Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
A species of parasitic EUKARYOTES that attaches itself to the intestinal mucosa and feeds on mucous secretions. The organism is roughly pear-shaped and motility is somewhat erratic, with a slow oscillation about the long axis.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
A species of ciliate protozoa used extensively in genetic research.
Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
An order of flagellate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of one or two flagella arising from a depression in the cell body and a single mitochondrion that extends the length of the body.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
A suborder of monoflagellate parasitic protozoa that lives in the blood and tissues of man and animals. Representative genera include: Blastocrithidia, Leptomonas, CRITHIDIA, Herpetomonas, LEISHMANIA, Phytomonas, and TRYPANOSOMA. Species of this suborder may exist in two or more morphologic stages formerly named after genera exemplifying these forms - amastigote (LEISHMANIA), choanomastigote (CRITHIDIA), promastigote (Leptomonas), opisthomastigote (Herpetomonas), epimastigote (Blastocrithidia), and trypomastigote (TRYPANOSOMA).
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.
A genus of free-living amoebae found in fresh water. The cysts usually pass harmlessly through the intestinal tract of man and may thus be found in feces. Occasionally, these organisms cause respiratory tract infections or generalized fatal meningoencephalitis.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A genus of parasitic protozoans found in the digestive tract of invertebrates, especially insects. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and choanomastigote stage in their life cycle.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.
A genus of ameboid protozoa characterized by the presence of beaded chromatin on the inner surface of the nuclear membrane. Its organisms are parasitic in invertebrates and vertebrates, including humans.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA LAMBLIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
A supergroup (some say phylum) of ameboid EUKARYOTES, comprising ARCHAMOEBAE; LOBOSEA; and MYCETOZOA.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.
A species of parasitic protozoa found in the intestines of humans and other primates. It was classified as a yeast in 1912. Over the years, questions arose about this designation. In 1967, many physiological and morphological B. hominis characteristics were reported that fit a protozoan classification. Since that time, other papers have corroborated this work and the organism is now recognized as a protozoan parasite of humans causing intestinal disease with potentially disabling symptoms.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals including rodents. The Leishmania mexicana complex causes both cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS) and includes the subspecies amazonensis, garnhami, mexicana, pifanoi, and venezuelensis. L. m. mexicana causes chiclero ulcer, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) in the New World. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, appears to be the vector.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE. It has been isolated from numerous environmental sites as well as from human lung tissue, respiratory secretions, and blood.
A protozoan parasite that is the etiologic agent of East Coast fever (THEILERIASIS). Transmission is by ticks of the Physicephalus and Hyalomma genera.
A genus of ciliate protozoa commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
Intestinal infection with organisms of the genus CRYPTOSPORIDIUM. It occurs in both animals and humans. Symptoms include severe DIARRHEA.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
A species of free-living soil amoebae in the family Acanthamoebidae. It can cause ENCEPHALITIS and KERATITIS in humans.
A genus of flagellate EUKARYOTES possessing three long anterior flagella.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.
A species of ciliate protozoa used in genetic and cytological research.
Infection with amoebae of the genus ENTAMOEBA. Infection with E. histolytica causes DYSENTERY, AMEBIC and LIVER ABSCESS, AMEBIC.
Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and rodents. This taxonomic complex includes species which cause a disease called Oriental sore which is a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World.
A species of monogenetic, parasitic protozoa usually found in insects.
Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.
Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.
A genus of ciliate protozoa that is often large enough to be seen by the naked eye. Paramecia are commonly used in genetic, cytological, and other research.
A genus of minute EUKARYOTES that are characterized by the preponderance of binucleate over uninucleate forms, the presence of several distinct granules in the karyosome, and the lack of a cystic stage. It is parasitic in the large intestine of humans and certain monkeys.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a dorsoventrally flattened body with widely spaced rows of short bristle-like cilia on the dorsal surface.
An order of parasitic EUKARYOTES typically having four to six flagella. True cysts are known in very few species. Trichomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of coccidian parasites in the family EIMERIIDAE. Cyclospora cayetanensis is pathogenic in humans, probably transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and causes nausea and diarrhea.
Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.
A protozoan parasite causing tropical theileriasis in cattle. It is transmitted by ticks of the Hyalomma genus.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
A class of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include the presence of a well developed oral apparatus and oral cilia being clearly distinct from somatic cilia.
Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.
A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.
Cells or feeding stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. In the malarial parasite, the trophozoite develops from the MEROZOITE and then splits into the SCHIZONT. Trophozoites that are left over from cell division can go on to form gametocytes.
A species of flagellate parasitic EUKARYOTE. It possesses a long undulating membrane that is bordered on its outer margin by a flagellum that becomes free posteriorly. This organism causes infections in cows that could lead to temporary infertility or abortion.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
Infections with organisms of the genus BLASTOCYSTIS. The species B. hominis is responsible for most infections. Parasitologic surveys have generally found small numbers of this species in human stools, but higher positivity rates and organism numbers in AIDS patients and other immunosuppressed patients (IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST). Symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN; DIARRHEA; CONSTIPATION; VOMITING; and FATIGUE.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.
A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
A species of ciliate protozoa. It is used in biomedical research.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A large group of flagellated EUKARYOTES found in both free-living and parasitic forms. The flagella are present in pairs and contain unique paraxonemal rods.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
DYSENTERY caused by intestinal amebic infection, chiefly with ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA. This condition may be associated with amebic infection of the LIVER and other distant sites.
The larger of two types of nuclei in ciliate protozoans. It is the transcriptionally active nucleus of the vegetative cells as distinguished from the smaller transcriptionally inert GERMLINE MICRONUCLEUS.
The smaller, reproductive, transcriptionally inert nucleus in the cells of ciliate protozoans, as distinguished from the larger, vegetative, transcriptionally active MACRONUCLEUS. Micronuclei participate in MEIOSIS and autogamy during GENETIC CONJUGATION.
The third stomach of ruminants, situated on the right side of the abdomen at a higher level than the fourth stomach and between this latter and the second stomach, with both of which it communicates. From its inner surface project large numbers of leaves or folia, each of which possesses roughened surfaces. In the center of each folium is a band of muscle fibers which produces a rasping movement of the leaf when it contracts. One leaf rubs against those on either side of it, and large particles of food material are ground down between the rough surfaces, preparatory to further digestion in the succeeding parts of the alimentary canal. (Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.
A family of parasitic organisms in the order EIMERIIDAE. They form tissue-cysts in their intermediate hosts, ultimately leading to pathogenesis in the final hosts that includes various mammals (including humans) and birds. The most important genera include NEOSPORA; SARCOCYSTIS; and TOXOPLASMA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Infections with the protozoa of the phylum EUGLENOZOA.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.
The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An order of ciliate protozoa. Characteristics include a ventral oral area and a well-defined buccal cavity. It comprises three suborders: TETRAHYMENINA, Ophryoglenina, and PENICULINA.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
A genus of protozoa of the suborder BLASTOCYSTINA. It was first classified as a yeast but further studies have shown it to be a protozoan.
Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus ISOSPORA, producing intestinal disease. It is caused by ingestion of oocysts and can produce tissue cysts.
A polymer prepared from polyvinyl acetates by replacement of the acetate groups with hydroxyl groups. It is used as a pharmaceutic aid and ophthalmic lubricant as well as in the manufacture of surface coatings artificial sponges, cosmetics, and other products.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A ferredoxin-containing enzyme that catalyzes the COENZYME A-dependent oxidative decarboxylation of PYRUVATE to acetyl-COENZYME A and CARBON DIOXIDE.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A species of coccidian protozoa that mainly infects domestic poultry.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
The wood fern plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.
Contaminated water generated as a waste product of human activity.
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
Agents which are destructive to amebae, especially the parasitic species causing AMEBIASIS in man and animal.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
A group of flagellated, mostly symbiotic EUKARYOTES characterized by twofold symmetry associated with the presence of a pair of karyomastigont organellar systems. Two nuclei are attached by fibers to the flagella and there are no MITOCHONDRIA. Diplomonadida were formerly members of the class Zoomastigophora in the old five kingdom paradigm.
Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.
A microtubule-disrupting pre-emergence herbicide.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Agents used to treat trichomonas infections.
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A family of RNA viruses that infect fungi and protozoa. There are three genera: TOTIVIRUS; GIARDIAVIRUS; and LEISHMANIAVIRUS.
A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.
A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
A genus of ciliate protozoa having a unique cursorial type of locomotion.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Gastrointestinal infection with organisms of the genus DIENTAMOEBA.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.
Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
A species of fresh-water, flagellated EUKARYOTES in the phylum EUGLENIDA.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
A group (or phylum) of flagellated, anaerobic EUKARYOTES that are endosymbionts of animals. They lack mitochondria but contain small energy-producing hydrogenosomes. The group is comprised of two major classes: HYPERMASTIGIA and TRICHOMONADIDA.
A type of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where polyribosomes are present on the cytoplasmic surfaces of the ER membranes. This form of ER is prominent in cells specialized for protein secretion and its principal function is to segregate proteins destined for export or intracellular utilization.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An order of parasitic organisms in the class COCCIDIA. Families include CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE; EIMERIIDAE; and SARCOCYSTIDAE.
Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Infection with parasitic protozoa of the genus CYCLOSPORA. It is distributed globally and causes a diarrheal illness. Transmission is waterborne.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).

