Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Chenopodium quinoa: A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.AfricaBiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Refractory Period, Psychological: A delayed response interval occurring when two stimuli are presented in close succession.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Capsella: A plant genus of the family CRUCIFERAE.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Nigella: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Cinnamomum: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The bark of the trees is used in FOLK MEDICINE and FLAVORING AGENTS.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Genetic Load: The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Indians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Cell Migration Assays: Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.EuropeZamiaceae: A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Mikania: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain scandenolide (a sesquiterpene lactone) and germacranolides.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Attentional Blink: Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Tasmania: An island south of Australia and the smallest state of the Commonwealth. Its capital is Hobart. It was discovered and named Van Diemen's Island in 1642 by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in honor of the Dutch governor-general of the Dutch East Indian colonies. It was renamed for the discoverer in 1853. In 1803 it was taken over by Great Britain and was used as a penal colony. It was granted government in 1856 and federated as a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1190 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p535)Pacific OceanModels, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.North AmericaSolanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genetics, Medical: A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Kearns-Sayre Syndrome: A mitochondrial disorder featuring the triad of chronic progressive EXTERNAL OPHTHALMOPLEGIA, cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHIES) with conduction block (HEART BLOCK), and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Disease onset is in the first or second decade. Elevated CSF protein, sensorineural deafness, seizures, and pyramidal signs may also be present. Ragged-red fibers are found on muscle biopsy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p984)Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
Toba catastrophe theory
DNA and human migrations Geography Predicts Human Genetic Diversity ScienceDaily (Mar. 17, 2005) - By analyzing the ... According to the genetic bottleneck theory, between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago, human populations sharply decreased to 3,000- ... "Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans". Journal of Human ... Furthermore, genetic analysis of Alu sequences across the entire human genome has shown that the effective human population ...
Human genetic variation
... and this is thought to be due to bottlenecks during human migration, which are events that temporarily reduce population size. ... Human genetic variation is the genetic differences in and among populations. There may be multiple variants of any given gene ... New data on human genetic variation has reignited the debate about a possible biological basis for categorization of humans ... 2003). "Human Population Genetic Structure and Inference of Group Membership". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (3): ...
Isolation by distance
This genetic isolation by distance theory involves concepts of gametic kinship chains, identity by descent, and migration ... One such study where genetic structure among human individuals is investigated is by Relethford and Brennan, (1982) where ... Significant morphological divergence was present that is highly consistent with trends of bottleneck and genetic structure ... Both dispersal variance and migration probabilities are variables in this model and both contribute to local genetic ...
Genetic studies on Jews
"MtDNA evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the early history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population". European Journal of Human ... These findings are consistent with historical accounts of Jewish migration from the realms that comprise modern Spain and ... "Study completes genetic map of N. African Jews". The Jerusalem Post , JPost.com. Retrieved 2017-05-28. "A New Genetic Map Of ... As for genetic component, the authors argued that using a genetic "GPS tool" would place Italians and Spaniards into Greece, ...
New Zealand wren
The extant species are closely related and thought to be descendants of birds that survived a genetic bottleneck caused by the ... Prior to the arrival of humans in New Zealand (about 1280 AD), they had a widespread distribution across the North and South ... Like all New Zealand passerines, the New Zealand wrens are sedentary, and are not thought to undertake any migrations. It is ... Cooper A. & Cooper R. (1995). The Oligocene Bottleneck and New Zealand Biota: Genetic Record of a past Environmental Crisis ...
Haplogroup K (mtDNA)
The evidence from ancient DNA suggests that the Neolithic culture spread by human migration. Analysis of the mtDNA of Ötzi, the ... "MtDNA evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the early history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population." Non, Amy. "ANALYSES OF ... 2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". American Journal of Human ... "Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations". PLoS ONE. 10 (9): e0138453. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0138453. PMC 4581715 ...
"Map of Human Migration". Humans may have taken different path into Americas than thought Arctic passage wouldn't have provided ... This genetic bottleneck finding is an example of the founder effect and does not imply that only 70 individuals crossed into ... An open corridor through the ice-covered North American Arctic was too barren to support human migrations before around 12,600 ... The authors note that a "[u]nique genetic variant widespread in natives across both continents suggests that the first humans ...
The observations found that there has been human habitation on Nias island since 12,000 years ago through migration from Asia ... Archaeological findings of the stone tools found showed that humans living in the cave are 12,000 years old. The genetic ... This indicates that there was once a "bottle neck" population in the past history of Nias. Studies have also found that the ... New genetic research has found that the Nias people of North Sumatra came from the Austronesian peoples. The ancestors of the ...
Peopling of India
The Global Prehistory of Human Migration, The Global Prehistory of Human Migration Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder (2015), "West ... If true, this may "explain the apparent bottleneck in human populations that geneticists believe occurred between 50,000 and ... "Genetic evidence for recent population mixture in India", The American Journal of Human Genetics, 93 (3): 422-438, doi:10.1016/ ... The Global Prehistory of Human Migration, The Global Prehistory of Human Migration Negritos thepeoplingofindia.wordpress.com, ...
Genetic history of Europe
Researchers identified three major waves of human migrations into Europe: the original mesolithic hunter-gatherers, neolithic ... such as selection bias and confounding phenomena like genetic drift, foundation and bottleneck effects cause large errors, ... The genetic history of Europe encompasses the history of the patterns of genetic diversity among the human populations of the ... Thus the genetic data suggests that, at least from the perspective of patrilineal ancestry, separate groups of modern humans ...
Genetic studies on Croats
... genetics is a scientific discipline which contributes to the examination of the human evolutionary and historical migrations. ... like genetic drift (specific genetic expression), founder effect and population bottlenecks (reduction of population size) ... The results until now indicate that the genetic flow and influx of women to the islands was limited. A moderate genetic isolate ... The contemporary Croatian female individuals have genetic diversity which fits within a broader European maternal genetic ...
برینجیا - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Genetic settlement of Beringia. The Bering land bridge is a postulated route of human migration to the Americas from Asia about ... This genetic bottleneck finding is an example of the founder effect and does not imply that only 70 individuals crossed into ... "Map of Human Migration".. *^ Humans may have taken different path into Americas than thought Arctic passage wouldn't have ... A 2007 analysis of mtDNA found evidence that a human population lived in genetic isolation on the exposed Beringian landmass ...
Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
DNA Clovis culture Early human migrations Genetic history of Africa Genetic history of Europe Genetic history of Italy Genetic ... This combined with population bottlenecks, the founder effect, mitochondrial mutations and genetic drift will alter the genetic ... "Genetic Anthropology, Ancestry, and Ancient Human Migration". The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of ... The genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas primarily focuses on Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups and Human ...
Finnish heritage disease
The population bottleneck is seen only in the Y chromosome. Genetic diversity in autosomal chromosomes and in mitochondrial DNA ... Peltonen L, Jalanko A, Varilo T (1999). "Molecular genetics of the Finnish disease heritage". Human Molecular Genetics. 8 (10 ... "Tracing past population migrations: genealogy of steroid 21-hydroxylase (CYP21) gene mutations in Finland". European Journal of ... The majority of genetic diseases reported in Finland are not part of the Finnish disease heritage and their prevalence is not ...
The migration of humans out of Africa is characterized by serial founder effects. Africa has the highest degree of genetic ... Ashkenazi Jews display a strong genetic bottleneck. (a similar phenomena to the founder effect) The abnormally high rate of ... Due to various migrations throughout human history, founder effects are somewhat common among humans in different times and ... The populations in each migration carry only a subset of the genetic diversity carried from previous migrations. As a result, ...
"Investigating the effects of prehistoric migrations in Siberia: genetic variation and the origins of Yakuts". Hum. Genet. 120 ( ... C-B469 also has been found in HGDP01250, a Y-DNA sample obtained from a Xibo in China as part of the Human Genome Diversity ... YFull Haplogroup YTree v5.04 as of 16 May 2017 Monika Karmin, Lauri Saag, Mário Vicente, et al., "A recent bottleneck of Y ... Zerjal T, Wells RS, Yuldasheva N, Ruzibakiev R, Tyler-Smith C (September 2002). "A genetic landscape reshaped by recent events ...
Through reassortment, genetic sequences from swine and avian influenza occasionally enter the human population. If a particular ... "Global Migration Dynamics Underlie Evolution and Persistence of Human Influenza A (H3N2)". PLoS Pathogens. 6 (5): e1000918. doi ... ladder-like trees could also reflect sequential genetic bottlenecks that might occur with rapid spatial spread, as in the case ... For example, the genetic diversity of the DNA-based hepatitis B virus declined in the Netherlands in the late 1990s, following ...
