Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances. (1/11892)

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (2/11892)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses fatal for Asian and African elephants. (3/11892)

A highly fatal hemorrhagic disease has been identified in 10 young Asian and African elephants at North American zoos. In the affected animals there was ultrastructural evidence for herpesvirus-like particles in endothelial cells of the heart, liver, and tongue. Consensus primer polymerase chain reaction combined with sequencing yielded molecular evidence that confirmed the presence of two novel but related herpesviruses associated with the disease, one in Asian elephants and another in African elephants. Otherwise healthy African elephants with external herpetic lesions yielded herpesvirus sequences identical to that found in Asian elephants with endothelial disease. This finding suggests that the Asian elephant deaths were caused by cross-species infection with a herpesvirus that is naturally latent in, but normally not lethal to, African elephants. A reciprocal relationship may exist for the African elephant disease.  (+info)

The haplotype distribution of two genes of citrus tristeza virus is altered after host change or aphid transmission. (4/11892)

Genetic variability of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied using the haplotypes detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of genes p18 and p20 in six virus populations of two origins. The Spanish group included a CTV isolate and subisolates obtained by graft-transmission to different host species. The other included two subisolates aphid-transmitted from a single Japanese isolate. The homozygosity observed for gene p20 was always significantly higher than that expected under neutral evolution, whereas only three populations showed high homozygosity for p18, suggesting stronger host constraints for p20 than for p18. Sequential transmissions of a Spanish isolate to new host species increased the difference between its population and that of the successive subisolates for gene p18, as estimated by the F statistic. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that variation between both groups of populations was not statistically significant, whereas variations between populations of the same group or within populations were significant for both genes studied. Our data indicate that selection affects the haplotype distribution and that adaptation to a new host can be as important or more as the geographical origin. Variation of the CTV populations after host change or aphid transmission may explain in part the wide biological variability observed among CTV isolates.  (+info)

Bacteriophage SPO1 development: defects in a gene 31 mutant. (5/11892)

SPO1 temperature-sensitive mutant ts14-1, located in cistron 31, has a DD (DNA synthesis-delayed) phenotype at 37 degrees C and produces progeny in a stretched program. At 44 degrees C it behaves as a DO (DNA synthesis-defective) mutant and shuts off the viral RNA synthesis about 10 min after infection. The thermal sensitivity of this mutant is due to the inactivity of gp-31 (the product of gene 31) at 44 degrees C. However, gp-31 is synthesized at that temperature and partly recovers its activity at 37 degrees C. Only 5 min at the permissive temperature is enough to trigger the continuation of the phage program and to produce progeny. The partial defect at 37 degrees C and the expansion of the middle program together with the pleiotropic defects at the nonpermissive temperature could be suitable for the study of the controls involved in bacteriophage development.  (+info)

Evidence that the neck appendages are adsorption organelles in Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi29. (6/11892)

A mutant of Bacillus subtilis unable to adsorb phage phi29 efficiently has been isolated. This mutant can be infected by host range mutants of the phage. Since the host range mutations map in cistron 12, which codes for neck appendage protein, this would tend to confirm that these organelles are involved in viral adsorption.  (+info)

Control of corynebacteriophage reproduction by heteroimmune repression. (7/11892)

Corynebacteriophages beta and gamma are closely related but heteroimmune; hence, gamma reproduces in C7(beta). A series of gamma mutants, designated gamma-bin (beta-inhibited), has been isolated. They reproduce in only 2 to 14% of infected C7(beta) cells, and, as a result, plaque with an efficiency of 10(-4) to 10(-5) on this strain. The proportion of C7(beta) cells in which gamma-bin phage can replicate is increased to 30 to 80% when immunity is lifted by UV induction of C7(beta) or by heat induction of C7(beta-tsr3). The gamma-bin mutants carry out a normal vegetative or lysogenic cycle in strain C7 and thus do not appear to be defective in any essential phage function. Infection of C7(beta) by gamma-bin results in cell killing whether the infection is productive or nonproductive. The data support the hypothesis that inhibition of gamma-bin is due to the direct or indirect action of a beta prophage gene. The simplest hypothesis is that gamma-bin phages have sustained mutations in an operator site and that beta repressor now combines with the mutated operator to inhibit normal replication in a significant proportion of infected cells.  (+info)

Correlated genetic and EcoRI cleavage map of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage phi105 DNA. (8/11892)

The seven previously identified EcoRI cleavage fragments of phi 105 DNA were ordered with respect to their sites of origin on the phage genome by marker rescue. One fragment, H, did not carry any determinants essential for replication. This fragment was totally missing in a deletion mutant which exhibited a lysogenization-defective phenotype. There is a nonessential region on the phi 105 genome which begins in fragment B, spans fragment H, and ends in fragment F. The size of the nonessential region, as estimated by alterations observed in the fragmentation patterns of deletion mutant DNAs, is approximately 2.7 X 10(6) daltons. Two new EcoRI cleavage fragments with molecular weights of approximately 0.2 X 10(6) were detected by autoradiography of 32P-labeled DNA. These small fragments were not located on the cleavage map.  (+info)

Each annotated gene, after it has been entered into the database, is subjected to BLASTP searching against all other genes ... VGO (Viral Genome Organizer) VGO is a Java-based interface used for viewing and searching viral genome sequences. Together with ... The Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center (VBRC) is an online resource providing access to a database of curated viral genomes ... Upton, C; Hogg, D; Perrin, D; Boone, M; Harris, NL (Sep 2000). "Viral genome organizer: a system for analyzing complete viral ...
Even if m6A-marked viral transcripts are involved in regulating gene expression of a number of different viruses, the ... Viral epitranscriptomics is the field that studies RNA modifications in viral transcripts that do not affect the sequence of ... So far, the studies have been focused on viral transcripts of mammalian viruses. Mammalian viral transcripts must function in a ... Yue Y, Liu J, He C (July 2015). "RNA N6-methyladenosine methylation in post-transcriptional gene expression regulation". Genes ...
Differential performance can be at the level of viral genomes (during replication, intracellular gene expression, interaction ... the rate at which viral RNA or DNA is synthesized intracellularly for viral progeny production), viral load (the total amount ... Viral pathogenesis is influenced by microevolutionary processes in which some viral subpopulations are replaced by others to ... Inhibitors used in combination should target different viral gene products. Splitting a treatment into two steps: first an ...
I. Hepatocyte uptake of various molecules". The Journal of Gene Medicine. 8 (7): 852-873. doi:10.1002/jgm.921. ISSN 1099-498X. ... After the introduction of the viral particle, unpacking of the contents (viral proteins in the tegument and the viral genome ... Viral entry is the earliest stage of infection in the viral life cycle, as the virus comes into contact with the host cell and ... Viral penetration: The viral capsid or genome is injected into the host cell's cytoplasm. Through the use of green fluorescent ...
"This Gene-Editing Tech Might Be Too Dangerous To Unleash". Wired. Walter, Marius; Verdin, Eric (2020-09-28). "Viral gene drive ... Recent developments designed gene drives directly in viruses, notably herpesviruses. These viral gene drives can propagate a ... In cell culture experiments, it was shown that a viral gene drive can spread into the viral population and strongly reduce the ... By targeting the gene drive to a gene coding sequence, this gene will be inactivated; additional sequences can be introduced in ...
... with research conducted into viral vectors for gene targeting to try and address these challenges. Gene targeting is relatively ... Gene trapping is based on random insertion of a cassette, while gene targeting manipulates a specific gene. Cassettes can be ... The probability of trapping increases with intron size, while for gene targeting, small genes are just as easily altered. Gene ... The two most established forms of gene editing are gene-targeting and targeted-mutagenesis. While gene targeting relies on the ...
In the common gene pool of cultivated potato and its wild congeners are found a number of genes for immunity, resistance, ... In some pathosystems the hypersensitivity gene needs to be accompanied by recessive genes or polygenes for resistance to be ... or triggering resistance through the expression of non-viral genes that possess antiviral activity. Using both approaches, ... which have a dominant gene (called Rx) that can produce local necrotic lesions after infection with PVX. This gene would have ...
