com)
  • Since they did not do this, they have to state only that their conclusions are their opinions and are not supported by adequate data on lifestyle and genetic factors. (drmirkin.com)
  • In particular, their question is whether necessary factors (smoking) can be compared numerically with sufficient factors (eg, genetic factors in combination with smoking). (cdc.gov)
  • the excess will increase if we add other types of genetic susceptibility, other environmental risk factors, or both. (cdc.gov)
  • in fact, we expect that the simultaneous presence of both environmental and genetic factors is the basis for "sufficient" causal complexes. (cdc.gov)
  • Rather, they start smoking because of psychosocial and environmental influences, particularly peer influences, psychological factors, and advertising, and to some extent genetic factors ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1 Although certain genetic, infectious, and environmental risk factors have been implicated in the aetiology of NHL, most lymphomas develop in people that have no apparent risk factors. (bmj.com)
  • the ability of a carcinogen to cause cancer depends on many factors, including the amount of exposure, the length of exposure, the health of the individual, and other factors in the person's life that either raise or lower the risk of cancer. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The major factors driving the growth of the market are consistent increase in the number of lung cancer patients worldwide along with increased inhalation of carcinogens such as tobacco and particulates. (openpr.com)
  • It will also highlight and summarize epigenetic changes that increase the risk for susceptibility to a particular type of cancer, particularly in the presence of specific environmental factors. (waterstones.com)
  • Certain environmental factors can increase your risk of developing cancer. (mydr.com.au)
  • The influence of any work-related damaging factors on the fertility and genetic material of both men and women is relevant before any pregnancy. (utwente.nl)
  • Inherited genetic factors are also being studied to provide further information to improve the mechanistic understanding of the causes of the disease. (prweb.com)
  • Moreover, genetic factors also play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NSCLC. (dovepress.com)
  • Sporadic cancer is a multifactorial disease that results from complex interactions between many genetic and environmental factors [ 1 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Dr. Heydari examined whether folate deficiency interacts with genetic factors to increase susceptibility to colon and liver cancers by environmental carcinogens. (aicr.org)
  • Carcinogens, which as some endogenous factors can be better delineated help initiate the neoplastic process, may be either synthetic through such investigations. (springer.com)
  • for most other cancers the environmental factors are not yet known. (mit.edu)
  • Environmental factors also in- clude infectious agents, such as human papillomavirus and the bacterium hel- icobacter pylori, which cause cervical and stomach cancer, respectively. (slideshare.net)
  • BOSTON - Researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) have discovered a biological mechanism that transforms cells exposed to carcinogens from environmental factors like smoking and ultraviolet light into immunogenic cells that can be harnessed therapeutically to fight treatment-resistant cancers. (sciencecodex.com)
  • In their laboratory work with mice, the MGH team demonstrated for the first time another consequence of carcinogen exposure that can have significant immunologic implications, namely, the nongenetic alteration of cells through such harmful environmental factors as smoking, ultraviolet light and pollution. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Other environmental and genetic HCC risk factors include dietary exposure to aflatoxins, diabetes, obesity, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and hereditary hemochromatosis [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Diesel exhaust, a contributor to air pollution, has been classified as an environmental carcinogen and is most associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. (sheknows.com)
  • Around 87% of lung cancers are associated with inhalation of carcinogens and smoking. (openpr.com)
  • The etiology of these tumors has been largely associated with exposure to well-established environmental lung carcinogens such as radon, arsenic, and asbestos. (intechopen.com)
  • In work that has ramifications for cancer research and environmental and pharmaceutical regulatory policy, William G. Thilly, professor of biological engineering in MIT's Biological Engineering Division, and his students mathematically analyzed years of data on lung cancer, leukemias, lymphomas and cancers of the nervous system, pancreas and intestines. (mit.edu)
  • Equally important will be concern over multiple pollutant crisis, vulnerability of children and poor, increased linkages between non-communicable disease burden and air pollution for second generation environmental health risk management in Indian cities. (cseindia.org)
  • Some carcinogens cause cancer by changing a cell's DNA. (cancer.org)
  • Carcinogens do not cause cancer in every case, all the time. (cancer.org)
