RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
RNA, Ribosomal, 23S
Molecular Sequence Data
Sequence Analysis, DNA
RNA, Ribosomal, 5S
Bacterial Typing Techniques
RNA, Ribosomal, 28S
Nucleic Acid Hybridization
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional
Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
RNA Polymerase I
Ribosome Subunits, Small
Digestive System Fistula
Vitamin K 2
Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial
RNA, Small Nucleolar
Glycogen Phosphorylase, Muscle Form
Nucleic Acid Precursors
Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
Transcription Factor TFIIIA
In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
Waste Disposal, Fluid
Ribosome Subunits, Large, Bacterial
DNA Restriction Enzymes
Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic
Drug Evaluation, Preclinical
Sensitivity and Specificity
Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nucleolar
Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria
Ribosome Inactivating Proteins
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
Amino Acid Sequence
Hereditary Autoinflammatory Diseases
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
Colony Count, Microbial
RNA, Small Nuclear
Ribotypes of clinical Vibrio cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains in relation to O-serotypes. (1/3473)The emergence of Vibrio cholerae O139 in 1992 and reports of an increasing number of other non-O1 serogroups being associated with diarrhoea, stimulated us to characterize V. cholerae non-O1 non-O139 strains received at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan for serotyping. Ribotyping with the restriction enzyme BglI of 103 epidemiological unrelated mainly clinical strains representing 10 O-serotypes yielded 67 different typing patterns. Ribotype similarity within each serotype was compared by using the Dice coefficient (Sd) and different levels of homogeneity were observed (serotypes O5, O41 and O17, Sd between 82 and 90%: serotypes O13 and O141 Sd of 72; and O2, O6, O7, O11, O24 Sd of 62-66%). By cluster analysis, the strains were divided into several clusters of low similarity suggesting a high level of genetic diversity. A low degree of similarity between serotypes and ribotypes was found as strains within a specific serotypes often did not cluster but clustered with strains from other serotypes. However, epidemiological unrelated O5 strains showed identical or closely related ribotypes suggesting that these strains have undergone few genetic changes and may correspond to a clonal line. Surprisingly, 10 of 16 O141 strains studied contained a cholera toxin (CT) gene, including 7 strains recovered from stool and water samples in the United States. This is to our knowledge the first report of CT-positive clinical O141 strains. The closely related ribotypes shown by eight CT-positive strains is disturbing and suggest that these strains may be of a clonal origin and have the potential to cause cholera-like disease. Despite the low degree of correlation found between ribotypes and serotypes, both methods appears to be valuable techniques in studying the epidemiology of emerging serotypes of V. cholerae. (+info)
Molecular differentiation of Renibacterium salmoninarum isolates from worldwide locations. (2/3473)Renibacterium salmoninarum is a genospecies that is an obligate pathogen of salmonid fish and is capable of intracellular survival. Conventional typing systems have failed to differentiate isolates of R. salmoninarum. We used two methods to assess the extent of molecular variation which was present in isolates from different geographic locations. In one analysis we investigated possible polymorphisms in a specific region of the genome, the intergenic spacer (ITS) region between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. In the other analysis we analyzed differences throughout the genome by using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). We amplified the spacer region of 74 isolates by using PCR and performed a DNA sequence analysis with 14 geographically distinct samples. The results showed that the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA spacer region of R. salmoninarum is highly conserved and suggested that only a single copy of the rRNA operon is present in this slowly growing pathogen. DNA sequencing of the spacer region showed that it was the same length in all 14 isolates examined, and the same nucleotide sequence, sequevar 1, was obtained for 11 of these isolates. Two other sequevars were found. No tRNA genes were found. We found that RAPD analysis allows reproducible differentiation between isolates of R. salmoninarum obtained from different hosts and different geographic regions. By using RAPD analysis it was possible to differentiate between isolates with identical ITS sequences. (+info)
Effect of phenylurea herbicides on soil microbial communities estimated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and community-level physiological profiles. (3/3473)The effect of three phenyl urea herbicides (diuron, linuron, and chlorotoluron) on soil microbial communities was studied by using soil samples with a 10-year history of treatment. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used for the analysis of 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA). The degree of similarity between the 16S rDNA profiles of the communities was quantified by numerically analysing the DGGE band patterns. Similarity dendrograms showed that the microbial community structures of the herbicide-treated and nontreated soils were significantly different. Moreover, the bacterial diversity seemed to decrease in soils treated with urea herbicides, and sequence determination of several DGGE fragments showed that the most affected species in the soils treated with diuron and linuron belonged to an uncultivated bacterial group. As well as the 16S rDNA fingerprints, the substrate utilization patterns of the microbial communities were compared. Principal-component analysis performed on BIOLOG data showed that the functional abilities of the soil microbial communities were altered by the application of the herbicides. In addition, enrichment cultures of the different soils in medium with the urea herbicides as the sole carbon and nitrogen source showed that there was no difference between treated and nontreated soil in the rate of transformation of diuron and chlorotoluron but that there was a strong difference in the case of linuron. In the enrichment cultures with linuron-treated soil, linuron disappeared completely after 1 week whereas no significant transformation was observed in cultures inoculated with nontreated soil even after 4 weeks. In conclusion, this study showed that both the structure and metabolic potential of soil microbial communities were clearly affected by a long-term application of urea herbicides. (+info)
Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (4/3473)Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide. (+info)
High-affinity methane oxidation by a soil enrichment culture containing a type II methanotroph. (5/3473)Methanotrophic bacteria in an organic soil were enriched on gaseous mixing ratios of <275 parts per million of volume (ppmv) of methane (CH4). After 4 years of growth and periodic dilution (>10(20) times the initial soil inoculum), a mixed culture was obtained which displayed an apparent half-saturation constant [Km(app)] for CH4 of 56 to 186 nM (40 to 132 ppmv). This value was the same as that measured in the soil itself and about 1 order of magnitude lower than reported values for pure cultures of methane oxidizers. However, the Km(app) increased when the culture was transferred to higher mixing ratios of CH4 (1,000 ppmv, or 1%). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the enrichment grown on <275 ppmv of CH4 revealed a single gene product of pmoA, which codes for a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. This suggested that only one methanotroph species was present. This organism was isolated from a sample of the enrichment culture grown on 1% CH4 and phylogenetically positioned based on its 16S rRNA, pmoA, and mxaF gene sequences as a type II strain of the Methylocystis/Methylosinus group. A coculture of this strain with a Variovorax sp., when grown on <275 ppmv of CH4, had a Km(app) (129 to 188 nM) similar to that of the initial enrichment culture. The data suggest that the affinity of methanotrophic bacteria for CH4 varies with growth conditions and that the oxidation of atmospheric CH4 observed in this soil is carried out by type II methanotrophic bacteria which are similar to characterized species. (+info)
Polynucleotide probes that target a hypervariable region of 16S rRNA genes to identify bacterial isolates corresponding to bands of community fingerprints. (6/3473)Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) is well suited for fingerprinting bacterial communities by separating PCR-amplified fragments of 16S rRNA genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA]). A strategy was developed and was generally applicable for linking 16S rDNA from community fingerprints to pure culture isolates from the same habitat. For this, digoxigenin-labeled polynucleotide probes were generated by PCR, using bands excised from TGGE community fingerprints as a template, and applied in hybridizations with dot blotted 16S rDNA amplified from bacterial isolates. Within 16S rDNA, the hypervariable V6 region, corresponding to positions 984 to 1047 (Escherichia coli 16S rDNA sequence), which is a subset of the region used for TGGE (positions 968 to 1401), best met the criteria of high phylogenetic variability, required for sufficient probe specificity, and closely flanking conserved priming sites for amplification. Removal of flanking conserved bases was necessary to enable the differentiation of closely related species. This was achieved by 5' exonuclease digestion, terminated by phosphorothioate bonds which were synthesized into the primers. The remaining complementary strand was removed by single-strand-specific digestion. Standard hybridization with truncated probes allowed differentiation of bacteria which differed by only two bases within the probe target site and 1.2% within the complete 16S rDNA. However, a truncated probe, derived from an excised TGGE band of a rhizosphere community, hybridized with three phylogenetically related isolates with identical V6 sequences. Only one of the isolates comigrated with the excised band in TGGE, which was shown to be due to identical sequences, demonstrating the utility of a combined TGGE and V6 probe approach. (+info)
Immunochemical detection and isolation of DNA from metabolically active bacteria. (7/3473)Most techniques used to assay the growth of microbes in natural communities provide no information on the relationship between microbial productivity and community structure. To identify actively growing bacteria, we adapted a technique from immunocytochemistry to detect and selectively isolate DNA from bacteria incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), a thymidine analog. In addition, we developed an immunocytochemical protocol to visualize BrdU-labeled microbial cells. Cultured bacteria and natural populations of aquatic bacterioplankton were pulse-labeled with exogenously supplied BrdU. Incorporation of BrdU into microbial DNA was demonstrated in DNA dot blots probed with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and either peroxidase- or Texas red-conjugated secondary antibodies. BrdU-containing DNA was physically separated from unlabeled DNA by using antibody-coated paramagnetic beads, and the identities of bacteria contributing to both purified, BrdU-containing fractions and unfractionated, starting-material DNAs were determined by length heterogeneity PCR (LH-PCR) analysis. BrdU-containing DNA purified from a mixture of DNAs from labeled and unlabeled cultures showed >90-fold enrichment for the labeled bacterial taxon. The LH-PCR profile for BrdU-containing DNA from a labeled, natural microbial community differed from the profile for the community as a whole, demonstrating that BrdU was incorporated by a taxonomic subset of the community. Immunocytochemical detection of cells with BrdU-labeled DNA was accomplished by in situ probing with anti-BrdU monoclonal antibodies and Texas red-labeled secondary antibodies. Using this suite of techniques, microbial cells incorporating BrdU into their newly synthesized DNA can be quantified and the identities of these actively growing cells can be compared to the composition of the microbial community as a whole. Since not all strains tested could incorporate BrdU, these methods may be most useful when used to gain an understanding of the activities of specific species in the context of their microbial community. (+info)