"Entrez Gene: NRAS neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog". Study Comparing the Efficacy of MEK162 Versus Dacarbazine ... The mammalian Ras gene family consists of the Harvey and Kirsten Ras genes (HRAS and KRAS), an inactive pseudogene of each (c- ... Hras2 and c-Kras1) and the N-Ras gene. They differ significantly only in the C-terminal 40 amino acids. These Ras genes have ... The N-Ras gene consists of seven exons (-I, I, II, III, IV, V, VI). The smaller 2 kb transcript contains the VIa exon, and the ...
Attenuation involves deleting viral genes, or gene regions, to eliminate viral functions that are expendable in tumour cells, ... A viral gene whose function is to alter a pathway is dispensable in cells where the pathway is defective, but not in cells ... This can be done by equipping the virus with "reporter genes" not normally present in viral genomes, which encode easily ... Angiogenesis can be inhibited by the expression of several genes, which can be delivered to cancer cells in viral vectors, ...
Thirukkumaran C, Morris DG (2009). "Oncolytic Viral Therapy Using Reovirus". Gene Therapy of Cancer. Methods in Molecular ... Viral particles begin to assemble in the cytoplasm 6-7 hours after infection. Translation takes place by leaky scanning, ... The virus exits the host cell by monopartite non-tubule guided viral movement, cell to cell movement, and existing in occlusion ... Double-stranded RNA viruses Oncolytic virus Orphan virus "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Guglielmi, KM; Johnson, ...
Thirukkumaran C, Morris DG (2009). "Oncolytic viral therapy using reovirus". Gene Therapy of Cancer. Methods in Molecular ... The three human ras genes encode extremely similar proteins made up of chains of 188 to 189 amino acids. Their gene symbols are ... "Identification of transforming gene in two human sarcoma cell lines as a new member of the ras gene family located on ... "Human genome contains four genes homologous to transforming genes of Harvey and Kirsten murine sarcoma viruses". Proceedings of ...
Thirukkumaran, C; Morris, DG (2009). "Oncolytic Viral Therapy Using Reovirus". Gene Therapy of Cancer. Methods in Molecular ... selective viral replication in permissive cancer cells leading to tumor cell lysis; Innate immune response - viral replication ... Strong, JE; Coffey, MC; Tang, D; Sabinin, P; Lee, PW (1998). "The molecular basis of viral oncolysis: usurpation of the Ras ... and viral-associated antigens (VAA) to educate T-cells to recognize and destroy cancer cells. Pelareorep has been evaluated in ...
In gene therapy a gene that is intended for delivery is packaged into a replication-deficient viral particle to form a viral ... Viral vector based gene delivery uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material to the host cell. This is done by using a ... Gene delivery is a necessary step in gene therapy for the introduction or silencing of a gene to promote a therapeutic outcome ... The use of engineered inorganic and organic nanoparticles is another non-viral approach for gene delivery. Artificial gene ...
Genes with related functions are clustered together. Genome replication is bidirectional.[citation needed] Viral replication is ... Two classes of genes are recognized (early and late). This classification is based on the timing of transcription that is ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015. "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ( ... 55 genes. The guanine + cytosine content is ~50%. It has terminally redundant sequences and is nonpermuted. By weight, the ...
... because they need to be on the same piece of DNA as the viral genome and the gene of interest. Trans-acting elements are viral ... Yin H, Kanasty RL, Eltoukhy AA, Vegas AJ, Dorkin JR, Anderson DG (August 2014). "Non-viral vectors for gene-based therapy". ... This has been shown to have more efficient gene transfer in respiratory epithelial cells than either viral or liposomal methods ... Al-Dosari MS, Knapp JE, Liu D (2005). "Hydrodynamic Delivery". Non-Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy. Advances in Genetics. Vol. ...
Robbins, Paul D.; Ghivizzani, Steven C. (1998). "Viral Vectors for Gene Therapy". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 80 (1): 35-47. ... Viral methods use a variety of viral vectors to deliver the DNA, including adenovirus, lentivirus, and herpes simplex virus In ... This gene can be cloned from a naturally occurring gene, or synthetically constructed. The vector can be delivered using ... Mehierhumbert, S; Guy, R (2005-04-05). "Physical methods for gene transfer: Improving the kinetics of gene delivery into cells ...
The majority of viral vectors lack the required genes, making them unable to replicate. In order to be widely accepted and ... A recombinant viral vector was first used when a hepatitis B surface antigen gene was inserted into a vaccinia virus. ... A viral vector vaccine is a vaccine that uses a viral vector to deliver genetic material (DNA) that can be transcribed by the ... Wang F, Qin Z, Lu H, He S, Luo J, Jin C, Song X (July 2019). "Clinical translation of gene medicine". The Journal of Gene ...
To obtain viral replication. For gene and chromosome mapping. For production of monoclonal antibodies by producing hybridoma. ... The work conducted by Henry and Nils showed that proteins from one gene fusion affect gene expression in the other partner's ... viral adsorption takes place and the adsorbed virus can be inhibited by viral antibodies. The second stage, which is 20 minutes ... In the third, antibody-refractory stage, viral envelope constituents remain detectable on the surface of cells. During the ...
In future, this technology might be also an alternative strategy to the currently used viral and non-viral vectors in gene- ... Davis, M. E. (2002). "Non-viral gene delivery systems". Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 13 (2): 128-131. doi:10.1016/S0958- ... therapy and gene transfer. Plank C; et al. (November 2011). "Magnetically enhanced nucleic acid delivery. Ten years of ... using magnetic force to enhance gene delivery" (PDF). The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 384 (5): 737-747. doi:10.1515/BC. ...
"Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Thorne LG, Goodfellow IG (February 2014). "Norovirus gene expression and ... In mice however, CD300lf functions in virus binding thus having a role to play in the first steps of viral entry. Binding is ... The 3'UTR of the viral genome forms stem-loop structures which have a role in virulence. Entry mechanisms for noroviruses are ... Clarke IN, Lambden PR (May 2000). "Organization and expression of calicivirus genes". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 181 ( ...
Another example is the ORF3d gene in the SARS-CoV 2 virus. Overlapping genes are particularly common in viral genomes. Some ... either older genes or previously non-coding regions of the genome. It is believed that most overlapping genes, or genes whose ... Overlapping genes are present in and a fundamental feature of both cellular and viral genomes. The current definition of an ... Studies of overprinted viral genes suggest that their protein products tend to be accessory proteins which are not essential to ...
Non-viral vectors for gene therapy present certain advantages over viral methods, such as large scale production and low host ... Gene augmentation adds a new protein coding gene to a cell. One form of gene augmentiation is gene replacement therapy, a ... Gene therapy for color blindness Gene therapy for epilepsy Gene therapy for osteoarthritis Gene therapy in Parkinson's disease ... For diseases caused by multiple genes or a dominant gene gene silencing or gene editing approaches are more appropriate but ...
... gene. This gene contains 50 exons with a coding region spanning 6.7 kb and thus requires a viral vector capable of handling ... Results of lentiviral gene transfer in mice for LCA-2 indicate gene therapy using lentiviral vectors is just as effective as ... Unlike rAAV vectors which can only carry relatively small genes, lentiviral vectors can carry larger genes, making them the ... October 2008). "Correction of the disease phenotype in the mouse model of Stargardt disease by lentiviral gene therapy". Gene ...
The ARX gene encodes for the aristaless related homeobox genes which are active in the early embryonic development to control ... Viral infections can also cause lissencephaly. The known genetic and viral causes are listed below: LIS1 (also known as ... The genes associated with lissencephaly are still being discovered; however, due to advances in genetics individual genes are ... Similar to DCX, ARX is an X chromosome linked gene and is linked with other symptoms such as absence of portions of the brain, ...