Analysis of a ubiquitous promoter element in a primitive eukaryote: early evolution of the initiator element. (1/1597)

Typical metazoan core promoter elements, such as TATA boxes and Inr motifs, have yet to be identified in early-evolving eukaryotes, underscoring the extensive divergence of these organisms. Towards the identification of core promoters in protists, we have studied transcription of protein-encoding genes in one of the earliest-diverging lineages of Eukaryota, that represented by the parasitic protist Trichomonas vaginalis. A highly conserved element, comprised of a motif similar to a metazoan initiator (Inr) element, surrounds the start site of transcription in all examined T. vaginalis genes. In contrast, a metazoan-like TATA element appears to be absent in trichomonad promoters. We demonstrate that the conserved motif found in T. vaginalis protein-encoding genes is an Inr promoter element. This trichomonad Inr is essential for transcription, responsible for accurate start site selection, and interchangeable between genes, demonstrating its role as a core promoter element. The sequence requirements of the trichomonad Inr are similar to metazoan Inrs and can be replaced by a mammalian Inr. These studies show that the Inr is a ubiquitous, core promoter element for protein-encoding genes in an early-evolving eukaryote. Functional and structural similarities between this protist Inr and the metazoan Inr strongly indicate that the Inr promoter element evolved early in eukaryotic evolution.  (+info)

Disruption of the Toxoplasma gondii bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1 decreases in vivo cyst formation. (2/1597)

The bradyzoite stage of the Apicomplexan protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii plays a critical role in maintenance of latent infection. We reported previously the cloning of a bradyzoite-specific gene BAG1/hsp30 (previously referred to as BAG5) encoding a cytoplasmic antigen related to small heat shock proteins. We have now disrupted BAG1 in the T. gondii PLK strain by homologous recombination. H7, a cloned null mutant, and Y8, a control positive for both cat and BAG1, were chosen for further characterization. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis of bradyzoites with BAG1 antisera demonstrated expression of BAG1 in the Y8 and the PLK strain but no expression in H7. All three strains expressed a 116 kDa bradyzoite cyst wall antigen, a 29 kDa matrix antigen and the 65 kDa matrix reactive antigen MAG1. Mice inoculated with H7 parasites formed significantly fewer cysts than those inoculated with the Y8 and the PLK strains. H7 parasites were complemented with BAG1 using phleomycin selection. Cyst formation in vivo for the BAG1-complemented H7 parasites was similar to wild-type parasites. We therefore conclude that BAG1 is not essential for cyst formation, but facilitates formation of cysts in vivo.  (+info)

Developmental regulation of spliced leader RNA gene in Leishmania donovani amastigotes is mediated by specific polyadenylation. (3/1597)

Leishmania cycles between the insect vector and its mammalian host undergoing several important changes mediated by the stage-specific expression of a number of genes. Using a genomic differential screening approach, we isolated differentially expressed cosmid clones carrying several copies of the mini-exon gene. We report that the spliced leader (SL) RNA, essential for the maturation of all pre-mRNAs by trans-splicing, is developmentally regulated in Leishmania donovani amastigotes and that this regulation is rapidly induced upon parasite growth under acidic conditions. Stage-specific regulation of the SL RNA is associated with the expression of a larger approximately 170-nucleotide transcript that bears an additional 15-nucleotide sequence at its 3'-end and is polyadenylated in contrast to the mature SL RNA. The poly(A)+ SL RNA represents 12-16% of the total SL transcript synthesized in amastigotes and is 2.5-3-fold more stable than the poly(A)- transcript. The poly(A)+ SL transcript is synthesized specifically from one class of the genomic mini-exon copies. Polyadenylation of the SL RNA may control the levels of the SL mature transcript under amastigote growth and may represent an additional step in the gene regulation process during parasite differentiation.  (+info)

Characterization of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygote-specific cDNAs that encode novel proteins containing ankyrin repeats and WW domains. (4/1597)

Genes that are expressed only in the young zygote are considered to be of great importance in the development of an isogamous green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Clones representing the Zys3 gene were isolated from a cDNA library prepared using zygotes at 10 min after fertilization. Sequencing of Zys3 cDNA clones resulted in the isolation of two related molecular species. One of them encoded a protein that contained two kinds of protein-to-protein interaction motifs known as ankyrin repeats and WW domains. The other clone lacked the ankyrin repeats but was otherwise identical. These mRNA species began to accumulate simultaneously in cells beginning 10 min after fertilization, and reached maximum levels at about 4 h, after which time levels decreased markedly. Genomic DNA gel-blot analysis indicated that Zys3 was a single-copy gene. The Zys3 proteins exhibited parallel expression to the Zys3 mRNAs at first, appearing 2 h after mating, and reached maximum levels at more than 6 h, but persisted to at least 1 d. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed their localization in the endoplasmic reticulum, which suggests a role in the morphological changes of the endoplasmic reticulum or in the synthesis and transport of proteins to the Golgi apparatus or related vesicles.  (+info)

Antigenic variation in malaria: a 3' genomic alteration associated with the expression of a P. knowlesi variant antigen. (5/1597)

Antigenic variation of malaria parasites was discovered in P. knowlesi, using a schizont-infected cell agglutination (SICA) assay to detect variant antigens expressed at the surface of infected erythrocytes. Later studies utilizing stable clones, Pk1(A+) and its direct derivative, Pk1(B+)1+, showed that SICA[+] clones express distinct parasite-encoded antigens of approximately 200 kDa. Here we identify a P. knowlesi variant antigen gene and cDNA and demonstrate that it encodes the 205 kDa variant antigen expressed by B+ parasites. This gene belongs to a multigene family, which we term SICAvar. Its ten-exon structure with seven cysteine-rich coding modules is unique compared to P. falciparum var genes. Further, we highlight a 3' genomic alteration that we predict is related to SICAvar gene switching.  (+info)

Phylogenetic analysis of Cryptosporidium parasites based on the small-subunit rRNA gene locus. (6/1597)

Biological data support the hypothesis that there are multiple species in the genus Cryptosporidium, but a recent analysis of the available genetic data suggested that there is insufficient evidence for species differentiation. In order to resolve the controversy in the taxonomy of this parasite genus, we characterized the small-subunit rRNA genes of Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidium baileyi, Cryptosporidium muris, and Cryptosporidium serpentis and performed a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Cryptosporidium. Our study revealed that the genus Cryptosporidium contains the phylogenetically distinct species C. parvum, C. muris, C. baileyi, and C. serpentis, which is consistent with the biological characteristics and host specificity data. The Cryptosporidium species formed two clades, with C. parvum and C. baileyi belonging to one clade and C. muris and C. serpentis belonging to the other clade. Within C. parvum, human genotype isolates and guinea pig isolates (known as Cryptosporidium wrairi) each differed from bovine genotype isolates by the nucleotide sequence in four regions. A C. muris isolate from cattle was also different from parasites isolated from a rock hyrax and a Bactrian camel. Minor differences were also detected between C. serpentis isolates from snakes and lizards. Based on the genetic information, a species- and strain-specific PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism diagnostic tool was developed.  (+info)

Identification of a suppressor of the Dictyostelium profilin-minus phenotype as a CD36/LIMP-II homologue. (7/1597)

Profilin is an ubiquitous G-actin binding protein in eukaryotic cells. Lack of both profilin isoforms in Dictyostelium discoideum resulted in impaired cytokinesis and an arrest in development. A restriction enzyme-mediated integration approach was applied to profilin-minus cells to identify suppressor mutants for the developmental phenotype. A mutant with wild-type-like development and restored cytokinesis was isolated. The gene affected was found to code for an integral membrane glycoprotein of a predicted size of 88 kD containing two transmembrane domains, one at the NH2 terminus and the other at the COOH terminus. It is homologous to mammalian CD36/LIMP-II and represents the first member of this family in D. discoideum, therefore the name DdLIMP is proposed. Targeted disruption of the lmpA gene in the profilin-minus background also rescued the mutant phenotype. Immunofluorescence revealed a localization in vesicles and ringlike structures on the cell surface. Partially purified DdLIMP bound specifically to PIP2 in sedimentation and gel filtration assays. A direct interaction between DdLIMP and profilin could not be detected, and it is unclear how far upstream in a regulatory cascade DdLIMP might be positioned. However, the PIP2 binding of DdLIMP points towards a function via the phosphatidylinositol pathway, a major regulator of profilin.  (+info)

High recombination rate in natural populations of Plasmodium falciparum. (8/1597)

Malaria parasites are sexually reproducing protozoa, although the extent of effective meiotic recombination in natural populations has been debated. If meiotic recombination occurs frequently, compared with point mutation and mitotic rearrangement, linkage disequilibrium between polymorphic sites is expected to decline with increasing distance along a chromosome. The rate of this decline should be proportional to the effective meiotic recombination rate in the population. Multiple polymorphic sites covering a 5-kb region of chromosome 9 (the msp1 gene) have been typed in 547 isolates from six populations in Africa to test for such a decline and estimate its rate in populations of Plasmodium falciparum. The magnitude of two-site linkage disequilibrium declines markedly with increasing molecular map distance between the sites, reaching nonsignificant levels within a map range of 0.3-1.0 kb in five of the populations and over a larger map distance in the population with lowest malaria endemicity. The rate of decline in linkage disequilibrium over molecular map distance is at least as rapid as that observed in most chromosomal regions of other sexually reproducing eukaryotes, such as humans and Drosophila. These results are consistent with the effective recombination rate expected in natural populations of P. falciparum, predicted on the basis of the underlying molecular rate of meiotic crossover and the coefficient of inbreeding caused by self-fertilization events. This is conclusive evidence to reject any hypothesis of clonality or low rate of meiotic recombination in P. falciparum populations. Moreover, the data have major implications for the design and interpretation of population genetic studies of selection on P. falciparum genes.  (+info)