Dissimilatory reduction of Fe(III) and other electron acceptors by a Thermus isolate. (8/3473)A thermophilic bacterium that can use O2, NO3-, Fe(III), and S0 as terminal electron acceptors for growth was isolated from groundwater sampled at a 3.2-km depth in a South African gold mine. This organism, designated SA-01, clustered most closely with members of the genus Thermus, as determined by 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequence analysis. The 16S rDNA sequence of SA-01 was >98% similar to that of Thermus strain NMX2 A.1, which was previously isolated by other investigators from a thermal spring in New Mexico. Strain NMX2 A.1 was also able to reduce Fe(III) and other electron acceptors. Neither SA-01 nor NMX2 A.1 grew fermentatively, i.e., addition of an external electron acceptor was required for anaerobic growth. Thermus strain SA-01 reduced soluble Fe(III) complexed with citrate or nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA); however, it could reduce only relatively small quantities (0.5 mM) of hydrous ferric oxide except when the humic acid analog 2,6-anthraquinone disulfonate was added as an electron shuttle, in which case 10 mM Fe(III) was reduced. Fe(III)-NTA was reduced quantitatively to Fe(II); reduction of Fe(III)-NTA was coupled to the oxidation of lactate and supported growth through three consecutive transfers. Suspensions of Thermus strain SA-01 cells also reduced Mn(IV), Co(III)-EDTA, Cr(VI), and U(VI). Mn(IV)-oxide was reduced in the presence of either lactate or H2. Both strains were also able to mineralize NTA to CO2 and to couple its oxidation to Fe(III) reduction and growth. The optimum temperature for growth and Fe(III) reduction by Thermus strains SA-01 and NMX2 A.1 is approximately 65 degrees C; their optimum pH is 6.5 to 7.0. This is the first report of a Thermus sp. being able to couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the reduction of Fe, Mn, or S. (+info)
Types: There are several types of digestive system fistulae, including:
* Esophago-gastric fistula: A connection between the esophagus and stomach
* Gastric-duodenal fistula: A connection between the stomach and small intestine
* Jejuno-ileal fistula: A connection between the small intestine and large intestine
* Ileo-caecal fistula: A connection between the large intestine and the caecum, a pouch-like structure in the appendix
Causes: Digestive system fistulae can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis
* Diverticulitis, a condition in which pouches form in the wall of the GI tract and become infected
* Cancer, such as rectal cancer or colon cancer
* Radiation therapy to the pelvic area
* Infections, such as abscesses or gangrene
Symptoms: Symptoms of digestive system fistulae can include:
* Pain in the abdomen or pelvis
* Swelling in the abdomen or pelvis
* Diarrhea or constipation
* Abdominal distension
* Weight loss
Treatment: Treatment for digestive system fistulae depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, surgery, or other interventions. In some cases, the condition may be managed with draining of the abscess or fistula, or with the use of a nasogastric tube to drain the contents of the stomach. Surgical repair of the fistula may also be necessary.
Prognosis: The prognosis for digestive system fistulae depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In general, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes. However, if left untreated, the condition can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, organ damage, or death.
Prevention: Preventing digestive system fistulae involves managing any underlying conditions that may contribute to their development. For example, people with inflammatory bowel disease should adhere to their treatment regimens and make lifestyle changes as recommended by their healthcare providers. In addition, good hand hygiene and proper sterilization techniques can help prevent the spread of infections that can lead to fistulae.
The causes of colorectal neoplasms are not fully understood, but factors such as age, genetics, diet, and lifestyle have been implicated. Symptoms of colorectal cancer can include changes in bowel habits, blood in the stool, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Screening for colorectal cancer is recommended for adults over the age of 50, as it can help detect early-stage tumors and improve survival rates.
There are several subtypes of colorectal neoplasms, including adenomas (which are precancerous polyps), carcinomas (which are malignant tumors), and lymphomas (which are cancers of the immune system). Treatment options for colorectal cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor, but may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these.
Research into the causes and treatment of colorectal neoplasms is ongoing, and there has been significant progress in recent years. Advances in screening and treatment have improved survival rates for patients with colorectal cancer, and there is hope that continued research will lead to even more effective treatments in the future.
The main features of HAIDs include:
1. Recurrent episodes of inflammation: Patients with HAIDs experience recurrent episodes of fever, pain, and swelling in various parts of the body, such as the joints, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. These episodes can last for days or weeks and can significantly impact quality of life.
2. Autoantibody production: HAIDs are characterized by the production of autoantibodies, which are antibodies that attack the body's own tissues. These autoantibodies can cause inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues in the body.
3. Genetic mutations: HAIDs are caused by genetic mutations that affect the function of the immune system. These mutations can be inherited from one or both parents and can vary in severity and expression.
4. Multi-system involvement: HAIDs can affect multiple systems in the body, such as the joints, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system. This can result in a range of symptoms, including pain, fatigue, and cognitive impairment.
5. High morbidity and mortality: HAIDs can have a significant impact on quality of life and survival. These conditions are often associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, particularly if left untreated or inadequately treated.
Examples of HAIDs include:
1. Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF): FMF is an inherited disorder that affects individuals of Mediterranean descent. It is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, pain, and inflammation in the joints, skin, and gastrointestinal tract.
2. Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS): CAPS are a group of rare genetic disorders that affect the immune system. They are characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, pain, and inflammation in various parts of the body.
3. Hyper-IgE syndrome: Hyper-IgE syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by high levels of IgE antibodies in the blood and recurrent infections, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus.
4. Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by recurrent candidal infections of the skin, nails, and mucous membranes.
5. X-linked agammaglobulinemia: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by a lack of antibody production and recurrent infections, particularly with encapsulated bacteria.