During assembly of the bacteriophage (phage) T4 virion, the structural proteins encoded by the phage genes interact with each ... A viral structural protein is a viral protein that is a structural component of the mature virus. Examples include the SARS ... Viral nonstructural protein Viral+Structural+Proteins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... v t e (Commons category link is on Wikidata, Viral structural proteins, Viral proteins, Structural proteins, All stub articles ...
An official viral marketing website, The New Frontiersman, is named after the tabloid magazine featured in the graphic novel, ... Gustines, George Gene (August 13, 2008). "Film Trailer Aids Sales of 'Watchmen' Novel". The New York Times. Archived from the ... "Viral Microsite Launches". WatchmenComicMovie.com. February 3, 2009. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved ... The producers also released two short video pieces online, which were intended to be viral videos designed as fictional ...
Viral transmission of host derived gene. Some viruses steal host genes and then incorporate them into their own viral genome, ... Antigenic rift: Recombination of viral gene. This occurs when there are again two viral cells that infect the same host cell. ... In this instance the viruses recombine with pieces of each gene creating a new gene instead of simply switching out genes. ... PfEMP1 is encoded by the diverse family of genes known as the var family of genes (approximately 60 genes in all). The ...
A gene that is intended for delivery is packaged into a replication-deficient viral particle. Viruses used to date include ... Adenoviral vectors can be useful for viral transfection methods because they can transfer genes into a wide variety of human ... Saul JM, Linnes MP, Ratner BD, Giachelli CM, Pun SH (November 2007). "Delivery of non-viral gene carriers from sphere-templated ... Segura T, Shea LD (2001). "Materials for non-viral gene delivery". Annual Review of Materials Research. 31: 25-46. Bibcode: ...
Walz, Gene (October 27, 2012). "Oct 2012: Pinsent better at looking forward than back in second memoir". Winnipeg Free Press. ... Vlessing, Etan (October 20, 2010). "Comedian's Mocking of Justin Bieber Book Goes Viral". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from ... when a comedic segment of him reading dramatically from Justin Bieber's autobiography on This Hour Has 22 Minutes went viral on ...
However, the non-viral method is a more cost-effective, safer, available method of gene delivery not to mention that non-viral ... The viral and non-viral gene therapies mentioned above are commonly used but each has some limitations which must be considered ... In this way, non-viral methods of gene therapy are highly effective in restoring tumor suppressor gene function to tumor cells ... Gene therapy is used to reinstate the function of a mutated or deleted gene type. When tumor suppressor genes are altered in a ...
Genes of the p53 family are known to be complex. The viral oncoproteins (e.g. Adenovirus E1B) that efficiently inhibit p53 ... The p73 gene has been mapped to a chromosome region (1p36. 2-3) a locus commonly deleted in various tumor entities and human ... The p73 gene encodes a protein with a significant sequence homology and a functional similarity with the tumor suppressor p53. ... p73, also known as tumor protein 73 (TP73), protein was the first identified homologue of the tumor suppressor gene, p53. Like ...
These viral proteins control and influence viral gene expressions in the viral genome, including viral structural gene ... The viral envelope is made up of a lipid bilayer embedded with viral proteins, including viral glycoproteins. These viral ... viral regulatory proteins can enhance viral gene transcription, likewise, these proteins can also enhance host cellular gene ... Many copies of a single viral protein or a number of different viral proteins make up the capsid, and each of these viral ...
By documenting genetic variation among bacteria responsible for a heart-damaging illness known as rheumatic fever, researchers may have opened paths to new preventive measures and treatments.
University of Michigan researchers have launched a study they are calling Genes for Good that is relying on a Facebook-based ... The project, Hughes notes, has the potential to go viral as Facebooks organ donation status field, campaign to get out the ...
... viral proteins, and non-coding RNAs involve innate immunity during viral infection, attempting to inspire new targets discovery ... viral proteins, and non-coding RNAs involve innate immunity during viral infection, attempting to inspire new targets discovery ... Here we outline the current status of the viral evasion mechanism underlying the regulation of the cGAS-STING pathway, focusing ... Here we outline the current status of the viral evasion mechanism underlying the regulation of the cGAS-STING pathway, focusing ...
"By addressing the quality attributes assessment of viral vectors, the field of gene therapies as a whole will benefit from ... New Collaboration Aims to Improve Measurement of Viral Vectors Used in Cutting-Edge Gene Therapies. ... A large interlaboratory study of adeno-associated virus (AAV), an important tool in gene therapy, will be led by USP and NIST ... A ribbon diagram showing a portion of the protein shell of an adeno-associated virus used for delivering gene therapies. The ...
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Poseida Therapeutics Announces Research Collaboration with Takeda for Novel Non-Viral In Vivo Gene Therapies - read this ... Poseida Therapeutics Announces Research Collaboration with Takeda for Novel Non-Viral In Vivo Gene Therapies. Published: Oct 12 ... The collaboration will focus on developing non-viral in vivo gene therapy programs, including Poseidas Hemophilia A program. ... "Our technologies offer highly efficient gene delivery, fully integrated non-viral genome insertion and ultra-precise site- ...
Viral vectors show promise as a delivery mechanism for gene therapy, but which virus types are commercially viable? ... Live viral vector. Gene therapies involving the use of a live viral vector need extra care during handling and manufacturing ... Exploring non-viral gene delivery vehicles. Viruses, however, are not the only type of delivery vehicle being explored for gene ... In both cases, cells may be treated either with a viral or non-viral vector carrying the corrected copy of the gene. Generally ...
Fol, R., Braudeau, J., Ludewig, S. et al. Viral gene transfer of APPsα rescues synaptic failure in an Alzheimers disease mouse ... Viral gene transfer of APPsα rescues synaptic failure in an Alzheimers disease mouse model. *Original Paper ... Here, we used a gene therapy approach to directly overexpress APPsα in the brain using AAV-mediated gene transfer and explored ... Li ZW, Stark G, Gotz J et al (1996) Generation of mice with a 200-kb amyloid precursor protein gene deletion by Cre recombinase ...
A new media panel, gene kit and advanced purification resins help reduce manufacturing costs while increasing the ... ... a set of solutions is now available from Thermo Fisher Scientific to support adeno-associated viral (AAV) manufacturing. ... For gene therapy developers seeking to rapidly and efficiently scale production, ... New media panel, gene kit and advanced resins help reduce manufacturing costs while increasing the viability of gene therapies ...
Viral vectors are commonly used in the manufacture of cell and gene therapies, but come with high manufacturing costs and ... Could gene therapy capacity crunch be solved by non-viral transfection?. Cell and gene therapies have drawn huge interest from ... Viral vectors are commonly used in the manufacture of cell and gene therapies, but come with high manufacturing costs and ... Non-viral vectors are more easily manufactured. They could therefore make cell and gene therapies cheaper and improve their ...
... yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite ... However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. Thus, there is a ... Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene ... Mellott, A. J., Forrest, M. L., & Detamore, M. S. (2013). Physical non-viral gene delivery methods for tissue engineering. ...
Independent experts identify a highly dangerous viral gene contained in genetically modified, GMO foods. ...
... promoter made with novel capsids in canine liver-directed gene transfer. Studies in 1.5-month-old dogs, which were administered ... This study evaluated six adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the liver- ... Evaluation of Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors for Liver-Directed Gene Transfer in Dogs. ... This study evaluated six adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the liver- ...
The human disease gene LYSET is essential for lysosomal enzyme transport and viral infection.. Richards CM, Jabs S, Qiao W, ... The human disease gene LYSET is essential for lysosomal enzyme transport and viral infection. Science. 2022:eabn5648. ...
The result was a gene-edited calf with dramatically reduced susceptibility to infection as measured by reduced clinical signs ... This precision bred, proof-of-concept animal provides the first evidence that intentional genome alterations in the CD46 gene ... Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viruses affecting the health and well-being of bovine species ... and the lack of viral infection in white blood cells. The edited calf has no off-target edits and appears normal and healthy at ...
