Human Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Chenopodium quinoa: A species of the Chenopodium genus which is the source of edible seed called quinoa. It contains makisterone A and other STEROIDS, some having ECDYSTEROID activity on insects.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.AfricaBiological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Refractory Period, Psychological: A delayed response interval occurring when two stimuli are presented in close succession.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Capsella: A plant genus of the family CRUCIFERAE.Cell Migration Inhibition: Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Serial Passage: Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Nigella: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Brassica rapa: A plant species cultivated for the seed used as animal feed and as a source of canola cooking oil.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Cinnamomum: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. The bark of the trees is used in FOLK MEDICINE and FLAVORING AGENTS.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Genetic Load: The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Indians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Cell Migration Assays: Specific assays that measure the migration of cells. They are commonly used to measure the migration of immune cells in response to stimuli and the inhibition of immune cell migration by immunosuppressive factors.EuropeZamiaceae: A plant family of the order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Mikania: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain scandenolide (a sesquiterpene lactone) and germacranolides.Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors: Proteins released by sensitized LYMPHOCYTES and possibly other cells that inhibit the migration of MACROPHAGES away from the release site. The structure and chemical properties may vary with the species and type of releasing cell.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Attentional Blink: Temporary visual deficit or impaired visual processing occurring in a rapid serial visual presentation task. After a person identifies the first of two visual targets, the ability to detect the second target is impaired for the next few hundred milliseconds. This phenomenon is called attentional blink.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Tasmania: An island south of Australia and the smallest state of the Commonwealth. Its capital is Hobart. It was discovered and named Van Diemen's Island in 1642 by Abel Tasman, a Dutch navigator, in honor of the Dutch governor-general of the Dutch East Indian colonies. It was renamed for the discoverer in 1853. In 1803 it was taken over by Great Britain and was used as a penal colony. It was granted government in 1856 and federated as a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1190 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p535)Pacific OceanModels, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.North AmericaSolanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Metabolic Networks and Pathways: Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Transendothelial and Transepithelial Migration: The passage of cells across the layer of ENDOTHELIAL CELLS, i.e., the ENDOTHELIUM; or across the layer of EPITHELIAL CELLS, i.e. the EPITHELIUM.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Genetics, Medical: A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Kearns-Sayre Syndrome: A mitochondrial disorder featuring the triad of chronic progressive EXTERNAL OPHTHALMOPLEGIA, cardiomyopathy (CARDIOMYOPATHIES) with conduction block (HEART BLOCK), and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Disease onset is in the first or second decade. Elevated CSF protein, sensorineural deafness, seizures, and pyramidal signs may also be present. Ragged-red fibers are found on muscle biopsy. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p984)Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Hominidae: Family of the suborder HAPLORHINI (Anthropoidea) comprising bipedal primate MAMMALS. It includes modern man (HOMO SAPIENS) and the great apes: gorillas (GORILLA GORILLA), chimpanzees (PAN PANISCUS and PAN TROGLODYTES), and orangutans (PONGO PYGMAEUS).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Workflow: Description of pattern of recurrent functions or procedures frequently found in organizational processes, such as notification, decision, and action.
  • As human genetics approaches the turn of the century, many powerful molecular tools are either in place or about to arrive. (jsmf.org)
  • The key task facing human genetics is interpreting this data. (jsmf.org)
  • Armed with appropriate information, society win be prepared to face the complex questions posed by progress in human genetics, reaping the benefits while avoiding the pitfalls. (jsmf.org)
  • Genetic approaches extend beyond human genetics to studies of pathogens and organisms of agricultural importance, and even more broadly to a better understanding of genetics and biology of all organisms. (jsmf.org)
  • Novembre , associate professor in the Department of Human Genetics, is one of 24 new MacArthur Fellows drawn from diverse fields ranging from stem cell biology to puppetry. (uchospitals.edu)
  • This built upon insights drawn from earlier work Novembre conducted as a post-doctoral fellow with then mentor, and now close colleague, Matthew Stephens , PhD, professor of human genetics and statistics at the University of Chicago, in which they uncovered vulnerabilities in a classic statistical tool used to analyze the geographic distribution of genetic diversity and large-scale migration events. (uchospitals.edu)
  • In the study, published to the journal Genetics and Molecular Biology, researchers used DNA samples collected from areas along the path of migration. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Human genetics is as ancient as human history. (columbia.edu)
  • Bottleneck genetics is very complicated and difficult to understand, because they have quite a strong effect on the genetic base of the animal and it variability. (stackexchange.com)
