Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Comparative Genomic Hybridization: A method for comparing two sets of chromosomal DNA by analyzing differences in the copy number and location of specific sequences. It is used to look for large sequence changes such as deletions, duplications, amplifications, or translocations.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Chromosome Aberrations: Abnormal number or structure of chromosomes. Chromosome aberrations may result in CHROMOSOME DISORDERS.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Genomic Structural Variation: Contiguous large-scale (1000-400,000 basepairs) differences in the genomic DNA between individuals, due to SEQUENCE DELETION; SEQUENCE INSERTION; or SEQUENCE INVERSION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA Copy Number Variations: Stretches of genomic DNA that exist in different multiples between individuals. Many copy number variations have been associated with susceptibility or resistance to disease.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Segmental Duplications, Genomic: Low-copy (2-50) repetitive DNA elements that are highly homologous and range in size from 1000 to 400,000 base pairs.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Contig Mapping: Overlapping of cloned or sequenced DNA to construct a continuous region of a gene, chromosome or genome.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Molecular Sequence Annotation: The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Genome, Archaeal: The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Chromosome Breakage: A type of chromosomal aberration involving DNA BREAKS. Chromosome breakage can result in CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATION; CHROMOSOME INVERSION; or SEQUENCE DELETION.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Chromosome Breakpoints: The locations in specific DNA sequences where CHROMOSOME BREAKS have occurred.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.INDEL Mutation: A mutation named with the blend of insertion and deletion. It refers to a length difference between two ALLELES where it is unknowable if the difference was originally caused by a SEQUENCE INSERTION or by a SEQUENCE DELETION. If the number of nucleotides in the insertion/deletion is not divisible by three, and it occurs in a protein coding region, it is also a FRAMESHIFT MUTATION.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Microarray Analysis: The simultaneous analysis, on a microchip, of multiple samples or targets arranged in an array format.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Genome Size: The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements: Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Sequence Tagged Sites: Short tracts of DNA sequence that are used as landmarks in GENOME mapping. In most instances, 200 to 500 base pairs of sequence define a Sequence Tagged Site (STS) that is operationally unique in the human genome (i.e., can be specifically detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the presence of all other genomic sequences). The overwhelming advantage of STSs over mapping landmarks defined in other ways is that the means of testing for the presence of a particular STS can be completely described as information in a database.
... genomic instability and heritable genetic damage". Ecologist. Retrieved 15 June 2018.. ... Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability and Bystander Effects Clastogenic Factors and Transgenerational Effects". Radiation ... The earliest concerns raised about the health effects of exposure to nuclear fallout had to do with fears of genetic ... "Genetic radiation risks: a neglected topic in the low dose debate". Environmental Health and Toxicology. 31: e2016001. doi ...
Genomic imprinting (genetic imprinting), a mechanism of regulating gene expression. *Imprinting (psychology), in psychology and ...
Genetic Basis of Pathologies[edit]. Genomic rearrangements at the PITX1 locus are associated with Liebenberg syndrome.[11] In ... "A genetic screen identifies PITX1 as a suppressor of RAS activity and tumorigenicity". Cell. 121 (6): 849-58. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Homeotic arm-to-leg transformation associated with genomic rearrangements at the PITX1 locus". American Journal of Human ...
Genomic Diversity. Applications in Human Population Genetic Studies. Williamsburg, Virginia 26 July - 1 Aug 1998. New York: ... genetically the Magyar intrusion has left no salient genetic traces. Instead, from a genetic point of view, Hungarians strongly ... A population genetic study of 23 Han Chinese populations has shown that the Hàn expansion southward during the sinification of ... Later other genetic polymorphisms were used, for example polymorphisms of proteins of the blood plasma, polymorphisms of human ...
National Human Genome Research Institute (2010-11-08). "FAQ About Genetic and Genomic Science". Retrieved 2011-12- ... Alternatively, genetic variations can also help to define the immunological pathway leading to disease. Immunotherapy - is the ... Research of single genes does not fall into the definition of genomics unless the aim of this genetic, pathway, and functional ... It deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single- ...
"Genetic Epidemiology & Genomic Informatics Academic Units , Medicine , University of Southampton". ... "Recent Advances in Genetic Epidemiology Published in Honor of Professor Newton Morton's 70th Birthday: Published in Honor of ... In 1999, a book on the recent advances of genetic epidemiology was published in honor of his 70th birthday. He was a Senior ... In 1988, Morton acquired a position as professor and director of the Cancer Research Campaign Research Group in Genetic ...
Personalized genomic testing. In the USA, several companies offer direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing. The company that ... Utilizing genetic testing in health care raises many ethical, legal and social concerns; one of the main questions is whether ... Genomic data are used to identify the genes involvement in unknown or rare conditions/syndromes. Currently, the most vigorous ... 2001). A Model for Understanding and Affecting Cancer Genetic Information Seeking, Elsevier Science Inc. ...
Genetic, epigenetic, and molecular features. Histological types[edit]. Adenocarcinoma. (adeno = gland) Refers to a carcinoma ... "Genomic sequencing in cancer". Cancer Lett. 340 (2): 161-70. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2012.11.004. PMC 3622788. PMID 23178448 ... "Analysis of genetic inheritance in a family quartet by whole-genome sequencing". Science. 328 (5978): 636-9. doi:10.1126/ ... "Differing patterns of genetic instability in mice deficient in the mismatch repair genes Pms2, Mlh1, Msh2, Msh3 and Msh6" ...