6. Common variable immunodeficiency: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by low levels of antibodies and recurrent infections.
7. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by a variety of symptoms, including eczema, allergies, and an increased risk of infections.
8. X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by high levels of IgM antibodies in the blood and recurrent infections.
9. Chronic granulomatous disease: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by the failure of white blood cells to produce oxidizing chemicals, leading to recurrent infections and inflammation.
10. Chediak-Higashi syndrome: Chediak-Higashi syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that affects the immune system. It is characterized by a weakened immune system, low levels of white blood cells, and an increased risk of infections.
These are just a few examples of primary immunodeficiency disorders. There are many other types of these disorders, each with its own set of symptoms and characteristics. If you suspect that you or your child may have a primary immunodeficiency disorder, it is important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.
Gram-negative bacterial infections can be difficult to treat because these bacteria are resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, some gram-negative bacteria produce enzymes called beta-lactamases, which break down the penicillin ring of many antibiotics, making them ineffective against the infection.
Some common types of gram-negative bacterial infections include:
* Urinary tract infections (UTIs)
* Bloodstream infections (sepsis)
* Skin and soft tissue infections
* Respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and sinusitis
Examples of gram-negative bacteria that can cause infection include:
* Escherichia coli (E. coli)
* Klebsiella pneumoniae
* Pseudomonas aeruginosa
* Acinetobacter baumannii
* Proteus mirabilis
Gram-negative bacterial infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures, urine cultures, and tissue samples. Treatment typically involves the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as carbapenems or cephalosporins, which are effective against many types of gram-negative bacteria. In some cases, the infection may require hospitalization and intensive care to manage complications such as sepsis or organ failure.
Prevention of gram-negative bacterial infections includes good hand hygiene, proper use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and appropriate use of antibiotics. In healthcare settings, infection control measures such as sterilization and disinfection of equipment, and isolation precautions for patients with known gram-negative bacterial infections can help prevent the spread of these infections.
Overall, gram-negative bacterial infections are a significant public health concern, and proper diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent complications and reduce the risk of transmission.
Types of Mycobacterium Infections:
1. Tuberculosis (TB): This is the most common Mycobacterium infection and is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body such as the brain, kidneys, and spine.
2. Leprosy: This is a chronic infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae, which primarily affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes. It is also known as Hansen's disease.
3. Buruli ulcer: This is a skin infection caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium ulcerans, which is found in wet environments such as rivers, lakes, and swamps.
4. Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC): This is a group of bacteria that can cause a variety of diseases, including lung disease, disseminated disease, and cardiovascular disease.
5. Mycobacterium abscessus: This is a type of bacteria that can cause skin and soft tissue infections, as well as respiratory and disseminated diseases.
Symptoms of Mycobacterium Infections:
The symptoms of Mycobacterium infections can vary depending on the type of infection and the severity of the disease. Some common symptoms include:
* Coughing or difficulty breathing (in TB infections)
* Skin lesions or ulcers (in leprosy and Buruli ulcer)
* Fever, chills, and fatigue (in all types of Mycobacterium infections)
* Swollen lymph nodes (in all types of Mycobacterium infections)
* Joint pain or swelling (in some cases)
* Weight loss and loss of appetite (in severe cases)
Diagnosis of Mycobacterium Infections:
Diagnosing a Mycobacterium infection can be challenging, as the bacteria are slow-growing and require specialized culture techniques. Some common methods for diagnosing Mycobacterium infections include:
* Skin scrapings or biopsies (for leprosy and Buruli ulcer)
* Sputum or lung biopsy (for TB)
* Blood tests (for disseminated disease)
* Imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans (to evaluate the extent of the infection)
Treatment of Mycobacterium Infections:
The treatment of Mycobacterium infections depends on the type of infection and the severity of the disease. Some common treatments include:
* Antibiotics: For TB, the standard treatment is a combination of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol for at least 6 months. For leprosy, the standard treatment is a combination of rifampin, dapsone, and clofazimine for at least 12 months.
* Surgery: For Buruli ulcer, surgical debridement of the affected skin and tissue is often necessary.
* Supportive care: Patients with severe forms of the disease may require hospitalization and supportive care, such as oxygen therapy, fluid replacement, and wound care.
Prevention of Mycobacterium Infections:
Preventing the spread of Mycobacterium infections is crucial for controlling these diseases. Some common prevention measures include:
* Vaccination: For TB, vaccination with the BCG vaccine is recommended for infants and young children in high-risk areas.
* Screening: Screening for TB and leprosy is important for early detection and treatment of cases.
* Contact tracing: Identifying and testing individuals who have been in close contact with someone who has been diagnosed with TB or leprosy can help prevent the spread of the disease.
* Infection control measures: Healthcare workers should follow strict infection control measures when caring for patients with Mycobacterium infections to prevent transmission to others.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick: Avoiding close contact with people who are sick with TB or leprosy can help prevent the spread of the disease.
* Covering mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing: Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing can help prevent the spread of TB bacteria.
* Properly disposing of contaminated materials: Properly disposing of contaminated materials, such as used tissues and surfaces soiled with respiratory secretions, can help prevent the spread of TB bacteria.
It is important to note that while these measures can help control the spread of Mycobacterium infections, they are not foolproof and should be combined with other prevention measures, such as early detection and treatment of cases, to effectively control these diseases.