  • European Journal of Human Genetics, 12 (5). (hud.ac.uk)
  • The genetics suggest that human genes went through this bottleneck 60,000 years ago. (newscientist.com)
  • A closer look at the genetics also suggests there was an earlier migration. (newscientist.com)
  • The questions treated herein examine the historical origins of the people described in the records of the Book of Mormon from a genetic point of view, making use of key principles of population genetics that cannot be neglected when undertaking such a study. (bmaf.org)
  • Race is the classification of humans into groups based on group-wide visual appearances that reflect common genetics, mental and cognitive traits and capacities such as intelligence, physical traits and capacities such as strength and endurance, common ancestry, and social and other relations between them. (infogalactic.com)
  • Darwin's insights concerning the probable African origin of human beings have been confirmed by palaeontological discoveries as well as by the results of research on comparative anatomy and molecular genetics. (mitchmedical.us)
  • In this current report, the researchers stated that 'the Bronze Age was a highly dynamic period involving large-scale population migrations and replacements, responsible for shaping major parts of present-day demographic structure in both Europe and Asia. (icr.org)
  • Our framework provides the most accurate spatiotemporal reconstruction of human demographic history available at present and will allow for a greater integration of genetic and archaeological evidence. (pnas.org)
  • Demographic events such as bottlenecks and population replacements, among others, can explain changes in the allelic frequencies. (csmonitor.com)
  • Interpretation, and possible remediation, of these declines requires both demographic and genetic knowledge. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The primary need is for savings, (or in the current environment, debt reduction, which is equivalent), since we are collectively (via the baby boom and the decline of exponential human reproduction) heading into new demographic territory where the aged generation isn't the light burden that they were in the past. (blogspot.com)
  • Biblically we don't have enough information to know the genetic variability that existed at creation. (creation.com)
  • However, we do have an idea of the genetic variability that could be expected after the genetic bottleneck at the Flood. (creation.com)
  • A related study focusing on multi-lesion Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-positive HCC discovered variable extent of genetic variability 12 . (nature.com)
  • Multi-sector analysis of the two intra-hepatic metastases revealed much higher genetic variability than their primary tumours, suggesting that intra-hepatic metastasis is accompanied by rapid diversification at the distant location. (nature.com)
  • These workers characterized genetic variability by examining single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and categorizing the DNA sequence differences as benign, possibly damaging, and probably damaging. (reasons.org)
  • In order to evaluate the genetic heterogeneity of Algeria, Y-chromosome, mtDNA and autosomal genome-wide makers have been analyzed in several Berber- and Arab-speaking groups. (plos.org)
  • Specifically, the video suggests that the presence of a mtDNA lineage known as "haplogroup X" in the Hopewell population is evidence of a pre-Columbian migration of Israelites to the Americas because haplogroup X originated in the "hills of Galilee" in Israel and began to disperse out of the Middle East approximately two thousand years ago. (bmaf.org)
  • Dating the genetic recoding for mitochondrial DNA, or mtDNA - the DNA that is passed virtually unchanged from mother to children - remains an inexact science. (commondreams.org)
  • The whole genome studies verified the inference from earlier mtDNA studies that the cave lions were a genetic 'outgroup' of modern lions. (patentdocs.org)
  • To test for the effects of a maternal bottleneck on the Ashkenazi Jewish population, we performed an extensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) hypervariable segment 1 (HVS-1) sequence and restriction site polymorphisms in 565 Ashkenazi Jews from different parts of Europe. (hud.ac.uk)
  • But this situation may have changed with a recent report by Boris Malyarchuk of the finding of a two-nucleotide mtDNA haplotype shared between late European Neandertals and modern humans belonging to the L2'3'4'5'6 clade. (kinshipstudies.org)
  • Furthermore, previous studies mainly investigated and compared the genetic diversity of mtDNA control region sequences, while DNA polymorphism of mitochondrial Cytochrome B (CYTB) in the Uyghur population in Xinjiang has not been reported. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Population bottleneck will have genome-wide effect while directional selection will affect only the locus (and closely linked loci via a selective sweep ). (stackexchange.com)
  • Family-based and genome-wide studies suggest that genetic differences substantially influence an individual's lifetime risk for kidney disease. (jci.org)
  • Instead, humans congregated in one geographic location and attempted to re-establish the pre-Flood pagan culture that caused the earth to be filled with violence and wickedness-bringing about God's judgment with the global Flood. (icr.org)
  • Distinct to what is found in colorectal cancers where genetic variegation accompanies the development from adenoma to carcinoma 13 , a large proportion of HCC displays a clear geographic segregation where spatially closer sectors are genetically more similar. (nature.com)
  • The isolation-by-distance test showed that there generally was no significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • However, no significant among-region genetic differentiation was found in comparisons among the four geographic regions. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • Conclusions: Common haplotype distributions among geographic regions and the relatively shallow genetic structuring displayed are the result of historical gene flows. (ntnu.edu.tw)