"Centralized Biorepositories for Genetic and Genomic Research". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 299 (11 ...
... many genetic changes are required before cancer develops.[11] Approximately 5-10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic ... Genomic amplification occurs when a cell gains copies (often 20 or more) of a small chromosomal locus, usually containing one ... Genetic testing for individuals at high-risk of certain cancers is recommended by unofficial groups.[127][143] Carriers of ... Genetic changes can occur at different levels and by different mechanisms. The gain or loss of an entire chromosome can occur ...
Genetic defects in self-pollinating plants cannot be eliminated by genetic recombination and offspring can only avoid ... "The Capsella rubella genome and the genomic consequences of rapid mating system evolution". Nat. Genet. 45 (7): 831-5. doi: ... Population genetic structure and outcrossing rate of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Abbott RJ, Gomes MF. Heredity 1989 62:411 ... Meiosis followed by self-pollination produces little overall genetic variation. This raises the question of how meiosis in self ...
subscription required) Talbot, Nicholas José (1990). Genetic and genomic analysis of Cladosporuim fulvum (syn. Fulvia fulva) ( ... where he was awarded a PhD in 1990 for genetic and genomic analysis of the leaf mould Cladosporuim fulvum. After postdoctoral ...
"Genetic and Phenotypic Analysis of Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. (Borrelia Genomic Groups VS116 and M19)". International Journal ...
Mohar Singh and Hari D. Upadhyaya (2015). Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement. Academic Press. ISBN ...
Already genetic engineering has allowed the life expectancy of certain primates to be doubled, and for human skin cells in labs ... doi:10.1007/s00439-006-0144-y. "LongevityMap". Human Ageing Genomic Resources. by João Pedro de Magalhães. n.d ... 2006). "Genetic influence on human lifespan and longevity". Human Genetics. 119 (3): 312-321. ... Michio Kaku argues that genetic engineering, nanotechnology and future breakthroughs will accelerate the rate of life ...
Chandler, R. J.; Venditti, C. P. (2016-10-01). "Genetic and genomic systems to study methylmalonic acidemia". Molecular ... 1991). "Genetic characterization of a MUT locus mutation discriminating heterogeneity in mut0 and mut- methylmalonic aciduria ... "Genetic analysis of three genes causing isolated methylmalonic acidemia: identification of 21 novel allelic variants". ...
Her research interests include Bayesian modeling of biomedical data, particularly genetic and genomic data. Sebastiani obtained ... "Genetic Signatures of Exceptional Longevity in Humans". PLoS ONE. 7: e29848. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029848. Retrieved 15 ... Sebastiani P.; Ramoni M.F.; Nolan V.; Baldwin C.T.; Steinberg M.H. "Genetic dissection and prognostic modeling of overt stroke ... Sebastiani P, Ramoni MF, Nolan V, Baldwin CT, Steinberg MH (April 2005). "Genetic dissection and prognostic modeling of overt ...
Suzuki, Miho M; Nishikawa T; Bird A (2005). "Genomic approaches reveal unexpected genetic divergence within Ciona intestinalis ... Bernstein H, Byerly HC, Hopf FA, Michod RE (September 1985). "Genetic damage, mutation, and the evolution of sex". Science. 229 ... genetic complementation). In the sea squirt Ciona intestinalis a CB1 and CB2-type cannabinoid receptors is found to be targeted ... genomic and cDNA resources from Kyoto University Four-dimensional Ascidian Body Atlas from Keio University Ciona intestinalis ...
Genetic variation in populations can be analyzed and quantified by the frequency of alleles. Two fundamental calculations are ... "Genomic profiling: the critical importance of genotype frequency". PHG Foundation. Shields; et al. "Neural Tube Defects: an ... Genotype frequency may also be used in the future (for "genomic profiling") to predict someone's having a disease or even a ... Evaluation of Genetic Risk" (PDF). Brooker R, Widmaier E, Graham L, and Stiling P. Biology (2011): p. 492 Brooker R, Widmaier E ...
Genomic Complexity, Robustness, and Genetic Interactions in Digital Organisms. Nature 400:661-664. Abstract C. Adami, C. Ofria ... Sexual reproduction reshapes the genetic architecture of digital organisms R. E. Lenski, C. Ofria, T. C. Collier, C. Adami ( ... "Sexual reproduction reshapes the genetic architecture of digital organisms". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 2005. Avida ...
1997). "Genetic and phenotypic analysis of Borrelia valaisiana sp. nov. (Borrelia genomic groups VS116 and M19)". Int. J. Syst ... Many of these genomic groups are country or continent specific. For example, without migration, B. Japonica is only prevalent ... The genomic variations have direct implications on the clinical symptoms of tick borne Lyme disease. For example, B. ... Qiu WG, Schutzer SE, Bruno JF, Attie O, Xu Y, Dunn JJ, Fraser CM, Casjens SR, Luft BJ (2004). "Genetic exchange and plasmid ...
"Genomic Imprinting". Genetic Science Learning Center, Retrieved 26 August 2018.. ... Results of genetic analysis indicate that about 2.88 million years ago, the tiger and the snow leopard lineages diverged from ... Guillery, R. W.; Kaas, J. H. (1973). "Genetic abnormality of the visual pathways in a "white" tiger". Science. 180 (4092): 1287 ... This would lead to inbreeding depression and loss of genetic variability.[218] ...