104 Baruch, D.I., Pasloske, B.L., Singh, H.B., Bi, X.H., Ma, X.C., Feldman, M., Taraschi, T.F., and Howar d, R.J. (1995). Cloning the Plasmodium falciparum gene encoding Pfemp1, a malarial variant antigen and adherence receptor on the surface of parasitized human erythrocytes Cell 82, 7787. Bock, R., Jackson, L., de Vos, A., and Jorgensen, W. (2004). Babesiosis of cattle. Parasitology 129 Suppl S247269. Borst, P., Bitter, W., Blundell, P.A., Chaves, I., Cross, M., Gerrits, H., van Leeuwen, F., McCulloch, R., Taylor, M., and Rudenko, G. (1998). Control of VSG gene expression sites in Trypanosoma brucei Mol Biochem Parasitol 91 6776. Borst, P., and Ulbert, S. (2001). Control of VSG gene expression sites. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 114, 1727. Brayton, K.A., Lau, A.O.T., Herndon, D.R., Hannick, L., Kappmeyer, L.S., Berens, S.J., Bidwell, S.L., Br own, W.C., Crabtree, J., Fadrosh, D., et al. (2007). Genome sequence of B abesia bovis and comparative analysis of apicomplexan hemoprotozoa. ...
2nd International Workshop on Foundations of Coordination Languages and Software Architectures (Foclasa 2002) September 2, 2003, Marseille, France Workshop affiliated to CONCUR2003, 02 - 06 September 2003. ====================================================================== SCOPE AND TOPICS Modern information systems rely more and more on combining concurrent, distributed, mobile and heterogenous components. This move from old systems, typically conceived in isolation, induces the need for new languages and software architectures. In particular, coordination languages have been proposed to cleanly separate computational aspects and communication. On the other hand, software architects face the problem of specifying and reasoning on non-functional requirements. All these issues are widely perceived as fundamental to improve software productivity, enhance maintainability, advocate modularity, promote reusability, and lead to systems more tractable ...
Production of gametocytes by asexually dividing parasites is a selective disadvantage. Inducible recombination allows controlled expression of ap2-g and
TY - JOUR. T1 - The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii targets proteins to dense granules and the vacuolar space using both conserved and unusual mechanisms. AU - Karsten, Verena. AU - Qi, Huilin. AU - Beckers, Con J.M.. AU - Reddy, Anita. AU - Dubremetz, Jean Francois. AU - Webster, Paul. AU - Joiner, Keith A.. PY - 1998/6/15. Y1 - 1998/6/15. N2 - All known proteins that accumulate in the vacuolar space surrounding the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are derived from parasite dense granules. To determine if constitutive secretory vesicles could also mediate delivery to the vacuolar space, T. gondii was stably transfected with soluble Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and E. coli β-lactamase. Surprisingly, both foreign secretory reporters were delivered quantitatively into parasite dense granules and efficiently secreted into the vacuolar space. Addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor rerouted alkaline phosphatase to the parasite surface. ...
Matrajt, M.; Donald, R.G.K.; Singh, U.; Roos, D.S., 2002: Identification and characterization of differentiation mutants in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii
We have an immediate opening for a Post-doctoral Scientist to work on a Leishmania genome sequencing project at Seattle Biomedical Research Institute. We have recently received NIH funding to sequence 10-20 Mb of the Leishmania genome over the next 5 years. Leishmania is a protozoan parasite with a total genome size of 36 Mb, spread over 36 chromosomes. Specific duties will include cloning, template prep, mapping, sequencing, analysis, and supervision of several research technicians. Experiences with database development and genome informatics will be essential, and familiarity with MS Access and Visual Basic would be an advantage. SBRI is an Equal Opportunity Employer and offers a full benefit package. Interested parties should send a resume via e-mail, FAX or mail to: Peter J. Myler, Ph.D. Seattle Biomedical Research Institute 4 Nickerson Street Seattle, WA 98109-1651 e-mail: mylerpj at Phone: (206)-284-8846x332 FAX: (206)-284-0313 -- ======================================= Peter J. ...
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle involving the developmental transition between the asexual exo-enteric stages (tachyzoites and bradyzoites) and the coccidian (sexual and asexual) forms (schizonts, macrogametes and microgametes). Previous work has established the stage-specific expression of certain proteins including two glycolytic isoenzymes of enolase and lactate dehydrogenase in T. gondii. Here we describe the expression and subcellular localisation of the two isoforms of enolase (ENO1 and ENO2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH1 and LDH2) in vivo using immunocytochemistry. In mice, proliferating parasites in the lung expressed ENO2 and LDH1 and were characterised as tachyzoites by the presence of a tachyzoite specific surface antigen (SAG1). In contrast, ENO1 and LDH2 were expressed by bradyzoites present in tissue cysts in the brain characterised by the presence of the bradyzoite specific antigen (BAG1). During stage conversion (tachyzoite/bradyzoite), the isoenzyme
Abstract: The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP-1), encoded by the multigene family named var, is responsible for the cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes in malarial infections. Approximately 50 var genes exist per parasite genome, which are mostly located in subtelomeric regions of all chromosomes, but are also found as clusters in central chromosomal regions. It was shown that almost all var transcripts are detectable in ring stage whereas in trophozoite stage one or only a few genes are transcribed while the rest of the family remains transcriptionally downregulated. Recent data published by Deitsch et al. indicate that var gene silencing requires the presence of a var intron and elements within it and an upstream element in the promoter. In the present study we selected a parasite adhesion phenotype by multiple panning procedures on E-selectin and identified a transcribed var gene in a centromeric/central cluster of 4 var genes and 1 rif gene.In order to describe ...
Citation: Dubey, J.P. 2013. The history and life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. In: Weiss, L.M. and Kim, K., editors. Toxoplasma gondii, The model apicomplexan: Perspective and methods. 2nd edition. Waltham, MA: Elsevier. p. 1-14. Interpretive Summary: Toxoplasma gondii is a single-celled parasite of all warm-blooded hosts worldwide. It causes mental retardation and loss of vision in children, and abortion in livestock. Cats are the main reservoir of T. gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the resistant stage (oocyst) of the parasite in the feces. Humans become infected by eating under cooked meat from infected animals and food and water contaminated with oocysts. In the present paper the author reviews life cycle of Toxoplasma. The results will be of interest to biologists, parasitologists, and public health workers. Technical Abstract: Infections by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii are widely prevalent in humans and other animals on all continents. There are many ...
Trypanosoma brucei, a causative agent of African sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals, constantly changes its dense variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat to avoid elimination by the immune system of its mammalian host, using an extensive repertoire of dedicated genes. Although this process, referred to as antigenic variation, is the major mechanism of pathogenesis for T. brucei, the dynamics of VSG expression in T. brucei during an infection are poorly understood. In this thesis, I describe the development of VSG-seq, a method for quantitatively examining the diversity of expressed VSGs in any population of trypanosomes. Using VSG-seq, I monitored VSG expression dynamics in vivo during both acute and chronic mouse infections. My experiments revealed unexpected diversity within parasite populations, and the expression of as much as one-third of the functional genomic VSG repertoire after only one month of infection. In addition to suggesting that the host-pathogen interaction in T.
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Autophagy is a eukaryotic catabolic pathway that degrades and recycles cellular components to maintain homeostasis. It can target protein aggregates, superfluous biomolecular complexes, dysfunctional and damaged organelles, as well as pathogenic intracellular microbes. Autophagy is a dynamic process in which the different stages from initiation to final degradation of cargo are finely regulated. Therefore, the study of this process requires the use of a palette of techniques, which are continuously evolving and whose interpretation is not trivial. Here, we present the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum as a relevant model to study autophagy. Several methods have been developed based on the tracking and observation of autophagosomes by microscopy, analysis of changes in expression of autophagy genes and proteins, and examination of the autophagic flux with various techniques. In this review, we discuss the pros and cons of the currently available techniques to assess autophagy in this organism.
Macroautophagy is a mechanism employed by eukaryotic cells to recycle non-essential cellular components during starvation, differentiation, and development. Two conjugation reactions related to ubiquitination are essential for autophagy: Apg12p conjugation to Apg5p, and Apg8p conjugation to the lipid phosphatidylethanolamine. These reactions require the action of the E1-like enzyme, Apg7p, and the E2-like enzymes, Apg3p and Apg10p. In Dictyostelium, development is induced by starvation, conditions under which autophagy is required for survival in yeast and plants. We have identified Dictyostelium homologues of 10 budding yeast autophagy genes. We have generated mutations in apg5 and apg7 that produce defects typically associated with an abrogation of autophagy. Mutants are not grossly affected in growth, but survival during nitrogen starvation is severely reduced. Starved mutant cells show little turnover of cellular constituents by electron microscopy, whereas wild-type cells show significant ...
Chromosome 2 of Plasmodium falciparum was sequenced; this sequence contains 947,103 base pairs and encodes 210 predicted genes. In comparison with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, chromosome 2 has a lower gene density, introns are more frequent, and proteins are markedly enriched in nonglobular domains. A family of surface proteins, rifins, that may play a role in antigenic variation was identified. The complete sequencing of chromosome 2 has shown that sequencing of the A+T-rich P. falciparum genome is technically feasible.. ...
Females in various species typically avoid males infected with parasites, while parasite-free males advertise their status through conspicuous phenotypic traits. This process selects for heritable resistance and reduces direct exposure of the female to parasites. Coevolving parasites are likely to attempt to circumvent this obstacle. In this paper, we demonstrate a case of parasitic manipulation of host mate choice. We report that Toxoplasma gondii, a sexually transmitted infection of brown rats, enhances sexual attractiveness of infected males. Thus under some evolutionary niches, parasites can indeed manipulate host sexual signaling to their own advantage ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
I recently wondered, in response to an ideas paper in BioEssays, whether animals, fungi, slime moulds etc. actually had a multicellular common ancestor. Dickinson and colleagues argument (partly) hinged on the shared presence of epithelia, barrier cell layers with distinct insides and outsides, in animals and the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. The most recent crop…
Just as water molecules spontaneously arrange to form geometric snowflakes, the â socialâ amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum transitions from a collection of unicellular organisms to a fruiting body during its life cycle. This aggregation is guided by cyclic AMP (cAMP): when stimulated with cAMP, cells respond by producing and secreting more of the molecule, which, once levels reach a threshold, results in nondissipating waves of cAMP and collective amoeba movement.. Published by Learning Registry #GoOpen. 2 Views, 0 Likes on #Cyclic AMP #NSDL_SetSpec_BEN #nondissipating waves #unicellular organisms #amoeba
