Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.ARNTL Transcription Factors: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. They combine with CLOCK PROTEINS to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation.Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, accessed 2/1/2008)Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Gastrula: The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.Gastrulation: A process of complicated morphogenetic cell movements that reorganizes a bilayer embryo into one with three GERM LAYERS and specific orientation (dorsal/ventral; anterior/posterior). Gastrulation describes the germ layer development of a non-mammalian BLASTULA or that of a mammalian BLASTOCYST.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Chad: A republic in central Africa, east of NIGER, west of SUDAN and south of LIBYA. Its capital is N'Djamena.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)North CarolinaHydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Labyrinth Supporting Cells: Cells forming a framework supporting the sensory AUDITORY HAIR CELLS in the organ of Corti. Lateral to the medial inner hair cells, there are inner pillar cells, outer pillar cells, Deiters cells, Hensens cells, Claudius cells, Boettchers cells, and others.HandbooksBooksPest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Cartoons as Topic: Images used to comment on such things as contemporary events, social habits, or political trends; usually executed in a broad or abbreviated manner.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.SwedenUnited StatesNerve Tissue ProteinsHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Receptors, Virus: Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Within the cell cycle, there is a stringent set of regulations known as the cell cycle control system that controls the timing ... Three methods of preventing Cdk activity are found in G1 phase: inhibitory gene regulatory proteins suppress major cyclin genes ... the way this is phrased it is unclear whether it is transcription of the gene or translation of the mRNA gene product that is ... it is generally because gene regulatory proteins of the E2F family have become unrestrained and increase G1/S cyclin gene ...
Görke B, Vogel J (2008). "Noncoding RNA control of the making and breaking of sugars". Genes Dev. 22 (21): 2914-25. doi:10.1101 ... GlmZ (formally known as SraJ) is a small non-coding RNA (ncRNA). It is the functional product of a gene which is not translated ... The GlmZ sRNA has been shown to positively control the synthesis of GlmS mRNA. GlmZ is regulated by a related sRNA called GlmY ... During this screen 14 novel ncRNA genes were identified, including SraB, SraC, SraD and SraG. The expression of SraJ was ...
... and screened for genes that simultaneously affected cell cycle and cell polarity controls, inducing a filamentous yeast budding ... The other paralogous genes are known BCAR1 (p130Cas), EFS (Sin), and CASS4 (HEPL). There is no detectable NEDD9-related gene in ... In vertebrates, it is a member of a 4-gene family, with the other paralogous genes known as BCAR1 (p130Cas), EFS (Sin), and ... Gene. 567 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1016/J.GENE.2015.04.086. PMC 4458429 . PMID 25967390. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ...
"Whi3 Binds the MRNA of the G1 Cyclin CLN3 to Modulate the Cell Fate in Budding Yeast." Genes and Dev (2001): 2803-808. "CLN1/ ... The Cell Cycle: Principles of Cell Control. New Science Press Ltd., London, 2007; pp 32. Di Talia et al. Daughter-Specific ... Genes & Development. 8: 1058-070. doi:10.1101/gad.8.9.1058. PMID 7926787. Morgan, David. ... Transcription Factors Regulate Cell Size Control in Budding Yeast, PLoS Biology 2009 Gari, Eloi, Tom Volpe, and Hongyin Wang. " ...
Görke B, Vogel J (2008). "Noncoding RNA control of the making and breaking of sugars". Genes Dev. 22 (21): 2914-25. doi:10.1101 ... The GlmY RNA gene is present in Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, Yersinia pestis and Salmonella species, where it is found ... The GlmY RNA (formally known as tke1) family consists of a number of bacterial RNA genes of around 167 bases in length. ... Genes & Development. 27 (5): 552-64. doi:10.1101/gad.210112.112. PMC 3605468 . PMID 23475961. Hobbs EC, Astarita JL, Storz G ( ...
"Entrez Gene: HDAC6 histone deacetylase 6". Cook C, Gendron TF, Scheffel K, Carlomagno Y, Dunmore J, DeTure M, Petrucelli L (5 ... Wolffe AP (1997). "Transcriptional control. Sinful repression". Nature. 387 (6628): 16-7. doi:10.1038/387016a0. PMID 9139815. ... HDAC6 human gene details in the UCSC Genome Browser. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of ... Mutations in this gene have been associated to Alzheimer's disease. Over expression of this protein correlates with ...
... is a candidate tumor suppressor gene". Genes & Development. 9: 650-662. Lee MH, Reynisdottir I, Massague J (1995). "Cloning of ... Morgan DO (2007). The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. Primers in Biology. Sherr CJ, Roberts JM (1999). "CDK inhibitors: ... Fero ML, Randel E, Gurley KE, Roberts JM, Kemp CJ (1998). "The murine gene p27Kip1 is haplo-insufficient for tumour suppression ... Genes & Development. 11: 973-983. Chang TS, Kim MJ, Ryoo K, Park J, Eom SJ, Shim J, Nakayama KI, Nakayama K, Tomita M, ...
Sato, M.; Sato, K.; Nishikawa, S.; Hirata, A.; Kato, J.; Nakano, A. (1999). "The yeast RER2 gene, identified by endoplasmic ... Poznanski, J.; Szkopinska, A. (2007). "Precise bacterial polyprenol length control fails in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". ... Implication for their distinct physiological roles in dolichol synthesis". Genes Cells. 6 (6): 495-506. doi:10.1046/j.1365- ...
... proteins are a family of transcription factors which through control of gene expression are important regulators of cellular ... The Mef2 gene is widely expressed in all branches of eukaryotes from yeast to humans. While Drosophila has a single Mef2 gene, ... In addition, Mef2 genes are indicated in activating gene expression to aid in sprouting angiogenesis, the formation of new ... Mef2 is a critical regulator in heart development and cardiac gene expression. In vertebrates, there are four genes in the Mef2 ...
... caretaker genes), as well as in genes that are directly controlling cellular proliferation (gatekeeper genes). Genetic ... One such locale is the Ig genes. In a pre-B cell, the region consists of all V, D, and J segments. During development of the B ... An example is the Saccharomyces pombe gene rad9 which arrests the cells in late S/G2 phase in the presence of DNA damage caused ... While a mutation or epimutation in a DNA repair gene, itself, would not confer a selective advantage, such a repair defect may ...
Massagué J, Chen YG (March 2000). "Controlling TGF-beta signaling". Genes Dev. 14 (6): 627-44. PMID 10733523. Ulloa L, ... Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes -TGF beta signaling pathway map Netpath - A curated resource of signal transduction ... Follistatin also is implicated in prostate cancers where mutations in its gene may preventing it from acting on activin which ... complexes accumulate in the nucleus where they act as transcription factors and participate in the regulation of target gene ...
Gene orientation depends on the direction of transcription and can be of three types: head-to-head, head-to-tail and tail-to- ... Without cohesin, the cell would be unable to control sister chromatid segregation since there would be no way of ensuring ... Cohesin binding along the chromosomal DNA is considered to be dynamic and its location changes based on gene transcription, ... There are three possible scenarios: Cohesin location is influenced by the orientation of neighboring genes and it is most ...
Stein, AJ; Fuchs G; Fu C; Wolin SL; Reinisch KM (2005). "Structural insights into RNA quality control: The Ro autoantigen binds ... Genes Dev. 14 (7): 777-782. doi:10.1101/gad.14.7.777. PMC 316496 . PMID 10766734. Chen, X.; Taylor, D. W.; Fowler, C. C.; Galan ... Reinisch, KM; Wolin SL (2007). "Emerging themes in non-coding RNA quality control". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 17 ( ... Genes Dev. 21 (11): 1328-39. doi:10.1101/gad.1548207. PMC 1877746 . PMID 17510283. Christov CP, Trivier E, Krude T (March 2008 ...