Human mitochondrial molecular clock
However, the expansion has not been uniform, so the history of human populations may consist of both bottlenecks and expansions ... particularly in predicting recent migrations, such as founding migrations into Europe, Australia, and the Americans. With this ... Random genetic drift may also cause the loss of mutations. For these reasons, the actual mutation rate will not be equivalent ... The human mutation rate is usually estimated by comparing the sequences of modern humans and chimpanzees and then ...
... possibly due to a population bottleneck (or near-extinction event) on the Iberian peninsula, where a small human population is ... Genetic data (1) Genetic data (2) Link2Wales: Encyclopedia of the alternative music scene in Wales A Y chromosome census of the ... There has been migration from Wales to the rest of Britain throughout its history. During the Industrial Revolution thousands ... The genetic evidence in this case would show that the change to Celtic languages in Britain may have occurred as a cultural ...
2011). "Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y ... 2004). "Genetic origins of the Ainu inferred from combined DNA analyses of maternal and paternal lineages". Journal of Human ... Atlas of the Human Journey: Genetic Markers, Haplogroup D-M174 (M174), from The Genographic Project at National Geographic ... 2000). "Y chromosome haplotypes reveal prehistorical migrations to the Himalayas". Human Genetics. 107 (6): 582-90. doi:10.1007 ...
Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula
Phenomenon like genetic drift, foundation and bottleneck effects cause large errors, particularly in haplogroup studies. No ... "Gene flow from Africa contributes to differential human genetic diversity in southern Europe". Proceedings of the National ... Subsequent in-migration by members of other haplogroups and subclades of R1b did not affect its overall prevalence, although ... admixture in Europe Genetic history of Italy Genetic history of North Africa Moroccan genetics Genetic studies on Jews Genetic ...
These restricted ranges may result in population bottlenecks that reduce genetic variation. Once a reversal in climate change ... Past events that can be inferred include population expansion, population bottlenecks, vicariance and migration. Recently ... initial range extension of Homo erectus played an important role shaping the modern human gene pool and that recurrent genetic ... A number of empirical studies find genetic signatures of both animal and plant species that support this scenario of refugia ...
2002). "Genetic structure of human populations". Science. 298 (5602): 2381-85. Bibcode:2002Sci...298.2381R. doi:10.1126/science ... Like most DNA studies of human migration patterns, the earliest studies on Ashkenazi Jews focused on the Y-DNA and mtDNA ... Collectively, Ashkenazi Jews are less genetically diverse than other Jewish ethnic divisions, due to their genetic bottleneck.[ ... Human geneticists have argued that genetic variations have been identified that show high frequencies among Ashkenazi Jews, but ...
"The Y Chromosome Pool of Jews as Part of the Genetic Landscape of the Middle East", The American Journal of Human Genetics ( ... Like most DNA studies of human migration patterns, the earliest studies on Ashkenazi Jews focused on the Y-DNA and mtDNA ... Collectively, Ashkenazi Jews are less genetically diverse than other Jewish ethnic divisions, due to their genetic bottleneck.[ ... 2002). "Genetic structure of human populations". Science. 298 (5602): 2381-2385. Bibcode:2002Sci...298.2381R. doi:10.1126/ ...
Population dynamics of fisheries
Population bottlenecks are when population size reduces for a short period of time. Overpopulation may indicate any case in ... Trophic cascades may also be important for understanding the effects of removing top predators from food webs, as humans have ... "Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control." Bulletin of the Entomological ... and migration. It is the basis for understanding changing fishery patterns and issues such as habitat destruction, predation ...
Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
Early human migrations. *Genetic history of Africa (disambiguation). *Genetic history of Europe ... Other related explanations include the Bottleneck explanation which states that there were high frequencies of blood type A and ... Old World genetic admixtureEdit. Further information on genetic admixture in the Americas: Miscegenation § Genetic studies of ... There is genetic evidence for an early wave of migration to the Americas. It is uncertain whether this "Paleoamerican" (also " ...
Haplogroup A (Y-DNA)
July 2010). "Human Y chromosome haplogroup R-V88: a paternal genetic record of early mid Holocene trans-Saharan connections and ... May 2002). "A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome ... "A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture". Genome Research. 25 (4): 459-66. 2015 ... July 2009). "Genetic and demographic implications of the Bantu expansion: insights from human paternal lineages". Mol. Biol. ...
The genetic information also indicated that a second, Pleistocene migration of bison over the land bridge occurred 21,000 to ... Humans were almost exclusively accountable for the near-extinction of the American bison in the 1800s. At the beginning of the ... During the population bottleneck, after the great slaughter of American bison during the 19th century, the number of bison ... That genetic material indicated that all American bison had a common ancestor 135,000 to 195,000 years ago, during which period ...
"Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes". ... 2008). "Pinghua population as an exception of Han Chinese's coherent genetic structure". Journal of Human Genetics. 53 (4): 303 ... "Human Migration through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes". ... 1999). "Y-Chromosome Evidence for a Northward Migration of Modern Humans into Eastern Asia during the Last Ice Age". The ...
Bronze-Age DNA Confirms Babel Dispersion | The Institute for Creation Research
... exactly what one would expect from human DNA sampled immediately after a massive migration that followed a genetic bottleneck. ... As indicated in the Bible, humans experienced a genetic bottleneck about 4,400 years ago when the earth began to be repopulated ... A comparison of worldwide phonemic and genetic variation in human populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ... Human DNA Variation Linked to Biblical Event Timeline. Creation Science Update. Posted on icr.org July 23, 2012, accessed June ...
Archaeology | FinalGear.com Forums
According to the supporters of the genetic bottleneck theory, between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago, human population suffered a ... NGC ? The Human Family Tree. National Geographic Channel Website said: TIME LINE: HUMAN MIGRATION. The Genographic Project is ... Genetic evidence suggests that all humans alive today, despite apparent variety, are descended from a very small population, ... The first was the study of the eruption of super volcano Toba in Indonesia and the second was the genetic bottleneck ...
Genetic Heterogeneity in Algerian Human Populations
... and genetic heterogeneity in the region have been described. In this complex genetic landscape, Algeria, the largest country in ... Diverse genetic ancestral components with different origins (autochthonous, European, Middle Eastern, and sub-Saharan) ... In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been ... Our results show that the genetic heterogeneity found in Algeria is not correlated with geography or linguistics, challenging ...
Late Pleistocene climate change and the global expansion of anatomically modern humans | PNAS
Past demographic events, such as colonization events, migrations, population bottlenecks, and expansions, have affected genetic ... 2006) Going east: New genetic and archaeological perspectives on the modern human colonization of Eurasia. Science 313:796-800. ... 2006) A geographically explicit genetic model of worldwide human-settlement history. Am J Hum Genet 79:230-237. ... 1996) A comprehensive genetic map of the human genome based on 5,264 microsatellites. Nature 380:152-154. ...
JSMF - Grant Archive - 1999 - Leonid Kruglyak - Human Genetics in the Twenty-First Century
Patterns of spelling changes in the genetic code contain a record of population divergences, migrations, bottlenecks, ... Genetic approaches extend beyond human genetics to studies of pathogens and organisms of agricultural importance, and even more ... Human Genetics in the Twenty-First Century. As human genetics approaches the turn of the century, many powerful molecular tools ... Genetic basis of disease. Genetic factors are thought to play some role in susceptibility to almost all diseases. We can search ...
SAM Says Blacks are Dumber Than Whites | Page 11 | Sciforums
I hope your not going to defend the idea that there is more genetic difference between a Rwandan and a Nigerian than between an ... This would be expected if there were a genetic bottleneck at the time of migration of modern humans out of Africa. For example ... Sequencing of the human genome, and recent advances in identifying and genotyping genetic variation at hundreds of loci in ... One paper reveals that human genetic diversity decreases the further one gets from Africa, the cradle of humanity.. People of ...
Midterm 2 Flashcards by MONICA RUIZ-SOSA | Brainscape
An example of a migration induced genetic bottleneck which resulted in low genetic diversity in Native Americans is the fact ... It is possible to recreate the history of human migration by tracking genetic markers in mitochondrial DNA (for the female ... Genetic and fossil evidence points to a sub-Saharan origin for anatomically modern humans (Box 6.8).. • The genetic lineages ... Neanderthals shared genetic variants with present-day humans (Homo sapiens). in Europe and Asia but not with present-day humans ...