Viral vectors are efficient gene-delivery carriers for somatic cell gene therapy, and replication-deficient vectors are ... viral vector; aav; non-human primate; rhesus macaque; gene therapy; gene delivery; adeno-associated virus; green monkey; ... Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors for Gene Delivery to the Non-Human Primate Brain ... Chuapoco, Miguel Roberto Estella (2023) Adeno-Associated Viral Vectors for Gene Delivery to the Non-Human Primate Brain. ...
Using Viral Gene Sequences to Compare and Explain the Heterogeneous Spatial Dynamics of Virus Epidemics. ... We compiled RABV data sets from skunk, raccoon, bat and domestic dog populations in order to investigate the viral diffusivity ... Our study shows that phylogenetically informed viral movements can be used to elucidate the factors that impact virus dispersal ... Here we apply new analytical methods, based on phylogeographic reconstructions of viral lineage movement, to undertake a ...
Non-viral delivery of Crspr gene therapy to the liver with microbubbles. *Dr. Ralph Shohet ... Gene therapy would be easier if we had a way to deliver the genes without using viruses or invasive methods. In the Center for ... Non-viral delivery of Crspr gene therapy to the liver with microbubbles ... Gene therapy has great promise for treating genetic diseases, and even for more common diseases such as atherosclerosis. Over ...
... Posted on: 10 September 2019, ... and even stubborn viral infections. But the typical method for delivering gene therapies to specific tissues in the body can be ... Do you have a gene therapy news item you would like to share? Submit your news article or press release here. ... Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have addressed many of those problems by packing a gene-editing payload into ...
... viral load) in Respiratory system specimen by NAA with probe detection ... SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) N gene [#/volume] (viral load) in Respiratory system specimen by NAA with probe detection Active Part ... SARS-CoV-2 N gene # Resp NAA+probe. Display Name. SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) N gene NAA+probe (Respiratory system specimen) [#/Vol] ... SARS coronavirus 2 N gene. Property. NCnc. Time. Pt. System. Respiratory System Specimen. Scale. Qn. Method. Probe.amp.tar. ...
Due to their efficient gene delivery, viral vectors have been successfully used in T-cell engineering to provide gene transfer ... In order to address these concerns, we aimed to improve non-viral gene transfer and genome editing tools as an effective, safe ... In the first part of the study, we engineered CAR T cells through non-viral Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposition of CAR genes ... However, there are persistent concerns and limitations with the use of viral vectors for CAR T cell generation with regard to ...
... viral gene sequences because of their availability but entire genome sequencing allows to make use of various other genes. gene ... Most research on HIV molecular epidemiology today use the part of the viral gene which has the protease (PR) and invert ... HIV molecular epidemiology research analyse viral gene sequences because of their. Genomics Proteomics and Bioinformatics , ... these HIV datasets to judge the result of utilising viral series datasets of different duration and from many viral genes and ...
Paramyxovirus miRNA biogenesis and implications for host/viral gene expression. *Maggs, Christine (PI) ...
... but 22 viral genes necessary for viral transcription, replication and viral maturation were not expressed in tree shrew TGs ... We sequenced the transcriptome of infected TGs from tree shrews and mice, and 4 human donors, then examined viral genes ... Here, we found that all HSV-1 genes could be detected in mouse TGs during acute infection, ... White areas indicate viral genes that below the DEGs threshold. The viral genes of different phases are distinguished by boxes ...
Consequently, the approach formed on viral-based targeted gene delivery of DAI, RIPK3 and MLKL in combination or separately, ... A number of viral-based vectors are used to deliver genes to correct a known mutation that causes a disease or modulate the ... Gene Therapy expand children * Novel Gene Therapy for Treating Cystathionine Beta-Synthase Enzyme Deficiency in Homocystinuria ... Viral-based cancer gene therapy and treatment of influenza infection through induction of cell death ...
... families cause the most common primary viral infections of the oral cavity. HPV infections have received particular attention ... Al-Bakkal G, Ficarra G, McNeill K, Eversole LR, Sterrantino G, Birek C. Human papilloma virus type 16 E6 gene expression in ... encoded search term (Viral Infections of the Mouth) and Viral Infections of the Mouth What to Read Next on Medscape ... Active drug inhibits viral DNA synthesis, thereby inhibiting viral replication. Used for treatment of acute herpes zoster in ...
Genes (Basel). 2019;10:1-12. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Then viral NA was isolated using a QIAamp viral RNA kit (QIAGEN ... Potential viral reads were identified by using an in-house viral metagenomic pipeline running on a 36-node Linux cluster as ... Yang J, Yang F, Ren L, Xiong Z, Wu Z, Dong J, et al. Unbiased parallel detection of viral pathogens in clinical samples by use ... Aiemjoy K, Altan E, Aragie S, Fry DM, Phan TG, Deng X, et al. Viral species richness and composition in young children with ...
San Francisco Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania are investigating the first-ever death in a gene therapy experiment ... Viral-mediated gene therapy in pediatric neurological disorders *Jing Peng. *Wei-Wei Zou ... The gene is X-linked-female carriers usually lead normal lives, but up to ten per cent of them could experience dangerous ... They raised concerns about the risks of the treatment and its use-for the first time in gene therapy-in asymptomatic patients. ...
Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... The BRAF gene provides instructions for making a protein that ... v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B. Additional Information & Resources. Tests Listed in the Genetic Testing Registry ... The BRAF gene belongs to a class of genes known as oncogenes. When mutated, oncogenes have the potential to cause normal cells ... The BRAF gene mutation that causes this condition is somatic, meaning that it occurs during a persons lifetime and is present ...
  • By addressing the quality attributes assessment of viral vectors, the field of gene therapies as a whole will benefit from access to high quality components to enable the development of a variety of products. (nist.gov)
  • Viral vectors show promise as a delivery mechanism for gene therapy, but which virus types are commercially viable? (biopharminternational.com)
  • Several virus types have been studied for use as viral vectors in gene therapy, including adenovirus, lentivirus, retrovirus, and adeno-associated virus (AAV). (biopharminternational.com)
  • In an R&D setting, this becomes preferable if the same reagent is transfected (for example, CAS9 delivery vectors) since all the work is in the generation of the viral stock, not in the infection," Carstens says. (biopharminternational.com)
  • Viral vectors are commonly used in the manufacture of cell and gene therapies, but come with high manufacturing costs and capacity constraints. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Although more rarely used for transfection, non-viral vectors could alleviate these problems, experts have said. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • There are three methods of transfection: biologic (involving viral vectors), chemical and physical (such as electroporation). (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • However, viral vectors can present complex manufacturing challenges, contributing to high production costs and difficulty when manufacturing on a commercial scale. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Viral vectors can also have problems with relatively low packaging capacity (for adeno-associated viruses it can be less than 5 kilobases), immunogenicity and oncogenicity. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • To overcome the limitations associated with viral vectors, the biopharma industry is turning to nonviral delivery systems, both physical and chemical. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Non-viral vectors are more easily manufactured. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Speaking at the Phacilitate conference in Portugal in September 2023, at a session called "Progressing MSAT: Exploring Development, Standards and Standardisation to Ensure Manufacturing Technologies for Commercial Production", Pedro Silva Couto, a postdoctoral fellow at University College London, elaborated on the problems of producing CAR T cell therapies with viral vectors. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Pedro stated: "One of the main disadvantages of viral vectors is related to their difficulty in manufacturing dose at scale. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Viral vectors are generally highly effective at delivering nucleic acids to a variety of cell populations, both dividing and non-dividing, yet these viral vectors are marred by significant safety concerns. (ku.edu)
  • Non-viral vectors are preferred for gene therapy, despite lower transfection efficiencies, and possess many customizable attributes that are desirable for tissue engineering applications. (ku.edu)
  • Thus, there is a compelling opportunity to examine different non-viral vectors, especially physical vectors, and compare their relative degrees of success. (ku.edu)
  • This study evaluated six adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) from the liver-specific thyroid hormone-binding globulin (TBG) promoter made with novel capsids in canine liver-directed gene transfer. (upenn.edu)
  • Viral vectors are efficient gene-delivery carriers for somatic cell gene therapy, and replication-deficient vectors are actively being used in the clinic to replace and correct disease-causing genes and mutations. (caltech.edu)