Inoki K, Ouyang H, Li Y, Guan KL (2005). "Signaling by target of rapamycin proteins in cell growth control". Microbiol. Mol. ... 2004). "Dissociation of raptor from mTOR is a mechanism of rapamycin-induced inhibition of mTOR function". Genes Cells. 9 (4): ... 2002). "Two TOR complexes, only one of which is rapamycin sensitive, have distinct roles in cell growth control". Mol. Cell. 10 ... 2004). "Mammalian TOR complex 2 controls the actin cytoskeleton and is rapamycin insensitive". Nat. Cell Biol. 6 (11): 1122-8. ...
Genes Immun. 14 (5): 336-45. doi:10.1038/gene.2013.29. PMC 3740552 . PMID 23698708. O'Brien CA (2010). "Control of RANKL gene ... RANKL is an apoptosis regulator gene, a binding partner of osteoprotegerin (OPG), a ligand for the receptor RANK and controls ... The overall control of bone remodeling is regulated by the binding of RANKL with its receptor or its decoy receptor, ... Since osteoblasts control the regulation of RANKL, the stimulation via cytokines and growth factors will then stimulate ...
Identification of Genes Involved in Cell Cycle Control, Apoptosis, and Early Development". Methods in Enymology. 283: 83-99. ... "Role of LXRs in Control of Lipogenesis". Genes & Development. 14 (22): 2831-8. doi:10.1101/gad.850400. PMC 317060 . PMID ... In 1997, Lustig invented a functional genomics approach to gene discovery and used it to identify a new member of the T-box ... Lustig, KD; Kroll, K; Sun, E; Ramos, R; Elmendorf, H; Kirschner, M (October 1996). "A Xenopus Nodal-Related Gene That Acts in ...
"TEAD mediates YAP-dependent gene induction and growth control". Genes & Development. 22 (14): 1962-71. doi:10.1101/gad.1664408 ... Laloux I, Dubois E, Dewerchin M, Jacobs E (July 1990). "TEC1, a gene involved in the activation of Ty1 and Ty1-mediated gene ... Zhao B, Li L, Lei Q, Guan KL (May 2010). "The Hippo-YAP pathway in organ size control and tumorigenesis: an updated version". ... It has been shown in HeLa cells that TEAD2 and SRC induce gene expression. SRF (Serum response factor) and TEAD2 interact ...
Edwards PA, Kennedy MA, Mak PA (April 2002). "LXRs; oxysterol-activated nuclear receptors that regulate genes controlling lipid ... The human LXRα gene is located on chromosome 11p11.2, while the LXRβ gene is located on chromosome 19q13.3. While the ... "Role of LXRs in control of lipogenesis". Genes Dev. 14 (22): 2831-8. doi:10.1101/gad.850400. PMC 317060 . PMID 11090131. ... "Regulation of mouse sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c gene (SREBP-1c) by oxysterol receptors, LXRα and LXRβ". Genes ...
... (ClpP) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CLPP gene. This protein is ... Luce, K; Weil, AC; Osiewacz, HD (2010). "Mitochondrial protein quality control systems in aging and disease". Advances in ... "Entrez Gene: CLPP ClpP caseinolytic peptidase, ATP-dependent, proteolytic subunit homolog (E. coli)". Katayama-Fujimura, Y; ... MEROPS entry for ClpP Human CLPP genome location and CLPP gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Molecular and Cellular ...
Buckingham, M; Rigby, P (February 2014). "Gene Regulatory Networks and Transcriptional Mechanisms that Control Myogenesis". ... "A KAP1 phosphorylation switch controls MyoD function during skeletal muscle differentiation". Genes & Development. 29 (5): 513- ... "Entrez Gene: MYOD1 myogenic differentiation 1". Rudnicki MA, Schnegelsberg PN, Stead RH, Braun T, Arnold HH, Jaenisch R (Dec ... NFATc1 controls this balance by physical inhibition of MyoD in slow-twitch muscle fiber types. The histone deacetyltransferase ...
Massague J, Chen YG (2000). "Controlling TGF-beta signaling". Genes Dev. 14 (6): 627-44. PMID 10733523. Lechleider RJ; Hemmati ...
"Entrez Gene: HDAC8 histone deacetylase 8". Haberland M, Mokalled MH, Montgomery RL, Olson EN (July 2009). "Epigenetic control ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to class I of the histone deacetylase/acuc/apha family. It has histone deacetylase ... Histone deacetylase 8 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HDAC8 gene. Histones play a critical role in ... Gallinari P, Di Marco S, Jones P, Pallaoro M, Steinkühler C (March 2007). "HDACs, histone deacetylation and gene transcription ...
The tumor suppressor gene TP53 has also been shown to be regulated by a CPE. Cell lines that do not produce CPEB show lower ... Oocytes transcribe a large portion of their mRNA at one time and rely on other control mechanisms to determine the timing of ... One such gene is Myc. The level of production of the different CPEB proteins determines whether the expression of Myc leads to ... A study done on mRNA regulation during oogenesis in Drosophila has revealed that the CPE and CPE binding proteins help control ...
"The histone demethylase UTX enables RB-dependent cell fate control". Genes & Development. 24 (4): 327-32. doi:10.1101/gad. ... Deletion of the gene for KDM1A can have effects on the growth and differentiation of embryonic stem cells and can lead to ... Deletion of this gene leads to maternal effect lethality in mice. Orthologs of KDM1 in D. melanogaster and C. elegans appear to ... Other gene expression data has also suggested KDM4A, KDM4B, and KDM4C are over-expressed in prostate cancer. KDM5 The KDM5 ...
An ancient gene duplication event of a eukaryotic RecA gene and subsequent mutation has been proposed as a likely origin of the ... The level of precision in crossover is controlled by the sequence context of the two recombining strands of RNA: sequences rich ... Also called gene targeting, the method is especially common in yeast and mouse genetics. The gene targeting method in knockout ... Lin Z, Kong H, Nei M, Ma H (July 2006). "Origins and evolution of the recA/RAD51 gene family: evidence for ancient gene ...
Machens CK, Romo R, Brody CD (2005). "Flexible control of mutual inhibition: a neural model of two-interval discrimination". ... aims to construct a biophysically detailed simulation of a cortical column on the Blue Gene supercomputer. ...
... the genes DNA must first be converted into whats known as messenger RNA. These RNA molecules are the instruction manuals that ... In order for a gene to create a protein, ... In order for a gene to create a protein, the genes DNA must ... So the theophylline riboswitch allows us to switch a gene on or off at will and see what effects result," explains Ralph Bock ... By way of example, the Potsdam-based scientists modified the genes of the tobacco plant such that it was able to produce large ...
"We found that some 25 percent of the genes in our model organism appear to be under clock control. I wasnt suspecting anything ... Researchers at the University of Georgia report that the number of genes under control of in living things than suspected only ... The teams new discoveries about the extent of genes under the control of the biological clock and the utility of Computing ... Before the current research, only 16 clock-controlled genes had been discovered in Neurospora in more than 40 years of research ...
... affects gene expression. Now, Whitehead Institute researchers present the first evidence that DNA structure does indeed have ... such effects -- in this case finding a link between chromosome structure and the expression and repression of key genes. ... Special chromosomal structures control key genes. Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research. Journal. Cell. Funder. National ... "In the past, there have been all kinds of ideas around how the structure might affect gene control, but now one has been ...
... Cell. 1993 Jun 18;73(6):1137-53. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90643-5. ... We focus on 5 genes required for specific aspects of pathway (beaten path, stranded, and short stop) and target (walkabout and ... The different classes of mutant phenotypes suggest that neural specificity is controlled by a hierarchy of molecular mechanisms ...