The tumor usually appears as a well-defined lump or mass that is surrounded by a fibrous capsule. The surface of the tumor may be smooth or rough, and it may be covered with cartilage or bone. Chondroblastoma tends to grow slowly over time, but it can sometimes become malignant and invade surrounding tissues.
Chondroblastoma is most commonly found in young adults, typically between the ages of 20 and 40. The exact cause of chondroblastoma is not known, but it may be linked to genetic factors or environmental exposures. Treatment usually involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to prevent recurrence.
Some of the common symptoms of Chondroblastoma include:
* Painless lump or mass in the affected limb
* Limited mobility and stiffness in the affected joint
* Swelling and redness in the affected area
* Warmth and tenderness to touch
Some of the common diagnostic tests for Chondroblastoma include:
* CT scans
* MRI scans
It's important to note that while chondroblastoma is a benign tumor, it can recur in some cases. Therefore, regular follow-up appointments with your doctor are essential to monitor the condition and detect any signs of recurrence early on.
1. Tuberculosis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause tuberculosis, which is a chronic bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body.
2. Leprosy: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause leprosy, which is a chronic infectious disease that affects the skin, nerves, and mucous membranes.
3. Lung abscess: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause lung abscess, which is a collection of pus in the lungs that can be caused by bacterial infections.
4. Skin infections: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause skin infections, such as furuncles and carbuncles, which are boils that can be caused by bacterial infections.
5. Bone and joint infections: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause bone and joint infections, such as osteomyelitis and septic arthritis, which are infections of the bones and joints.
6. Endocarditis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause endocarditis, which is an infection of the heart valves.
7. Meningitis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause meningitis, which is an inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.
8. Osteomyelitis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause osteomyelitis, which is an infection of the bones.
9. Septic arthritis: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause septic arthritis, which is an infection of the joints.
10. Soft tissue infections: Actinomycetales bacteria can cause soft tissue infections, such as abscesses and cellulitis, which are infections of the skin and underlying tissues.
The symptoms of Actinomycetales infections vary depending on the location and severity of the infection, but may include fever, chills, joint pain, swelling, redness, and warmth over the affected area. In severe cases, Actinomycetales infections can lead to life-threatening complications such as sepsis and organ failure.
Actinomycetales bacteria are typically resistant to antibiotics, making treatment challenging. Surgical intervention is often necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged structures. In some cases, combination therapy with antibiotics and surgery may be required to effectively treat Actinomycetales infections.
Preventive measures for Actinomycetales infections include proper hand hygiene, sterilization of medical equipment, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are at risk of developing an Actinomycetales infection. Early detection and treatment of Actinomycetales infections are crucial to prevent serious complications and improve outcomes for patients.
Symptoms of nocardiosis can vary depending on the site of infection and severity of disease. Respiratory symptoms may include cough, fever, chest pain, and shortness of breath. Skin infections may cause swelling, redness, and warmth at the site of infection. Bone and joint infections can lead to pain, swelling, and limited mobility.
Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and radiographic imaging. Laboratory tests may include blood cultures, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and other techniques to detect the presence of Nocardia in body fluids or tissues. Imaging studies such as chest X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to evaluate the extent of disease.
Treatment of nocardiosis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgical debridement of infected tissues. The choice of antibiotics depends on the severity and location of infection, as well as the patient's age, health status, and other medical conditions. Surgical intervention may be necessary to drain abscesses, repair damaged tissues, or remove infected bone or joint segments.
Preventive measures for nocardiosis include avoiding exposure to risk factors such as soil or contaminated water, practicing good hygiene and infection control practices, and following proper sterilization techniques when handling instruments or equipment. Vaccination against Nocardia is not available, and there is currently no effective prophylactic therapy for nocardiosis.
Nocardiosis can be a challenging disease to diagnose and treat, particularly in cases of disseminated infection or those with underlying medical conditions. Prompt recognition and aggressive management are critical to improving patient outcomes.
Symptoms of Corynebacterium Infections: The symptoms of Corynebacterium infections vary depending on the location and severity of the infection. They may include:
* Skin rashes or lesions
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Pain and tenderness in the affected area
* Difficulty moving the affected joints (in case of bacterial arthritis)
* Shortness of breath (in case of pneumonia)
* Fatigue, fever, and chills (in case of sepsis)
Causes and Risk Factors: Corynebacterium infections are caused by the bacteria of the Corynebacterium genus. The most common species that cause human infections are Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Corynebacterium ulcerans, and Corynebacterium jeikeium. These bacteria can enter the body through various means, such as:
* Open wounds or cuts
* Infected burns
* Contaminated surgical sites
* Prosthetic joints or other implanted medical devices
* Weakened immune system (in HIV/AIDS patients)
* Chronic medical conditions (such as diabetes, cancer, or liver disease)
Diagnosis and Treatment: The diagnosis of Corynebacterium infections typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, which may be administered orally or intravenously, depending on the severity of the infection. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or debris.
Prevention: Preventing Corynebacterium infections involves maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly and thoroughly, especially after contact with someone who is infected or after touching animals or contaminated surfaces. In addition, individuals with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions should take extra precautions to avoid exposure to these bacteria.