  • The compromised integrity of the genetic material has been known to cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of genotoxicity testing is to determine if a substrate will influence genetic material or may cause cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carcinogens are classified in a number of different ways as to the likelihood that they truly cause cancer, and whether this is known or only suspected. (verywellhealth.com)
  • A carcinogen is defined as something that can directly cause cancer. (verywellhealth.com)
  • Carcinogens do not always cause cancer. (rvbusiness.com)
  • Companion animals are exposed to similar environmental conditions and carcinogens as humans. (wiley.com)
  • In some animal cancers, there also appears to be the same genetic changes associated as in humans. (wiley.com)
  • We found a similar thing in yeast that has been seen in humans: genetic instability shoots up dramatically in the middle to late stage of life. (innovations-report.com)
  • In tracking the life span of the mother-yeast cells, which are largely analogous to stem cells in humans, they found that the mothers retained their genetic integrity as they aged - only their daughters inherited chromosomal defects. (innovations-report.com)
  • It was only in the case of sun-exposed skin cells, which develop thousands of times more mutants than other cells, that an environmental factor was clearly and unambiguously shown to be mutagenic to humans. (mit.edu)
  • And most researchers agree that a carcinogen for rats is probably a carcinogen for humans. (chicagotribune.com)
  • In humans it's (also) our genetic makeup, it's also our lifestyle that determines whether we get cancer," Legator said. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Most cancers result from more than one type of genetic mutation. (qualityhealth.com)
  • They found that the historical death rates for many common cancers that have risen steadily for Americans born in the 19th century could be explained without attributing the changing rates of human mutation to environmental causes. (mit.edu)
  • We learned if there was another immunogenic element associated with carcinogen exposure independent of or even complementary to the presence of the mutation, then you could deliver that factor into a 'cold' tumor to make it 'hot,' meaning it would become immunogenic and responsive to immunotherapies. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Common examples of non-radioactive carcinogens are inhaled asbestos , certain dioxins , and tobacco smoke. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] As far back as the 1930s, Industrial smoke and tobacco smoke were identified as sources of dozens of carcinogens, including benzo[ a ]pyrene , tobacco-specific nitrosamines such as nitrosonornicotine , and reactive aldehydes such as formaldehyde , which is also a hazard in embalming and making plastics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Tobacco, arsenic, radiations such as X-rays and UV rays and asbestos are some of the examples of carcinogens. (openpr.com)
  • inhalation of smoke, called secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke(ETS), from tobacco products used by others. (slideshare.net)
  • When a substance or exposure has been labeled a carcinogen, it means it has been studied extensively by researchers, and one or more agencies have evaluated the evidence and determined it to be a cause of cancer. (cancer.org)
  • How do researchers determine if something is a carcinogen? (cancer.org)
  • High-valent chromium is seen to act as a carcinogen as researchers found that "the mechanism of damage and base oxidation products for the interaction between high-valent chromium and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This book will interest researchers and students in all fields of environmental biology and environmental medicine. (routledge.com)
  • Researchers will now have a chance to make rapid progress on environmental questions that were previously not even open for exploration. (routledge.com)
  • When yeast cells hit the equivalent of late-middle age, the Fred Hutchinson researchers discovered they experience a sudden, 200-fold surge in the production of genetic changes typically manifested as loss of heterozygosity, or LOH, a condition characterized by missing or mutated chromosomes. (innovations-report.com)
  • As such, the researchers surmise that genetic instability isn t related to how close cells are to death, but how far they are from birth - how many times they ve divided. (innovations-report.com)
  • Research on the environmental causes of cancer is limited, so researchers really don't fully know the consequences of cumulative lifetime exposure to known carcinogens or how specific environmental contaminants interact with each other. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Because four generations is too short a time to blame for inherited genetic changes, epidemiologists and cancer researchers generally agree that the cancer rate increases for Americans born in the 19th century had to be caused by changes in the environment. (mit.edu)
  • That factor is a chemokine known as CCL21, which MGH researchers found to be expressed in breast cancer cells in mice that were exposed to DMBA, a carcinogen similar to that found in cigarette smoke. (sciencecodex.com)