Genotypic and genomic sequence[edit]. Main article: Genome. The genotype of an organism is the inherited map it carries within ... The genotype is commonly mixed up with the phenotype which describes the end result of both the genetic and the environmental ... Other types of genetic marker, such as microsatellites, can have more than two alleles, and thus many different genotypes. ... One's genotype differs subtly from one's genomic sequence. A sequence is an absolute measure of base composition of an ...
She also attended the 2003 Gordon Research Conference on Genetic Toxicology as the conference chair. In 2012, Jeggo was elected ... "NRGIC: Nagasaki University Research Centre for Genomic Instability and Carcinogenesis". ... Jeggo, Project Director Penelope (2003-02-15). "Gordon Research Conference on Genetic Toxicology". "Academy of Medical Sciences ...
These samples were then used by the state for genetic experiments and to set up a database to catalog all of the samples/ ... The samples were originally taken to test for preventable diseases, but with the advance in genomic sequencing technologies ... A recent study by Genetic Alliance and partners suggests that communication between health care providers and parents may be ... About Newborn Screening Baily, M.A. and Murray, T.H. (2009).Ethics and Newborn Genetic Screening. Johns Hopkins University ...
"Integrated Genomic Strategies for Cereal Genetic Enhancement: Combining QTL and Association Mapping", Cereal Genomics: Methods ... While schizophrenia is widely believed to be multifactorially genetic by biopsychiatrists, no characteristic genetic markers ... then there is a strong chance that the disease is genetic[citation needed] and that the patient will also be a genetic carrier ... "Integrated Genomic Strategies for Cereal Genetic Enhancement: Combining QTL and Association Mapping", Cereal Genomics: Methods ...
In such cases our understanding would be improved by dissecting genetic events at the single cell level. We therefore developed ... and profiling genomes using comparative genomic hybridization. Breast carcinomas display two classes of genomic structural ... SPP involves macro-dissecting tumors, flow-sorting genomic subpopulations by DNA content, ... a method to quantify genomic copy number in single cells using next-generation sequencing. This method, single nucleus ...
... genetic and prenatal counseling for families and treatment of genetics disorders, especially inborn errors of metabolism. ... Genetics services at Nationwide Childrens Hospital provide diagnostic evaluations for patients with known or suspected genetic ... Inside Genetic and Genomic Medicine. Services We Offer. Learn more about services offered by Genetic and Genomic Medicine. ... Genetic and Genomic Medicine. Clinical (or Medical) Genetics is a medical specialty that uses genetic and genomic information ...
Genetics & Genomic Testing. Personalizing Your Prostate Cancer Treatment Through Genomics , Genetics vs. Genomics, Genomic ... The Following Genomic Tests Help Determine if an Initial or Repeat Biopsy is Needed (Click on Test Name Link for More Info): ... This web page has been developed to provide objective and balanced educational content on genomic testing that can provide ... Genomic Tests to Consider When Choosing a Treatment (Click on Test Name Link for More Info): ...
Purchase Applications of Genetic and Genomic Research in Cereals - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780081021637, ... Applications of Genetic and Genomic Research in Cereals covers new techniques for practical breeding, also discussing genetic ... Applications of Genetic and Genomic Research in Cereals 1st Edition. Write a review ... Genomic Selection in Wheat. Daniel W. Sweeney, Jin Sun, Ella Taagen, Mark E. Sorrells. 14. "Speed GS" to Accelerate Genetic ...
Purchase Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128020005, ... Genetic and Genomic Resources For Cereals Improvement is the first book to bring together the latest available genetic ... Genetic and Genomic Resources for Grain Cereals Improvement 1st Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... He has been working on the genetic and genomic resources of pulses, for the last several years and identified various useful ...
Linkage disequilibrium matches forensic genetic records to disjoint genomic marker sets. Michael D. Edge, Bridget F. B. Algee- ... Linkage disequilibrium matches forensic genetic records to disjoint genomic marker sets Message Subject (Your Name) has sent ... With the increasing abundance of genetic data, the usefulness of a genetic dataset now depends in part on the possibility of ... Genetic record matching via linkage disequilibrium. Michael D. Edge, Bridget F. B. Algee-Hewitt, Trevor J. Pemberton, Jun Z. Li ...
... including for children on Medicaid with a suspected genetic disease. ... The bill aims to reduce barriers to the use of genetic and genomic testing, ... California Congressman Introduces Bill to Promote Genetic, Genomic Testing. Feb 16, 2018 ... has introduced legislation designed to promote the use of genetic and genomic testing in healthcare and advance precision ...
Genetic Mapping and Genomic Selection Using Recombination Breakpoint Data. Shizhong Xu. Genetics November 1, 2013 vol. 195 no. ... Genetic Mapping and Genomic Selection Using Recombination Breakpoint Data. Shizhong Xu. Genetics November 1, 2013 vol. 195 no. ... Genetic Mapping and Genomic Selection Using Recombination Breakpoint Data. Shizhong Xu. Genetics November 1, 2013 vol. 195 no. ... Genetic Mapping and Genomic Selection Using Recombination Breakpoint Data Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
Genomic-Assisted Prediction of Genetic Value With Semiparametric Procedures Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Genomic-Assisted Prediction of Genetic Value With Semiparametric Procedures. Daniel Gianola, Rohan L. Fernando and Alessandra ... Genomic-Assisted Prediction of Genetic Value With Semiparametric Procedures. Daniel Gianola, Rohan L. Fernando and Alessandra ... Genomic-Assisted Prediction of Genetic Value With Semiparametric Procedures. Daniel Gianola, Rohan L. Fernando and Alessandra ...