Genetic variability and effective population size when local extinction and recolonization of subpopulations are frequent | PNAS
Global Migration Dynamics Underlie Evolution and Persistence of Human Influenza A (H3N2) ... Bottleneck effects in local populations of fossorial Ctenomys (Rodentia, Ctenomyidae) affected by vulcanism ... Influence of Random Genetic Drift on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1envEvolution During Chronic Infection ... Genomic Divergences between Humans and Other Hominoids and the Effective Population Size of the Common Ancestor of Humans and ...
Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: Initial settlement of the Americas: recurrent gene flow with Asia
Genetic analyses done so far have shown that population bottleneck(s) happened during the human dispersal to the Americas from ... The Na-Dene exceptionality suggests another older migration, so with 3 certain and 1 strongly probable migration, we might even ... Human genetic variation: the first 50 dimensions. Human genetic variation: 124+ clusters with the Galore approach. How Y-STR ... Genetic analyses done so far have shown that population bottleneck(s) happened during the human dispersal to the Americas from ...
Human genetic variation - Wikipedia
... and this is thought to be due to bottlenecks during human migration, which are events that temporarily reduce population size.[ ... Genetic clustering. Main article: Human genetic clustering. Genetic data can be used to infer population structure and ... See also: Human evolutionary genetics § Modern humans, and Recent human evolution. Recent African origin of modern humans ... Long and Kittles find that rather than 85% of human genetic diversity existing in all human populations, about 100% of human ...
Civilizations Lost and Found: Fabricating History - Part Three: Real Messages in DNA | Book of Mormon Archaeological Forum
Mtdna evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the early history of the Ashkenazi Jewish population. European Journal of Human ... The genetic data therefore provide no evidence whatsoever for a migration of Israelites to eastern North America. ... American Journal of Human Genetics 72: 659-70.. Kemp, Brian M., and Theodore G. Schurr. 2010. Ancient and modern genetic ... The Lost Civilizations of North America documentary suggests that there is genetic evidence for a pre-Columbian migration of ...
The great bottleneck after the post-Eemian separation - Gene Expression
History Hot Sauce Human Evolution Human Genetics Human Population Genetics India India genetics Intelligence Islam Migration ... You can reduce genetic diversity by a modest, but long, bottleneck. Or, through a very sharp short bottleneck. ... In fact, we know that this sort of early migration with no descendants isnt abnormal. The first modern humans in Europe left ... Population structure and bottleneck aside, humans seem to have enough basal reproductive skew that effective population size is ...
Dienekes' Anthropology Blog: 07/2009
Human genetic variation: the first 50 dimensions. Human genetic variation: 124+ clusters with the Galore approach. How Y-STR ... migration patterns and population bottlenecks.. Link ... Does Genetic Diversity Predict Health in Humans?. Hanne C. Lie ... GENETIC DIVERSITY REVEALED IN HUMAN FACES. Hanne C. Lie et al.. Abstract. From an evolutionary perspective, human facial ... Genetic diversity in general has been linked to fitness and reproductive success, and genetic diversity within the major ...
Computing, cricket and genetic variation | Scientific Computing World
... suggesting a genetic bottleneck as humans began to migrate north from Africa. Variation can not only tell you things about ... and even early human history, by tracking the migrations of populations through the variations in their genes. ... Much of his research has centred on genetic variations within human populations. He has found that there is much more variation ... Human reproduction makes one copy of a genome sequence from two copies, one contributed by each parent. He has been able to ...
A New Role for Hair in Human Identification
Large-scale events such as human migrations and genetic bottlenecks affect the frequency with which various mutations occur in ... These data sets are rather limited, especially in geographic distribution, but we are at the cusp of a genetic data explosion. ... The effort aims to identify a person using proteins extracted from a single human hair. ... A tremendous amount of variation exists in humans, so even accounting for these requirements, we still have many candidates to ...
Global and Local Persistence of Influenza A(H5N1) Virus - Volume 20, Number 8-August 2014 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...
To characterize the migration network of this virus, we used genetic analysis, which supported a global persistence model in ... The differences in migration dynamics between avian and human influenza viruses might help with the design of region-specific ... We found evidence of local persistence of the virus in Southeast Asia and Africa, which is rare for human influenza A viruses. ... An understanding of the global migration dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus is helpful for ...
Found: closest link to Eve, our universal ancestor | New Scientist
... existed almost all the genetic variation we see in contemporary humans. Since Eves time, different populations of humans have ... genetic bottlenecks that wipe out huge amounts of genetic diversity and create new lineages. ... the remains suggests that the fisherman lived in the region that is now South Africa before any of the known human migrations ... he provides the closest insight yet into the genetic make-up of the link between all living humans. The DNA he carries is ...
Ancient History/Human Evolution/Recent African Origin - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
... with factors such as migration within and among continents more heavily influencing the distribution of genetic variations. ... expressed both Haplogroup M and N could have lost Haplogroup M through random genetic drift resulting from a bottleneck (i.e. a ... Genetic reconstruction. Two pieces of the human genome are quite useful in deciphering human history: mitochondrial DNA ... Most multiregionalists still view Africa as a major wellspring of human genetic diversity, but allow a much greater role for ...
Testing Models of Selection and Demography in Drosophila simulans | Genetics
So, independent of genetic data, a recent bottleneck in the history of American populations of D. simulans seems to be a ... 1999 A human population bottleneck can account for the discordance between patterns of mitochondrial versus nuclear DNA ... These data might allow one to infer whether migration to the Americas occurred primarily from Europe or from Africa and would ... Cumulative genetic distance vs. cumulative physical distance based on 14 genetic markers for the X chromosome (a) and 13 ...
Neanderthal DNA Sequenced - How Similar are they to Modern Humans?
Geneticists can detect a population constriction or bottleneck where certain genetic markers are concentrated; that only occurs ... findings do not change our basic understanding that humans originated in Africa and dispersed around the world in a migration ... Cataloging What Makes us Human. By comparing the Neanderthal and modern genetic sequences, researchers have tried to discover ... Comparing the draft Neanderthal genome sequence with the genetic sequence of humans and chimpanzees allows scientists to ...
Toba catastrophe theory - Wikipedia
DNA and human migrations Geography Predicts Human Genetic Diversity ScienceDaily (Mar. 17, 2005) - By analyzing the ... According to the genetic bottleneck theory, between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago, human populations sharply decreased to 3,000- ... "Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and differentiation of modern humans". Journal of Human ... Furthermore, genetic analysis of Alu sequences across the entire human genome has shown that the effective human population ...
First, during the migration from Asia to the New World, a populat ion bottleneck severely reduced the genetic variability ... Genetic and functional analysis of full-length human immunodeficiency virus ty pe 1 env genes deri ved from brain and blood of ... who experienced a severe genetic bottleneck during the migration from Asia and may have lost variants that have been previous ... who experienced a severe genetic bottleneck during the migration from Asia and may have lost variants that have been previously ...
Sexual Paradox: The Fall
A sex bias in rates of migration among human populations can also affect the respective ages. It has been observed that various ... as demonstrated in the above research on the Y-chromosome bottleneck (Wilder J, Mobasher Z and Hammer M 2004 Genetic Evidence ... It contains a human skeleton whose head has been replaced by a horse head; a human head lies near his feet, along with a bone ... R633) suggests that human emergence, like ape societies is dominated by female exogamous migration (p 143) in a context of ...
Chimpanzees Use More Varied Receptors and Ligands Than Humans for Inhibitory Killer Cell Ig-Like Receptor Recognition of the...
In the case of extreme population bottleneck, as most likely occurred during the evolution of premodern humans when genetic ... enable rapid population growth following periods of restricted population size due to migration, disease, or resource depletion ... Although the genetic complexity of the chimpanzee KIR system is comparable to the human one, only three KIR genes are shared ( ... Chimpanzees have more inhibitory MHC-C receptors than humans. A characteristic of the human lineage III KIR is that the two ...
Ecotope-Based Entomological Surveillance and Molecular Xenomonitoring of Multidrug Resistant Malaria Parasites in Anopheles...
... vectors and particular environments to which human activities are related. This enables the EES to encompass mosquito ... MDR malaria is the heritable and hypermutable property of human malarial parasite populations that can decrease ,i,in vitro,/i ... Without a balanced selection, an appearance of the parasite population bottleneck will eventually reduce the genetic variation ... the migration or genetic flow of P. vivax parasites that is epidemiologically linked to two separate malaria ecotopes and (ii) ...
Identifying the Environmental Factors That Determine the Genetic Structure of Populations | Genetics
If humans spread from East Africa and in the process underwent successive bottlenecks of small amplitude (as proposed by P ... Clearly, genetic structure is influenced by physical barriers to migration such as water masses. Therefore, the second factor ... Prugnolle, F., A. Manica and F. Balloux, 2005 Geography predicts neutral genetic diversity of human populations. Curr. Biol. 15 ... Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., and M. W. Feldman, 2003 The application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of human evolution ...