  • Bio medical researchers at Lawrence Livermore Labs in California, Jack Bartley and Martha Stampfer, documented breast cells growing in culture exposed to benzopyrene, the most common carcinogen in the environment that results from burning fossil fuels. (honorearth.org)
  • The researchers found that benzopyrene was taken up by the breast cells and altered the cells genetic make-up changing them to malignant cells. (honorearth.org)
  • Many carcinogens are associated with human activity and lifestyle choices, including cigarette smoking, excessive alcohol use, poor diet, and lack of exercise. (qualityhealth.com)
  • Environmental exposure to benzene occurs through cigarette smoke, unleaded gasoline and certain types of plastic. (mdpi.com)
  • Gene-environment interactions will be discussed through each specific cancer-based approach to address the question of how genetic variations can influence susceptibility to the individual type of cancer. (waterstones.com)
  • Based on inhalation tests in rodents, the Environmental Protection Agency estimated in 1984 that the probability of developing cancer following lifetime exposure to 1 p.p.m. benzene or gasoline is about 1% and 0.1%, respectively. (latimes.com)
  • In the general population there are smokers, workers exposed to asbestos, and individuals with genetic susceptibility, with hypothetical attributable risks in the order of 90% (smoking), 5% (asbestos in some populations), and 12% (hypothetical estimate for GSTM1, based on a relative risk of 1·3 and a frequency of 50% of the null genotype). (cdc.gov)
  • Aflatoxin B 1 , which is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus growing on stored grains , nuts and peanut butter , is an example of a potent, naturally occurring microbial carcinogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vision of NIEHS is to use environmental health sciences to understand human disease and improve human health. (nih.gov)
  • A number of human epidemiological investigations suggest a relationship between acetylator phenotype and the incidence and/or severity of tumors caused by exposure to arylamine carcinogens. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rather, it is a tale of environmental and human-health disaster in the making, as the lantern fish's bounteous numbers give it an importance in the global food chain that far outweighs its diminutive size and prosaic appearance. (straight.com)
  • For example, Thorotrast , a (incidentally radioactive) suspension previously used as a contrast medium in x-ray diagnostics, is a potent human carcinogen known because of its retention within various organs and persistent emission of alpha particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • His dissertation topic was environmental exposure and human health. (cancer.gov)
  • Viruses such as human papillomaviruses which cause oral cancer and cervical cancer, and hepatitis C, which can cause liver cancer are considered carcinogens. (verywellhealth.com)
  • The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) is expanding and accelerating its contributions to scientific knowledge of human health and the environment, and to the health and well-being of people everywhere. (nih.gov)
  • According to studies using cellular and animal models and newer human-based studies, many carcinogens may also be EDCs, and could influence the development and progression of cancer by acting like hormones. (endocrine.org)
  • Transgenic mice expressing a constitutively active form of human PXR show markedly increased UGT activity toward steroid, heme, and carcinogens, enhanced bilirubin clearance, as well as massively increased steroid clearance. (pnas.org)
  • Aging indeed is a potent carcinogen. (innovations-report.com)
  • In 1984 the American Petroleum Institute identified a new class of carcinogens in gasoline even more potent than benzene. (latimes.com)
  • Specifically, studies are needed to identify the full array of cytokines and chemokines that are induced by environmental carcinogens in various types of cancers with the goal of harnessing the most potent mediators of antitumor immunity. (sciencecodex.com)
  • One such method is based on the fact that when carcinogens (or their metabolites) react with DNA, they form structures called DNA adducts. (epa.gov)
  • A non-infectious disease is a disease that may be caused by either the environment, nutritional deficiencies or genetic inheritances. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Thus, this book will contain chapters from the world's experts focused on the current evidences that support the role of environment in the cancer etiology and in the growth of malignant lesions, and discuss who may be susceptible to environmental influences. (waterstones.com)
  • Environmental pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halogenated hydrocarbons (HAHs) are well-known carcinogens that play important roles in GC development. (scienceblog.com)
  • Being aware of and reducing your exposure to carcinogens can reduce your risk of developing cancer. (sheknows.com)
  • Knowing this, and that we are all exposed to potential (but not yet tested) carcinogens daily, how can you protect yourself and lower your risk of exposure? (verywellhealth.com)
  • Reducing Environmental Cancer Risk. (qualityhealth.com)
  • In this increasingly genomic focussed era of medicine, it will be clinically important to understand the genetic basis of sarcoma risk. (garvan.org.au)