The UK/EU Dicty Christmas Meeting 2014 took place on 17th and 18th December in Somerville College, Oxford. Researchers from all over the UK, coming as far afield as Dundee and Cambridge, gathered to discuss a diverse range of biological features of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. The meeting also attracted delegates from Europe with…
Tetrahymena thermophila ATCC ® 30383™ Designation: B-18686 Isolation: derived from WH-6 X WH-14, Urbana, IL, early 1950s
At the end of this unit, the student is able to:  Classify the Protozoans  Describe the morphology of each protozoa  Explain the pathophysiology, life cycle…
Human malaria is a devastating disease and a major cause of poverty in resource-limited countries. To develop and adapt within hosts Plasmodium falciparum undergoes drastic switches in gene expression. To identify regulatory regions in the parasite genome, we performed genome-wide profiling of chromatin accessibility in two culture-adapted isogenic subclones at four developmental stages during the intraerythrocytic cycle by using the Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin by sequencing (ATAC-seq). Tn5 transposase hypersensitivity sites (THSSs) localize preferentially at transcriptional start sites (TSSs). Chromatin accessibility by ATAC-seq is predictive of active transcription and of the levels of histone marks H3K9ac and H3K4me3. Our assay allows the identification of novel regulatory regions including TSS and enhancer-like elements. We show that the dynamics in the accessible chromatin profile matches temporal transcription during development. Motif analysis of stage-specific ATAC-seq ...
The mature erythrocyte is a terminally differentiated, nonendocytic cell in nature. Membrane invagination is uncommon in mature healthy erythrocytes. However, these cells are readily invaded by malaria parasites, which involute the red cell1,2 to generate a host-derived parasitophorous vacuolar membrane (PVM). This process is central to the establishment of the blood-stage infection that is responsible for all symptoms and pathologies of this major human disease.3. Recently, we and others have shown that erythrocytes contain detergent-resistant membranes (DRMs).4⇓⇓⇓⇓⇓-10 These highly buoyant, lipid-rich complexes have also been isolated from various other cell types and appear to be enriched for proteins and lipids present in lipid rafts of cellular membranes. The leading definition of membrane rafts suggests that they may consist of small dynamic domains in the plasma membrane stabilized by cholesterol11 and in response to various stimuli coalesce into a larger, less mobile zone, as ...
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Vaccination with live attenuated parasites has been shown to induce high level of protection against Toxoplasma gondii. In this study we compared the Mic1-3KO tachyzoite (a live attenuated strain) with the parental wild type (WT) tachyzoite in terms of virulence in mice in vivo, dissemination in mouse tissues and persistence in mouse brain. Survival of mice infected with the Mic1-3KO parasites correlated with reduced parasite burden in mouse tissues compared to the parental strain. Like the WT parasite, Mic1-3KO is able to form tissue cysts in vivo which are not, in our experimental conditions, infectious when given by oral route. Infection with the attenuated tachyzoite induced lower levels of cytokine and chemokine than with the parental strain. These data demonstrate that the deleted strain derived from a type I strain behaves like type II strain in outbred mice in terms of virulence, dissemination in mouse tissue and persistence in brain ...
The mechanism responsible for final cell separation at the end of cytokinesis is currently unknown. Knockout strains of the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila lacking the kinesin-II homologous molecular motors, Kin1p and Kin2p are paralyzed due to their complete loss of cilia and undergo frequent cyto …
Finding an immune system in the social amoeba (Dictyostelium discoideum) is not only surprising but it also may prove a clue as to what is necessary for an organism to become multicellular, said the Baylor College of Medicine ...
Malaria pathogenesis relies on sexual gametocyte forms of the malaria parasite to be transmitted between the infected human and the mosquito host but the molecular mechanisms controlling gametocytogenesis remains poorly understood. Here we provide a high-resolution transcriptome of Plasmodium falciparum as it commits to and develops through gametocytogenesis. The gametocyte-associated transcriptome is significantly different from that of the asexual parasites, with dynamic gene expression shifts characterizing early, intermediate and late-stage gametocyte development and results in differential timing for sex-specific transcripts. The transcriptional dynamics suggest strict transcriptional control during gametocytogenesis in P. falciparum, which we propose is mediated by putative regulators including epigenetic mechanisms (driving active repression of proliferation-associated processes) and a cascade-like expression of ApiAP2 transcription factors. The gametocyte transcriptome serves as the blueprint
The obligate intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii infects humans and other warm-blooded animals and establishes a chronic infection in the central nervous system after invasion. Studies showing a positive correlation between anti-Toxopl
Due to its central role in both evolutionary change and human disease, mutation has been the focus of intensive research. The probability that a spontaneous mut...
Quadrulus membranelle (4 rows of cilia) in the buccal cavity of Paramecium tetraurelia. Microtubules of the axonemes of the cilia and the triplet fibe...
Information on this disease caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, its life cycle, the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, public health significance and prevention. ...
A high resolution view of a median longitudinal section through this collecting canal that may be artificially swollen at two sites where it is encirc...
Looking for antigenic variation? Find out information about antigenic variation. Alteration of an antigen on the surface of a microorganism; may enable a pathogenic mocroorganism to evade destruction by the hosts immune system Explanation of antigenic variation
Microfluidic trapping technology has been widely applied for single-cell observation in order to reveal characteristic cell behaviors. However, this strategy has yet to be tested for monitoring highly motile cells, which are often biologically important. In this paper, we seek the conditions that enable effe
Κάτοχος Φρούτου: Ellefson Suruperasus Όνομα Φρούτου: Purutotaipu Purutotaipu No Mi Τύπος Φρούτου: Paramecia Αναλυτική Περιγραφή Φρούτου: Είναι ένα υπερβολικά
Genetic mapping is a powerful method to identify mutations that cause drug resistance and other phenotypic changes in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. For efficient mapping of a target gene, it is often necessary to genotype a large number of polymorphic markers. Currently, a community effort is underway to collect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the parasite genome. Here we evaluate polymorphism detection accuracy of a high-density tiling microarray with 2.56 million probes by comparing single feature polymorphisms (SFP) calls from the microarray with known SNP among parasite isolates. We found that probe GC content, SNP position in a probe, probe coverage, and signal ratio cutoff values were important factors for accurate detection of SFP in the parasite genome. We established a set of SFP calling parameters that could predict mSFP (SFP called by multiple overlapping probes) with high accuracy (≥ 94%) and identified 121,087 mSFP genome-wide from five parasite isolates
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Molecular genetic studies of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have been hampered in part due to difficulties in stably cloning and propagating parasite genomic DNA in bacteria. This is thought to be a result of the unusual A+T bias (|80%) in the parasites DNA. Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic separation of P. falciparum chromosomes has shown that large chromosomal polymorphisms, resulting from the deletion of DNA from chromosome ends, frequently occur. Understanding the biological implications of this chromosomal polymorphism will require the analysis of large regions of genomic, and in particular telomeric, DNA. To overcome the limitations of cloning parasite DNA in bacteria, we have cloned genomic DNA from the P. falciparum strain FCR3 in yeast as artificial chromosomes. A pYAC4 library with an average insert size of approximately 100 kb was established and found to have a three to fourfold redundancy for single-copy genes. Unlike bacterial hosts, yeast stably maintain and propagate
Ciliated protozoan (Tetrahymena vorax), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Tetrahymena vorax is a fresh water, holotrichous, oligohymenophoran, ciliate. Shown here are 3 cells with nice ciliated pellicle surfaces. Tetrahymena are free-living ciliated protozoa that can switch from commensalistic to pathogenic modes of survival. They are common in freshwater ponds. Tetrahymena species are used as model organisms. Magnification: x260 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/0976
Trypanosoma brucei possesses five metacaspase genes. Of these, MCA2 and MCA3 are expressed only in the mammalian bloodstream form of the parasite, whereas MCA5 is expressed also in the insect procyclic form. Triple RNAi analysis showed MCA2, MCA3 and MCA5 to be essential in the bloodstream form, with parasites accumulating pre-cytokinesis. Nevertheless, triple null mutants (Δmca2/3Δmca5) could be isolated after sequential gene deletion. Thereafter, Δmca2/3Δmca5 mutants were found to grow well both in vitro in culture and in vivo in mice. We hypothesise that metacaspases are essential for bloodstream form parasites, but they have overlapping functions and their progressive loss can be compensated for by activation of alternative biochemical pathways. Analysis of Δmca2/3Δmca5 revealed no greater or lesser susceptibility to stresses reported to initiate programmed cell death, such as treatment with prostaglandin D2. The metacaspases were found to colocalise with RAB11, a marker for recycling ...
In general, the cellular structure of T. brucei is similar to all other eukaryotes. There are however, a few differences. T. bruceis cell surface has, (in addition to its surface antigens), a thick layer of proteins, called Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSGs) genes. These allow the surface antigens to mutate, by switching variants.(2) Having over 1000 VSG genes and psuedogenes, T. brucei is able to switch variants frequently. Trascription occurs one gene at a time, from one of many telomeric VSG expression sites.(3) In order to switch an active VSG gene, DNA rearrangements must occur, to switch the old VSG gene with a new one. Using the bloodstream form of T. brucei, scientists in the Netherlands discovered that telomere exchange, thought to be rare, was indeed occuring. The scientists marked a VSG gene with a hygromycin resistance gene, allowed the gene to undergo variation, and selected switched Trypanosomes. The drug sensitivity and polymerase chain reactions (PCR), revealed that telomere ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Danielle Stretch.. The Pathogen Genomics group at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (WTSI) is sequencing genomes of a large number of human and animal pathogens including bacteria, protozoan parasites and parasitic helminths. I will be giving a brief overview of our main pathogen sequencing activities within WTSI , primarily focusing on our efforts in sequencing several Plasmodium species for comparative genomic studies and also on our re-sequencing activities to understand natural diversity among the field isolates of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.. This talk is part of the Computational and Systems Biology series.. ...
Surprisingly, our ML analyses indicate that the distribution of mutational effects in T. thermophila is best approximated by the equal effects model (shape parameter, β → ∞). An alternative explanation is that the distribution of mutational effects is complex (e.g., a bimodal distribution including a high probability of slightly deleterious mutations and a second peak of moderately deleterious mutations) and not well approximated by any gamma distribution (Davies et al. 1999; Halligan and Keightley 2009). These hypotheses could be tested by repeating the multiple GE analysis for more MA lines, which would allow us to estimate the variance in mutational effects (Vs) directly.. In a survey of MA studies, Halligan and Keightley (2009) noted that the dominance of new mutations has been studied only in a handful of organisms and is not well understood even in those. Therefore, estimates in additional organisms are valuable. Our estimate of the average dominance coefficient of new mutations (h = ...