Recent studies on humans suggest that there may have been one or more instances of severe genetic bottlenecks in our own ... Migration into or out of a population can breakdown genetic differences between populations. Mutations developing in one ... Genetic drift occurs when founders (or colonizers) establish a new population, or after a genetic bottleneck and resultant ... By no means did they represent all the genetic variation of the human species or even genetic variations among Europeans. ...
Neutral Model of evolution recent African origins - creation.com
The Recent African Origins theory cannot explain human origins because it assumes the Standard Neutral Model of evolution, ... human history is to use the small amount of genetic differentiation among populations to infer the history of human migrations ... Alternatively, population bottlenecks should lead to higher LD because during a bottleneck event a small number of people pass ... Liu, H. et al., A geographically explicit genetic model of worldwide human-settlement history, Am. J. Human Genetics 79:230-237 ...
Population Bottleneck - Reconstructing Genealogies, Reconstructing Ancient Population Sizes, Technological And Social...
The genetic structure of human populations suggests four bottlenecks in our lineage. Stanley Ambrose has proposed that two ... Marta Lahr has attributed bottlenecks to migrations of small populations across geographic barriers, a phenomenon variously ... Population bottlenecks have occurred in the evolutionary history of many species, including humans. Present-day bottlenecks are ... Bottleneck 1.. When traced backward in time, all human lineages coalesce to an ancestral lineage that lived in Africa about 130 ...
VariationSpeciesGeneticsPosited that a population bottleneckExperienced a severe genetic bottleneckDemographic60,000 years agoVariabilityAnatomicallyMtDNAAdmixture100,00070,000 years agoGenome-wideAnalysesExpansionsSevere bottlenecksAllelesDivergenceGeographicDispersalNeanderthalsHaplotypes10,000 years agoScientistsLinkage disequilibriumRecentEvidenceYearsArchaeologicalMarkersLoss of genetic diversityModernGenomesMutationSuggestsOriginsColonizationEvolutionary processesCharacterizeMutationsDataGeneticallyHypothesisPopulation geneticVariants
- 2,3 In addition, several other recent studies analyzing the rare variation in the protein-coding regions of modern human genomes, have concluded that the human genome has diversified not more than about 5,000 years ago. (icr.org)
- 2012. Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes. (icr.org)
- Even monozygotic twins (who develop from one zygote) have infrequent genetic differences due to mutations occurring during development and gene copy-number variation . (wikipedia.org)
- The study of human genetic variation has evolutionary significance and medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
- For medicine, study of human genetic variation may be important because some disease-causing alleles occur more often in people from specific geographic regions. (wikipedia.org)
- [ citation needed ] The second main cause of genetic variation is due to the high degree of neutrality of most mutations . (wikipedia.org)
- Genetic variation among humans occurs on many scales, from gross alterations in the human karyotype to single nucleotide changes. (wikipedia.org)
- The scientific consensus, based on more than 150 studies of Native American genetic variation, suggests that all Native Americans are descended from a single source population that originated in Asia and migrated to the Americas via Beringia (Figure 2) approximately fourteen thousand to twenty thousand years ago (Kemp and Schurr 2010). (bmaf.org)
- Basically it's the inferred breeding population you estimate in the present, or in many cases the past, based on the genetic variation you see within the population. (gnxp.com)
- In fact, as you probably know one of the biggest determinants of genetic variation in New England whites of 1790 is the bottleneck that they share with all other non-Africans that dates to 50,000 years or more before 1790! (gnxp.com)
- Basically, not all the genetic variation in a given generation is created equally. (gnxp.com)
- This is what the HapMap project is about, and Donnelly is at the forefront of looking at the variation of genes within the human species - to try and find out what is really relevant to disease. (scientific-computing.com)
- His most important contributions are firstly the people who have emerged from his lab, who are the brightest young people in the field of computational analysis of genetic variation. (scientific-computing.com)
- This illustration shows a type of genetic code variation called a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) and the corresponding altered amino acid in the protein coded by that DNA, called a single amino acid polymorphism (SAP). (llnl.gov)
- A tremendous amount of variation exists in humans, so even accounting for these requirements, we still have many candidates to consider. (llnl.gov)
- Within her DNA, and that of her peers, existed almost all the genetic variation we see in contemporary humans. (newscientist.com)
- Even among primates there is extensive species-specific variation ( 13 , 14 , 15 ), such that the most informative comparisons have come from studying the chimpanzee ( 16 ), the human species' closest living relative. (jimmunol.org)
- All genetic variation in a population is generated by mutation. (estrellamountain.edu)
- Sexual reproduction increases variation by reshuffling the genetic information from parents into new combinations in their offspring. (estrellamountain.edu)
- interpreted the European southeast-northwest (SE-NW) gradient of genetic variation as the result of the demic diffusion of early Neolithic farmers during their expansion from the Near East [ 9 , 10 ]. (mdpi.com)
- Despite recent large-scale efforts in discovering human genetic variation, India's vast reservoir of genetic diversity remains largely unexplored. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In this study, we analyzed genetic variation in grass carp from three introduced river systems (Mississippi River Basin in US, Danube River in Hungary, and Tone River in Japan) as well as its native ranges (Yangtze, Pearl, and Amur Rivers) in China using 21 novel microsatellite loci. (springer.com)
- Chen Q, Wang CH, Song X, Xu JW, Yang QL, Li SF (2009) Analysis of genetic variation in grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) from native and colonized regions using ISSR markers. (springer.com)
- Almost genetic stability or low level of genetic variation is often reported. (hindawi.com)
- Unraveling the structural and functional organization of human transcription and how it is driven by genetic variation holds the promise for gaining a better understanding of various biological mechanisms and often their clinical implications. (columbia.edu)
- Our methods are particularly focused on genetic variation that developed in recent millennia, where classical analysis offers limited resolution. (columbia.edu)
- and because low genetic variation implies a range of mutations which can be fitness or protein malfunctions or dynamic changes depending on the kind of bottleneck. (stackexchange.com)
- This is important because the Y chromosome has very little genetic variation relative to much of the rest of the genome. (unz.com)
- While there is a wide array of cultural practices with potential to significantly influence disease development (e.g., crop rotation, irrigation, pesticide application, etc.), genetic strategies of disease resistance have typically had a much narrower entry point, namely exploitable variation within the host genome itself. (frontiersin.org)
- There are significant differences in levels of genetic variation among regions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Therefore, historical, rather than anthropogenic processes most likely account for their depauperate genetic variation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- However, while reduced genetic variation is frequently symptomatic of recent reductions in population size, it may also reflect more ancient events, pre-dating human influences ( Menotti-Raymond & O'Brien 1993 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Intraspecific variation is caused by genetic and environmental factors. (getrevising.co.uk)
- Such talk is considered not just controversial but politically unacceptable, and there is no current consensus about whether racial categories can be considered to have significance for understanding human genetic variation. (infogalactic.com)
- How to Interpret Patterns of Genetic Variation? (kinshipstudies.org)
- One recent study , carried out by an international team, examined genetic variation in fifteen African American and twenty European Americans. (reasons.org)
- There is limited genetic variation for abiotic stress tolerance within the cultivated species. (biomedcentral.com)
- International Union for Conservation of Nature's Red List of Threatened Species, experienced a population bottleneck about 10,000 years ago, leading to low levels of genetic variation and related health and reproductive problems. (si.edu)
- Where does genetic variation come from? (wikidot.com)
- Greater Middle East Variome Consortium 2016, ' Characterization of greater middle eastern genetic variation for enhanced disease gene discovery ', Nature Genetics , vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1071-1079. (elsevier.com)
- Their opponents, such as Louis Agassiz and Josiah C. Nott, argued for polygenism, or the separate development of human races as separate species or had developed as separate species through transmutation of species from apes, with no common ancestor. (wikibooks.org)
- Research into Neanderthal DNA now shows that our extinct relatives did leave their mark in the genomes of some modern humans, leading researchers to believe that our species 'paired up' with our less evolutionary successful cousins when we were both living in the Middle East, about 100,000 to 50,000 years ago and before we left to populate Europe and Asia. (heritage-key.com)
- In the first study, I used sequence data from six genes from three subspecies of Treponema pallidum, the spirochetes that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and endemic syphilis in humans, as well as two other Treponema species, to determine their evolutionary origin and relationships using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses. (ufl.edu)