In conclusion, Corynebacterium infections are a group of serious illnesses caused by the Corynebacterium genus of bacteria. These infections can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination and laboratory tests, and treated with antibiotics. Prevention involves maintaining good hygiene practices and taking extra precautions for individuals with weakened immune systems or chronic medical conditions.
Bacteremia can occur when bacteria enter the bloodstream through various means, such as:
* Infected wounds or surgical sites
* Injecting drug use
* Skin infections
* Respiratory tract infections
* Urinary tract infections
* Endocarditis (infection of the heart valves)
The symptoms of bacteremia can vary depending on the type of bacteria and the severity of the infection. Some common symptoms include:
* Muscle aches
* Shortness of breath
Bacteremia is diagnosed by blood cultures, which involve collecting blood samples and inserting them into a specialized container to grow the bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics and supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for bacteremia include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly
* Avoiding sharing personal items like toothbrushes or razors
* Properly cleaning and covering wounds
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can lead to bacteremia
* Following proper sterilization techniques during medical procedures
Overall, bacteremia is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention to prevent complications and ensure effective treatment.
Symptoms of ehrlichiosis typically begin within one to two weeks after the tick bite and may include fever, headache, muscle pain, joint pain, and rash. In severe cases, the infection can spread to the bloodstream and cause more serious complications, such as respiratory distress, liver failure, and kidney failure.
Ehrlichiosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect the bacterial DNA in the blood. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, such as doxycycline or azithromycin, which are effective against the bacteria that cause ehrlichiosis.
Prevention of ehrlichiosis primarily involves avoiding tick habitats and using tick-repellent clothing and insecticides to prevent tick bites. Early detection and treatment of ehrlichiosis can help reduce the risk of serious complications and improve outcomes for infected individuals.
The frontal sinuses are located above the eyes and extend from the temple to the middle of the forehead. They are connected to the nasal passages and drain into the nasopharynx. When the frontal sinuses become infected or inflamed, it can cause pain and discomfort in the forehead, face, and eyes.
Frontal sinusitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections, bacterial infections, allergies, and structural abnormalities such as deviated septum. It is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, nasal endoscopy, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI.
Treatment options for frontal sinusitis depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Antibiotics may be prescribed to treat bacterial infections, while antihistamines and decongestants may be recommended for allergic rhinitis. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to drain the sinuses or correct anatomical abnormalities.
In summary, frontal sinusitis is a condition that affects the frontal sinuses in the forehead and can cause pain, discomfort, and other symptoms in the face and eyes. It can be caused by various factors and diagnosed through a combination of physical examination and imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.
Methanocaldococcus sp. FS406-22
Ribosomal protein L20 leader
Ribosomal S15 leader
Ribosomal protein L13 leader
Ribosomal protein leader
28S ribosomal RNA
Tandemly arrayed genes
NoRC associated RNA
Microbial DNA barcoding
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L4
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L18
60S ribosomal protein L7
List of homing endonuclease cutting sites
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
Mitochondrial ribosomal protein L1
Figure 3 - Diagnosis of Chagasic Encephalitis by Sequencing of 28S rRNA Gene - Volume 25, Number 7-July 2019 - Emerging...
Number of rRNA genes - Budding yeast Saccharomyces ce - BNID 101733
Antimicrobial susceptibility and rRNA gene restriction patterns among Staphylococcus intermedius from healthy dogs and from...
Sensitivity and correlation of hypervariable regions in 16S rRNA genes in phylogenetic analysis | BMC Bioinformatics | Full Text
Gene: 5S rRNA (EBG00005236002) - Summary - Aspergillus nidulans - Ensembl Genomes 56
16S rRNA gene profiling of blood samples and controls
Comparative evaluation of PCR amplification of RLEP, 16S rRNA, rpoT and Sod A gene targets for detection of M. leprae DNA from...
Evaluation of Oral Cavity DNA Extraction Methods on Bacterial and Fungal Microbiota | Scientific Reports
metagenome - Software for microbial profiling from 16S rRNA gene sequence - Bioinformatics Stack Exchange
Tardigrada sp. O004 MOTU007 partial 18S rRNA gene, specimen voucher O0 - Nucleotide - NCBI
MeSH Coming Attractions. NLM Technical Bulletin. Sep-Oct 1998
Multiplex Real-Time PCR Detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) genes ...
Mrpl16 mitochondrial ribosomal protein L16 [Mus musculus (house mouse)] - Gene - NCBI
PhyloTrac Microbiology Research - Analysis of PhyloChip 16S rRNA gene sequences by Quantitative Real-Time PCR
The Human Microbiome Project: a community resource for the healthy human microbiome
Comparative performance of the 16S rRNA gene in DNA barcoding of amphibians | Frontiers in Zoology | Full Text
Fastidious Gram-Negatives: Identification by the Vitek 2 Card and by Partial 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Analysis
Frontiers | Radiation Tolerance of Pseudanabaena catenata, a Cyanobacterium Relevant to the First Generation Magnox Storage Pond
15S RRNA Regulation | SGD
Daniel Manter : USDA ARS
Science Clips - Volume 13, Issue 13, April 13, 2021
La Deletion from Mouse Brain Alters Pre-tRNA Metabolism and Accumulation of Pre-5.8S rRNA, with Neuron Death and Reactive...