Now a Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientist has outlined how the better control will come through genetics. ... Enhanced wheat curl mite control found in genes. Texas A&M AgriLife Communications ... Cultural control is not very effective because the wind can spread the mites and thus devastating diseases such as wheat streak ... IMAGE: TAM 112, on the right, exhibits wheat curl mite resistance compared to a control. view more ...
... genes with similar expression patterns in the early gastrulae of several different vertebrate species have been identified. The ... Control of vertebrate gastrulation: inducing signals and responding genes Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993 Aug;3(4):655-61. doi: ... Recently, genes with similar expression patterns in the early gastrulae of several different vertebrate species have been ... It has yet to be established exactly how these genes are activated in the correct spatial patterns and what their functions ...
... s oxidizing property as a way to control gene expression, using the gene that gives fireflies their "glow," or luminescence, as ... "The exciting aspects of this synthetic gene switch are that you can use it not only as a way to detect the presence of hydrogen ... They designed a molecule that was sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and enabled expression of the firefly luciferase gene in live ... When hydrogen peroxide was present, the luciferase gene was expressed, causing the cell to glow. ...
The bithorax gene complex in Drosophilacontains a minimum of eight genes that seem to code for substances controlling levels of ... The bithorax gene complex in Drosophila contains a minimum of eight genes that seem to code for substances controlling levels ... Lewis E.B. (1978) A Gene Complex Controlling Segmentation in Drosophila. In: Lipshitz H.D. (eds) Genes, Development and Cancer ... The state of repression of at least four of these genes is controlled by cis-regulatory elements and a separate locus (Polycomb ...
It seems that the genes of Zebrafish have much in common with humans and scientists believe that studying the fish may help ... Tags: Albinism, Cancer, Eye, Fish, Gene, Genes, Genetic, Genetics, Genome, G-Protein, Hair, Mutation, Protein, Research, Skin, ... The findings suggest that this single gene controls up to 38% of the colour range in this mixed population. ... A team of researchers at Penn State University have found that one tiny change in a key gene plays a major role in determining ...
... lawn legs Lindane liquid concentrate live malathion methoxychlor mice mites moisture mouse Norwegian rat nozzle pest control ... gb-gplus-shareThe homeowners pest control handbook. ... The homeowners pest control handbook. Author. Gene B. Williams ... ... 0 Reviews ...
A system to control gene expression based on a destabilized form of Cre recombinase is reported. Drug-induced stabilization of ... Inducible control of gene expression with destabilized Cre. *Richard Sando III1, 2. *, Karsten Baumgaertel1. *, Simon Pieraut1 ... Acute manipulation of gene and protein function in the brain is essential for understanding the mechanisms of nervous system ... Here we describe a technique based on a destabilized Cre recombinase (DD-Cre) whose activity is controlled by the antibiotic ...
Destruction is what I do for fun No control of what I... ... Bad Genes Outta Control lyrics & video : No respect for ... No control of what I say No control of what I do Dont monitor my f**king life I wont stay in line for you Im outta control ... BAD GENES. Outta Control Lyrics. No respect for anything, No respect for anyone Theres no good thats left in me, Destruction ... Im outta control Mindless kids with no f**king sense Is what Im tired of always hearing I get this shit everyday, cuz of the ...
The cell cycle has checkpoints that allow genes to find problems in the cycle and prevent growth if something is wrong. Learn ... A variety of genes are involved in the control of cell growth and division. The cell cycle is the cells way of replicating ... When the cycle proceeds without control, cells can divide without order and accumulate genetic defects that can lead to a ... The cycle has checkpoints (also called restriction points), which allow certain genes to check for problems and halt the cycle ...
Gene controlling aging also linked to cancer. Published August 19, 2013. Fox News ... One of these variants was found in the TERC gene, which controls aging. In patients with this mutation, cancer cells were ... We know cancer often seems to ignore the usual controls over aging and cell death, and it will be fascinating to explore ...
Targets of homeotic gene control in Drosophila.. Gould AP1, Brookman JJ, Strutt DI, White RA. ... The homeotic gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) encodes homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine segmental identity in ... Thus, these transcripts may correspond to Ubx target genes involved in elaborating segment-specific developmental pathways. ...
... the gene and promoter being separated by a blocking sequence flanked on either side by specific excision sequences to a second ... the gene and promoter being separated by a blocking sequence flanked on either side by specific excision sequences, a second ... gene that encodes a recombinase specific for the specific excision sequences linked to a repressible promoter, and a third gene ... by hybridizing a first plant regenerated from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene ...
... gene that controls the behavior of other genes found within fat in the body, U.K. researchers found. ... A gene linked to diabetes and cholesterol is being called a master regulator ... A﻽ gene linked to diabetes and cholesterol is being called a "master regulator" gene that controls the behavior of other genes ... but until now they didnt know how it did this or how far-reaching its control of other genes was. ...
A single gene, called PHANTASTICA (PHAN), controls whether a plant makes feathery leaves like a tomato or umbrella-like leaves ... "It s a very surprising finding, that modifying one gene in the tomato alters the leaf from one form to another," said Neelima ... Controlling instabilities gives closer look at chemistry from hypersonic vehicles 24.04.2019 , University of Illinois College ... Sinha and colleagues found similar patterns of PHAN gene expression and leaf shape in live specimens of other plants from the ...
Few genes control neuronal function. March 15, 2012. The magenta-colored structures are nerve cells that use odorant receptor ... Alenius and his colleagues are the first to go through all of the fruit flys 753 gene regulatory genes, called transcription ... Expression of this receptor is controlled by the transcription factor E93. When E93 is removed, the neurons lose their ability ... HomeNewsFew genes control neuronal function. ... are not affected because they are controlled by other ...
Learning how genes are targeted and silenced may help researchers studying sex-specific diseases. ... Scientists unveil sex-linked control of genes. Many proteins interact with an RNA molecule called Xist to coat and silence one ... The genes for orange and black fur are on the X chromosome in cats. Therefore, a female cat can have a patchwork of both orange ... The "orange or black fur" gene is on the X chromosome, so a female cat can have a calico coat with both colors if "orange" and ...
We determined that the FIS1 gene is the same as MEDEA, a recently described gene related to the Polycomb-group gene Ez from ... Genes controlling fertilization-independent seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ming Luo, Pierre Bilodeau, Anna Koltunow ... Genes controlling fertilization-independent seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ming Luo, Pierre Bilodeau, Anna Koltunow ... Another FIS gene, FIS3, may be a homolog of another MES gene such as MES6 (a homolog of Extra sex combs in Drosophila) (28). ...
Control of Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 gene expression.. Fass E1, Groisman EA. ... that is essential for the expression of SPI-2 genes. Transcription of the horizontally acquired SPI-2 genes requires the ... Fis and IHF, on the contrary, are NAPs that have a positive effect on SPI-2 as well as SPI-1 gene expression. Transcription ... OmpR activates SPI-2 genes by binding to the promoter and inducing the expression of SpiR and SsrB. PhoP directly binds the ...
Scientists in Rochester have discovered a gene in fruit flies that is responsible for the evolution of these recombination ... By studying two species of fruit flies, they discovered a gene, MEI-218, that controls the rate of recombination. In a paper ... Scientists discover gene controlling genetic recombination rates. April 19, 2018 div#featured-post-image img { max-width:100%! ... During sexual reproduction, genes from both the mother and the father mix and mingle to produce a genetic combination unique to ...