- A clear understanding of these issues is of fundamental importance for a wide range of applications that include, among others, the inference of population histories, biodiversity conservation, and the identification of disease genes and/or disease-resistant genes in humans and economically important species. (genetics.org)
- Selecting among alternative scenarios of human evolution is nowadays a common methodology to investigate the history of our species. (mdpi.com)
- Although here we focus on human evolution, this approach could be extended to study other species. (mdpi.com)
- The evolutionary history of our species persists as a hot topic of research due to the curiosity about our past and the continuous interesting findings from both genetic and archeological data, despite the fact that these findings are sometimes contradictory e.g., [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
- The authors go on to imply that they do not perceive a stark, decisive, qualitative difference between the consciousness of humans and of many higher animal species. (blogspot.com)
- Population bottlenecks have occurred in the evolutionary history of many species, including humans. (jrank.org)
- Present-day bottlenecks are seen in endangered species such as the Yangtze River dolphin, whose numbers have dwindled to less than 100. (jrank.org)
- Endangered species that do not become extinct may expand their numbers later on, but with a limited amount of genetic diversity with which to adapt to changing conditions. (jrank.org)
- A small number of genetic differences between individuals in a population or species may indicate either a recent origin, or a population bottleneck. (jrank.org)
- To this end, his work often relies on anthropology and human history as much as it does on genome sequencing and computation, in order to decipher the subtle genetic signatures that appear when species undergo major events such as population bottlenecks, large-scale migration or dispersal events, or the development of resistance to disease. (uchospitals.edu)
- One locus important in embryogenesis, KIT , has been associated with white coat patterns in several mammalian species and piebaldism in humans. (creation.com)
- The broad conclusions these authors drew from this genetic data is that the cave and modern lion species shared a common ancestor that lived about a half million years ago, and that modern lions consist of two lineages that diverged about 70,000 years ago. (patentdocs.org)
- Biodiversity refers to genetic diversity, species diversity, and ecosystem diversity [ 2 , 3 ] and includes the forest and agricultural ecosystems and the wild animals [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Some species are regarded as having a very wide genetic base and some less so, which commensurately signals that a bottleneck has taken place, and that diversity takes a while to be amended. (stackexchange.com)
- That illustrates a kind of bottleneck as a result of directional pressure, although the species may have been far from failing, it just underwent a bottleneck to some degree. (stackexchange.com)
- Given the ever-increasing anthropogenic changes to natural ecosystems, it is imperative that temporal changes in genetic diversity be monitored to help safeguard the future viability of species. (springer.com)
- Consequently, this species may be vulnerable to stochastic events and genetic erosion through the loss of metapopulation connectivity. (springer.com)
- These results will form the baseline for future monitoring to better understand this threatened and declining species and to track genetic erosion or recovery. (springer.com)
- This is the first study characterising the genetic structure of the invasive species D. suzukii in Italy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Four of these loci were detected by both methods, two of which were detected in a genetic structure analysis as loci associated with differentiation, and are strong candidates for genes that have been subject to selection and, thus, contributed to the genetic differentiation between the two varieties of the species. (nii.ac.jp)
- Journal Article] The phylogeographic structure of Japanese coniferous species as revealed by genetic markers. (nii.ac.jp)
- In addition, the bottleneck hypothesis stood up to a test using TSP (trans-species polymorphism). (uncommondescent.com)
- Parsimony-based analysis of genetic diversity in 50 accessions, including cultivars, landraces, and A-genome wild rice, suggests that independent mutation occurred in Asian, African, South American, and Australian species, while O. meridionalis had a divergent sequence. (springeropen.com)
- However, little is known about the number and genome-wide distribution of genetic incompatibilities separating species. (elifesciences.org)
- Patterns of genomic divergence at these regions imply that genetic incompatibilities play a significant role in limiting gene flow even in young species. (elifesciences.org)
- Though some genetic incompatibilities that might keep the species distinct have previously been suggested, it is not known how many incompatibilities there are in these fish's genomes. (elifesciences.org)
- have searched the genomes of wild hybrids between these species and found hundreds of genetic incompatibilities. (elifesciences.org)
- If Neanderthals bred with modern humans, they are one and the same species. (crev.info)
- In short, the evidence has brought humans and Neanderthals together as mere varieties of the same species, while simultaneously increasing the genetic distance between humans and the great apes. (crev.info)
- Being an amateur in this subject, I decided to look into the different findings, sites, dates, the pattern of human migrations, the current ideas regarding the evolution of our species and the hard, solid and factual evidence that is behind the current consensus among scholars that dedicate their lives to study these matters. (blogspot.com)
- Whole genome data from humans and other species are revealing complex stories of divergence and admixture that were left undiscovered by previous smaller data sets. (prolekare.cz)
- Over the past several decades, population genetics has made key contributions to our understanding of human demography, as well as the demographic history of other species. (prolekare.cz)
- Understanding the genetic signatures of range shifts can help build our knowledge of the capacity of species to establish and persist in colonised areas. (nature.com)
- Manica explained: 'The evidence also implies a lack of hybridisation with older hominid species, since interbreeding would be expected to bring in a large amount of new genetic material, and thus an increase in diversity. (world-archaeology.com)
- The vanishingly small population of 16 in 1942 represents an extreme genetic and demographic bottleneck that few species survive. (usgs.gov)
- Our analysis revealed a broad-spectrum genetic base in wild tomato species and erosion of that in cultivated tomato due to recurrent selection for agronomically important traits. (biomedcentral.com)
- Sources for genetic tolerance to abiotic stresses are available in some wild species such as, S. pennellii , S. chilense and S. peruvianum . (biomedcentral.com)
- Each and every cub plays a significant role in improving the health of the population of cheetahs in human care and represents hope for the species overall. (si.edu)
- In most sexually reproducing species, including humans, each organism contains two copies of virtually every gene - one inherited from each parent. (encyclopedia.com)
- As human genetics approaches the turn of the century, many powerful molecular tools are either in place or about to arrive. (jsmf.org)
- The key task facing human genetics is interpreting this data. (jsmf.org)
- Armed with appropriate information, society win be prepared to face the complex questions posed by progress in human genetics, reaping the benefits while avoiding the pitfalls. (jsmf.org)
- Genetic approaches extend beyond human genetics to studies of pathogens and organisms of agricultural importance, and even more broadly to a better understanding of genetics and biology of all organisms. (jsmf.org)
- Novembre , associate professor in the Department of Human Genetics, is one of 24 new MacArthur Fellows drawn from diverse fields ranging from stem cell biology to puppetry. (uchospitals.edu)
- This built upon insights drawn from earlier work Novembre conducted as a post-doctoral fellow with then mentor, and now close colleague, Matthew Stephens , PhD, professor of human genetics and statistics at the University of Chicago, in which they uncovered vulnerabilities in a classic statistical tool used to analyze the geographic distribution of genetic diversity and large-scale migration events. (uchospitals.edu)
- In the study, published to the journal Genetics and Molecular Biology, researchers used DNA samples collected from areas along the path of migration. (dailymail.co.uk)
- Human genetics is as ancient as human history. (columbia.edu)
- Bottleneck genetics is very complicated and difficult to understand, because they have quite a strong effect on the genetic base of the animal and it variability. (stackexchange.com)
- European Journal of Human Genetics, 12 (5). (hud.ac.uk)
- The genetics suggest that human genes went through this bottleneck 60,000 years ago. (newscientist.com)
- A closer look at the genetics also suggests there was an earlier migration. (newscientist.com)
- The questions treated herein examine the historical origins of the people described in the records of the Book of Mormon from a genetic point of view, making use of key principles of population genetics that cannot be neglected when undertaking such a study. (bmaf.org)
- Race is the classification of humans into groups based on group-wide visual appearances that reflect common genetics, mental and cognitive traits and capacities such as intelligence, physical traits and capacities such as strength and endurance, common ancestry, and social and other relations between them. (infogalactic.com)
- Darwin's insights concerning the probable African origin of human beings have been confirmed by palaeontological discoveries as well as by the results of research on comparative anatomy and molecular genetics. (mitchmedical.us)
Posited that a population bottleneck1
Experienced a severe genetic bottleneck2
- This may be the result of the past evolutionary history of Native Americans, who experienced a severe genetic bottleneck during the migration from Asia and may have lost variants that have been previously associated with substance abuse. (ufl.edu)
- The Korean indigenous goat experienced a severe genetic bottleneck upon entering the Korean Peninsula about 2,000 years ago, and has subsequently rarely experienced genetic interactions with other goat breeds. (frontiersin.org)