Hemozoin is generally considered a waste deposit that is formed for the sole purpose of detoxification of free heme that results from the digestion of hemoglobin by Plasmodium parasites. However, several observations of parasite multiplication, both in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts are suggestive of a wider, but overlooked, metabolic role for this product. The presence of clinical peripheral blood samples of P. falciparum with high parasitemia containing only hemozoin-deficient (non-pigmented) asexual forms has been repeatedly confirmed. Such samples stand in contrast with other samples that contain mostly pigmented circulating trophozoites and gametocytes, indicating that pigment accumulation is a prominent feature of gametocytogenesis. The restricted size, i.e. below detection by light microscopy, of hemozoin in asexual merozoites and ringforms of P. falciparum implies its continuous turnover, supporting a role in metabolism. The prominent interaction of hemozoin with several antimalarial ...
POSTDOCTORAL POSITION Biochemistry, Microbiology, Drug development Indiana University School of Medicine POSTDOCTORAL POSITION available to investigate the efficacy and mechanism of experimental drugs to treat infection caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Related to the malaria parasite, Toxoplasma causes birth defects and life-threatening infection in immunocompromised AIDS or heart transplant patients. The successful candidate will continue the … Continue reading. ...
Evolution had a few more drinks once again, according to a new paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences which wants to prompts a rethink of what it means to be an animal.
Biology Assignment Help, Heliozoans - protozoan, Heliozoans - Protozoan Heliozoans are spherical protozoan that occur in the sea or in still bodies of fresh water. They are mainly located in the bottom debris. Fine needle like pseudopodia radiate from the surface of the body. These are known a
Browse the database consisting of PfEMP1 from seven P. falciparum genomes (3D7, DD2, HB3, IT4, PFCLIN, IGH, RAJ116) and related proteins (see reference below for details). Press submit to see all proteins with all homology blocks, or filter output by filling one or more fields below ...
Protozoa[edit]. Protozoa are unicellular organisms, which have nuclei, and ultramicroscopic cellular bodies within their ... The results of these experiments led directly to the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis that specific genes code for specific ... E. coli conjugation is mediated by expression of plasmid genes, whereas mycobacterial conjugation is mediated by genes on the ... that the gene has a simple linear structure,[39] that the genetic code is a triplet code,[40] and that gene expression is ...
It contains 97 genes, 62 of them code for proteins. Other jakobids have been sequenced since, and the data were similar. It has ... This protozoan can be found in freshwater. This species was the first jakobid to have its mitochondrial genome sequenced. ... R. Americana is a large protozoan that ingests bacteria. Such phagocytosis is thought to be how ancestral (two billion years ... which have discarded many and various genes. Flavin, M. & T. A. Nerad. (1993). Reclinomonas americana n. g., n. sp., a new ...
2. Distribution patterns of ciliated protozoa". Marine Biology. 127 (2): 297-301. doi:10.1007/BF00942115. Seah BKB, Antony CP, ... Sulfur-oxidizing symbionts without canonical genes for autotrophic CO2 fixation. mBio 10:e01112-19. ... H., Lynn, Denis (2008). The ciliated protozoa : characterization, classification, and guide to the literature. New York: ... mBio.01112-19 Finlay, Bland; Fenchel, Tom (1 July 1989). "Everlasting picnic for protozoa". New Scientist: 66-69. Seah, Brandon ...
Obado, Samson O; Glover, Lucy; Deitsch, Kirk W. (2016). "The nuclear envelope and gene organization in parasitic protozoa: ... sought to evaluate evolutionary relationships of Plasmodium species by comparing ribosomal RNA and a surface protein gene from ...
This species has roughly 8,500 genes spread out over 13 chromosomes. Olias, P.; Schade, B.; Mehlhorn, H. (2011). "Molecular ... pathology, taxonomy and epidemiology of Besnoitia species (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae)". Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 11 (7 ...
In the olive baboon, four θ-defensin precursor genes have been isolated: BTD-a, BTD-b, BTD-c and BTD-d, which encode subunits A ... and protozoa. Antimicrobial activity is generally through binding to and disrupting the cell membrane. Antiviral activity ... Since there are two precursor genes (rhesus theta defensin RTD-1 and RTD-2) they can form 3 different mature θ-defensins: the ... The θ-defensins appear to have evolved from α-defensin genes around 40 million years ago in Old World monkeys. Compared to ...
Plasmids encode additional genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes. On the outside, flagella and pili project from the ... Plants, animals, fungi, slime moulds, protozoa, and algae are all eukaryotic. These cells are about fifteen times wider than a ... Cells are able to be of the same genotype but of different cell type due to the differential expression of the genes they ... 1632-1723: Antonie van Leeuwenhoek taught himself to make lenses, constructed basic optical microscopes and drew protozoa, such ...
PfEMP1 is encoded by the diverse family of genes known as the var family of genes (approximately 60 genes in all). The ... In protozoa[edit]. Antigenic variation is employed by a number of different protozoan parasites. Trypanosoma brucei and ... These VSG genes become activated by gene conversion in a hierarchical order: telomeric VSGs are activated first, followed by ... In this instance through the viruses recombine with pieces of each gene creating a new gene instead of simply switching out ...
In the protozoan Leishmania tarentolae, 12 of the 18 mitochondrial genes are edited using this process. One such gene is Cyb. ... CRISPR gene editing CRISPR/Cas Tools SiRNA Gene knockout Protospacer adjacent motif Blum, B.; Bakalara, N.; Simpson, L. (1990- ... CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 is a technique used for gene editing and gene therapy. ... One important gene regulation method is RNA mutagenesis which can be introduced by RNA editing with the help of gRNA. Guide RNA ...
Protozoa, Ciliophora, Heterotrichea) inferred from the small subunit rRNA gene sequence". Progress in Natural Science. 18 (9): ...
reported that many meiosis specific genes occur in the Giardia genome, and further that homologs of these genes also occur in ... Adam, RD; Svard, SG (2010). "Giardia: Nuclear and Chromosomal Structure and Replication". Anaerobic Parasitic Protozoa: ... All mitosomal genes are encoded by the Giardia nuclear genome. Giardia and the other diplomonads are unique in their possession ... suggested that these meiotic genes were present in a common ancestor of all eukaryotes. Thus, on this view, the earliest ...
Gene therapy Genetics - study of genes, and their role in biological inheritance. Cytogenetics Histology - study of the ... Laboratory medical biology Microbiology - study of microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Molecular ...
Gene sequences of ciliated protozoans such as Oxytricha longa and fungi belonging to Candida spp. were also recovered from lake ...
Hoevers JD, Snowden KF (August 2005). "Analysis of the ITS region and partial ssu and lsu rRNA genes of Blastocystis and ... 1978 P. lacertae (Grassé 1882) P. lacertae-viridis (Grassé 1879) Grassé 1926 Sleigh M. A. (1991). Protozoa and Other Protists ( ...
Ouellette M, Borst P. Drug resistance and P-glycoprotein gene amplification in the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Res Microbiol ... the PGP-A gene (now LtpgpA). This transporter gene is associated with arsenite resistance and is surrounded by direct and ... Ouellette M, Hettema E, Wust D, Fase-Fowler F, Borst P. Direct and inverted DNA repeats associated with P-glycoprotein gene ... De Lange T, Borst P. Genomic environment of the expression-linked extra copies of genes for surface antigens of Trypanosoma ...
Based on the RNA polymerase gene this group can be divided into four clades (I-IV). Four isolates from animals and protozoans ... Cryspoviruses infect apicomplexian protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium, while viruses of the other genera infect plants and ... Nibert ML, Woods KM, Upton SJ, Ghabrial SA (2009) Cryspovirus: a new genus of protozoan viruses in the family Partitiviridae. ...
In humans it is encoded by the LGMN gene (previous symbol PRSC1). It hydrolyzes substrates at the C-terminus of asparagine ... Discovered in 1996 in beans, its homologues have been identified in plants, protozoa, vertebrates, and helminths. The enzyme ... PRSC1 gene product or LGMN (Homo sapiens), vicilin peptidohydrolase and bean endopeptidase. ...
The bacteria synthesise amino acids, vitamins, and haem for the protozoan. In return the protozoan offers its enzymes for the ... Yet the paraflagellar rod gene PFR1 is fully functional. The bacteria are known to provide essential nutrients to the host, and ... As each symbiont is each of a single bacterium and a protozoan, and each daughter cell contains the same number, the two cells ... The two organisms have depended on each other so much that the bacterium cannot reproduce and the protozoan can no longer ...
An analysis of gene sequences was performed in 1996, which placed it into the group Stramenopiles. Other Stramenopiles include ... Its sensitivity to antiprotozoal drugs and its inability to grow on fungal media further indicated that it was a protozoan. ... based on gene sequences, rather than the host that was infected. At that time nine subtypes were known to infect mammals and ... a phenomenon the study noted is common to all gastrointestinal protozoa. However, Blastocystis has never fulfilled Koch's ...
"RISC assembly and post-transcriptional gene regulation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma". Genes & Diseases. 7 (2): 199-204. 2020-06- ... The siRNA generated by RISCs seem to have a role in degrading DNA during somatic macronucleus development in protozoa ... Cycline E is an essential gene for cell cycle progression into the S phase. Cyclin E dsRNA arrested the cell cycle at the G1 ... Yoo BK, Emdad L, Lee SG, Su Z, Santhekadur P, Chen D, Gredler R, Fisher PB, Sarkar D (2011). "Astrocyte elevated gene (AEG-1): ...
In 1993, the gene sequence of CK1δ was initially described by Graves et al. who isolated the cDNA from testicles of rats. After ... Sacerdoti-Sierra N, Jaffe CL (December 1997). "Release of ecto-protein kinases by the protozoan parasite Leishmania major". The ... The whole gene consists of eleven different exons and is located in humans on chromosome 17 at position 17q25.3. CSNK1D has a ... Casein kinase I isoform delta also known as CKI-delta or CK1δ is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the gene CSNK1D, which ...
When a gene is inactivated by insertion of a transposon (or other mechanism), that gene is "knocked out". Knockout mice and ... transposon-like elements in ciliated protozoa and a common "D35E" motif". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91 (3): 942-946. ... For either gene delivery or gene disruption, SB transposons combine the advantages of viruses and naked DNA. Viruses have been ... implications for non-viral gene therapy of mucopolysaccharidoses". J Gene Med. 9 (5): 403-415. doi:10.1002/jgm.1028. PMC ...
The most common cause of PNH are somatic mutations in the X-chromosomal gene PIGA. However, a PNH case with a germline mutation ... The variable surface glycoproteins from the sleeping sickness protozoan Trypanosoma brucei are attached to the plasma membrane ... For patients with HPMRS, disease-causing mutations have been reported in the genes PIGV, PIGO, PGAP2 and PGAP3. ... in the autosomal gene PIGT and a second acquired somatic hit has also been reported. Without these proteins linked to the cell ...
"Free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated drinking water supplies identified by phylogenic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences ... Many protozoan orders are included within Myzozoa. It is sometimes described as a phylum, containing the major subphyla Dinozoa ... Within Myzozoa, there are around four phyla: Apicomplexa - parasitic protozoa that lack axonemal locomotive structures except ... a marine phylum of photosynthetic protozoa Perkinsozoa The term/group Myzozoa was not considered in a recent resolution of ...