Tags: AIDS, Antiretroviral, CD4, Cell, Drugs, Gene, Genes, Genome, HIV, HIV drugs, HIV/AIDS, Life science, Medicine, Pathogen, ... In a paper published in Molecular Cell, the team describes a map of the genes controlling HIV infection in human cells, which ... These genes would be overlooked in classic, single-gene disruption experiments, said Gordon. They confirm the potential of ... And so, instead of finding important genes one at a time, you can all at once identify multiple, distinct networks of genes ...
"Data-driven feedforward control for electroporation mediated gene delivery in gene therapy," IEEE Transactions on Control ... Optimal Control of Gene Mutation in DNA Replication. Juanyi Yu, Jr-Shin Li, and Tzyh-Jong Tarn ... D. Hristu-Varsakelis and W. S. Levine, Handbook of Networked and Embedded Control Systems, Birkhauser, 2005. ... J. Feng and H. C. Tuckwell, "Optimal control of neuronal activity," Physical Review Letters, vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 018101/1- ...
  • Researchers at the University of Georgia report that the number of genes under control of in living things than suspected only a few years ago. (
  • Arnold's team uncovered a remarkable 295 genes that are influenced by the biological clock""and that number could be dramatically higher, given the conservative controls the researchers put on their work. (
  • Whitehead Institute researchers present the first evidence that DNA scaffolding is responsible for enhancing and repressing gene expression. (
  • Now researchers from North Carolina State University have found a way to use naturally occurring hydrogen peroxide inside cells to switch on gene expression. (
  • A team of researchers at Penn State University have found that one tiny change in a key gene plays a major role in determining skin pigmentation. (
  • A﻽ gene linked to diabetes and cholesterol is being called a "master regulator" gene that controls the behavior of other genes found within fat in the body, U.K. researchers found. (
  • Researchers then focused on 10 genes associated with the SNP rs4731702. (
  • Learning how genes are targeted and silenced may help researchers studying sex-specific diseases. (
  • When they compared genes in the two different species, the researchers found that the DNA sequences of MEI-218 were extraordinarily different. (
  • In their experiments, the researchers discovered that by disrupting the gene encoding a novel protein, GTL1, trichome cells could be induced to grow to twice their normal size, indicating that GTL1 represses cell growth. (
  • Researchers at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center provides the first evidence that cells can regulate many genes at once by looping their DNA, contributing to cancer when it goes awry. (
  • WEDNESDAY, June 29 -- Variations of a certain gene affect the amount of time people spend looking at happy faces, a finding that may help improve understanding of social behavior and autism, according to researchers. (
  • Researchers at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) have shown how Fgf8 in mice is itself controlled by a large number of interdependent regulatory elements specifically located in various clusters. (
  • You'll be taught by active researchers providing an up-to-date interpretation of this active and interesting area key to the understanding of growth control and cancer. (
  • St. Jude researchers have now extended these results by showing in the developing eye that Six3 normally exerts its effect by directly activating Pax6, a gene considered the "master regulator of eye development. (
  • The researchers also demonstrated that the Six3 protein directly controls the expression of the Pax6 gene by binding to some of the DNA regions that regulate Pax6 activity. (
  • Researchers at Emory University School of Medicine and their colleagues have discovered a genetic mechanism that controls cellular growth in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and believe it likely that a similar system may be at work in normal and cancerous human cells. (
  • The Emory and Berkeley researchers have uncovered important details about how mutational inactivation of the Drosophila version of Tumor Susceptibility Gene 101 (Tsg 101) causes cells to overgrow, leading to organ hypertrophy and tumor-like growths. (
  • The study, which was conducted by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, showed that genes involved in creating different sexes, life stages and castes of fire ants and honeybees evolved more rapidly than genes not involved in these developmental processes. (
  • The researchers also found that these fast-evolving genes exhibited elevated rates of evolution even before they were recruited to produce diverse forms of an organism. (
  • By investigating the evolution of genes associated with castes, sexes and developmental stages of the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta , the researchers explored how social insects produce such a diversity of form and function from genetically similar individuals. (
  • To examine when the genes with elevated rates of evolution began to evolve rapidly, the researchers compared the rate of evolution of genes associated with the production of castes in the fire ant with the same genes in a wasp that does not have a caste system. (
  • The researchers also found that Six2 works by suppressing a cascade of genetic interactions normally triggered by a gene called Wnt4, which usually drives the normal development of kidneys. (
  • Vitamin C affects whether genes are switched on or off inside mouse stem cells, and may thereby play a previously unknown and fundamental role in helping to guide normal development in mice, humans and other animals, a scientific team led by UC San Francisco researchers has discovered. (
  • The researchers found that vitamin C assists enzymes that play a crucial role in releasing the brakes that keep certain genes from becoming activated in the embryo soon after fertilization, when egg and sperm fuse. (
  • The discovery might eventually lead to the use of vitamin C to improve results of in vitro fertilization, in which early embryos now are typically grown without the vitamin, and also to treat cancer, in which tumor cells abnormally engage or release these brakes on gene activation, the researchers concluded in a study published June 30, 2013 in the journal Nature. (
  • The researchers began exploring how certain ingredients altered gene activity within the stem cells. (
  • The UCSF researchers demonstrated that Tet enzymes require vitamin C for optimal activity as they act to remove the methyl groups from the DNA and to stimulate gene activity that more faithfully mimics in cultured stem cells what occurs at early stages of development in the mouse embryo. (
  • To find out what those genes are doing, researchers need tools that can manipulate their status on similarly short timescales. (
  • To take advantage of this, the researchers engineered a form of CIB1 that is fused to another protein that can either activate or suppress gene copying. (
  • Within 30 minutes of light delivery, the researchers detected an uptick in the amount of mRNA being produced from the target gene. (
  • In this study, the researchers tried targeting nearly 30 different genes, both in neurons grown in the lab and in living animals. (
  • Depending on the gene targeted and how much it is normally expressed, the researchers were able to boost transcription by a factor of two to 200. (
  • The researchers exploited synthetic biology to sample a large mechanistic diversity of resistance genes to investigate the impact of gene transfer on a new bacterial host. (
  • Thus, the results published in Nature Communications may not only serve as a good reference for biomedical researchers to look up the functional profiles of the resistance genes they observe in pathogens but also help the industry in developing new products. (
  • 5 It adds that researchers "have discovered a way that good bacteria in the gut can control genes in our cells…[by] chemical messages from bacteria…[to] the human genome" and that "these molecules, called short chain fatty acids, can move from the bacteria and into our own cells. (
  • Early researchers identified four genes - called Ma1 through Ma4 - that control flowering time in sorghum, Mullet said. (
  • The researchers found that a specific variant, or allele , of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene was associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's. (
  • Twenty-one genes linked with cholesterol and other fat levels in the blood have been identified by a consortium of over 180 researchers worldwide. (
  • In a joint effort, researchers at U.C. San Francisco and ETH Zurich have developed a method that enables them to precisely control gene expression in individual cells of yeast. (
  • In order to ensure that this gene expression is properly regulated, the researchers also introduced a different molecule into the yeast. (
  • University of Helsinki researchers have developed a new method which enables the activation of genes in a cell without changing the genome.Applications of the method include directing the differentiation of stem cells. (
  • The differentiation process is based on how genes in a cell are activated and deactivated, so researchers are looking for ways to control the activation of the genes. (
  • The researchers dream of being able to activate and deactivate genes precisely at specific moments. (