  • Mirroring their therapeutic effectiveness, viral vectors are also powerful in vivo gene-delivery tools in basic research. (caltech.edu)
  • Due to their efficient gene delivery, viral vectors have been successfully used in T-cell engineering to provide gene transfer medicinal products for the treatment of human disease. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • However, there are persistent concerns and limitations with the use of viral vectors for CAR T cell generation with regard to safety, cost and scale of vector production. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • In the first part of the study, we engineered CAR T cells through non-viral Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposition of CAR genes from minimalistic DNA vectors called minicircles rather than conventional SB plasmids. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The high level of gene transfer rate and efficient genome editing, superior safety profile as well as ease-of-handling and production of non-viral MC vectors and Cas9 RNP position our developed non-viral strategies to become preferred approaches in advanced cellular and gene-therapy. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • A number of viral-based vectors are used to deliver genes to correct a known mutation that causes a disease or modulate the immune response against cancer cells. (foxchase.org)
  • Thus, the administration of RNA virus vectors containing these genes can either be part of cancer therapy, or the treatment of a viral influenzainfection. (foxchase.org)
  • US officials immediately began notifying the 100 or so gene therapy experimenters using adenovirus vectors, which are made using a disarmed version of the virus that causes the common cold. (nature.com)
  • Verma describes vectors as the "Achilles heel" of gene therapy, and says that dose-escalation studies using adenoviruses should be re-examined. (nature.com)
  • Most gene therapy involves retroviral vectors, but adenoviruses are popular for cancer and cystic fibrosis. (nature.com)
  • A major difference between virus-mediated gene therapy and other therapies is the poor physical diffusibility of viral vectors, which is also one of the major obstacles in cancer gene therapy. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We will first consider two common reasons for limited virus spread in tumor masses and then discuss strategies for improving the tumor-specific oncolysis of currently used viral vectors and to comment on their advantages and potential problems. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The majority of gene therapy applications in development utilize viral vectors to carry the therapeutic gene into the target cells. (cellculturedish.com)
  • There are several possible viral vectors systems available and the decision of which to use depends on many factors such as tissue tropism, desire for integrative or non-integrative modification, in vivo or ex vivo process, prior immune exposure, whether the target cell is replicating or non-replicating, safety, and others. (cellculturedish.com)
  • A safety concern with viral vectors is generation of wild type infectious virus from vector components. (cellculturedish.com)
  • For this reason, viral vectors are typically manufactured from 2, 3 or even several separate expressible units in order to significantly reduce the possibility of forming wild type virus via recombination. (cellculturedish.com)
  • For example, newer HIV lentiviral (LV) vectors delete genes for virulence factors tat, vpr, vpu, nef and/or have gag and pol on separate plasmids from rev and env 1 and/or contain other mutations such as deletions in the 3' LTR and some contain only a small percentage of complete HIV genome. (cellculturedish.com)
  • Moreover, unlike other viral vectors such as lentivirus that integrate into the host cell genome, AAV primarily remains episomal 4,8 and has long term expression of the transgene. (cellculturedish.com)
  • Retroviral vectors have been widely studied as vehicles for hepatocyte gene therapy, but they are limited by an inability to infect nondividing cells and the need for prolonged cell culture. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Two replication deficient herpes simplex viral vectors (HSV) were constructed with the marker genes lac-Z/β-galactosidase (HSVlac) or human-growth hormone (HSVhGH) to determine the efficiency of HSV gene transfer into adult human hepatocytes. (elsevierpure.com)
  • HSV vectors are potentially powerful tools for gene therapy of human liver disease, because they are efficient and rapid vehicles for gene transfer. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Efficient in vivo delivery of foreign gene may also be accomplished using these vectors. (elsevierpure.com)
  • At the heart of gene therapy lie viral vectors, which are used to transport a gene into a target cell. (labiotech.eu)
  • Here we explore the current bottleneck in viral vector production, why viral vectors still outshine non-viral vector solutions, and what we can expect in the future. (labiotech.eu)
  • But the manufacturing of viral vectors and scaling up their production remain difficult. (labiotech.eu)
  • In upstream development, one challenge is the way viral vectors are produced. (labiotech.eu)
  • In a process called transient transfection, plasmids carrying the DNA of interest are introduced into host cells that will produce the viral vectors. (labiotech.eu)
  • Related to this is an important discussion on the purity of viral vectors. (labiotech.eu)
  • "When you produce vectors, you will generally have a population of empty capsids, which is the viral AAV assembly without the genetic material inside, or partially-full capsids with only part of the DNA inside," Krishnan explains. (labiotech.eu)
  • Through decades of research, mAb production also works through well-established and standardized platforms, whereas viral vectors are still in their infancy and cannot be produced using platform technologies yet - although much is being done in this field and they are catching up fast. (labiotech.eu)
  • I can rely on existing templates and get up and running much quicker than if I were developing viral vectors. (labiotech.eu)
  • There are currently no approved treatments for ABCA4-related retinopathies and, while replacement with wild-type ABCA4 protein has the potential to slow or stop disease progression, standard AAV gene therapy platforms are not appropriate for addressing these diseases due to the large size of the gene and the growing safety concerns associated with viral vectors. (biopharma-reporter.com)
  • C3DNA allows for design and delivery of DNA vectors beyond the size limits of viral delivery systems. (biopharma-reporter.com)
  • During this presentation we outline the benefits of implementing affinity chromatography as a platform in the downstream purification of viral vectors, using the CaptureSelect™ technology as the basis of generating high-binding affinity ligands. (insights.bio)
  • The utilization of these resins has demonstrated to be a significant improvement to the downstream process of AAV viral vectors, by reducing the number of purification steps and maximizing productivity, offering scalability and process consistency. (insights.bio)
  • In her previous role at Thermo Fisher Scientific (former Brammer Bio), she developed and established downstream purification processes for clinical manufacturing of several gene therapy viral vectors. (insights.bio)
  • In her present role, she contributes to the development of platform processes and technologies for the manufacturing of viral gene transfer vectors. (insights.bio)
  • Here we outline the current status of the viral evasion mechanism underlying the regulation of the cGAS-STING pathway, focusing on how post-transcriptional modifications, viral proteins, and non-coding RNAs involve innate immunity during viral infection, attempting to inspire new targets discovery and uncover potential clinical antiviral treatments. (frontiersin.org)
  • The human disease gene LYSET is essential for lysosomal enzyme transport and viral infection. (stembook.org)
  • The result was a gene-edited calf with dramatically reduced susceptibility to infection as measured by reduced clinical signs and the lack of viral infection in white blood cells. (unl.edu)
  • Here, we found that all HSV-1 genes could be detected in mouse TGs during acute infection, but 22 viral genes necessary for viral transcription, replication and viral maturation were not expressed in tree shrew TGs during this stage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To analyze the viral transcriptional patterns during acute and latent stages of HSV-1 infection, mice and tree shrews were infected with HSV-1 strain 17+ by corneal scarification, and infected TGs collected over a period of 58 days (Fig. 1 a, b). (biomedcentral.com)
  • [ 5 , 6 ] In a localized primary infection, the virus penetrates the mucosal epithelium and invades the cells of the basal layer, where the viral DNA inserts into the host DNA. (medscape.com)
  • LZTFL1, expressed in lung epithelial cells, regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a viral infection response pathway. (origene.com)
  • This publication shows that some immune receptors that detect the presence of viral RNA are also activated by RNA produced by our cells, potentially enabling cells to react more quickly to infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • During an infection, viral RNA is introduced into the cell cytoplasm so that it can be read and translated into proteins needed for viral replication. (pasteur.fr)
  • The results of the study also show that endogenous RNAs are always present in cells but that they do not normally bind to RIG-I receptors and are only detected after the onset of a viral infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • The viral S gene is important as it codes for the Spike protein which is the molecule that makes contact with, and allows entry of the virus into susceptible host cells, causing infection. (who.int)