The HbS gene defect is a mutation of a single nucleotide (A to T) of the β-globin gene replacing the amino acid glutamic acid ... Plasmodium - the general type (genus) of the protozoan microorganisms that cause malaria, though only a few of them do ... To balance this loss of sickle-cell genes, a mutation rate of 1:10.2 per gene per generation would be necessary. This is about ... locus (gene or chromosome) - the specific location of a gene or DNA sequence or position on a chromosome ...
Red and Green Algal Monophyly and Extensive Gene Sharing Found in a Rich Repertoire of Red Algal Genes », Current Biology, vol ... Kingdoms Protozoa and Chromista and the eozoan root of the eukaryotic tree. », Biology Letters, vol. 6, no 3,‎ 23 juin 2010. , ... Rooting the Eukaryote Tree by Using a Derived Gene Fusion. », Science, vol. 297, no 5578,‎ 5 juillet 2002. , p. 89-91 (ISSN ... Seuls les Protozoa sensu Cavalier-Smith sont développés ci-dessous en 13 phyla ou embranchements[77]. Les autres règnes le sont ...
... protozoan infrakingdom Excavata phylum Loukozoa phylum Metamonada phylum Euglenozoa phylum Percolozoa protozoan phylum Apusozoa ... Gene fusion research later revealed that the clade Amoebozoa, was ancestrally uniciliate. In his 2003 classification scheme, ... opisthokonts uniciliate protozoan phylum Choanozoa kingdom Fungi kingdom Animalia Bikonts protozoan infrakingdom Rhizaria ... The protozoa were originally classified as members of the animal kingdom. Now they are classified as multiple separate groups. ...
There are only three putative IRG genes in humans out of which IRGM is known to be an orthologue of mouse Irgm1. There are four ... The intracellular protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii has been shown to target IRGs in mice allowing for resistance from the ... Gilly M, Wall R (1992). "The IRG-47 gene is IFN-gamma induced in B cells and encodes a protein with GTP-binding motifs". J ... Multiple IRG genes have been identified in canines and zebrafish but few in the model organism Tetraodontidae (the pufferfish ...
The gene encoding ApoL1 is found on the long arm of chromosome 22 (22q12.3). Variants of this gene, termed G1 and G2, provide ... an unusual feature unique to the kinetoplastid protozoans. The kinetoplast and the basal body of the flagellum are strongly ... Most genes are held on the large chromosomes, with the minichromosomes carrying only VSG genes. The genome has been sequenced ... This gene is not found in T. b. gambiense. The genome of T. brucei is made up of: 11 pairs of large chromosomes of 1 to 6 ...
The symptoms of infection are diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain.[68][69] This protozoan was found to secrete serotonin ... organization of the gene, chromosome localization, and functional expression of cDNA clones". Biochemistry. 30 (44): 10640-6. ... Entamoeba histolytica is a unicellular parasitic protozoan that infects the lower gastrointestinal tract of humans. ... a review on the role of intestinal protozoa and the importance of their detection and diagnosis". International Journal for ...
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, including protozoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. ... Many modern molecular tests such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, gene ... Genetics is the study of genes, and their role in biological inheritance. ... as the causative genes of most monogenic genetic disorders have now been identified, and the development of techniques in ...
In anaerobic protozoa, such as Plagiopyla frontata, archaea reside inside the protozoa and consume hydrogen produced in their ... Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Sexual and asexual reproduction ... since most archaeal genes lack introns, although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes,[146] and ... and the presence of archaea-like genes in certain bacteria, such as Thermotoga maritima, from horizontal gene transfer.[78] The ...
In the case of eukaryotic cells - which are made up of animal, plant, fungi, and protozoa cells - the shapes are generally ... Transcription and mRNA splicing - Gene expression.. Notable cell biologistsEdit. *Jean Baptiste Carnoy ... and protozoa cells which all have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane, with various shapes and sizes.[10] Prokaryotic cells, ...
GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ... protozoa - provirus - pruritus - pseudo-Cushing's syndrome - pseudovirion - PUBMED - pulmonary - purified protein derivative ( ... regulatory genes - regulatory T cells - remission - renal - rescue therapy - resistance - retina - retinal detachment - ...
... defects in DNA repair increase gene copy number variation". DNA Repair (Amst.). 21: 87-96. doi:10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.05.011. ... protozoa) in platelet and plasma blood components prepared for transfusion support of patients. Prior to clinical use, ... the recombination events associated with crosslink removal by HRR are predominantly non-crossover gene conversion events. ...
Alphonse Laveran got the 1907 Nobel Prize for his research on the role of protozoans as disease agents (notably, his discovery ... Jacques Monod and Francois Jacob discovered the mechanism of genes' transcription regulation, a work honored by the 1965 Nobel ...
2002). "Introns in protein-coding genes in Archaea". FEBS Lett. 510 (1-2): 27-30. PMID 11755525. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01) ... Lange M; Westermann P; Ahring BK; Lange, M; Westermann, P; Ahring B.K. (2005). "Archaea in protozoa and metazoa". Applied ... 1994). "Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes". J Mol Evol. (38(6)): 566-576.. ... Onyenwoke RU, Brill JA, Farahi K, Wiegel J (2004). "Sporulation genes in members of the low G+C Gram-type-positive phylogenetic ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q IMMUNOLOGY - CHAPTER ONE - INNATE (NON-SPECIFIC) IMMUNITY Gene Mayer, Ph.D. Immunology ... Intracellular protozoa. *Plasmodium malariae. *Leishmania donovani. no. no. no Extracellular protozoa. *Entamoeba histolytica ... On one hand, γδ T cells may be considered a component of adaptive immunity in that they rearrange TCR genes to produce ... "Resistance" (R) proteins, encoded by R genes, are widely present in plants and detect pathogens. These proteins contain domains ...
... s are vectors for viral, bacterial and rickettsial diseases of humans and other animals, as well as of protozoan and ... "Mecoptera is paraphyletic: multiple genes and phylogeny of Mecoptera and Siphonaptera". Zoologica Scripta. 31 (1): 93-104. doi ... and Trypanosome protozoans.[30]:74 The chigoe flea or jigger (Tunga penetrans) causes the disease tungiasis, a major public ...
Cellulase, a suite of enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis (i.e. the ... Genes on human chromosome 4. *EC 3.2.1. *Enzymes of known structure ...
These protozoa are not phytopathogenic themselves, but parasitic. Transmission of the virus takes place when they become ... ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. [1] Chapter 7: Control of Gene Expression, pp 451-452. Ding, S. W.; Voinnet, O. (2007). "Antiviral Immunity ... A number of virus genera are transmitted, both persistently and non-persistently, by soil borne zoosporic protozoa. ... Verchot-Lubicz, Jeanmarie (2003). "Soilborne viruses: advances in virus movement, virus induced gene silencing, and engineered ...
You are what you eat: a gene transfer ratchet could account for bacterial genes in eukaryotic nuclear genomes. Trends in ... Zatiaľ čo niektoré systémy sa stále držia taxónov prvoky (Protozoa), Protista či Chromista[53], iné systémy s týmito termínmi ... Cavalier-Smith ďalej rozdelil ríšu protista na dve menšie, a to protozoa a chromista.[47] Dnes sa však presadzujú úplne odlišné ... Genome sequence and gene compaction of the eukaryote parasite Encephalitozoon cuniculi. Nature, november 2001, roč. 414, čís. ...
doi:10.1038/sj.gene.6363848. PMID 12070780.. *^ Novak N, Kraft S, Bieber T (December 2001). "IgE receptors". Curr. Opin. ... IgE is utilized during immune defense against certain protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium falciparum.[6] ...
The organism that Thomas proposes is the protozoan Myxotricha paradoxa. There is information known about this protozoan that ... Two words, gene and bheu, are two words that we have derived a great number of current words from. Their descended words: kind ... The genes of language are how words originated when you look into each of their histories. He traces multiple words to their ... He explains that science and discovery is a compulsion that scientists seem to have written in their very genes. Science cannot ...
J. Schall (2002). "A molecular phylogeny of malarial parasites recovered from cytochrome b gene sequences". Journal of ... Protozoan infection: SAR and Archaeplastida (A07, B50-B54,B58, 007, 084). SAR. ...
Morris KL (2008). "Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of ... The leverage of ciliate protozoa". Dev. Biol. (NY). 7: 229-58. PMID 1804215. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-6823-0_11.. ... They control gene expression including virulence genes in pathogens and are viewed as new targets in the fight against drug- ... There are several layers of regulation of gene expression. One way that genes are regulated is through the remodeling of ...
Lauckner, G. (1980). Diseases of protozoa. In: Diseases of Marine Animals. Kinne, O. (ed.). Vol. 1, p. 84, John Wiley & Sons, ... Genes borrowed from viruses have recently been identified as playing a crucial role in the differentiation of multicellular ... Brian Keith Hall; Benedikt Hallgrímsson; Monroe W. Strickberger (2008). Strickberger's evolution: the integration of genes, ... Richter, Daniel Joseph: The gene content of diverse choanoflagellates illuminates animal origins, 2013. ...
Certain protozoa, including: *Apicomplexans (Plasmodium spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum[8]) ... Deng, M.; Lancto, C. A.; Abrahamsen, M. S. (2004). "Cryptosporidium parvum regulation of human epithelial cell gene expression ...
Gene expression of hemoglobin before and after birth. Also identifies the types of cells and organs in which the gene ... Primitive species such as bacteria, protozoa, algae, and plants often have single-globin hemoglobins. Many nematode worms, ... There is more than one hemoglobin gene: in humans, hemoglobin A (the main form of hemoglobin present) is coded for by the genes ... Hemoglobin AS - A heterozygous form causing sickle cell trait with one adult gene and one sickle cell disease gene ...
"独家 , 新冠病毒基因测序溯源:警报是何时拉响的" [Exclusive , Tracing the New Coronavirus gene sequencing: when did the alarm sound
... comparison of gene expression profiles between human tonsillar and lung-cultured mast cells". Journal of Immunology. 173 (8): ...
Gene transcription ceases during prophase and does not resume until late anaphase to early G1 phase.[31][32][33] The nucleolus ... Raikov, IB (1994). "The diversity of forms of mitosis in protozoa: A comparative review". European Journal of Protistology. 30 ... Mutations in genes encoding enzymes employed in recombination cause cells to have increased sensitivity to being killed by a ... "Sequential entry of components of the gene expression machinery into daughter nuclei". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 14 (3): ...
Inferences from nuclear gene sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 43 (3): 787-794. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.02. ... together with stomach ulcers and protozoan parasites reported in most necropsies, were thought to have caused their deaths.[86] ... Analyses of nuclear gene sequences of both species also support the view that they are sister taxa.[19][20] ... "True and false gharials: a nuclear gene phylogeny of Crocodylia" (PDF). Systematic Biology. 52 (3): 386-402. doi:10.1080/ ...
Watanabe H, Noda H, Tokuda G, Lo N (July 1998). "A cellulase gene of termite origin". Nature. 394 (6691): 330-1. Bibcode: ... Cellulase is any of several enzymes produced chiefly by fungi, bacteria, and protozoans that catalyze cellulolysis, the ...
However, G. intestinalis was recently found to have a core set of genes that function in meiosis and that are widely present ... Other protists for which evidence of mating and sexual reproduction has recently been described are parasitic protozoa of the ... Ramesh MA, Malik SB, Logsdon JM (2005). "A phylogenomic inventory of meiotic genes; evidence for sex in Giardia and an early ... "An expanded inventory of conserved meiotic genes provides evidence for sex in Trichomonas vaginalis". PLoS ONE. 3 (8): e2879. ...
Likens Gene E. Lake Ecosystem Ecology: A Global Perspective. Publisher: Academic Press 2010. ISBN 978-0123820020 ... This flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria.[2] ... Volume 306B Issue 3, Pages 261 - 277 Special Issue: Vertebrate Dentitions: Genes, Development and Evolution" Published Online: ...