Kaimeng Huang, Ph.D. | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
DeCS - Termos Novos
POLR1C gene: MedlinePlus Genetics
Acidothermus cellulolyticus Mohagheghi et al. - 43068 | ATCC
Robert E. Levin | Department of Food Science | UMass Amherst
FMT in IBS: 'We've Been Targeting Wrong Part of the Intestine'
- A C-terminal fragment of the mitochondrial gene for cytochrome oxidase subunit I ( COI ) has been proposed as universal marker for this purpose among animals. (biomedcentral.com)
- The POLR1C gene provides instructions for making one part (subunit) of two related enzymes called RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III. (medlineplus.gov)
- In addition to aligned and annotated collections of bacterial and archaeal small subunit rRNA genes, RDP now includes a collection of fungal large subunit rRNA genes. (nih.gov)
- In brief, DNA extracted from whole blood and controls were used for 16S rRNA gene profiling using MiSeq Illumina technology (2 x 300 paired-end MiSeq kit V3, set to encompass 467-bp amplicon). (unimi.it)
- Extracted DNA was amplified using barcoded primers targeting the V6 variable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the ITS1 region of the fungal ribosomal gene cluster and sequenced using the Illumina NGS platform. (nature.com)
- Internal transcribed spacer rRNA gene sequencing analysis of fungal diversity in Kansas City indoor environments. (cdc.gov)
- The relationship between different sub-regions based on the geodesic distance indicated that V4-V6 were the most reliable regions for representing the full-length 16S rRNA sequences in the phylogenetic analysis of most bacterial phyla, while V2 and V8 were the least reliable regions. (biomedcentral.com)
- Because it contains both highly conserved regions for primer design and hypervariable regions to identify phylogenetic characteristics of microorganisms, the 16S rRNA gene sequence became the most widely used marker gene for profiling bacterial communities [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- The bacterial profile and dysbiosis index were determined using the 16S rRNA gene. (medscape.com)
- Prediction of bacterial gene functions showed that the cecal microbiota of HFC mice was depleted of pathways involved in fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, xenobiotic degradation and metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides compared to mice on HFS diet. (biomedcentral.com)
- Herein we present experimental evidence that the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fulfills the requirements for a universal DNA barcoding marker in amphibians. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prokaryotic 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences are widely used in environmental microbiology and molecular evolution as reliable markers for the taxonomic classification and phylogenetic analysis of microbes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME , whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units. (nih.gov)
- Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences consist of nine hypervariable regions that are separated by nine highly conserved regions [ 11 , 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Limited by sequencing technology, the 16S rRNA gene sequences used in most studies are partial sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
- http://rdp.cme.msu.edu/) provides the research community with aligned and annotated rRNA gene sequence data, along with tools to allow researchers to analyze their own rRNA gene sequences in the RDP framework. (nih.gov)
- Alignment of amplicon sequence isolated from the patient was compared with a reference Trypanosoma cruzi 5.8S rRNA internal transcribed spacer sequence (GenBank accession no. (cdc.gov)
- Collection of domains associated with the protein based on various sources, including the protein coordinates for the domain, a domain Description, a Source and corresponding accession ID, and the number of S. cerevisiae genes that share the same domain. (yeastgenome.org)
- Sequence accession no. 16S rRNA gene: HQ995659. (dsmz.de)
- Restricted by current sequencing techniques, the massive sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons encompassing the full length of genes is not yet feasible. (biomedcentral.com)
- Consequently, the use of different sequencing technologies and targeting of different sub-regions of 16S rRNA genes will result in a distinct composition of a given microbial community. (biomedcentral.com)
- Genome sequencing Mycobacterium leprae revealed several gene targets that could be used for the detection of DNA from clinical and environmental samples. (bvsalud.org)
- To use this approach on a large and formalized scale, consensus of the scientific community is essential with respect to the most suitable genes that allow robust and repeatable amplification and sequencing, and that provide unequivocal resolution to identify a broad spectrum of organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
- Partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis results: For 76 strains phenotypic and sequencing identifications were identical, for 23 strains the sequencing identifications were either probable or possible, and for one strain only the genus was confirmed. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
- Molecular techniques such as 16s rRNA sequencing have now been used to provide definitive identification of Rhodococcus and most aerobic actinomyces. (medscape.com)
- I have hundreds of GBs metagenomic 16S rRNA gene sequence data. (stackexchange.com)
- For comprehensive microbial profiling of your 16S rRNA gene sequence data from Illumina MiSeq, I recommend using the web app Microbioma16S ( www.microbioma16s.it ). (stackexchange.com)
- Researchers speculate that a shortage of rRNA may trigger the self-destruction (apoptosis) of certain cells involved in the early development of facial bones and tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
- We strongly advocate the use of 16S rRNA as standard DNA barcoding marker for vertebrates to complement COI , especially if samples a priori could belong to various phylogenetically distant taxa and false negatives would constitute a major problem. (biomedcentral.com)
- A central component of the protein-manufacturing machinery of all living cells, rRNA is often used as a marker to identify different bacteria. (nih.gov)