  • To date, WHO has designated 4 SARS CoV-2 genotypes that meet the working definition of a VOC: i) contain mutations divergent from the Wuhan strain and ii) that the mutations impact one or more of the aspects of viral infection that have public health significance. (who.int)
  • HIV molecular epidemiology research analyse viral gene sequences because of their availability but entire genome sequencing allows to make use of various other genes. (bioinf.org)
  • sequences (around 1.3?Kb lengthy) are routinely sequenced for genotypic resistance assessment1 2 3 Although initially the gene was thought to present the most powerful phylogenetic signal it had been argued that some fragments were too brief and/or variable for the GW842166X sturdy analysis4. (bioinf.org)
  • Within the last couple of years the raising option of HIV entire genome sequences provides permitted the evaluation of other hereditary regions which includes raised debate about whether full-length genome trees and shrubs should be utilized or which viral genes supply the greatest trees. (bioinf.org)
  • In spite of their broad abundance, viruses, in particular bacteriophages, remain largely unknown since only about 20% of sequences obtained from viral community DNA surveys could be annotated by comparison with public databases. (mdpi.com)
  • 6 This capacity limitation is not a major problem with many diseases being targeted and can sometimes be circumvented by minimizing promoter and ITR sequences or by the use of mini-genes of expression targets. (cellculturedish.com)
  • VGO (Viral Genome Organizer) VGO is a Java-based interface used for viewing and searching viral genome sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • VGO can also be used to identify related genes across multiple sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • JDotter can both access pre-processed dotplots of the genome and gene (DNA or protein) sequences available in the VBRC database, and take user input for generation of new dotplots. (wikipedia.org)
  • This would suggest that either an as of yet unidentified virus present in the oral tumour samples is not eliciting a typical immune response, or that there are no novel viral sequences or viruses present in the oral tumours examined. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Moreover, it says C3DNA avoids triggering an immune response, because it does not contain unintended viral or bacterial sequences. (biopharma-reporter.com)
  • Current diagnostic PCR assays target a variety of SARS CoV-2 genes and the vast majority target sequences in regions of the SARS CoV-2 genome that are highly conserved. (who.int)
  • For some pathogens, consideration may need to be given to the presence of mutations in targeted gene sequences or proteins. (who.int)
  • For instance, due to their genetic flexibility, viruses have developed various viral proteins and non-coding RNAs to interrupt several checkpoints of cGAS-STING. (frontiersin.org)
  • To do this, we examine the non-redundant viral diversity stored in public databases, predict proteins in genomes lacking such information, and used all annotated and predicted proteins to identify potential protein domains. (mdpi.com)
  • Expression cassettes are expressed within the cell resulting in viral proteins and a genomic ssDNA containing the expression cassette for the therapeutic gene(s). (cellculturedish.com)
  • hGH was also detected in the media from HSVhGH-transduced cells, showing that proteins coded for by foreign genes are not only expressed by transduced cells but are also secreted. (elsevierpure.com)
  • For example, modifying a chemical reaction called methylation can change the function of a gene, causing it to increase or decrease production of certain proteins or to produce different kinds of proteins. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A ribbon diagram showing a portion of the protein shell of an adeno-associated virus used for delivering gene therapies. (nist.gov)
  • ROCKVILLE, Md. - The U.S. Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute for Innovation in Manufacturing Biopharmaceuticals (NIIMBL) and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) have announced a research collaboration to assess analytical methods and develop standards for adeno-associated virus (AAV), an important mechanism for delivering gene therapies. (nist.gov)
  • AAVs are particularly useful for gene therapies because they are not known to cause human disease and cannot replicate on their own. (nist.gov)
  • And it will support the development of promising new gene therapies that will greatly improve peoples' lives. (nist.gov)
  • In general, there are two types of gene therapies, namely ex-vivo and in-vivo , Chaudhary points out. (biopharminternational.com)
  • Cell and gene therapies have drawn huge interest from manufacturers, investors and developers, but still face manufacturing bottlenecks. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Cell and gene therapies have drawn huge interest from manufacturers, investors and developers alike. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Cell and gene therapies have drawn huge interest from manufacturers, investors and developers alike, but their developers still face manufacturing bottlenecks due to a lack of manufacturing facilities with the relevant equipment, know-how or raw materials. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • They could therefore make cell and gene therapies cheaper and improve their uptake with healthcare providers and patients. (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • But the typical method for delivering gene therapies to specific tissues in the body can be complicated and may cause troubling side effects. (genetherapynet.com)
  • With the number of successfully approved gene therapies increasing, the sector has moved from hype to hope. (labiotech.eu)
  • One of the key ingredients of gene therapies is the viral vector, which is used to transfer a gene of interest into a target cell. (labiotech.eu)
  • For instance, compared to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for which the regulatory environment is well understood, the regulatory landscape for gene therapies remains largely unclear. (labiotech.eu)
  • Significant advances have been made in the area of gene therapy where the adeno associated virus (AAV) sub-classes have emerged as the vector of choice for many of these therapies due to improved safety and efficacy. (insights.bio)
  • While the majority of AAV-based gene therapies are still in early and mid-phase, large scale manufacturing platform technologies including downstream purification are a challenge the field faces to meet market demands. (insights.bio)
  • For all practical purposes, a viral vector is a genetic element wrapped in its own transfection reagent, which makes transfection titrations possible (e.g., dosage responses) and highly effective. (biopharminternational.com)
  • Could gene therapy capacity crunch be solved by non-viral transfection? (pharmaceutical-technology.com)
  • Ultimately, electroporation exhibits a high transfection efficiency in many cell types, which is highly desirable for tissue engineering applications, but electroporation and other physical non-viral gene delivery methods are still limited by poor cell viability. (ku.edu)
  • A large interlaboratory study of adeno-associated virus (AAV), an important tool in gene therapy, will be led by USP and NIST in collaboration with NIIMBL. (nist.gov)
  • In order to address these concerns, we aimed to improve non-viral gene transfer and genome editing tools as an effective, safe and broadly applicable alternative to viral delivery methods for T-cell engineering. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • The commercial viability of other virus types also continues to be explored, particularly for treatments that require a larger payload, transient expression, or insertion of a gene of interest in the genome. (biopharminternational.com)
  • This precision bred, proof-of-concept animal provides the first evidence that intentional genome alterations in the CD46 gene may reduce the burden of BVDV-associated diseases in cattle and is consistent with our stepwise, in vitro and ex vivo experiments with cell lines and matched fetal clones. (unl.edu)
  • The Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center (VBRC) is an online resource providing access to a database of curated viral genomes and a variety of tools for bioinformatic genome analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These programs serve a variety of bioinformatic analysis functions (whole- or subgenome alignments, genome display, and several types of gene/protein sequence analysis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Users can search the available data by a number of criteria related to genome, gene, or ortholog group characteristics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional analysis tools such as BLAST searches, genome maps, genome or gene alignment, phylogenetic trees, etc. are provided. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with a graphical representation of the selected VBRC (or user-supplied) genome, the program displays information relevant to a genome of interest, including its genes, ORFs and start/stop codons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenovirus DNA : the viral genome and its expression / edited by Walter Doerfler. (who.int)
  • Mutations in the BRAF gene are the most common cause of cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Additional gene mutations in cells within the nevus after birth can lead to melanoma in people with giant congenital melanocytic nevus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At least two mutations in the BRAF gene have been found to cause Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (formerly called LEOPARD syndrome). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The BRAF gene mutations change single amino acids in the BRAF protein: One mutation replaces the amino acid threonine with the amino acid proline at position 241 (written as Thr241Pro or T241P) and the other mutation replaces the amino acid leucine with the amino acid phenylalanine at position 245 (written as Leu245Phe or L245F). (medlineplus.gov)