Protozoa." (First class. Primordial animals. Protozoa.) [Note: each column of each page of this journal is numbered; there are ... Since 21 of the 29 meiotic genes were also present in G. lamblia, it appears that most of these meiotic genes were likely ... Cox, F.E.G. (1991). "Systematics of parasitic protozoa". In: Kreier, J.P. & J. R. Baker (ed.). Parasitic Protozoa, 2nd ed., vol ... Protozoa. Thiere, in welchen die verschiedenen Systeme der Organe nicht scharf ausgeschieden sind, und deren unregelmässige ...
Likens Gene E. Lake Ecosystem Ecology: A Global Perspective. Publisher: Academic Press 2010. ISBN 978-0123820020 ... This flora is made up of cellulose-digesting protozoans or bacteria.[2] ...
Parasites carried include cysts of protozoa, e.g. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia and eggs of helminths; e.g., ... This is because a male-determining gene (Mdmd) can be found on most or all housefly chromosomes.[67] Sexual differentiation is ... Resistance to carbamates and organophosphates is conferred by variation in acetylcholinesterase genes.[61] ... "Gene flow among geographically diverse housefly populations (Musca domestica L.): a worldwide survey of mitochondrial ...
Legionella pneumophila mip gene potentiates intracellular infection of protozoa and human macrophages. N P Cianciotto and B S ... These data suggest that L. pneumophila employs similar genes and mechanisms to infect human cells and protozoa. Furthermore, ... Legionella pneumophila mip gene potentiates intracellular infection of protozoa and human macrophages ... Legionella pneumophila mip gene potentiates intracellular infection of protozoa and human macrophages ...
At the other extreme of the distribution, 27 (1.1%) genes with 1 were identified. This high gene percentage is slightly lower ... genes were missed by gene finding methods.. Given the low divergence between C. parvum and C. hominis, estimation of value may ... Consistent with the difficulty of annotating fast-evolving genes, for high genes (. 1) putative functional annotation was rare ... Protein Coding Gene Nucleotide Substitution Pattern in the Apicomplexan Protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ...
Protein Coding Gene Nucleotide Substitution Pattern in the Apicomplexan Protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum and Cryptosporidium ... S. L. Chen, C.-S. Hung, J. Xu et al., "Identification of genes subject to positive selection in uropathogenic strains of ... R. Nielsen, C. Bustamante, A. G. Clark et al., "A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees ... A. G. Clark, S. Glanowski, R. Nielsen et al., "Inferring nonneutral evolution from human-chimp-mouse orthologous gene trios," ...
Mechanisms of toxic action of silver nanoparticles in the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila: From gene expression to phenotypic ... oxidative stress and gene expression levels in wild type strains (CU427 and CU428) of ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. ...
The occurrence of horizontal gene transfer between bacteria within digestive vacuoles and faecal pellets of the protozoan ... The occurrence of horizontal gene transfer between bacteria within digestive vacuoles and faecal pellets of the protozoan ... Since the protozoa formed an average of 12-13 digestive vacuoles per cell, each protozoan had statistically egested one or more ... Since the protozoa formed an average of 12-13 digestive vacuoles per cell, each protozoan had statistically egested one or more ...
... approach have recently emerged as a powerful tool for gene silencing in eukaryotic microbes for ... Our group has recently explored RNAi to knock down gene-specific expression in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, ... approach have recently emerged as a powerful tool for gene silencing in eukaryotic microbes for which gene replacement ... histolytica trophozoites with siRNAs result in highly specific and significant silencing of parasite cognate genes. Real-time ...
Animals, Genome, Protozoan, Genomics, Open Reading Frames, Protozoan Proteins, RNA, Antisense, RNA, Protozoan, Sequence ... 2005) Analysis of the transcriptome of the protozoan Theileria parva using MPSS reveals that the majority of genes are ... Analysis of the transcriptome of the protozoan Theileria parva using MPSS reveals that the majority of genes are ... Analysis of the transcriptome of the protozoan Theileria parva using MPSS reveals that the majority of genes are ...
Are transporter genes other than the chloroquine resistance locus (pfcrt) and multidrug resistance gene (pfmdr) associated with ... Recent studies have suggested the potential involvement of genes in the MDR gene family in resistance to quinoline-containing ... pftctp and pfATPase6 genes was assessed by PCR-RFLP or DNA sequencing, and gene copy numbers were estimated by real-time PCR. ... Recent laboratory and clinical studies have associated chloroquine resistance with point mutations in the gene pfcrt. However, ...
Dogs with Duchenne Treated with Gene Therapy. By Diana Kwon , July 25, 2017 ...
Circadian Gene Linked to Severe Epilepsy in Children. By Diana Kwon , October 11, 2017 ... tags: protozoans x disease/medicine x neuroscience x cell & molecular biology x ... Advisors to FDA Recommend Approval of Gene Therapy for Blindness. By Jef Akst , October 12, 2017 ... Spark Therapeuticss Luxturna would be the first approved therapy in the U.S. that replaces or repairs a defective gene ...
The Giardia lamblia vsp gene repertoire: characteristics, genomic organization, and evolution. BMC Genom. 11, 424 (2010). ... Efficient oral vaccination by bioengineering virus-like particles with protozoan surface proteins. *Marianela C. Serradell1. ... Structure and expression of genes for surface proteins in Paramecium. Mol. Cell. Biol. 3, 466-474 (1983). ... The early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia is perhaps the only protozoan capable of colonizing the lumen of the upper small ...
Gene Names: RPL44, MAL3P2.9, PFC0200W. Find proteins for O97231 (Plasmodium falciparum (isolate 3D7)) ... Cryo-EM structure of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome bound to the anti-protozoan drug emetine.. Wong, W., Bai, X.C., ... Cryo-EM structure of the Plasmodium falciparum 80S ribosome bound to the anti-protozoan drug emetine, large subunit. *DOI: ... Emetine is an anti-protozoan drug used in the treatment of ameobiasis that also displays potent anti-malarial activity. Emetine ...
View this Slime Mold Plasmodium Slime Molds Were Formerly Classified As Fungi But Are Presently Considered To Be Protozoans Sem ... Slime molds were formerly classified as Fungi but are presently considered to be Protozoans. SEM X110. ... Gene Shih. Creative #:. vis350874. License type:Rights-managed. Collection:Visuals Unlimited. Max file size:4129 x 5400 px ( ...
In protozoan: Reproduction and life cycles. Asexual reproduction is the most common means of replication by protozoans. The ... In sexual populations, genes are recombined in each generation, and new genotypes may result. Offspring in most sexual species ... inherit half their genes from their mother and half from their father, and their genetic makeup is therefore different from ...
Molecular target analysis of stearoyl-CoA desaturase genes of protozoan parasites. Lu, He / Qin, Xin / Zhang, Jing / Zhang, ... Molecular target analysis of stearoyl-CoA desaturase genes of protozoan parasites. *Molecular and morphological ... Molecular target analysis of stearoyl-CoA desaturase genes of protozoan parasites. *Molecular and morphological ... Transcriptional analysis of immune-relevant genes in the mucus of Labeo rohita, experimentally infected with Argulus siamensis ...
defense response to protozoan IEA Inferred from Electronic Annotation. more info. integrin-mediated signaling pathway IEA ... This gene is located among several imprinted genes; however, this gene, as well as the tumor-suppressing subchromosomal ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ... Genes with a similar H3K4me3 profile Genes with a similar profile of promoter-activating H3K4me3 modifications across several ...
Amoebiasis, conserved biosystemEntamoeba histolytica, an extracellular protozoan parasite is a human pathogen that invades the ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ... Homologs of the Il6 gene: The Il6 gene is conserved in human, chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey, dog, mouse, and chicken. ... GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhats a GeneRIF?. * IL-6 expression increased in all groups compared to control. Lgr5 ...
Protozoan Proteins Grant support * R21 AI097018/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ... We targeted gene knockouts at ten GRA gene loci (GRA1-10) to investigate the cellular roles and essentiality of these classical ... Phenotypes Associated with Knockouts of Eight Dense Granule Gene Loci (GRA2-9) in Virulent Toxoplasma gondii PLoS One. 2016 Jul ... While eight of these genes (GRA2-9) were successfully knocked out, targeted knockouts at the GRA1 and GRA10 loci were not ...
1988) The Protozoan Phylum Apicomplexa. (CRC, Boca Raton, FL) , Vols. 1 and 2.. ... Multidisease gene therapy in mice. A single formulation combining two gene therapies treated an array of age-related disorders ... This partial gene conversion among nonhomologous genes can generate misleading phylogenetic results (11, 17). The CSP, a ... The A + T content of the Plasmodium cytochrome b gene is comparable to the homologous gene in other eukaryotic organisms (41). ...
DNA, Protozoan / genetics * DNA, Ribosomal / chemistry * DNA, Ribosomal / genetics * Genes, rRNA * Heteroptera / parasitology* ... Here we have used PCR-based genotyping of spliced leader RNA gene repeats to analyse several novel species of insect ...
Biome Ecology Expression FISH Nucleotide PCR gene expression genes hybridization microorganisms rDNA ribosomal RNA ... PCR-based methods for analysis of populations and gene expression. * Nucleic acid extraction, oligonucleotide probes and PCR ...
Overall, 2.1% of genes tested were transcriptionally modulated under these conditions. 68 genes were upregulated and 131 genes ... Of these, 68 genes were up-regulated and 131 genes down regulated. These data indicate that epigenetic gene silencing is ... Drug treatment modulated the expression of ~2.1% of all amebic genes including 68 genes that were up-regulated and 131 genes ... Despite the relatively few changes in gene expression induced by 5-AzaC treatment (68 genes upregulated and 131 genes down- ...
Our phylogenetic analysis of a collection of protozoan and metazoan MAPK genes in relation to ERK8-like genes demonstrates that ... Our phylogenetic analysis of a collection of protozoan and metazoan MAPK genes in relation to ERK8-like genes demonstrates that ... Our phylogenetic analysis of a collection of protozoan and metazoan MAPK genes in relation to ERK8-like genes demonstrates that ... Our phylogenetic analysis of a collection of protozoan and metazoan MAPK genes in relation to ERK8-like genes demonstrates that ...
The isolated gene encodes a protein of 303 amino acids, termed TcPP2A, which displayed a high degree of homology (86%) with the ... Southern-blot analysis suggested that the TcPP2A gene is present in low copy number in the T. cruzi genome. These results are ... A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Jorge ... A novel protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is involved in the transformation of human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi ...
Phylogenetic position and codon usage of two centrin genes from the rumen ciliate protozoan, Entodinium caudatum. ... Phylogenetic position and codon usage of two centrin genes from the rumen ciliate protozoan, Entodinium caudatum. Together ...
abstract = "To complete its life cycle, protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania undergo at least three major developmental ... Microarrays were developed containing 11,484 PCR products that included a number of known genes and 10,464 random 1 kb genomic ... Northern blot analysis confirmed the predicted change in mRNA abundance for most of these (68%). This set of genes included ... Microarrays were developed containing 11,484 PCR products that included a number of known genes and 10,464 random 1 kb genomic ...
We identified that out of 9,327 genes represented on the array, 290 genes encoding proteins with functions in metabolism, ... We also attempted further functional analysis of some of the most highly modulated genes by L-cysteine depletion. To our ... In this study, employing custom-made Affymetrix microarrays, we performed time course (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) gene expression ... In contrast, we observed significant changes in the expression of several genes encoding iron sulfur flavoproteins, a major ...
Heavy Metal Tolerance Genes Alter Cellular Thermodynamics in Pseudomonas Putida and River Pseudomonas spp. and Influence Amebal ... Michael R. McTee, Sean M. Gibbons, Kevin Feris, Nathan S. Gordon, et al.. "Heavy Metal Tolerance Genes Alter Cellular ...