The recently formed Genomic Informatics Group led by Dr Sarah Ennis specialises in the analysis of next generation sequencing ... The Genetic Epidemiology Group was established in 1988 by Professor Newton Morton - a founding father of the field perhaps best ... The group has various ongoing projects that apply next generation sequencing to oncology: Examining genomic data from germline ... This facility enables high performance computing necessary for the efficient processing of next generation genomic data. In ...
... and how the medical community is adapting to accommodate the ever-increasing amounts of genomic data in clinical practice. ... His work at The Jackson Laboratory focuses on making complex genetic, genomic and technical information accessible to a variety ... Reed: Genetic counselors are becoming more specialized in many areas as we understand more about the genetic contribution to ... So where is genetic testing most useful?. Reed: In cancer, the more people that get tested, the more we learn about the ...
Understanding the genomic underpinnings of the condition may, researchers say, vastly improve symptom diagnosis and treatment ... Is ADHD Genetic? Yes and No What causes ADHD? Is it a genetic or hereditary condition? Influenced by culture and environment? ... In what amounts to the largest genetic study of ADHD to date, the Cardiff group analyzed genetic information from more than ... Study Reveals Genetic Risk Factors Associated with ADHD. 12 regions in the human genome are associated with ADHD, according to ...
Learning that your child may have a genetic condition can be a frightening and confusing time. See how the Cleveland Clinic ... Genetic Testing. If genetic testing is indicated, your genetic counselor will discuss costs and insurance coverage during your ... Genetic Counseling. Many insurance companies will cover 96040, which is the CPT code for genetic counseling. However, we do ask ... Our comprehensive method for genetic counseling involves:. *Diagnosis of a genetic condition through review of family and ...
Molecular complementation of a genetic marker in Dictyostelium using a genomic DNA library. J L Dynes and R A Firtel ... Molecular complementation of a genetic marker in Dictyostelium using a genomic DNA library ... Molecular complementation of a genetic marker in Dictyostelium using a genomic DNA library ... Molecular complementation of a genetic marker in Dictyostelium using a genomic DNA library ...
Genomic and network patterns of schizophrenia genetic variation in human evolutionary accelerated regions.. Xu K1, Schadt EE1, ... Genomic and Network Patterns of Schizophrenia Genetic Variation in Human Evolutionary Accelerated Regions ... Genomic and Network Patterns of Schizophrenia Genetic Variation in Human Evolutionary Accelerated Regions ... Genomic and Network Patterns of Schizophrenia Genetic Variation in Human Evolutionary Accelerated Regions ...
This study explored whether genetic counseling programs are incorporating instruction about the applications and techniques of ... predictive genomic testing (PGT) based on student recollection, and wheth ... Predictive genomic testing Genome sequencing Genomic medicine Genetic counseling Education Predictive testing ... Loud, J. (2010). Direct-to-consumer genetic and genomic testing: preparing nurse practitioners for genomic healthcare. The ...
... the evolvable reasoning hardware and its genetic-algorithm-based design methodology is applied to the analysis ofgenomic ... genomic sequence, genetic algorithm, VLSI design Abstract. In this paper, the evolvable reasoning hardware and its genetic- ... The Application of Genetic Algorithms to the Genomic Sequence Analysis M. Yasunaga, I. Yoshihara (Japan), and J.H. Kim (USA) ... algorithm-based design methodology is applied to the analysis of genomic sequences. In the evolvable reasoning hardware, each ... // ... // Clinical Laboratory News // All CLN Articles // New Guidance on Genetic and Genomic Testing ...
Assess genomic diversity within a population/disease-related genetic variation through rapid analysis of DNA markers with ... Genetic and Newborn Testing > Our global laboratories offer one of the worlds most comprehensive genomic screening and testing ... Quickly and accurately assess genomic diversity within a population or disease-related genetic variation through rapid analysis ... Quickly and accurately assess genomic diversity within a population or disease-related genetic variation through rapid analysis ...
The Responsibility to Recontact Research Participants after Reinterpretation of Genetic and Genomic Research Results.. Bombard ... The evidence base supporting genetic and genomic sequence-variant interpretations is continuously evolving. An inherent ... Recommended Pathway for Considering Recontacting Participants after Reinterpretation of Genetic and Genomic Research Results. ... The Responsibility to Recontact Research Participants after Reinterpretation of Genetic and Genomic Research Results ...
The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal Agronomy are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s ...
Knowing ones genetic disposition to a variety of diseases, including common chronic diseases, can benefit both the individual ... Genetic Alliance, Genomic Health, Inc., Johnson & Johnson, Kaiser Permanente, the National Society of Genetic Counselors, and ... The Value of Genetic and Genomic Technologies: Workshop Summary (2010) Chapter: Front Matter. ... The Value of Genetic and Genomic Technologies: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/ ...
However, few genomic resources have been available for this species. A genome of 534 Mb was assembled from long read PacBio DNA ... Using transcriptomic analysis of the insects developmental stages combined with genomic analyses, the authors identify genes ... and for building transgenic strains for genetic control programs including gene drive (sex determination, germline). This study ... parasitic lifestyle of the screwworm fly and greatly facilitate future development of strains for efficient systems for genetic ...
Comparative genomic studies are now under way, and in many cases there are several consortial multilaboratory groups, such as ... At the same time, access to streamlined genetic approaches in the genera Sulfolobus, Thermococcus, Methanosarcina, and ... Halobacterium/Haloferax has improved significantly and is leveraging the genomic information in the Archaea. The result has ... Comparative genomic studies are now under way, and in many cases there are several consortial multilaboratory groups, such as ...