- Transcriptional regulation information for a gene, including any predicted DNA binding site motifs ( YeTFaSCo ) for the gene's protein product, as well as any of its targets (genes it regulates) or regulators (genes that regulate it), based on experimental evidence. (yeastgenome.org)
- This table lists putative transcriptional regulatory targets for the central gene represented on this page. (yeastgenome.org)
- We compared identifications achieved with the Vitek 2 Neisseria-Haemophilus (NH) card and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence (526 bp stretch) analysis with identifications obtained with extensive phenotypic characterization using 100 fastidious Gram negative bacteria. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
- Partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis performs well, but does not always suffice, additional phenotypical characterization being useful for final identification. (openmicrobiologyjournal.com)
- A total of 60 Staphylococcus intermedius strains from dogs were investigated by their sensitivity to various antibiotics (50 strains) and by their rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotyping) (60 strains). (ku.dk)
- The PCR sensitivity of particular gene targets for specific clinical and environmental isolates has not yet been established. (bvsalud.org)
- The present study was conducted to compare the sensitivity of RLEP, rpoT, Sod A and 16S rRNA gene targets in the detection of M. leprae in slit skin smear (SSS), blood , soil samples of leprosy patients and their surroundings. (bvsalud.org)
- download this table as a .txt file using the Download button or click Analyze to further view and analyze the list of target genes using GO Term Finder, GO Slim Mapper, SPELL, or YeastMine. (yeastgenome.org)
- Multiplex Real-Time PCR Detection of KPC & NDM-1 genes is available for download. (cdc.gov)
- P.269 bottom paragraph: 'If one accepts a nuclear genome size in yeast of 1.25x10^10 daltons (Teuro, unpublished results), the extent of hybridization between nuclear DNA and ribosomal RNA is consistent with 140 cistrons for each 18 and 26 s rRNA (Table 4). (harvard.edu)
- These proteins are involved in the production of a molecule called ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a chemical cousin of DNA. (nih.gov)
- Based on its involvement in Treacher Collins syndrome, the POLR1C gene appears to play a critical role in the early development of structures that become bones and other tissues of the face. (medlineplus.gov)
- At least six mutations in the POLR1C gene have been identified in people with Treacher Collins syndrome, a condition that affects the development of bones and other tissues of the face. (medlineplus.gov)
- The POLR1C gene is found on chromosome 6 . (medlineplus.gov)
- Variants (also known as mutations) in the TCOF1 , POLR1C , or POLR1D gene can cause Treacher Collins syndrome. (nih.gov)
- POLR1C and POLR1D gene variants cause an additional 2 percent of cases. (nih.gov)
- The proteins produced from the TCOF1 , POLR1C , and POLR1D genes all appear to play important roles in the early development of bones and other tissues of the face. (nih.gov)
- Variants in the TCOF1 , POLR1C , or POLR1D gene reduce the production of rRNA. (nih.gov)
- 5. PHF8 and REST/NRSF co-occupy gene promoters to regulate proximal gene expression. (nih.gov)
- Microscopic evidence of aberrant nuclear accumulation of 5.8S rRNA in La cKO is supported by a 10-fold increase in a pre-5.8S rRNA intermediate. (nih.gov)
- Ribosomal Database Project: data and tools for high throughput rRNA analysis. (nih.gov)
- In the nucleoplasm, La binds to and protects from 3' exonucleases, the ends of precursor tRNAs, and other transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase III and facilitates their maturation, while a nucleolar isoform has been implicated in rRNA biogenesis by multiple independent lines of evidence. (nih.gov)
- TCOF1 gene variants are the most common cause of the disorder, accounting for 81 to 93 percent of all cases. (nih.gov)
- When Treacher Collins syndrome results from variants in the TCOF1 or POLR1D gene, it is considered an autosomal dominant condition, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. (nih.gov)
- Autosomal recessive inheritance means both copies of the gene in each cell have variants. (nih.gov)
- The presence of Helicobacter genus-specific DNA (16S rRNA genes) was determined by nested polymerase chain reaction assay. (who.int)
- RLEP gene target was able to detect the presence of M. leprae in 83% of SSS, 100% of blood samples and in 36% of soil samples and was noted to be the best out of all other gene targets (rpoT, Sod A and 16S rRNA ). (bvsalud.org)
- It was noted that the RLEP gene target was able to detect the highest number (53%) of BI-negative leprosy patients amongst all the gene targets used in this study. (bvsalud.org)
- Amongst all the gene targets used in this study, PCR positivity using RLEP gene target was the highest in all the clinical and environmental samples. (bvsalud.org)
- Further, the RLEP gene target was able to detect 53% of blood samples as positive in BI-negative leprosy cases indicating its future standardization and use for diagnostic purposes. (bvsalud.org)
- To assess the types of microbes found in the animals' guts, the team sequenced and compared 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes from mouse fecal samples collected over 12 weeks. (nih.gov)
- Trichomonas vaginalis , a sexually transmitted human parasite, was detected by performing PCR with primers from a region of the 18S rRNA gene that produce a 312 base pair product. (cdc.gov)
- Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES . (nih.gov)
- A single transcript chosen for a gene which is the most conserved, most highly expressed, has the longest coding sequence and is represented in other key resources, such as NCBI and UniProt. (ensembl.org)
- in the gene and occur in people with no history of the disorder in their family. (nih.gov)
- In the remaining autosomal dominant cases, a person with Treacher Collins syndrome inherits the altered gene from an affected parent . (nih.gov)
- Strict evolutionary conservation followed rapid gene loss on human and rhesus Y chromosomes. (nih.gov)
- Download gene features. (beds.ac.uk)