  • In addition, the genetic diversity of the Uyghur in different geographic locations has not been clearly studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, most genetic studies of the Uyghur have focused on genetic difference between them and other ethnic groups, and utilized relatively small numbers of sample from very limited geographic locations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their domestication occurred around the Neolithic period, approximately 10,000 years ago, when human lifestyles moved from hunting to farming ( Li and Zhang, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Yet the Stanford study also suggests the dawning of a new age of genealogical discovery by showing the potential for a rich mining of genetic markers, thousands of times more detailed than most commercial genetic testing. (commondreams.org)
  • Lohmueller explained that previously, the parts of the human genome that were studied were exclusively neutral markers. (cornellsun.com)
  • The relatively isolated Sicilian population suggests a largely human-mediated migration pattern, while the warm climate in this region allows the production of soft fruit, and the associated D. suzukii reproductive season occurring much earlier than on the rest of the peninsula. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increasing numbers of centenarians with adequate renal function suggests that some kidneys can outlast the upper limits of the current human lifespan. (jci.org)
  • We found that Brazilian P. falciparum had limited genetic diversity and isolation by distance was rejected, which suggests it underwent bottlenecks followed by migration between sites. (cdc.gov)
  • We would have required samples from before the 1980s to describe how SP resistance spread across the basin or describe the complex internal migration of Brazilian parasites after the colonization efforts of past decades. (cdc.gov)
  • Dog domestication represents one of the most enchanting evolutionary processes composed by human beings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a consequence, the nature and magnitude of genetic patterns and evolutionary processes related to marine range shifts may differ from those that occur in the terrestrial realm. (nature.com)
  • Therefore it is important to perform marine field-based studies that can increase our understanding of genetic patterns and evolutionary processes related to marine range shifts and help validate theoretical models. (nature.com)
  • New findings show that each human has on average 60 new mutations compared to their parents. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new forensic technique looks at genetic mutations through the lens of protein expression. (llnl.gov)
  • Previously, creationist studies have pointed out the importance of evaluating genetic data to determine the types of mutations which have likely occurred throughout history. (creation.com)
  • In fact, previous research showed that this type of genetic data also closely correlates with the geographical dispersion and the distribution of languages. (icr.org)
  • This is the underlying basis of diversity among nations and people groups that we see today-including an explanation for the new genetic data observed in the ancient Eurasian human remains just reported. (icr.org)
  • While the Lost Civilizations video does mention this "mainstream" perspective, it emphasizes a different interpretation of the Hopewell genetic data. (bmaf.org)
  • His background is in mathematics and statistics but he has migrated to working on how this data can be handled so that science can link what comes out of genome research to real problems in the world, such as alleviating or treating human disease. (scientific-computing.com)
  • Under a restricted range of parameter values, a simple bottleneck model is consistent with multiple facets of the data. (genetics.org)
  • This unique perspective allows genetic anthropologists to provide comprehensive clinical and policy recommendations based on genetic data. (ufl.edu)
  • This strategy is usually based on computer simulations of genetic data under different evolutionary scenarios, followed by a fitting of the simulated data with the real data. (mdpi.com)
  • We develop computational models, clustering algorithms and inference methods that leverage the emerging data from current technologies to improve our understanding of the influence of genetic variants on gene expression via multiple regulatory elements (i.e. network organization). (columbia.edu)
  • This is based on an analysis of the genetic data run by Drs. Schaffner and Swamidass, themselves evolutionary biologists and not ID supporters. (uncommondescent.com)
  • The apparent discrepancy between the Book of Mormon narrative and the published genetic data must be addressed in lieu of generally accepted population genetic principles that are efficient in large-scale population studies, but are somewhat weak and limitative in detecting genetic signals from the introgression of DNA by small groups of outsiders into a large, and well-established population. (bmaf.org)
  • Collectively, our data supports the observed population bottlenecks in the past. (bioone.org)
  • The genetic data predicted we would find fossils that showed none of the characters we see in Neanderthal but rather would show characters on their way to becoming us, and indeed we have tested that hypothesis by finding these new fossils," he said. (rationalresponders.com)
  • Mainly based on the comprehensive description of the ciliary interactome, quantitative functional assays as well as human genetic data derived from ciliopathy patients, we will generate a comprehensive stream of content-rich quantitative data towards systemic analysis of ciliar function. (europa.eu)
  • Using high throughput sequencing technologies allows us to better examine rare genetic variants and their role in both rare and common traits. (columbia.edu)
  • Here, we briefly consider Mendelian and complex genetic variants leading to kidney failure and highlight one surprising example in this rarer category of common but powerful disease-causing genetic variants. (jci.org)