  • ABCA4-related retinopathies are associated with mutations in the ABCA4 gene, more than 900 of which have been described, said the developer. (biopharma-reporter.com)
  • Some mutations in the S gene may lead to changes in the spike protein which result in inhibition of contact and entry of the virus into human cells, however in the case of the VOC, they contain mutations in the S gene that enhance the process of contact and entry into human cells, increasing transmissibility of the virus. (who.int)
  • Currently, manufacturers are focusing on and targeting assays to mutations in the S gene. (who.int)
  • Viral vector systems are gutted viruses where the packaging signals (e.g., the genetic signals that target the wrapping into the viral particles) are fused to the genes of interest (the payload), and the remaining necessary elements are placed on separate genetic elements, often three or more, says Carsten Carstens, senior scientist, R&D, Agilent Technologies. (biopharminternational.com)
  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the most important viruses affecting the health and well-being of bovine species throughout the world. (unl.edu)
  • In order to shed some light into this genetic dark matter we expanded the search of orthologous groups as potential markers to viral taxonomy from bacteriophages and included eukaryotic viruses, establishing a set of 31,150 ViPhOGs (Eukaryotic Viruses and Phages Orthologous Groups). (mdpi.com)
  • The VBRC covers the following viruses: Poxviridae Asfarviridae The VBRC database stores viral bioinformatic data on three levels: Whole genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene therapy uses modified viruses or other technologies to deliver therapeutic genes to cells or tissues to address genetic diseases at their source. (ucb.com)
  • Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • The cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway is a critical defender to sense various pathogens and trigger innate immunity of mammalian cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the detection of viral pathogens does not always indicate active disease. (medscape.com)
  • Viral cultures are still the criterion standard for most viral pathogens, but they take a long time to complete. (medscape.com)
  • New tools for editing genetic code offer hope for new treatments for inherited diseases, some cancers, and even stubborn viral infections. (genetherapynet.com)
  • Gene therapy is the approach that designed to introduce a genetic material (DNA or RNA) as a medicament to the patient. (foxchase.org)
  • Although gene therapy is defined as any treatment that changes gene function, it is often thought of as the insertion of normal genes into the cells of a person who lacks such normal genes because of a specific genetic disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Genetic diagnostic technologies are scientific methods that are used to understand and evaluate an organism's genes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Exploding the gene myth : how genetic information is produced and manipulated by scientists, physicians, employers, insurance companies, educators, and law enforcers / Ruth Hubbard and Elijah Wald. (who.int)
  • This novel approach dramatically increased stable gene transfer rate and cell viability and resulted in higher yield of CAR+ T cells without the need of long ex vivo expansion to generate therapeutic doses of CAR+ T cells. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Consequently, the approach formed on viral-based targeted gene delivery of DAI, RIPK3 and MLKL, can accomplish the therapeutic response and reduce the volume of tumor or virally-infected cells. (foxchase.org)
  • AAV vector components and therapeutic gene are transfected, usually as separate expression cassettes from different plasmids. (cellculturedish.com)
  • AAV gene therapy has broad therapeutic implications for a vast array of severe diseases. (ucb.com)
  • Members of the human herpesvirus (HHV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) families cause the most common primary viral infections of the oral cavity. (medscape.com)
  • Nonetheless, many other viral infections can affect the oral cavity in humans, either as localized or systemic infections. (medscape.com)
  • See Cutaneous Manifestations of HIV Disease and Cutaneous Manifestations of Hepatitis C for information on these viral infections. (medscape.com)
  • In HHV-1 and HHV-2 oral infections, viral replication within the oral epithelium may cause lysis of epithelial cells, with vesicle formation. (medscape.com)
  • Our results expanded knowledge about the clinical burden of enterovirus in Vietnam and underscore the challenges of identifying a plausible viral pathogen in CSF of patients with CNS infections. (cdc.gov)
  • To counter this replication, human cells express cytoplasmic RIG-I-like receptors, which serve as the first line of defense against viral infections. (pasteur.fr)
  • They showed that the same type of endogenous RNA is involved in triggering innate immunity for different infections, which indicates that this mechanism has been highly conserved during evolution to protect against viral infections. (pasteur.fr)
  • Because of the difficulty in distinguishing between the various etiologic agents, both viral and bacterial, causing pneumonia, the workup for symptomatic patients with an infiltrate on chest radiograph should include laboratory studies. (medscape.com)
  • Metagenomic profiling revealed 8302 bacterial, 395 archaeal, 744 fungal, 524 protist and 1103 viral species in classroom dust. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast, we saw no evidence of either a viral or bacterial signature in the oral tumours examined. (elsevierpure.com)
  • However, there is no single non-viral gene delivery strategy that "fits-all" cell types and tissues. (ku.edu)
  • ABSTRACT Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Interleukin (IL)-28B gene, namely rs12979860, could predict response to pegylated interferon--ribavirin (PR) therapy in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1)-infected patients. (who.int)
  • In both cases, cells may be treated either with a viral or non-viral vector carrying the corrected copy of the gene. (biopharminternational.com)
  • Carstens points out that the greatest limitation of viral vector systems is their tropism, that is, the type of cells that a virus will naturally infect. (biopharminternational.com)
  • According to the protocol, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania's Institute for Human Gene Therapy used an 'E1-deleted, E2A-temperature-sensitive' adenovirus vector to infect liver cells with the normal OTC gene, which codes for a urea-cycle enzyme that removes excess nitrogen from the body. (nature.com)
  • Sustained expression of the gene is therefore impossible, and the immune system may destroy infected cells-the very cells targeted for help. (nature.com)
  • The BRAF gene mutation that causes this condition is somatic, meaning that it occurs during a person's lifetime and is present only in certain cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The present review focuses on questions related to efficient viral dissemination in tumor masses and how to sustain a high level of oncolytic virus targeting of tumor cells only. (eurekaselect.com)
  • It was previously believed that these receptors were only sensitive to viral RNA, but this new study shows that cells are capable of producing endogenous RNA molecules that are also able to activate the receptors. (pasteur.fr)
  • It is therefore an active process in which the host reacts to viral presence in its cells and uses endogenous RNA to induce an immune response. (pasteur.fr)
  • Genes and Chromosomes Genes are segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) that contain the code for a specific protein that functions in one or more types of cells in the body or the code for functional ribonucleic. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sometimes this method does not work because the liposomes are not absorbed into the person's cells, the new gene does not work as intended, or the new gene is eventually lost. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our data conclusively demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 is capable of infecting and replicating in macrophages within the coronary vasculature of patients with COVID-19," write the authors, adding that SARS-CoV-2 preferentially replicates in foam cells compared to other macrophages, suggesting these cells "might act as a reservoir of SARS-CoV-2 viral debris in the atherosclerotic plaque. (medscape.com)
  • Viral pneumonia can be diagnosed by isolation and identification of the pathogen through viral culture. (medscape.com)
  • Intergalactic's novel platform bypasses these drawbacks and enables local delivery of non-viral gene therapy, representing a potentially transformative approach for addressing these blinding diseases," said the Cambridge, Massachusetts based firm. (biopharma-reporter.com)
  • Miss Mathis is an epidemiologist in the Division of Viral Diseases at the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • Preventable Diseases Branch in the Division of Viral Diseases in the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • Branch, where he oversees diagnostic and clinical serologic testing for measles and mumps in the Division of Viral Diseases in the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases at CDC. (cdc.gov)
  • In the AAV system, viral particles containing the transgene assemble in the cytoplasm. (cellculturedish.com)