  • Researchers experimented with different configurations for their remote control system, and they found the best relies on an iron nanoparticle (blue), which is tethered by a protein (green) to an ion channel (red). (
  • Telomeres help maintain chromosomes' integrity during replication and protein production, but a few variations in the TERT gene can causes damaging changes that lead to cancer, City of Hope researchers found. (
  • Aware of this malfunction's destructive impact, researchers from the Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS) consortium, are studying how the gene regulating telomeres - called TERT - contributes to the development of breast and ovarian cancers. (
  • Researchers at Flinders University in Australia, working with mice, removed a single gene known as RCAN1 and then fed them a variety of diets, including a high-fat diet. (
  • Researchers are showing for the first time that the absence of the gene for CCR2, a receptor on white blood cells known to be important for cell migration, can have fatal consequences in this setting. (
  • Using a mouse model, the researchers found that loss of the JMJD1B gene causes accumulation of methylated arginine/lysine residues of histones at different clusters of the genes and impairs activation of the genes involved in blood progenitor-cell development and differentiation. (
  • Cis regulatory elements are present on the same molecule of DNA as the gene they regulate, whereas trans regulatory elements can regulate genes distant from the gene from which they were transcribed. (
  • Metabolite concentrations regulate gene expression by allosteric interactions with transcriptional regulators. (
  • This work identifies a previously undescribed signal transduction network in which the activities of signal-receiving sensor kinases LadS, RetS, and GacS regulate expression of virulence genes associated with acute or chronic infection by transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. (
  • Washington, July 20 (ANI): Breast cancer cells regulate many genes at once in response to the hormone estrogen, resulting in the silencing of 14 genes at one time. (
  • This is one of the first pieces of evidence that the biological clock exerts its effect on DNA structure through the coiling of the chromosome and that this, in turn, allows it to regulate all the genes in the organism," said co-author Mark A Woelfle. (
  • Syros, for instance, found a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia patients with a super enhancer that controls a gene called retonic acid receptor alpha, or RARa, a transcription factor that helps regulate other genes, and cut a deal with Japan's TMRC Co. in September for an experimental drug called tamibarotene that targets RARa. (
  • In our research, we used two common antibiotics, doxycycline and trimethoprim, and these chemicals enabled us to regulate the expression of many genes precisely and effectively. (
  • The Mount Sinai study focuses on epigenetics, the study of changes in the action of human genes caused, not by changes in DNA code we inherit from our parents, but instead by molecules that regulate when, where and to what degree our genetic material is activated. (
  • While drug addiction and depression are hereditary diseases that regulate gene expression in the brain, the field has yet to uncover relevant mutations in gene sequence that underlie these disorders," says Dr. Heller. (
  • X inactivation is necessary to ensure that females, who have two X chromosomes, and males, who have only one, end up with roughly the same dosage of genes that occur on that chromosome. (
  • The "orange or black fur" gene is on the X chromosome, so a female cat can have a calico coat with both colors if "orange" and "black" remain active in different cells, but because a male cat has just one X chromosome it can be only one of these colors. (
  • But it's not been at clear exactly how Xist works to silence genes on the X chromosome. (
  • Often, when the faulty gene is on the X chromosome, the condition is more severe in boys. (
  • The genes for orange and black fur are on the X chromosome in cats. (
  • It's thought that they may help target and anchor Xist to active genes along the length of the X chromosome like burrs on a shoelace after a hike in the woods. (
  • Imagine two chromosomes with genes A and B. On one chromosome you might have a "good" (beneficial) A allele and a "bad" (deleterious) B allele. (
  • Tim H.M. Huang and Pei-Yin Hsu discovered the DNA looping event in a breast cancer cell line gene cluster at chromosome region 16p11.2. (
  • According to the Johnson lab's "oscilloid model," the genes that are involved in photosynthesis should be located in regions of the chromosome that are "turned on" by the tighter coiling in the DNA during the day and "turned off" during the night when the DNA is more relaxed. (
  • By the same token, the genes that are involved in nitrogen fixation should be located in regions of the chromosome that are "turned off" during the day when the DNA is tightly coiled and "turned on" during the night when it is more relaxed. (
  • Interestingly, the RCAN1 gene is located on chromosome 21 in humans. (
  • Expression of the gusA gene was also studied in L. lactis NZ9800, an NZ9700 derivative carrying a deletion in the structural nisA gene that abolishes nisin production, and in L. lactis NZ3900, an MG1363 derivative containing the regulatory nisRK genes integrated in the chromosome. (
  • And right in the middle of that piece of chromosome was the gene IGF-1, familiar to vonHoldt from canine genetics. (
  • 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine Methyltransferase Reductase MSR [Methionine Synthase]- Cobalamin Methyltransferase (Cob(II)Alamin Reducing) Methionine Synthase Reductase, Mitochondrial EC CblE The gene was mapped to human chromosome 5. (
  • Gene specific primer pairs resulted in PCR amplification of a product matched by size to a hybrid-mapping panel containing only chromosome 5 as its human genetic material. (
  • The product DNA sequence matched pre-established gene markers specific to this chromosome. (
  • It contains a total of 20 nif genes located on the chromosome in a 24-Kb region. (
  • ς 54 is present in both gram-negative and gram-positive members of the Eubacteria and is required for the expression of a wide variety of genes, including those involved in nitrogen fixation, pilus production, dicarboxylic acid transport, and xylene catabolism in these bacteria ( 21 ). (
  • Another reason for the complexity is that eukaryotic genes that encode proteisn are usually spread throughout the enormously large genome. (
  • With these applications, gBlocks controls can be designed to encode the region flanking the SNP, while a known barcode or mutant sequence can be incorporated in place of the SNP as a marker. (
  • Here, we identified two genes, LuFAD3A and LuFAD3B that encode microsomal desaturases capable of desaturating linoleic acid. (
  • The scientists smuggled a gene into the chloroplast DNA and equipped it with a riboswitch. (
  • By way of example, the Potsdam-based scientists modified the genes of the tobacco plant such that it was able to produce large quantities of an antibiotic in its leaves. (
  • Using Computing Life, the scientists were able to unravel how a network of genes and their products tell time, thereby demonstrating the solution of one of the key problems in systems biology. (
  • The UGA scientists discovered how three genes in Neurospora make such a clock tick at the molecular level. (
  • Scientists have long theorized that the way DNA is packaged affects gene expression. (
  • In the ESCs they studied, the scientists identified 197 Cohesin/CTCF-flanked loops that contain active genes and enhancers, and 349 loops that contain repressed genes. (
  • It seems that the genes of Zebrafish have much in common with humans' and scientists believe that studying the fish may help solve the mystery of human skin colour. (
  • Scientists had already known that the KLF14 gene is linked to type 2 diabetes and cholesterol levels, but until now they didn't know how it did this or how far-reaching its control of other genes was. (
  • Scientists in Rochester have discovered a gene in fruit flies that is responsible for the evolution of these recombination rates. (
  • Moreover, by carrying out these pairwise disruptions across hundreds of genes, scientists can find groups of genes with similar patterns of interactions, a sign that they are likely to take part in the same molecular process. (
  • Instead, the scientists focused on genes already suspected to influence HIV biology. (
  • Scientists first identified the human Tsg101 gene in the mid-1990s based on its ability to control the growth of cells in a culture dish, but little has been learned since then about how it does this. (
  • Karl Deisseroth, a professor of bioengineering at Stanford University and one of the inventors of optogenetics, says the most important innovation of the technique is that it allows control of genes that naturally occur in the cell, as opposed to engineered genes delivered by scientists. (
  • The scientists investigated the parasite's microRNAs as they entered the host and discovered that microRNAs are shutting off specific genes in the host plant. (
  • Scientists at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) in Heidelberg, Germany, can now see and predict exactly when each remote control is itself activated, in a real embryo. (
  • US scientists have identified a gene which they suggest is associated with Alzheimer's and could help uncover the causes of the disease. (