... including human genetic variation, genotyping, DNA sequencing methods, statistics, data ... including human genetic variation, genotyping, DNA sequencing methods, statistics, data analysis, and more. ...
  • We therefore developed a method to quantify genomic copy number in single cells using next-generation sequencing. (
  • By using correlations among genetic markers close to one another in the genome, the method can succeed even if the datasets contain no overlapping markers. (
  • In a genetic context, record matching involves the identification of the same individual genome across multiple datasets when unique identifiers, such as participant names, are unavailable. (
  • reported a genetic variation map of the chicken genome containing 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and demonstrated how the information can be used for targeting specific genomic regions. (
  • Whether it's through spit test genotyping (think 23andMe), whole exome or genome sequencing like I had, or a genetic test recommended by a doctor, the data we get back are daunting, and the reports are often filled with notations and associations that are seldom clinically relevant but can sound quite alarming nonetheless. (
  • Reed educates health professionals in genomics, building upon her genetic counseling training at Johns Hopkins and the National Human Genome Research Institute, part of the federal National Institutes of Health. (
  • For the purpose of this study, PGT was defined as the use of genome-based testing to assess a person's risk, or susceptibility, of developing a disorder with either a known or suspected genetic component. (
  • Commentary on genome-guided preventive medicine- new roles for genetic counselors. (
  • An elective genetic test analyzes selected sites in the human genome while an elective genomic test analyzes the entire human genome. (
  • It began, I suppose, with the work of the Task Force on Genetic Information and Insurance, an offshoot of the ELSI (Ethical, Legal and Social Implications) Working Group for the Human Genome Project. (
  • As an initiative of the Human Genome Project, our mission was to assess the impact of genetic information. (
  • Since completion of the sequencing of the human genome, the power of the genetic-and now the genomic-approach has increased enormously, providing new tools to diagnose and even treat both rare and common genetic conditions. (
  • Because little is known about the genome constitution and chromosome behavior of these pure willow trees, genetic analysis of their naturally occurring interspecific polyploid hybrids is still very difficult. (
  • In addition, a genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) technology was implemented in willow to shed some light on the genome structure of S. alba and S. fragilis species, and their hybrids (allopolyploidy vs. autopolyploidy). (
  • A variety of approaches have been implemented, and our lab has been primarily involved in genome analysis and quantitative genetic analysis. (
  • Our progress in these activities has been substantially helped by the genomic sequence of foxtail millet produced by the Joint Genome Institute (Bennetzen et al. (
  • In cattle, the genomic information may be accessed through the use of dense single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) arrays that cover the bovine genome. (
  • The recently completed genome sequence provided an opportunity to develop a panel of genetic markers for population studies and also enabled the identification of novel antigen genes. (
  • The genome of T. annulata was compared with that of T. parva to identify gene families under the influence of positive selection using mean family inter-genomic nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dNdS). (
  • And tomorrow he will become the first Australian honoured with the Chen Award for distinguished academic achievement in human genetic and genomic research, awarded by the Human Genome Organisation. (
  • Although limited, these data indicate that the extensive genetic diversity identified by analysis of repetitive regions may not be indicative of a genome-wide phenomenon. (
  • Furthermore, the availability of the genome sequence allows us to examine the extent to which there is conservation of genetic and genomic architecture for this trait across panicoid grasses. (
  • Dr. Campbell is also interested promoting genetic counseling within the state and is the current chair of the NSGC Personalized Medicine Special Interest Group Whole Genome/Whole Exome Sequencing Workgroup, and the incoming Committee Vice Chair for 2015 of the National Society of Genetic Counselors Access Committee. (
  • The S. pennellii Introgression lines (ILs), which carry defined homozygous segments of the wild genome in the cultivated genetic background of cv.M82, are an important genetic resource to map quantitative traits loci (QTLs), such as those controlling plant yield and fruit quality, and to exploit the genetic diversity present in the wild species. (
  • Genome-wide association study (GWAS) and genomic prediction (GP) are promising tools to circumvent this interference. (
  • To examine the polymorphism of repetitive regions and non-reference genomic regions, we collected unmapped reads from human whole genome sequence data, and designed capture probes to obtain DNA from these regions. (
  • Increasing genomic information in bivalves through new EST collections in four species: development of new genetic markers for environmental studies and genome evolution. (
  • Linkage analysis indicated that the markers developed are dispersed throughout the genome and should be very useful for genetic analysis of melon. (
  • However, genome wide association studies (GWAS) have generally not been able to identify individual genes that can explain a large proportion of total genetic variance of complex traits recorded in humans. (
  • However, knowledge of genome-wide genetic variations among C. glabrata strains is limited. (
  • In order to find vertebrate genes involved in those steps, which serve to maintain genome stability, we have used the zebrafish (Danio rerio) to perform a screen for genomic instability mutants that models this second hit. (
  • The potential applications of whole-genome sequencing in genomic medicine are enormous and range from elucidating disease-causing mutations for monogenic traits to dissecting the molecular genetic basis of complex diseases and discovering somatic alterations in cancer 1 , 2 . (
  • This video gives an introduction to the genome and some information relating to genomic medicine. (
  • The last estimate I saw put the number of accredited genetic counselors in the U.S. as just over 4,000, meaning that there is about one genetic counselor for every 81,000 citizens , a ratio that is sure to cause problems in the near future. (