  • By calling for a review of the herbicides and linking them to breast cancer, the Environmental Protection Agency lands itself in the middle of an old but unresolved debate: How much risk is too much when it comes to cancer? (chicagotribune.com)
  • Therefore, further investigation on different populations is needed to understand the role of these genetic variations in modifying adult ALL risk. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Emissions from the gasoline distribution system and vehicle refueling, evaporative and exhaust emissions producing carcinogen-laced urban smog responsible for cancer as well as heightened respiratory and cardiovascular disease. (latimes.com)
  • It is clear that gasoline, in all phases of production, use and disposal, is a major source of environmental and occupational carcinogens and preventable cancers. (latimes.com)
  • Through a multiplex promoter spanning 218 kb, the phase II UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A ( UGT1 ) gene encodes at least eight differently regulated mRNAs whose protein products function as the principal means to eliminate a vast array of steroids, heme metabolites, environmental toxins, and drugs. (pnas.org)
  • If you are giving a presentation about an environmental health topic or just looking for general information about environmental health research or the institute, this page will help. (nih.gov)
  • NIEHS is committed to conducting the most rigorous research in environmental health sciences, and to communicating the results of this research to the public. (nih.gov)
  • NIEHS offers a broad range of job opportunities, career enhancement programs, and research training grants and programs in environmental health sciences and administration. (nih.gov)
  • of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC. (epa.gov)
  • and Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kita-Kyushu 603-8555, Japan [Y. Y., K. H. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Washington, DC: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Health and Environmental Assessment. (cdc.gov)
  • There is concern about the resulting occupational exposure of those who work in agriculture and the environmental health of those who live in rural areas. (springer.com)
  • This chapter provides policy for maintaining and restoring, where appropriate, the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of the National Wildlife Refuge System. (fws.gov)
  • 3.3 What is the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health policy? (fws.gov)
  • A . Describe the relationships among refuge purposes, System mission, and maintaining biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health. (fws.gov)
  • B. Provide guidelines for determining what conditions constitute biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health. (fws.gov)
  • C. Provide guidelines for maintaining existing levels of biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health. (fws.gov)
  • D. Provide guidelines for determining how and when it is appropriate to restore lost elements of biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health. (fws.gov)
  • E. Provide guidelines to follow in dealing with external threats to biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health. (fws.gov)
  • C. Environmental Health. (fws.gov)
  • Biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health are critical components of wildlife conservation. (fws.gov)
  • B. Accomplishing refuge purposes and maintaining biological integrity, diversity, environmental health of the System. (fws.gov)
  • The Refuge Administration Act states that each refuge will be managed to fulfill refuge purpose(s) as well as to help fulfill the System mission, and we will accomplish these purpose(s) and our mission by ensuring that the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of each refuge are maintained, and where appropriate, restored. (fws.gov)
  • C. Biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health in a landscape context. (fws.gov)
  • Biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health can be described at various landscape scales from refuge to ecosystem, national, and international. (fws.gov)
  • Children's Environmental Health. (washington.edu)
  • Evaluation of environmental health risks in special populations, such as children, farm workers, and farm producers. (washington.edu)
  • Community-based approaches to addressing environmental health problems. (washington.edu)
  • Apart from the strategic and security costs of dependence on foreign imports, the environmental and public-health costs are prohibitive. (latimes.com)
  • According to a study in Environmental Health Perspectives, infants found to have elevated PAH levels in their umbilical cord blood were 46% more likely to eventually score highly on the anxiety/depression scale than those with low PAH levels in cord blood. (honorearth.org)
  • Consequently, it shows how high-valent chromium can act as a carcinogen with 8-oxo-G forming xenobiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic polymorphisms in the eNOS gene can regulate its transcription and further mediate NO production. (cdc.gov)
  • This means that there will not be a single gene or single environmental factor that has large effects on cancer susceptibility. (medsci.org)
  • However, the precise mechanisms by which chromium is both an essential metal and a carcinogen are not yet fully clear. (cdc.gov)