- In this current report, the researchers stated that 'the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. (icr.org)
- Our framework provides the most accurate spatiotemporal reconstruction of human demographic history available at present and will allow for a greater integration of genetic and archaeological evidence. (pnas.org)
- Demographic events such as bottlenecks and population replacements, among others, can explain changes in the allelic frequencies. (csmonitor.com)
- Interpretation, and possible remediation, of these declines requires both demographic and genetic knowledge. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The primary need is for savings, (or in the current environment, debt reduction, which is equivalent), since we are collectively (via the baby boom and the decline of exponential human reproduction) heading into new demographic territory where the aged generation isn't the light burden that they were in the past. (blogspot.com)
60,000 years ago1
- Biblically we don't have enough information to know the genetic variability that existed at creation. (creation.com)
- However, we do have an idea of the genetic variability that could be expected after the genetic bottleneck at the Flood. (creation.com)
- A related study focusing on multi-lesion Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-positive HCC discovered variable extent of genetic variability 12 . (nature.com)
- Multi-sector analysis of the two intra-hepatic metastases revealed much higher genetic variability than their primary tumours, suggesting that intra-hepatic metastasis is accompanied by rapid diversification at the distant location. (nature.com)
- These workers characterized genetic variability by examining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and categorizing the DNA sequence differences as benign, possibly damaging, and probably damaging. (reasons.org)
- We develop a spatially explicit model of the expansion of anatomically modern humans and use climate reconstructions over the past 120 ky based on the Hadley Centre global climate model HadCM3 to quantify the possible effects of climate on human demography. (pnas.org)
- Genetic and fossil evidence confirms a sub-Saharan origin for anatomically modern humans (Box 6.8). (brainscape.com)
- In the last decades, controversy has surrounded the question of whether Neanderthals interbred with anatomically modern humans. (heritage-key.com)
- These results highlight that the initial peopling of the Indian subcontinent likely occurred early in the history of anatomically modern humans. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Scientists often rely on scant archeological evidence to map anatomically modern humans' settlements. (csmonitor.com)
- Furthermore, at least one case of replacement by an anatomically modern human population of, in this case, a Neanderthal ( H. neanderthalensis ) population in Israel, was documented. (britannica.com)
- In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. (plos.org)
- Specifically, the video suggests that the presence of a mtDNA lineage known as "haplogroup X" in the Hopewell population is evidence of a pre-Columbian migration of Israelites to the Americas because haplogroup X originated in the "hills of Galilee" in Israel and began to disperse out of the Middle East approximately two thousand years ago. (bmaf.org)
- Dating the genetic recoding for mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA - the DNA that is passed virtually unchanged from mother to children - remains an inexact science. (commondreams.org)
- The whole genome studies verified the inference from earlier mtDNA studies that the cave lions were a genetic 'outgroup' of modern lions. (patentdocs.org)
- To test for the effects of a maternal bottleneck on the Ashkenazi Jewish population, we performed an extensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 (HVS-1) sequence and restriction site polymorphisms in 565 Ashkenazi Jews from different parts of Europe. (hud.ac.uk)
- But this situation may have changed with a recent report by Boris Malyarchuk of the finding of a two-nucleotide mtDNA haplotype shared between late European Neandertals and modern humans belonging to the L2'3'4'5'6 clade. (kinshipstudies.org)
- Furthermore, previous studies mainly investigated and compared the genetic diversity of mtDNA control region sequences, while DNA polymorphism of mitochondrial Cytochrome B (CYTB) in the Uyghur population in Xinjiang has not been reported. (biomedcentral.com)
- A recent trend in the investigation of ancestral evolutionary processes of modern humans is the application of genetic gradients as a measure of fitting, since evolutionary processes such as range expansions, range contractions, and population admixture (among others) can lead to different genetic gradients. (mdpi.com)
- Next, we review previous studies on the influence of range expansions, population admixture, last glacial period, and migration with long-distance dispersal on genetic gradients for some regions of the world. (mdpi.com)
- Posterior studies suggested that such genetic gradients could be caused or influenced by other processes such as range contractions or population admixture, i.e., hence, not necessarily attributed to a particular range expansion [ 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. (mdpi.com)
- The Greater Middle East (GME) has been a central hub of human migration and population admixture. (elsevier.com)
- According to the supporters of the genetic bottleneck theory, between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago, human population suffered a severe population decrease?only 3,000 to 10,000 individuals survived?followed eventually by rapid population increase, innovation, progress and migration. (finalgear.com)
- It is now clear, the researchers say, that all persons of European descent, and not just isolated geographic groups, experienced a 'genetic bottleneck' -- probably between 30,000 and 100,000 years ago -- as a small, founding population moved into present-day Europe. (sciforums.com)
- Although he lived more than 100,000 years after mitochondrial Eve, he provides the closest insight yet into the genetic make-up of the link between all living humans. (newscientist.com)
- Though the bone is over 100,000 years old, Trinkaus's team says the shape of its chin is suggestive of modern humans. (newscientist.com)
70,000 years ago1
- Population bottleneck will have genome-wide effect while directional selection will affect only the locus (and closely linked loci via a selective sweep ). (stackexchange.com)
- Family-based and genome-wide studies suggest that genetic differences substantially influence an individual's lifetime risk for kidney disease. (jci.org)
- Genetic analyses done so far have shown that population bottleneck(s) happened during the human dispersal to the Americas from Asia. (blogspot.com)
- This week a big whole genome analysis of China was published in Cell , Genomic Analyses from Non-invasive Prenatal Testing Reveal Genetic Associations, Patterns of Viral Infections, and Chinese Population History . (gnxp.com)
- These findings demonstrate the great value and potential of accumulating NIPT data for worldwide medical and genetic analyses. (gnxp.com)
- Patterns of spelling changes in the genetic code contain a record of population divergences, migrations, bottlenecks, replacements, and expansions. (jsmf.org)
- Previous work suggests that Brazilian Plasmodium falciparum has limited genetic diversity and a history of bottlenecks, multiple reintroductions due to human migration, and clonal expansions. (cdc.gov)
- There may be multiple variants of any given gene in the human population ( alleles ), a situation called polymorphism . (wikipedia.org)
- In sexually reproducing organisms, genetic recombination is the realloc ation of alleles and chromosomes. (estrellamountain.edu)
- No gene flow: migration of alleles into or out of the population does not occur. (estrellamountain.edu)
- Andreakis N, Kooistra W, Procaccini G (2009) High genetic diversity and connectivity in the polyploid invasive seaweed Asparagopsis taxiformis (Bonnemaisoniales) in the Mediterranean, explored with microsatellite alleles and multilocus genotypes. (springer.com)
- Also, although there were only two humans, Eve may have carried alleles in her egg cells that differed from those in her body. (creation.com)
- For humans, a maximum of 10 alleles could have made it through unless Noah's sons carried mutations. (creation.com)
- Furthermore, we identify 11 unitary pseudogenes that are polymorphic - that is, they have both nonfunctional and functional alleles currently segregating in the human population. (biomedcentral.com)
- A genetic bottleneck followed by the recent phenomenon of rapid population growth are likely to have produced the conditions that led to the high frequency of many genetic disease alleles in the Ashkenazi population. (hud.ac.uk)
- Genetic - different alleles. (getrevising.co.uk)
- We show that the present day distribution of alleles is a function of both ancient migration and very recent population movements. (gnxp.com)
- Standard population genetic theory tells us that fragmented small groups will tend to lose genetic diversity and fix particular alleles, but those alleles are not going to be the same. (anthropology.net)
- Genetic bottlenecks and directional selection should have relatively similar genetic signals: reduced heterozygosity and greater genetic divergence (Fst? (stackexchange.com)
- We focus on gene losses along the human lineage after the divergence from rodents about 75 million years ago. (biomedcentral.com)
- Two resected intra-hepatic metastases showed genetic divergence occurring before and after primary tumour diversification, respectively. (nature.com)
- 2 They "identified 88 amino acid substitutions that have become fixed in humans since our divergence from the Neandertals. (crev.info)
- The discovery of fossil evidence in Ethiopia supporting the evolutionary divergence of humans and apes roughly 4.5 million to 6 million years ago, long predicted on the basis of molecular evidence, was announced in 1994. (britannica.com)
- Instead, humans congregated in one geographic location and attempted to re-establish the pre-Flood pagan culture that caused the earth to be filled with violence and wickedness-bringing about God's judgment with the global Flood. (icr.org)