  • Therefore, genetic counseling programs should place a greater emphasis on these skills, and the development of continuing education opportunities aimed at increasing genetic counselors abilities to interpret and discuss PGT tests and identify clinical situations warranting such testing may be helpful. (
  • FAQs about Genetic Counselors and the NSGC. (
  • 2011). Retrieved from the National Society of Genetic Counselors. (
  • Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: an assessment of genetic counselors' knowledge and beliefs. (
  • The Color test includes access to board-certified genetic counselors and clinical pharmacists who help answer questions about interpretation of test results, risk and personalized screening guidelines. (
  • Attendant to this evolving medical landscape is some uncertainty regarding the future of the genetic counseling profession, with the potential for both increases and decreases in demand for genetic counselors being possible outcomes. (
  • Practice based competencies for genetic counselors. (
  • In this presentation, the current state of PGM in Iowa will be discussed along with the areas in which genetic counselors can aid in the implementation of institutional personalized genomic medicine programs. (
  • Throughout the reproductive continuum, pediatricians, obstetricians, family practitioners, genetic counselors, and other clinicians can work with families to elicit relevant family history information and factor it into risk-assessment calculations and, when appropriate, decision-making. (
  • The group hosts and supervises a PhD studentship working on generation of an analytical pipeline to apply RNA Sequence data to identify genomic translocations and specifically gene fusions leading to this form of malignancy. (
  • Carrier testing is used to identify people who carry one copy of a gene change (also referred to as a variant or mutation) that, when present in two copies, causes a genetic disorder. (
  • We show here that representations are useful for many types of genetic analyses, including measuring relative gene copy number, loss of heterozygosity, and comparative genomic hybridization. (
  • According to Prof. Iraqi, the fact that humans have many genetic variances for the same gene means that they are "outbred" among individuals from different families. (
  • Although gene fusions are the primary tumorigenic events in both SEF and LGFMS, additional genomic changes explain the differences in aggressiveness and clinical outcome between the two types. (
  • A combined, high-resolution gene expression and DNA copy number approach has been applied to test the hypothesis that a more comprehensive measure of the genetic damage in CRC will reveal novel molecular targets. (
  • The genomic approach entailed a microarray-based gene expression analysis of ‘Atlantic’ potatoes grown under normal and high temperatures in a growth chamber. (
  • Genetic & Genomic Analysis of the mRNA 3' End Processing Subunit Pcf11 Suggests an Expanded Role in Gene Expression. (
  • Genetic, genomic and analytical chemistry techniques were combined to identify FaFAD1 , a gene likely controlling a key flavor volatile in strawberry. (
  • Specific Aim 2 is to characterize the mechanism of genomic instability using microsatellite, interphase FISH analysis, and exon sequencing of the golden gene in golden RPE cells from mosaic eyes and by similar analysis of p53 in gin-10-associated tumors. (
  • These exploratory analyses suggest that genetic variation in/near the gene encoding for hepsin protein may influence risk of bipolar disorder. (
  • Assessments of the cumulative gene orientations and GC skews reveal that the asymmetric genomic rearrangements did not affect the general genomic integrity of the organism. (
  • Genetic and genomic approaches for R-gene mediated disease resistance in tomato: retrospects and prospects. (
  • Ercolano MR, Sanseverino W, Carli P, Ferriello F, Frusciante L. Genetic and genomic approaches for R-gene mediated disease resistance in tomato: retrospects and prospects. (
  • Genetic testing for a variety of disorders has seen many advances starting with cytogenetics to evaluate human chromosomes for aneuploidy and other chromosome abnormalities. (
  • Genomic results represent subtle changes in the language of a person's DNA, not manifesting as a classical inherited disease, but rather altering a person's susceptibility to the prevalent chronic diseases of the 21st century-obesity, heart disease, cancer, anxiety, depression, diabetes, neurological disorders, etc. (
  • Indeed, it is clear that NGS-based genetic tests are applicable to inherit disorders in all stages of life, from preconception carrier screening to diagnosis of fetal, infant, young child, and adult-onset disorders. (
  • Pyeritz R.E. Pyeritz, Reed E. Genetic & Genomic Disorders. (
  • The Genomic and Genetic Disorders Biobank (GGDB, formerly Genomic Disorders Biobank) was established in 2006 as an internal bioresource supported by own database, to collect and store biospecimens from genomic-disorder (e.g. microdeletion and duplication syndromes) affected individuals. (
  • iv) elucidate and study the molecular characterization of GGDB samples to improve the scientific knowledge on genomic and genetic disorders. (
  • Regarding phenotyping, importantly, the GGDB can rely on the activities of the host laboratory, which is skilled in pre- and post-natal diagnosis of genetic disorders. (
  • Based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, it indicates that Arab countries have among the highest rates of genetic disorders in the world. (
  • This number is increasing as researchers are joining the largest Arab scientific effort to define genetic disorders described in the region. (
  • Some of the genetic disorders endemic to the Arab world are: hemoglobinopathy, sickle cell anemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and fragile X syndrome (FXS), which is an inherited genetic condition with critical consequences. (
  • Dr Thurman' guidebook about Rare genetic diseases another book Arabic genetic disorders layman guide Suadi Journal article about genetic diseases in Arabic countries The highest proportion of genetic disorders manifestations are: congenital malformations followed by endocrine metabolic disorders and then by Neuron disorders (such as Neuromotor disease)and then by blood immune disorders and then neoplasms. (
  • Mothers could test for genetic disorders in the fetus by method of chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis. (
  • This download Genetic and genomic resources of grain legume did Only damaged on 22 November 2017, at 15:57. (
  • SAN DIEGO , Dec. 18, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Luna DNA , the first and only genomic and medical research knowledge base powered by the blockchain and owned by its community, announced $2 Million in Seed funding today. (