  • Two groups of scientists have identified a gene which, when faulty or missing, causes a common type of dementia. (
  • In this study, the scientists reported for the first time that the JMJD1B gene is able to remove methyl group from histone arginine residues, H4R3me2s/H4R3me1. (
  • The findings suggest that this single gene controls up to 38% of the colour range in this mixed population. (
  • A single gene, called PHANTASTICA (PHAN), controls whether a plant makes feathery leaves like a tomato or umbrella-like leaves like Oxalis. (
  • The most tricky part was to implement a sophisticated data acquisition and scoring system, which allowed them to measure HIV infection accurately across hundreds of thousands of samples, and compare the effect of pairwise and single-gene disruptions. (
  • Processing of pre-mRNA into single-gene units is effected by trans- splicing reactions, a process that has been found to operate only in trypanosomatids, Euglena and in nematode and trematode worms (2). (
  • However, we cannot control the differentiation process sufficiently - the process may go smoothly, but then at the very end, a single gene won't activate at the necessary time, and the cell remains immature, Otonkoski explains. (
  • Using mouse models of human depression, stress and addiction, the current research team introduced synthetic- transcription factors into a brain region called the nucleus accumbens at a single gene called FosB, which has been linked by past studies to both addiction and depression. (
  • They found that changes to this single gene brought on by the transcription factors made the study mice more resilient to stress and less likely to become addicted to cocaine. (
  • An examination of more than 20,000 genes in subcutaneous fat biopsies from 776 female twin volunteers in the U.K. showed an association between the KLF14 locus and the expression levels of multiple distant genes found in fat tissue, reported Kerrin S. Small, PhD, from King's College in London, and colleagues. (
  • Although human cells have an estimated 20,000 genes, only a fraction of those are turned on at any given time, depending on the cell's needs-which can change by the minute or hour. (
  • Broadly speaking, the firm is developing drugs that make their way into the cell nucleus-a tumor cell, in the case of cancer-and disrupt the master switches that turn the cell's genes on and off, especially the genes that are central to the cell's state. (
  • So the theophylline riboswitch allows us to switch a gene on or off at will and see what effects result," explains Ralph Bock from the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology. (
  • His team applied molecular techniques to identify the genes within the wheat that provided the mite resistance. (
  • In a paper published in Molecular Cell , the team describes a map of the genes controlling HIV infection in human cells, which they built by assessing more than 63,000 combinations of human genes associated with HIV infection. (
  • You'll take an in-depth look at the molecular mechanisms controlling mRNA utilisation and degradation in eukaryotes focusing largely on translational control and what happens if the cell gets it wrong. (
  • There are many methods by which gene expression is regulated-one intriguing way is placing molecular markers called "crotonylations" on the histones. (
  • ChIP-Seq measures not just what genes are being turned on and off, but also the presence and activity of the molecular switches that are turning them on and off, and Syros is building maps of the complex, often tangled, circuitry. (
  • Our guest this evening is Vera Lattier (Chih-Ning Chang) who is a PhD candidate in the Molecular and Cellular Biology Program focusing on one gene in particular that orchestrates the muscle formation process at various stages of life development. (
  • As most textbooks describe, in eukaryotes protein-coding genes are transcribed into monocistronic pre-mRNA transcripts containing exons (coding sequences) and introns (mostly non-coding sequences) that are processed into mature mRNAs through " cis -splicing" reactions. (
  • Prokaryotes organize their genes into sets called operons and control gene expression by transcribing or not transcribing the whole operon (C.)., not by acting later at translation (B.). A. is wrong because it refers to processes which only occur in eukaryotes, not prokaryotes, and D. can be excluded since A. is wrong. (
  • This study discovered that active arginine demethylation process exists in eukaryotes and that JMJD1B demethylates both methylated arginine/lysine residue of histones for epigenetic programming of gene expression during blood-cell development and differentiation. (
  • We found that some 25 percent of the genes in our model organism appear to be under clock control. (
  • This was a totally unexpected finding because most theory suggested that genes involved in producing diverse forms of an organism would evolve rapidly specifically because they generated developmental differences," said Michael Goodisman, an associate professor in the School of Biology at Georgia Tech. "Instead, this study suggests that fast-evolving genes are actually predisposed to generating new developmental forms. (
  • In biotechnology, we often wish to take genes from one organism and express them in another, sometimes distantly related organism to obtain novel functionalities in our favorite host. (
  • Found in every cell of the body, DNA contains genes and the instructions needed for an organism to develop and survive. (
  • The primary enzyme encoded by the nif genes is the nitrogenase complex which is in charge of converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to other nitrogen forms such as ammonia which the organism can use for various purposes. (
  • Switching one of these genes off permanently would result in the death of the cell, rendering it useless for further investigation. (
  • Foreign genes have another advantage in the chloroplasts besides this: they are inherited almost without exception through the female egg cell. (
  • When hydrogen peroxide was present, the luciferase gene was expressed, causing the cell to glow. (
  • A variety of genes are involved in the control of cell growth and division. (
  • The principle behind E-MAPs is that when you disrupt two genes at once and examine the impact on a cell, you sometimes see effects that are significantly larger or smaller than you would have predicted from the effect of disrupting either gene alone,' said Krogan. (
  • Simultaneously, retS mutants are unable to respond to host-cell contact or media-derived signals that normally activate the expression of genes encoding the type III secretion system (TTSS) ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • In addition, they used the normal-cell model to determine if long-term exposure to nine estrogen-like chemicals can initiate gene silencing through this mechanism. (
  • This has revealed that several genes are switched on specifically during fruit ripening, including one encoding polygalacturonase (PG), a major cell wall protein. (
  • In every cell, there are 'messages' between the gene and the protein it creates, which in turn affects traits," says Joshua Steffen, University of Utah post-doctoral researcher, and co-author on the paper. (
  • There are actually a number of different types of fibroblast growth-factor genes that are not only important for basic cell survival, but also for embryonic development, cell growth, cell differentiation, and tissue repair. (
  • To measure the noise intrinsic to eukaryotic gene expression, we quantified the differences in expression of two alleles in a diploid cell. (
  • In addition, Moberg discovered that the mechanism through which Tsg101 controls cell growth is non-cell-autonomous, meaning that mutated cells cause surrounding normal cells to overgrow, resulting in tumor-like growths made up of a heterogeneous mix of cells, some normal, some mutated. (
  • After the genes for these components are delivered to a cell, the TALE protein finds its target DNA and wraps around it. (
  • By sampling 200 genes it becomes clear which genes products of certain mechanisms that are easiest to integrate into a cell. (
  • A better understanding of this issue is very useful for the construction of cell factories and biological circuits where genes from different organisms are often combined in a context distantly related to their original hosts. (
  • Now you know how your perceptions, beliefs, and thoughts control not only your cell activity and your genes, but also your destiny. (
  • As an embryo develops different genes are turned on in different cell. (
  • Our new method provides cell-type specific information on the activity status of an enhancer and of a gene, within a developing multicellular embryo," says Furlong. (
  • For example, if a yeast cell was genetically modified to include a particular gene, this technique would allow the expression of that gene to come under precise control. (
  • For example, T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia is driven by problems with a gene called RUNX1. (
  • The method can be used to remove a faulty gene from a cell or to introduce a transplanted gene that will express in the desired way. (
  • The gene will then activate in the desired way when the chemicals that regulates the activator protein are provided to the cell. (
  • But if it lingers around, the fraying gene in the worn down cell can cause a great amount of damage, triggering processes that can make the cell cancerous. (