- Distinct to what is found in colorectal cancers where genetic variegation accompanies the development from adenoma to carcinoma 13 , a large proportion of HCC displays a clear geographic segregation where spatially closer sectors are genetically more similar. (nature.com)
- The isolation-by-distance test showed that there generally was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. (ntnu.edu.tw)
- However, no significant among-region genetic differentiation was found in comparisons among the four geographic regions. (ntnu.edu.tw)
- Conclusions: Common haplotype distributions among geographic regions and the relatively shallow genetic structuring displayed are the result of historical gene flows. (ntnu.edu.tw)
- In addition, the genetic diversity of the Uyghur in different geographic locations has not been clearly studied. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, most genetic studies of the Uyghur have focused on genetic difference between them and other ethnic groups, and utilized relatively small numbers of sample from very limited geographic locations. (biomedcentral.com)
- Different scenarios attempting to describe the initial phases of the human dispersal from Asia into the New World have been proposed during the last two decades. (blogspot.com)
- A multiple dispersal model involves the Southern Dispersal theory, which has gained support in recent years from genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence. (wikibooks.org)
- Some 400,000 years ago, Neanderthals diverged from the primate line that led to present-day humans. (heritage-key.com)
- Neanderthals are the most recent, extinct relatives of modern humans. (heritage-key.com)
- Currently there are about half a million chimps populating Planet Earth, almost seven billion humans and zero Neanderthals. (heritage-key.com)
- Both physical properties of early man (derived from fossils) and DNA research have been used to argue both for and against an, errr, genetic contribution by Neanderthals towards the kind of animal we are today. (heritage-key.com)
- However, this does not exclude the possibility of Neanderthal-on-human action, leading to Neanderthals contributing other parts of their genome to our present day genetic make-up. (heritage-key.com)
- The reason for this is, one one hand, because I believe that our ancestral relatives, either Homo habilis, Homo erectus or even the Neanderthals reached the New World long before the 30 - 15 kya window currently accepted by orthodox mainstream science as the date of arrival of modern humans to the Americas. (blogspot.com)
- The research also rules out any significant interbreeding between modern humans and Neanderthals. (world-archaeology.com)
- Modern humans lived in the Levant while Neanderthals lived in Europe. (britannica.com)
- For more than a hundred years, paleontologists and anthropologists have been striving to uncover the evolutionary relationship of Neanderthals to modern humans. (astromart.com)
- Which human capacities and characteristics hark back to Neanderthals? (astromart.com)
- Recently, Stanford University scientists have found that interbreeding between Neanderthals and modern humans may have given modern humans some important genetic tools needed to survive - One being the ability to combat viral infections. (astromart.com)
- It made much more sense for modern humans to just borrow the already adapted genetic defenses from Neanderthals rather than wait for their own adaptive mutations to develop, which would have taken much more time," said David Enard, a former postdoctoral fellow in Petrov's lab. (astromart.com)
- In this scenario, Neanderthals bequeathed to modern humans not only infectious viruses but also the genetic tools to combat the invaders. (astromart.com)
- Modern humans and Neanderthals are so closely related that it really wasn't much of a genetic barrier for these viruses to jump," said Enard, who is now an assistant professor at the University of Arizona. (astromart.com)
10,000 years ago1
- To put the Bronze-Age theory to the test, a sizeable group of scientists undertook the largest ancient DNA sequencing project to date on 101 different human remains thought to be associated with the Bronze Age era found across Eurasia. (icr.org)
- Diving deep into the human gene pool, scientists in the United States have drawn one of the most detailed maps to date of our evolutionary past. (sciforums.com)
- It can help scientists understand ancient human population migrations as well as how human groups are biologically related to one another. (wikipedia.org)
- Forensic scientists can use SAPs (and by extension, nsSNPs) to create an identification profile from protein-bearing tissue samples, such as human hair. (llnl.gov)
- In one, scientists at Stanford University recently tested more than a half-million genetic "letters" in 51 population groups around the world. (commondreams.org)
- And this dramatic population turnover likely wiped out a human lineage scientists thought never reached Europe, according to a paper published Thursday in the journal Current Biology. (csmonitor.com)
- Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants. (icr.org)
- The first was the study of the eruption of super volcano Toba in Indonesia and the second was the genetic bottleneck discoveries of homo sapiens in the recent past. (finalgear.com)
- Recent studies of autosomal SNPs and STRs also demonstrate a high degree of genetic differentiation among Indian ethnic and linguistic groups [ 12 - 14 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Yes, there are many black immigrants in recent times, but of course did we have earlier migrations, e.g. slave trade in muslim periods, Nubian expansion etc. (allempires.com)
- A recent study using ancient DNA (six) suggests humans arrived to North America 25,000 years ago (two) before splitting into three Native American groups (three and four). (dailymail.co.uk)
- A recent Cornell University study of nearly 40,000 genetic "letters" in 15 African-Americans and 20 European-Americans found in the European descendants the genetic slips and potentially damaging variations associated with such a bottleneck. (commondreams.org)
- Animal and plant domestication, one of the greatest innovations in recent human history, is a fundamental basis for modern civilization [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The 'orphan' Indian lions showed what the authors termed 'a nearly complete absence of genetic diversity,' consistent with their low population sizes in recent years. (patentdocs.org)
- We apply our tools to quantify the substructure, relationships and recent genetic history of several groups of diverse geographical and ethnic origins. (columbia.edu)
- But now more is known, thanks to a new paper out of Genome Research , A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture . (unz.com)
- I remember looking at this paper a few years back which estimates how long ago the most recent common ancestor of all living humans could have lived. (uncommondescent.com)
- Yes, the studies for the most recent common ancestor don't even use genetic data. (uncommondescent.com)
- Given some of the arboreal anatomic features of more recent hominid fossils (including the A. afarensis fossil known as Lucy), it is possible that upright posture evolved quite some time before the specialized ground-dwelling, two-legged, striding gait of modern humans. (britannica.com)
- Due to the recent genetic studies, a number of hard-line Hindu Nationalists have changed their views, although many are still skeptical. (languagehat.com)
- Historical spatial range expansion and a very recent bottleneck of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (ntnu.edu.tw)
- Using the Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) method, a recent bottleneck after the LGM expansion was detected in both regional and pooled samples. (ntnu.edu.tw)
- Recent trends, however, refer to a bottleneck due to human interventions observed for both pooled and regional C. kanehirae samples. (ntnu.edu.tw)
- Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Historical spatial range expansion and a very recent bottleneck of Cinnamomum kanehirae Hay. (ntnu.edu.tw)
- The Lost Civilizations of North America documentary suggests that there is genetic evidence for a pre-Columbian migration of Israelites to the Americas. (bmaf.org)
- Moreover, other forensic approaches, such as facial recognition and bite mark, hair, and fingerprint analysis, rely on a specialist to assess how well the evidence matches an image or records in a database, which introduces the risk of human error. (llnl.gov)
- Convergent evidence indicates that non-human animals have the neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and neurophysiological substrates of conscious states along with the capacity to exhibit intentional behaviors. (blogspot.com)
- Consequently, the weight of evidence indicates that humans are not unique in possessing the neurological substrates that generate consciousness. (blogspot.com)
- The earliest evidence of human settlers on the continent dates to around 14,000 years ago, with the remains of an ancient village found 'older than Egyptian pyramids' found in April 2017. (dailymail.co.uk)
- There is no evidence for an exponential expansion out of a bottlenecked founding population, and an effective population size of approximately 10,000 has been maintained. (nih.gov)
- As it happens there is a fair amount of circumstantial evidence that the genetic legacy of Genghis Khan is enormous . (unz.com)
- So Bae and Wang say they are evidence of an early wave of modern humans in eastern Asia. (newscientist.com)
- 1 Most anthropologists are now accepting the genetic evidence for human-Neanderthal mixing of DNA, and that there are remnants of the Neanderthal genome walking the earth in living human beings. (crev.info)
- To ensure the validity of their single origin evidence, the researchers also attempted to use their data to find non-African origins for modern humans. (world-archaeology.com)
- As evidence of its utility, we apply the method to bovine, codfish and human population genomic data containing multiple population panels related in complex ways. (gnxp.com)
- Over at Anthrogenica , I've been having some heated (as always) but this time also productive discussions regarding the interpretation of currently available genetic evidence. (kinshipstudies.org)
- Their findings indicate a massive migratory influx of genetic diversity just a few thousand years ago. (icr.org)
- As indicated in the Bible, humans experienced a genetic bottleneck about 4,400 years ago when the earth began to be repopulated through Noah's family-eight people who survived the global flood aboard the ark. (icr.org)