  • We will discuss possible conditions, provide genetic counseling and review what may be needed to establish a diagnosis. (
  • This webinar will explain how the Clinic for Special Children in Strasburg, Pennsylvania, has transformed its DNA workflows to improve the diagnosis and treatment of genetic illnesses that are prevalent in the pediatric population of its community. (
  • Understanding the genomic underpinnings of the condition may, researchers say, vastly improve symptom diagnosis and treatment for patients who exhibit either inattentive or hyperactive/impulsive symptoms at any age. (
  • We are available to help in finding a diagnosis for your child, as well as to explain genetic testing options and results. (
  • Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is used in conjunction with in-vitro fertilization. (
  • A recent study found that 40% of direct -to-consumer genetic testing results were incorrect, leading to false-positive results and errors in diagnosis and treatment (Tandy-Connor, S et al. (
  • These findings will direct the use of TGE and MPS strategies for genetic diagnosis for NSHL. (
  • The primary outcome will be the proportion of patients who receive a molecular diagnosis via genomic testing (diagnostic rate) compared with usual care. (
  • Genetic testing has been used to exclude one condition over another and to provide definitive diagnosis in many such situations 1 6 7 . (
  • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) refers specifically to when one or both genetic parents has a known genetic abnormality and testing is performed on an embryo to determine if it also carries a genetic abnormality. (
  • It is an attractive means of preventing heritable genetic disease, thereby eliminating the dilemma of pregnancy termination following unfavorable prenatal diagnosis. (
  • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is recommended when couples are at risk of transmitting a known genetic abnormality to their children. (
  • Only healthy and normal embryos are transferred into the mother's uterus, thus diminishing the risk of inheriting a genetic abnormality and late pregnancy termination (after positive prenatal diagnosis). (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - California State Representative Eric Swalwell (CA-D) has introduced legislation designed to promote the use of genetic and genomic testing in healthcare and advance precision medicine. (
  • With the advent of personalized medicine, also called precision medicine, an increasing number of individuals are undertaking elective genetic and genomic testing. (
  • As a company implements a genomic medicine wellness program, the conversation then leads to how best to interpret and communicate genomic test results - from either an entertainment or clinical perspective. (
  • If we do it in the way that the ACMG statement lays out, genomic medicine can be harnessed to benefit the health of all," said James P. Evans, MD, PhD, co-author of the new ACMG Position Statement. (
  • Newborn sequencing in genomic medicine and public health. (
  • Let the NUgene Project assist with your genomic research by collecting DNA samples and associated health information on Northwestern Medicine patients. (
  • Physicians and other health-care providers in all quarters of medicine, from oncology to psychiatry, routinely field questions about the genetic basis of the medical conditions they treat. (
  • Abundant genetic variations were identified in these strains, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), small insertion/deletions (indels) and copy number variations (CNVs). (
  • This disparity is due in part to the fact that algorithm development for genomic annotation has been relatively slow, and annotation of completely sequenced genomes inevitably depends on human expert knowledge. (
  • The most effective method to understand genomic content is to compare multiple genomes of various phylogenetic distances. (
  • Principle components and STRUCTURE were utilized to assess differences in genetic composition and estimate IGA among 1572 individuals from 1000 Genomes, two independent cohorts of Caucasians and African Americans (AAs), plus a real-world validation population of patients undergoing pharmacogenomic genotyping. (
  • Symmetric genomic rearrangements around replication axes in genomes are commonly observed in prokaryotic genomes, including Group A Streptococcus (GAS). (
  • Our previous studies showed that the hypervirulent invasive GAS strain, M23ND, containing an inactivated transcriptional regulator system, covRS , exhibits unique extensive asymmetric rearrangements, which reconstructed a genomic structure distinct from other GAS genomes. (
  • Disclaimer: This Points to Consider document is designed as an educational resource to provide best practices for medical genetic clinicians, laboratories, and journals regarding the provision, publication, and dissemination of patient phenotypes in the context of genomic testing, clinical genetic practice, and research. (
  • S0219691306001087MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle ScholarHattay J, Benazza-Benyahia A, Pesquet J-C: collaborative download Genetic and genomic resources of grain for certain practice Following through order including. (
  • Insurers argued they should be allowed to treat evidence of genetic predispositions to disease just as they'd done with preexisting diseases. (
  • There are an estimated 5,000 - 7,000 rare genetic diseases, each of which can vary dramatically and be caused by a multitude of different genetic changes. (
  • Within Tel Aviv University's laboratories, there are currently genetic mapping projects for a variety of diseases, including diabetes, various types of cancers, dental infections, bacterial infections, and fungal infections all making use of these genetically enriched mice. (
  • In a similar fashion, genetic variability in the human population is responsible for the difference in drug efficiency on the treatment of several diseases. (
  • Since 2009 the Bioresource has joined the Telethon Network of Genetic Biobanks and has expanded the collection to include also genetic mendelian diseases. (
  • As result of the Biobank staff's consolidated expertise on rare genetic diseases, as well as, the increased interest of the Patients' Associations, the collection of the Biobank has been recently expanded. (
  • The Centre provide information about specific countries, and maintain a list of Genomic diseases. (
  • The overall aim of this research was to develop genomic and genetic tools in foxtail millet that will be useful in improving biomass production in bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napier grass, and pearl millet. (
  • The availability of a recombinant inbred mapping population and a dense genetic map from a cross between foxtail millet and its wild relative green millet ( Setaria viridis ) gives an opportunity to examine the genetic control of flowering in Setaria. (