  • A gene is a small segment of DNA that is used by a cell to produce a specific protein. (
  • Those "necessary" genes can vary from cell type to cell type. (
  • Control siRNAs for commonly used reporter systems (GFP, Luciferase, etc.) have been experimentally validated for functionality, and the TOX transfection control can induce cell death for use as a positive control in viability studies. (
  • The hfaA gene is part of a cluster of four genes ( hfaABDC ), identified in strain CB2A and involved in attachment of the holdfast to the polar region of the cell. (
  • A cluster of four genes ( hfaABDC ) involved in the attachment of the holdfast to the cell was previously identified by Tn 5 insertion mutagenesis ( 16 ). (
  • If samples are derived from cell-free DNA, gBlocks controls can be designed to match target DNA lengths (125-250 bp) without the need for fragmentation. (
  • The research work, "JMJD1B Demethylates H4R3me2s and H3K9me2 to Facilitate Gene Expression for Development of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells," carried out by C, Shafat Ali and Xiaotao Duan (co-first author) at the Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, was published in the April 10, 2018 issue of the journal Cell Reports . (
  • This differential gene expression suggests that spinal cord interneurons acquire unique identities early in their development and that Notch signaling mechanisms may participate in the determination of cell fate along the d/v axis. (
  • A growing body of data suggests that cell fates along the d/v axis of the spinal cord are controlled in part by secreted factors emanating from the ventral midline and dorsal non-neural ectoderm. (
  • They found the lighter pigmentation was caused by a mutation in the SLC24A5 gene which cuts production of a key protein. (
  • One of these variants was found in the TERC gene, which controls aging. (
  • They found that genes regulated by KLF14 are highly correlated with certain metabolic traits. (
  • They found that six of the 10 genes were associated with body mass index and HDL cholesterol, five with triglycerides and fasting insulin levels, four with HOMA-IR (an index of insulin sensitivity), and two with fasting glucose and adiponectin levels. (
  • Next, Small and colleagues found associations of SNPs near one or more of the 10 genes that were linked with insulin-resistance-related traits such as HDL, body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-to-hip ratio, LDL, and triglycerides. (
  • Sinha and colleagues found similar patterns of PHAN gene expression and leaf shape in live specimens of other plants from the UC Davis Botanical Conservatory and over 500 dried plants from the UC Davis Herbarium, showing that the same mechanism is used to control leaf shape even in distantly related flowering plants. (
  • However, when the investigators exposed a group of four rats to BPA for 21 days, they found concurrent suppression of ten genes comparable to those located at 16p11.2. (
  • They found that people with two types of variations in the cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) gene spent more time gazing at happy faces, but not at faces showing disgust. (
  • In addition, drugs already available that target Notch may find new uses if human Tsg101 is found to control growth in a similar way to fruit fly Tsg101. (
  • Genes essential to producing the developmental differences displayed by social insects evolve more rapidly than genes governing other aspects of organismal function, a new study has found. (
  • They found that the genes were rapidly evolving in the genomes of both species, even though only one produced a caste system. (
  • The genes that are able to equip bacteria with resistance to clinically used antibiotics have been found in many different natural environments. (
  • Nevertheless, a functional overview of the resistance genes found in common human bacterial pathogens has been missing so far. (
  • The CETP gene was previously found to be associated with longevity, and these new findings suggest that it could have a role to play in cognitive function. (
  • Results: We found that both gene families expanded from one to three members in the two rounds of genome doubling (2R) that occurred at the base of vertebrate evolution. (
  • Earlier work in our laboratory found that several transcription factors and downstream epigenetic modifications are altered by exposure to drugs or to stress and that these changes, in turn, control gene expression," says Eric J. Nestler, MD, PhD, Nash Family Professor, Chair of the Department of Neuroscience and Director of the Friedman Brain Institute at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, who led the study. (
  • Amusingly, one of the genes found to be mutated in holoprosencephaly is called sonic hedgehog. (
  • Furthermore, the stability of the reference genes was found to vary under the three different experimental conditions, indicating the importance of identifying specific reference genes for particular conditions. (
  • We found that different genes might take effect on the body weight at different time as the chicken grows. (
  • Smith had found the Mendelian pattern in these Cameroonian birds through observation, but he hadn't been able to identify the gene responsible for it. (
  • But when vonHoldt compared the genes of the large-beaked birds to those of their smaller-beaked counterparts, she found one stretch of DNA - 300,000 base pairs, apparently inherited as a chunk - that always varied between finches of large and small beak size. (
  • The nif genes are found in both free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and in symbiotic bacteria associated with various plants. (
  • The nif genes can be found on bacterial chromosomes, but in symbiotic bacteria they are often found on plasmids or symbiosis islands with other genes related to nitrogen fixation (such as the nod genes). (
  • We focus on 5 genes required for specific aspects of pathway (beaten path, stranded, and short stop) and target (walkabout and clueless) recognition. (
  • Through the RetS-signaling pathway, P. aeruginosa can sense environmental signals and respond by activating the expression of genes required for acute infection while repressing genes that promote biofilm formation. (
  • So in a practical sense, we now understand how this gene regulates flowering and this insight is helping us fill in an entire pathway which regulates flowering time in sorghum. (
  • Murphy indicated that a planting test of sorghum phenotypes with an active form of Ma1 and other genes in this pathway could be delayed in flowering for up to 200 days compared to the usual 60 days for a grain-type sorghum. (
  • The deregulated arginine-methylation level affects transcription factors signaling and the gene expression level of corresponding downstream signaling pathway genes. (
  • BASEL, SWITZERLAND) Roche Holding, Ltd and Decode Genetics Inc. announced that they have identified a gene that, in mutated version, predisposes carriers to develop the most common form of Alzheimer's disease: late-onset. (
  • A study examining the genomes of more than 1,300 families has revealed four new genes potentially linked to the most common late-onset form of Alzheimer's disease, according to a study published in the American Journal of Human Genetics last week. (
  • Grierson D, Slater A, Spiers J, Tucker GA: The appearance of polygalacturonase mRNA in tomatoes: one of a series of changes in gene espression during development and ripening. (
  • By recording the content of the messages (called mRNA) of all the genes in each of the 19 different strains, we have captured information vital to understand which genes are functional in a given strain. (
  • Using primarily Trypanosoma brucei as a model, several groups have begun to elucidate the basic control mechanisms and to define the cellular factors involved in mRNA transcription, processing and translation in these parasites. (
  • CIB1 brings along a gene activator, which initiates transcription, or the copying of DNA into mRNA. (
  • The gene comprises 15 exons and includes numerous cytolosic mitochondrial mRNA isoforms. (
  • For the first time, we see that the structure of the chromosomes contributes to gene control," says Whitehead Member Richard Young, who is also a professor of biology at MIT. (
  • I think we've filled in a major gap in the understanding of how gene expression is linked to the local organization of chromosomes," says Hnisz. (
  • If abnormal crossovers occur between transposons in different locations on the chromosomes, the chromosomes do not line up properly and important genes may be duplicated or deleted. (
  • A new study has provided direct evidence that biological clocks can influence the activity of a large number of different genes in an ingenious fashion, just by causing chromosomes to coil more tightly during the day and to relax at night. (
  • In some rhizobia, the nif genes are located on plasmids called 'sym plasmids' (sym = symbiosis) which contain genes related to nitrogen fixation and metabolism, while the chromosomes contain most of the housekeeping genes of the bacteria. (
  • iii) an extensive post-transcriptional modification of mitochondrial RNA known as RNA editing is required for the correct expression of mitochondrial enzymes, and, finally, iv) transcription of protein-coding genes can be achieved by RNA polymerase I (or an enzyme with similar properties). (
  • The kinetics, control, and efficiency of nisin-induced expression directed by the nisA promoter region were studied in Lactococcus lactis with transcriptional and translational fusions to the gusA reporter gene. (