- She says his ancestors diverged from other humans roughly 150,000 years ago. (newscientist.com)
- Expansion (bottleneck release) occurred during the last interglacial (130 to 71 thousand years ago), when warm climates and higher rainfall returned. (jrank.org)
- This colonization bottleneck occurred during a period of milder climate about 50,000 years ago, and also coincides with the appearance of advanced stone tool technologies. (jrank.org)
- Other research has suggested that humans reached North America between 24,000 and 40,000 years ago. (dailymail.co.uk)
- There was always this idea that for almost 35,000 years of human history, of prehistory from the first arrival into Europe until the Neolithic started, hunter-gatherers were kind of a continuum," Posth says. (csmonitor.com)
- A bottleneck of two that is older than 500,000 years ago cannot be ruled out. (uncommondescent.com)
- A bottleneck of two, or a first pair at our origin older than 500,000 years, is possible. (uncommondescent.com)
- Connecting genetic variants with clinical entities will be a major goal in the years ahead. (jci.org)
- New research on the human ancestor Homo erectus included the recovery of an almost complete skull from Java in 1993, tentatively dated as being 500,000 to 700,000 years old. (britannica.com)
- Thus, when the latter traveled south to caves in Israel, modern humans already had been there thousands of years. (britannica.com)
- all the anthropologists and paleontologists discoveries about million years old humans are lies based on junk science. (abovetopsecret.com)
- I do like to suggest that the genetic and archaeological record support the conjecture of Conan the Barbarian in terms of what our male ancestors thought was "good in life. (unz.com)
- Timothy White, a paleoanthropologist at the University of California at Berkeley, said that the fossils he and his colleagues found in Ethiopia fill this gap in the archaeological record and support the argument that Neandertal was an evolutionary side branch unrelated to modern humans. (rationalresponders.com)
- Yet the Stanford study also suggests the dawning of a new age of genealogical discovery by showing the potential for a rich mining of genetic markers, thousands of times more detailed than most commercial genetic testing. (commondreams.org)
- Lohmueller explained that previously, the parts of the human genome that were studied were exclusively neutral markers. (cornellsun.com)
Loss of genetic diversity1
- In addition, they used a new suite of DNA extraction and sequencing protocols that greatly improved the accuracy of the data and reduced modern human DNA contamination-a major problem in the study of ancient DNA. (icr.org)
- The origin and migration of modern humans can be documented with reasonable certainty with archeological, linguistic, & molecular genetic analysis. (brainscape.com)
- How Similar are they to Modern Humans? (heritage-key.com)
- Modern geneticists are struggling to understand human genetic history. (creation.com)
- A clear example is the interpretation of the genetic gradients (clines) of modern humans by Cavalli-Sforza et al. (mdpi.com)
- The lineage was thought to have been linked to a specific spread of modern humans into Asia, one of many different dispersals. (csmonitor.com)
- But it is not clear that the teeth belong to modern humans. (newscientist.com)
- So yes, modern humans were present in at least south-east Asia and south China by somewhere in this time range. (newscientist.com)
- Science Daily announced, "Neandertals ' Hardly Differed at All ' from Modern Humans. (crev.info)
- Scientific debate continued over two, and possibly three, models for the origin of modern humans. (britannica.com)
- In the process, his team of researchers explored a series of questions: What does the Neanderthal genome divulge about modern humans, and how do we differ from each other? (astromart.com)
- One thing is now certain -- the Neanderthal and modern humans interbred -- and today we are far more closely related than we previously believed. (astromart.com)
- Some mutations result in pleiotropy, although this is variable depending on genetic background, type of mutation, and location of the mutation. (creation.com)
- The history of plant breeding, therefore, has been punctuated by advances in methods for increasing selectable host genetic diversity, e.g., mutation breeding, embryo rescue to facilitate wide crosses, grafting, the re-creation of ancient polyploids (synthetics) to recover genetic diversity from crop wild ancestors, and transgenic methods to tap useful genetic diversity even beyond the plant kingdom, to name a few. (frontiersin.org)
- Further, low genetic diversity does not necessarily imply loss, as low mutation rate might also be a factor ( Martin 1995 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The mutation rate in DNA transcribing is found to be the same in all DNA human and not human and it is around 0.004. (abovetopsecret.com)
- The relatively isolated Sicilian population suggests a largely human-mediated migration pattern, while the warm climate in this region allows the production of soft fruit, and the associated D. suzukii reproductive season occurring much earlier than on the rest of the peninsula. (biomedcentral.com)
- Increasing numbers of centenarians with adequate renal function suggests that some kidneys can outlast the upper limits of the current human lifespan. (jci.org)
- We found that Brazilian P. falciparum had limited genetic diversity and isolation by distance was rejected, which suggests it underwent bottlenecks followed by migration between sites. (cdc.gov)
- Conveniently, the genetic material of current humans still presents signatures of past evolutionary events, allowing us to investigate aspects about our origins. (mdpi.com)
- Sometimes obscure and difficult math can lead to new insights about the evolutionary process and our human origins. (uchospitals.edu)
- This has been the approach adopted throughout this book, and the goal of this final chapter is to present overall conclusions concerning the origins of human mating systems, patterns of copulatory behaviour, and mate choice. (mitchmedical.us)
- Dog domestication represents one of the most enchanting evolutionary processes composed by human beings. (biomedcentral.com)
- As a consequence, the nature and magnitude of genetic patterns and evolutionary processes related to marine range shifts may differ from those that occur in the terrestrial realm. (nature.com)
- Therefore it is important to perform marine field-based studies that can increase our understanding of genetic patterns and evolutionary processes related to marine range shifts and help validate theoretical models. (nature.com)
- To characterize the migration network of this virus, we used genetic analysis, which supported a global persistence model in which each of 9 regions acts to some extent as a source. (cdc.gov)
- We use these data to characterize the population genetic structure and to investigate genetic associations with maternal and infectious traits. (gnxp.com)
- New findings show that each human has on average 60 new mutations compared to their parents. (wikipedia.org)
- The new forensic technique looks at genetic mutations through the lens of protein expression. (llnl.gov)
- Previously, creationist studies have pointed out the importance of evaluating genetic data to determine the types of mutations which have likely occurred throughout history. (creation.com)
- In fact, previous research showed that this type of genetic data also closely correlates with the geographical dispersion and the distribution of languages. (icr.org)
- This is the underlying basis of diversity among nations and people groups that we see today-including an explanation for the new genetic data observed in the ancient Eurasian human remains just reported. (icr.org)
- While the Lost Civilizations video does mention this "mainstream" perspective, it emphasizes a different interpretation of the Hopewell genetic data. (bmaf.org)
- His background is in mathematics and statistics but he has migrated to working on how this data can be handled so that science can link what comes out of genome research to real problems in the world, such as alleviating or treating human disease. (scientific-computing.com)
- Under a restricted range of parameter values, a simple bottleneck model is consistent with multiple facets of the data. (genetics.org)
- This unique perspective allows genetic anthropologists to provide comprehensive clinical and policy recommendations based on genetic data. (ufl.edu)
- This strategy is usually based on computer simulations of genetic data under different evolutionary scenarios, followed by a fitting of the simulated data with the real data. (mdpi.com)
- We develop computational models, clustering algorithms and inference methods that leverage the emerging data from current technologies to improve our understanding of the influence of genetic variants on gene expression via multiple regulatory elements (i.e. network organization). (columbia.edu)
- This is based on an analysis of the genetic data run by Drs. Schaffner and Swamidass, themselves evolutionary biologists and not ID supporters. (uncommondescent.com)
- The apparent discrepancy between the Book of Mormon narrative and the published genetic data must be addressed in lieu of generally accepted population genetic principles that are efficient in large-scale population studies, but are somewhat weak and limitative in detecting genetic signals from the introgression of DNA by small groups of outsiders into a large, and well-established population. (bmaf.org)
- Collectively, our data supports the observed population bottlenecks in the past. (bioone.org)
- The genetic data predicted we would find fossils that showed none of the characters we see in Neanderthal but rather would show characters on their way to becoming us, and indeed we have tested that hypothesis by finding these new fossils," he said. (rationalresponders.com)
- Mainly based on the comprehensive description of the ciliary interactome, quantitative functional assays as well as human genetic data derived from ciliopathy patients, we will generate a comprehensive stream of content-rich quantitative data towards systemic analysis of ciliar function. (europa.eu)
- Using high throughput sequencing technologies allows us to better examine rare genetic variants and their role in both rare and common traits. (columbia.edu)
- Here, we briefly consider Mendelian and complex genetic variants leading to kidney failure and highlight one surprising example in this rarer category of common but powerful disease-causing genetic variants. (jci.org)