  • Kernel regression and reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces regression procedures are embedded into standard mixed-effects linear models, retaining additive genetic effects under multivariate normality for operational reasons. (
  • In models including both genomic (marker) and familial (pedigree) effects most (on average 77.2%) of total additive genetic variance was explained by genomic effects while the remaining was explained by familial relationships. (
  • However, molecular genetic studies using unrelated individuals typically report a heritability estimate of around 30% for intelligence and between 0% and 15% for personality variables. (
  • While not appropriate for every prostate cancer patient, genomic testing can provide a man and his care team with valuable information at various stages of disease management specific to whether the cancer is likely to be aggressive or indolent, thereby helping him to make an informed decision on how to best address his prostate cancer. (
  • In subsequent articles, we will address how genomic testing is used to personalize diet and lifestyle for disease prevention or treatment in a corporate wellness environment. (
  • We were instructed to work with the insurance industry, regulators, consumers, professional groups, and researchers to develop a clear picture of the looming collision between the insurers' business model that relied on predicting-and limiting liability for-risk, and the anticipated avalanche of genetic information that could be used to assess individuals' likelihood of disease, disability and early death. (
  • Genetic changes leading to the development of prostate cancer and factors that underlie the clinical progression of the disease are poorly characterized. (
  • New lab mice cut search for genetic links to disease by more tha. (
  • With a 95 percent genomic similarity to humans, mice have long been used to learn about the genetic causes of human disease. (
  • Once researchers can shine a light on the genetic factors that cause disease in mice, they can start to develop prevention and treatment options to protect the human population. (
  • We look forward to supporting Wamberg Genomic Advisors in advancing and increasing access to personalized support and treatment for hereditary cancer, heart disease, and medication response. (
  • To date, however, the utility of genomic testing in a clinically ascertained, prospectively recruited kidney disease cohort remains unknown. (
  • PGD and PGS are presently the only options available for avoiding a high risk of having a child affected with a genetic disease prior to implantation. (
  • But MERS is not yet a pandemic, could become pervasive in genetic disease patient. (
  • The Genetic Epidemiology Group was established in 1988 by Professor Newton Morton - a founding father of the field perhaps best known for developing lod scores for detection of linkage within families. (
  • This suggests that the findings of this and other genetic studies of ADHD may also be relevant to people who have traits of ADHD that are not at clinically diagnostic levels. (
  • Comparative genomic studies are now under way, and in many cases there are several consortial multilaboratory groups, such as the SulfoSys community, which have started to break into new systems biology initiatives. (
  • Genetic and breeding studies will be enhanced by tools and insights developed from this resource. (
  • Studies suggest that astrocytic brain tumor behavior is related to genetic defects acquired over the course of tumor development ( 1 - 6 ). (
  • The genomic potential for feed efficiency was evaluated in a feedlot beef cattle population in two distinct studies. (
  • For both studies, 1,321 steers from five different genetic compositions fed five diets were genotyped using a 50K SNP panel. (
  • By capturing these additional genetic effects our models closely approximate the heritability estimates from twin studies for intelligence and education, but not for neuroticism and extraversion. (
  • However, much of our knowledge on the genetic control of flowering in grasses is derived from studies in rice, and it is unclear to what extent flowering time pathways are shared across grasses, or what the relative importance of the separate pathways are in the different grass subfamilies. (
  • The Centre for Arab Genomic Studies (CAGS) is the main organization based in the United Arab Emirates. (
  • The Responsibility to Recontact Research Participants after Reinterpretation of Genetic and Genomic Research Results. (
  • While such an approach is by no means new-in 1979 Seymour Kessler explicitly described genetic counseling as a "kind of psychotherapeutic encounter," an "interaction with a psychotherapeutic potential"-we expand on his view, and provide research evidence in support of our position. (
  • Luna DNA, a Public Benefit Corporation, empowers people to own and share their genomic information for the greater good of the community and medical research. (
  • Luna DNA is the first and only genomic and medical research database powered by the blockchain and owned by its community. (
  • Because only unaffected embryos are transferred to the uterus for implantation, preimplantation genetic testing provides an alternative to current postconception diagnostic procedures (ie, amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling), which are frequently followed by the difficult decision of pregnancy termination if results are unfavorable. (
  • The access to this genetic characterization is a cornerstone step in understanding the complexity of characteristics within populations of these organisms. (
  • Comparison of a limited number of stocks isolated in different countries demonstrated that genetic differentiation between populations positively correlates with intervening physical distance. (
  • This supported the earlier finding that geographical sub-structuring separates panmictic populations and an almost identical amount of genetic differentiation between countries was evident (FST = 0.05). (
  • Genetic rescue is a management intervention whereby a small population is supplemented with individuals from other populations in an attempt to reverse the effects of inbreeding and increased genetic load. (
  • The combination of domestic and Interbull sources for both genotyped and nongenotyped animals is valuable for improving the accuracy of genetic prediction in small populations of dairy cattle. (
  • These capabilities were immediately applied for guidance of warfarin dosing in AAs versus Caucasians, but also provide a real-world model that can be extended to other populations and drugs as actionable genomic evidence accumulates. (
  • Cumulative application of all effective filters reduced the error rate by 290-fold, facilitating the identification of genetic differences between monozygotic twins. (