  • A 20-minute isolated perfusion using 5 × 10 6 viral particles resulted in expression of the β-galactosidase gene in the rodent livers 72 hours later without histological signs of tissue injury. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Today, a number of treatments have been approved, such as Spark Therapeutics' LUXTURNA , the first FDA approved in vivo gene therapy, or Novartis' Zolgensma, which gained US approval in 2019 and European approval in March 2020. (labiotech.eu)
  • Intergalactic Therapeutics, a startup focused on non-viral gene therapy, reports positive preclinical results for its lead program, IG-002, addressing all forms of ABCA4-related retinopathies. (biopharma-reporter.com)
  • Of these, AAVs have gained much attention as a gene delivery vehicle and are being explored for their commerical viability. (biopharminternational.com)
  • Overcoming the challenge of poor cell viability in highly efficient physical non-viral techniques is the key to using gene delivery to enhance tissue engineering applications. (ku.edu)
  • Collectively, the work covered in this dissertation disseminates non-invasive, gene-delivery tools for NHP researchers, and lays the groundwork for further development of more specific and efficacious AAVs that access the NHP brain. (caltech.edu)
  • With these data, we have clearly demonstrated the feasibility of electro-transfer delivery of non-viral C3DNA expressing the full-length human ABCA4 gene to relevant cell types in the retina. (biopharma-reporter.com)
  • They can work by several mechanisms: they can replace a gene causing a medical problem with a healthy copy of the gene, add genes that help fight against or treat disease, or turn off the disease-causing gene(s). (ucb.com)
  • The possibility that viral agents other than HPV could contribute to the development of oral cavity SCC should be given consideration, especially given the association of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with nasopharyngeal cancer. (elsevierpure.com)
  • We used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) studies to compare the expression levels of genes that may act as indicators of persistent stimulation by viral antigen in both oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers. (elsevierpure.com)
  • A unique aspect of this resource relative to other genomic databases is its grouping of all annotated genes into ortholog groups (i.e. protein families) based on pre-run BLASTP sequence similarity searches. (wikipedia.org)
  • A different method of gene therapy uses antisense technology. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In antisense technology, normal genes are not inserted. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Using antisense technology, modified RNA molecules can combine with specific parts of the DNA, preventing the affected genes from functioning. (msdmanuals.com)
  • they also probed the antisense strand of the S gene ( S antisense ), which is only produced during viral replication. (medscape.com)
  • Cancer gene therapy is the most promising and active field in gene therapy treatment. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Our study shows that phylogenetically informed viral movements can be used to elucidate the factors that impact virus dispersal, opening new opportunities for a better understanding of the impact of host species and environmental conditions on the spatial dynamics of rapidly evolving populations. (pasteur.fr)
  • We detected 8 viral species in 107/204 (52.4%) of CSF samples. (cdc.gov)
  • The structure of this endogenous RNA mimics viral RNA so that it can be recognized by RIG-I receptors. (pasteur.fr)
  • Almkvist O, Basun H, Wagner SL, Rowe BA, Wahlund LO, Lannfelt L (1997) Cerebrospinal fluid levels of alpha-secretase-cleaved soluble amyloid precursor protein mirror cognition in a Swedish family with Alzheimer disease and a gene mutation. (springer.com)
  • At least one mutation in the BRAF gene has been identified in some people with Erdheim-Chester disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The V600E mutation (described above) in the BRAF gene has also been found to cause giant congenital melanocytic nevus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Wuhan strain will continue to arise, yet not all viral variants generated through mutation of the virus are important or have immediate public health relevance. (who.int)
  • The objective here is to prevent formation of a replication-competent viral particle," Carstens emphasizes. (biopharminternational.com)
  • Here, we performed an in-depth transcriptional profiling of the infected mouse, tree shrew and human TGs, and reveal the differences in viral gene expression patterns. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumours displayed gene expression patterns indicative of a viral signature and that HPV-negative oropharyngeal tumours do not display similar expression patterns. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Most research on HIV molecular epidemiology today use the part of the viral gene which has the protease (PR) and invert transcriptase (RT) coding locations. (bioinf.org)
  • HIV-1 gp120 gene, and related protease and reverse transcrip- were reviewed to exclude persons with existing HIV diagnoses. (cdc.gov)
  • At the first stage of viral invasion, virus-derived double-stranded DNAs (dsDNAs) trigger the conformational change and activation of cGAS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we apply new analytical methods, based on phylogeographic reconstructions of viral lineage movement, to undertake a comparative evolutionary-epidemiological study of the spatial dynamics of rabies virus (RABV) epidemics in different hosts and habitats. (pasteur.fr)
  • Extracted samples underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for selected gene regions of the SARS-CoV-2 virus nucleocapsid and the housekeeping gene human RNase P as an internal control. (cdc.gov)
  • The goal of this level is to "allow for quick comparison of similar genes across a given virus family. (wikipedia.org)
  • The capsid is the protective shell of the virus enclosing the gene of interest. (labiotech.eu)
  • The S gene is one of the structural genes of the virus which encodes for a protein that sits on the surface of the SARS CoV-2 virus. (who.int)
  • Cualquiera de los procesos mediante los cuales factores nucleares, citoplásmicos o intercelulares influyen en el control diferencial de la acción génica en los virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • RÉSUMÉ Les polymorphismes mononucléotidiques du gène de l' Interleukine (IL)-28B , en l'occurence le rs12979860, permettent de prédire la réponse au traitement par interféron- pégylé associé à la ribavirine chez des patients infectés par le virus de l'hépatite C de génotype 1. (who.int)
  • 4 comparés à 22 sujets ayant connu une clairance spontanée du virus de l'hépatite C et à 70 volontaires en bonne santé. (who.int)
  • Herein, we have summarized newly emerging hot spots of cGAS-STING regulation in viral evasion and summarized frontier advances in relevance processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several studies have got previously contacted this issue by analysing HIV transmitting networks where the timing and path of transmitting had GW842166X been known8 9 10 11 They possess suggested which the combination of several gene supplies the greatest estimation of the real tree. (bioinf.org)
  • This study investigated whether immune gene expression could identify gene markers that discriminate athletes with a higher prevalence of URS. (edu.au)
  • GENATLAS : un catalogue de la carte des gènes = a catalogue of mapped genes and other markers / Jean Frézal, Marie-Sophie Baule, Thérèse de Fougerolle. (who.int)
  • catalogue of mapped genes and other markers. (who.int)
  • Human Gene Therapy Methods 23:18-28. (springer.com)
  • METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis of elite Australian athletes from various sports investigated whether athletes retrospectively reporting URS for two days or more in a month (n=38), had an altered immune gene expression profile compared with asymptomatic athletes (n=33). (edu.au)
  • Traditional purification methods for viral vector manufacturing usually involve multiple steps of chromatography, such as ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction, which leads to cumulative yield loss and ultimately increased cost. (insights.bio)
  • Researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have addressed many of those problems by packing a gene-editing payload into a tiny, customizable, synthetic nanocapsule. (genetherapynet.com)
  • The data demonstrate for the first time ever that a single subretinal administration of a DNA payload encoding the human ABCA4 gene resulted in durable - 12-month - expression of human ABCA4 protein in adult pig retinas, said the US biotech. (biopharma-reporter.com)
  • Transduction at a high efficiency and robust levels of transgene expression are desired outcomes in viral vector applications. (cellculturedish.com)
  • Tissue from the upper or lower respiratory tract, sputum samples, and samples obtained by nasopharyngeal washing, bronchoalveolar lavage, and biopsy may be submitted for viral culture. (medscape.com)
  • We sequenced the transcriptome of infected TGs from tree shrews and mice, and 4 human donors, then examined viral genes expression up to 58 days in infected TGs from mouse and tree shrew, and compare the latency data with that in human TGs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Find that Viral miRNAs Mimic Human. (genengnews.com)
  • The study found evidence of SARS-CoV-2 replication in all analyzed human autopsy coronaries regardless of their pathological classification, although viral replication was highest in early-stage lesions that progress to more advanced atherosclerotic plaques. (medscape.com)
  • Effect of serotype 5 adenoviral and serotype 2 adeno- associated viral vector-mediated gene transfer to salivary glands on the composition of saliva. (bvsalud.org)
  • The very best and bottom level limitations from the containers represent the initial and third quartiles respectively … Table 1 Percentage of the utmost likelihood trees and shrubs splits distributed to the real tree regarding to gene and sampling insurance coverage level. (bioinf.org)