  • Rhodospirillum rubrum-a free-living anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium which, in addition to the transcriptional controls described above, regulates expression of the nif genes also in a metabolic way through a reversible ADP-ribosylation of a specific arginine residue in the nitrogenase complex. (
  • Here we report the identification of LadS, a hybrid sensor kinase that controls the reciprocal expression of genes for type III secretion and biofilm-promoting polysaccharides. (
  • Study results indicate that upon binding to that one gene, the FosB-ZFPs modified histones in the vicinity of the FosB gene, in order to either activate (turn on) or repress (turn off) expression. (
  • this process of muscle formation or repair is a complicated sequence of events requiring hundreds of genes all working together at the right time to promote muscle development. (
  • Rather than building on any previous body of scientific work, the identification of the link between vitamin C and the activation of genes that should be turned on in early development was serendipitous, Ramalho-Santos said. (
  • Recombination can shuffle these combinations of genes so that some will be bad and those offspring will die, but some will be good and these offspring will survive. (
  • This analysis has revealed that interneurons and their precursors in the early IR express unique combinations of genes in similar d/v domains at the onset of their differentiation. (
  • TAM 112, on the right, exhibits wheat curl mite resistance compared to a control. (
  • In a paper, Wheat Curl Mite Resistance in Hard Winter Wheat in the U.S. Great Plains, published recently in Crop Science journal, the wheat genetics research team at Amarillo led by Liu outlined how the better control will come through genetics. (
  • Through the newly developed protocol, Liu's team determined that TAM 112 and its derived lines, including TAM 204, have the resistance gene from Aegilops tauschii, an annual goatgrass that is an ancestor of bread wheat. (
  • Only the Aegilops tauschii gene gives resistance to the most prevalent wheat curl mite strain. (
  • This pattern of association shows that variation involving genome-wide significant trans genes has the potential to affect insulin-resistance-related traits and thereby supports the notion that a subset of these genes are directly implicated in mediating the effects of KLF14 variation on disease susceptibility," they wrote. (
  • In E 12 a Ds element ( DsG ) with the reporter gene GUS and NPTII conferring kanamycin resistance (Kan R ) was located south of angustifolia ( an ). (
  • Research from the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability at the Technical University of Denmark makes it possible to rank the risk of resistance genes and to predict the evolution of existing and future drugs. (
  • We are confident that the detailed phenotypic information on the large collection of individual resistance genes obtained in our study will help to expand the knowledge of antibiotic use and drug development. (
  • The exchange of genes contributes to an emerging crisis of antibiotic resistance because of many harmful pathogens, including Escherichia coli, lives in communities where one transfer event can turn harmless bacteria into superbugs. (
  • For example, the results suggest that genes causing resistance to penicillin may incorporate themselves more easily into new hosts compared to those involved in tetracycline resistance" according to Porse. (
  • We can isolate the gene responsible for scrapie resistance or susceptibility and can use that knowledge to eliminate disease in an infected flock,' said Mr Dawson. (
  • Another one is whether people will develop resistance to the gene therapy that would render a repeat dose ineffective, because of pre-existing antibodies that can attack the viruses and shut down the treatment. (
  • siSTABLE controls are specially modified for nuclease resistance, and are recommended for use with custom siRNA synthesized with the siSTABLE modification. (
  • Wunderlich F, Marinovski P, Benten WPM, Schmitt-Wrede HP, Mossmann H (1991) Testosterone and other gonadal factor(s) restrict the efficacy of genes controlling resistance to Plasmodium chabaudi malaria. (
  • Acute manipulation of gene and protein function in the brain is essential for understanding the mechanisms of nervous system development, plasticity and information processing. (
  • The study of mechanisms which control gene expression in trypanosomatids has developed at an increasing rate since 1989 when the first successful DNA transfection experiments were reported. (
  • Vera's work continues to try and elucidate the mechanisms behind the connection of our genes and our body's metabolism through structural muscle formation that could help us to identify these limitations earlier and help save lives. (
  • The cycle has checkpoints (also called restriction points), which allow certain genes to check for problems and halt the cycle for repairs if something goes wrong. (
  • These "gene control maps," as Simonian (pictured) called them, are meant to identify "super enhancers," which are effectively master switches responsible for turning certain genes on and off . (
  • And so, instead of finding important genes one at a time, you can all at once identify multiple, distinct networks of genes affecting the process you are studying,' said Gordon. (
  • In experiments with mice bearing tumors that expressed the engineered insulin gene, exposure to radio waves promoted secretion of insulin from the tumors and lowered blood glucose levels in the animals. (
  • Gene expression in mice can be activated remotely and noninvasively by radio-wave heating of nanoparticles. (
  • The St. Jude team showed that the kidneys in developing mice lacking the Six2 gene were remarkably smaller than normal mice and were non-functional at birth. (
  • This DNA is what actually causes the downstream insulin producing gene to activate and in the study the mice displayed a lowering of their blood sugar levels in response to the therapy. (
  • Basically, the mice whose RCAN1 gene was removed were better at converting white fat-as a reminder, white fat stores energy, but too much fat storage, as most of us know, is not a good thing-into the healthy energy-burning brown fat. (
  • Vera's research uses mice as models to better understand this complex interaction between our genes and our body's metabolism. (
  • By mutating the gene to affect it's expression (effectively 'turning off' the gene) during early embryonic formation the mice bodies were unable to effectively create the physical structures for basic bodily functions and they were not viable embryos. (
  • When mutating the gene near the time of birth the mice were fully functional at the early stage of life and seemed normal. (
  • It has yet to be established exactly how these genes are activated in the correct spatial patterns and what their functions might be. (
  • Exact gene cytogenic position was determined by mapping to an artificial chromosomal construct containing the gene via fluorescence in situ hybridization. (
  • This indicates that PDC1 and PDC5 are the only structural genes for pyruvate decarboxylase in yeast. (
  • Everything comes down to the biochemical mechanism and host in which the genes are naturally present. (
  • Learning about this control mechanism is fascinating, but the original paper and the news report surrounding it are also instructive to readers in their approach to understanding scientific information in two additional ways. (
  • Therefore, we focused on changes in gene structure to probe the mechanism of action of such changes in drug and stress sensitivity Our data is a critical first step towards developing novel therapeutics to combat these neuropsychiatric diseases. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicates that since 2006, genome-wide studies have identified more than 50 genes associated with obesity, although most have small effects. (
  • Sinha and graduate student Minsung Kim from UC Davis, with Sheila McCormick from the U.S. Department of Agriculture s Plant Gene Expression Center in Albany, Calif., and Marja Timmermans from the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, created tomato plants genetically manipulated so that PHAN was turned down or turned off. (
  • After examining the genes, vonHoldt discovered that the "mega" is genetically distinct from the small- and large-beaked morphs. (
  • We have cloned two genes, FIS1 and FIS2 , that control both fertilization independent seed development and postpollination embryo development in Arabidopsis . (
  • To isolate genes that might control components of apomixis, we have isolated mutants of Arabidopsis in which some stages of seed development are initiated without pollination ( 2 , 3 ). (
  • At the core of this approach is the Krogan lab's ability to disrupt a large number of genes, test them in pairs, and analyze the results via sophisticated computational methods. (
  • The floral developmental program in monocots has not been studied to the extent that it has been in dicots, although several homologs of ABC class genes have been isolated from monocot plants. (
  • It appears that most human populations carry the same version of the SLC24A5 gene, but people with a European ancestry carry a variant with just one mutation. (
  • One mutation isolated in this way is an allele of the gene unc-31, first discovered by S. Brenner in 1974, because of its effects on locomotion. (