Plants and animals were originally created with large gene pools within distinct created kinds. A large gene pool gives a ... The protozoan (single-celled).... BY: FRANK SHERWIN, M.A.. Gene Mutation Makes Tot Stronger ...
PfEMP1 is encoded by the diverse family of genes known as the var family of genes (approximately 60 genes in all). The ... In protozoa[edit]. Antigenic variation is employed by a number of different protozoan parasites. Trypanosoma brucei and ... These VSG genes become activated by gene conversion in a hierarchical order: telomeric VSGs are activated first, followed by ... In this instance through the viruses recombine with pieces of each gene creating a new gene instead of simply switching out ...
  • To explore the evolution of these parasites, and identify genes under positive selection, we performed a pairwise whole-genome comparison between all orthologous protein coding genes in C. parvum and C. hominis . (
  • The analyses of nucleotide substitution patterns and genes under positive selection are of interest for understanding the evolution of these parasites and to improve genome annotation. (
  • We report a phylogenetic analysis of primate malaria parasites based on the gene encoding the cytochrome b protein from the mitochondrial genome. (
  • Here we have used PCR-based genotyping of spliced leader RNA gene repeats to analyse several novel species of insect trypanosomatids isolated from heteropteran hosts and to compare them with the parasites that had been detected in the gut smears of the same hosts. (
  • Decreased expression of these genes in the 5-AzaC treated E. histolytica may account in part for the parasites reduced cytolytic abilities . (
  • To complete its life cycle, protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania undergo at least three major developmental transitions. (
  • This study represents the first genome-wide analysis of transcriptional changes induced by L-cysteine deprivation in protozoan parasites, and in eukaryotic organisms where L-cysteine represents the major intracellular thiol. (
  • Antigenic variation is employed by a number of different protozoan parasites. (
  • We investigated whether L. major parasites lacking PTR1 [ ptr1 - , obtained by gene-knockout methodology ( 9 )] were able to induce infections in mice. (
  • Protozoan parasites are the causative agents of a wide range of important human and animal diseases, including malaria. (
  • A set of nine A-4 colour plates with 118 photomicrographs illustrating the appearance and diagnostic features of all the common intestinal helminths and protozoan parasites known to infect humans. (
  • The aim is to help the microscopist ascertain the presence of parasites in faeces, whether they be minute protozoan cysts or large helminth eggs, and to identify them correctly. (
  • Although the 'core' genome shares large block of synteny with human malaria parasites, there are several well-characterised breaks in synteny and the gene organisation in the subtelomeres is substantially different. (
  • Kinetoplastid and apicomplexan parasites include protozoans which are responsible for human diseases, and cause a serious impact on human health and the socioeconomic growth of developing countries. (
  • Some protozoa cause disease only under certain conditions and in this case they are called opportunistic pathogens, as is the case with Herpetomonas , parasites of insects. (
  • As a biologist who applies molecular genetic and cellular approaches to study parasites, my teaching covers a broad range of topics from genes to cells and from basic science to applied drug discovery. (
  • This review focuses on the most recent studies regarding a subset of genes that are expressed differentially during the life cycle of three groups of parasites. (
  • As a result, instead of gradually disappearing from the human gene pool, the variant has spread widely among populations from tropical areas who are most at risk of catching the parasites. (
  • Includes the study of bacteria, "protozoa," parasites and molds and fungi. (
  • Apoptotic Markers in Protozoan Parasites. (
  • in live parasites are observed, simply because the genes are silenced. (
  • Here, we describe a genome-wide analysis of nucleotide substitution patterns in C. parvum / C. hominis orthologous protein coding genes. (
  • Combined transcription and genome data from multiple tissues in hundreds of human donors reveal links between genotype and gene expression across the body. (
  • Because of the limitations of the genes used for molecular phylogenetic studies so far, we have studied the cytochrome b gene from the mitochondrial genome. (
  • This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of DNA-methylation in Entamoeba histolytica and indicates that DNA methylation has relatively limited effects on gene expression in this parasite. (
  • Southern-blot analysis suggested that the TcPP2A gene is present in low copy number in the T. cruzi genome. (
  • However, the parasite's genome has over 1,000 genes that code for different variants of the VSG protein, located on the subtelomeric portion of large chromosomes , or on intermediate chromosomes. (
  • Transduction is a common tool used by molecular biologists to stably introduce a foreign gene into a host cell's genome . (
  • The protozoan phylum Euglenozoa differs immensely from other eukaryotes in its nuclear genome organization (trans-spliced multicistronic transcripts), mitochondrial DNA organization, cytochrome c -type biogenesis, cell structure and arguably primitive mitochondrial protein-import and nuclear DNA prereplication machineries. (
  • The gene products of these genomes work in concert with those of the nuclear genome to ensure proper organelle metabolism and biogenesis. (
  • Some striking examples of trends in organelle evolution explored here are the reduction in genome size and gene coding content observed in most lineages, the complete loss of organelle DNA in certain lineages, and the unusual modes of gene expression that have emerged, such as the extensive and essential mRNA editing that occurs in plant mitochondria and chloroplasts. (
  • Permission of the principal investigator should be obtained before publishing analyses of the sequence/open reading frames/genes on a chromosome or genome scale. (
  • The micronuclear genome resembles that of a canonical eukaryotic genome, with many genes organized along long chromosomes. (
  • The micronuclear genome contains a large amount of "junk" DNA including transposable elements (TEs) and repetitive elements such as minisatellites, while micronuclear genes themselves are often interrupted by multiple short transposon-derived stretches of non-coding DNA called internally eliminated sequences (IESs) (Arnaiz et al. (
  • During this micronucleus to macronucleus transition, the micronuclear genome is modified drastically through various processing events, including the polytenization of chromosomes and removal of repetitive DNA sequences, and IESs must be precisely removed to create functional macronuclear genes. (
  • Placing a gene from one organism into the genome of another is called transgenics. (
  • The mitochondrial genome encodes several gene products that are required for oxidative phosphorylation, but it completely lacks tRNA genes. (
  • 700 genes, constituting ~15% of the genome. (
  • By the 60th cycle, the typical mutator cell carried 4-5 inactive genes among the 15% of the genome being monitored, indicating that the average cell carried at least 24-30 inactivated genes distributed throughout the genome. (
  • A majority of these genes were annotated as hypothetical proteins. (
  • Intestinal and free-living protozoa, such as Giardia lamblia , express a dense coat of variant-specific surface proteins (VSPs) on trophozoites that protects the parasite inside the host's intestine. (
  • We targeted gene knockouts at ten GRA gene loci (GRA1-10) to investigate the cellular roles and essentiality of these classical GRA proteins during acute infection in the virulent type I RH strain. (
  • While eight of these genes (GRA2-9) were successfully knocked out, targeted knockouts at the GRA1 and GRA10 loci were not obtained, suggesting these GRA proteins may be essential. (
  • We identified that out of 9,327 genes represented on the array, 290 genes encoding proteins with functions in metabolism, signalling, DNA/RNA regulation, electron transport, stress response, membrane transport, vesicular trafficking/secretion, and cytoskeleton were differentially expressed (≥3 fold) at one or more time points upon L-cysteine deprivation. (
  • Approximately 60% of these modulated genes encoded proteins of no known function and annotated as hypothetical proteins. (
  • Antigenic variation or antigenic alteration refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan , bacterium or virus alters the proteins or carbohydrates on its surface and thus avoids a host immune response . (
  • It contains 97 genes, 62 of them code for proteins. (
  • Acts via the formation of a heterodimer with JUN family proteins that recognizes and binds DNA sequence 5'-TGA[CG]TCA-3' and regulates expression of target genes (By similarity). (
  • After 3 days of incubation, approximately 1000-fold fewer bacteria were recovered from protozoan cocultures infected with the Mip- strain than from those cocultures infected with an isogenic Mip+ strain. (
  • The occurrence of horizontal gene transfer between bacteria within digestive vacuoles and faecal pellets of the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis was investigated. (
  • R. Americana is a large protozoan that ingests bacteria. (
  • bacteria, archaea, viruses and some protozoa and fungi. (
  • Gene transfer systems that have been extensively studied in bacteria include genetic transformation , conjugation and transduction . (
  • Electron microscopic discoveries eventually led to Bacteria being separated as a distinct kingdom and a five-kingdom system for eukaryotes: basal Protozoa and four derived kingdoms: the ancestrally heterotrophic Animalia and Fungi, and ancestrally phototrophic Plantae and Chromista ( Cavalier-Smith 1981 ). (
  • It covers microbiology, host-pathogen interaction and immunology related to infectious agents, including bacteria, fungi, viruses and protozoa. (
  • These small forms of life are usually single-celled organisms: protozoa and bacteria . (
  • Though both protozoa and bacteria are single-celled organisms, bacteria do not have some of the internal structures (organelles) found in protozoa, such as nuclei and vacuoles, that mimic the organs of multicellular organisms. (
  • The flexible cell surface allows protozoa to engulf and digest bacteria and smaller eukaryotic microorganisms. (
  • Protozoa graze on other life forms by ingesting and killing bacteria or smaller eukaryotes. (
  • Organisms such as viruses, many plants, and most bacteria, which use other means to reproduce, are not good targets for gene drive research (see Box 3-2 for additional considerations for plants). (
  • Tolerance to glufosinate ammonium is conferred though the expression in the plant of the enzyme phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT), encoded by the pat gene from the soil bacteria Streptomyces viridochromogenes. (
  • Sigma factors are one way that bacteria regulate the expression of specific sets of genes in response to environmental signals ( 84 ). (
  • The sigma factor ς S or RpoS of Escherichia coli is known to specifically activate genes when the bacteria are entering stationary phase or encounter adverse conditions such as low nutrient availability, high osmolarity, reactive oxygen intermediates, or low pH. (
  • [5] Fungal genetics uses yeast , and filamentous fungi as model organisms for eukaryotic genetic research, including cell cycle regulation, chromatin structure and gene regulation . (
  • Unlike other single-celled organisms such as algae and fungi, protozoa do not have rigid cell walls. (
  • A comprehensive evaluation of rodent malaria parasite genomes and gene expression. (
  • Researchers have exploited a quirk in the genetic make-up of the deadly malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to create 38,000 mutant strains and then determine which of the organism's genes are essential to its growth and survival. (
  • Others, such as the protozoa that cause malaria, live by parasitizing larger animals. (
  • Examples of infections caused by protozoa are malaria and sleeping thickness. (
  • protozoa that cause malaria. (
  • But those who carry just one copy are resistant to malaria and similar protozoa. (
  • We studied the gene encoding cytochrome b from the 17 species of Plasmodium listed in Table 1 . (
  • This raises hopes that a gene could be introduced that would make the mosquitoes unable to carry the Plasmodium sp. (
  • Site-Specific Integration and Expression of an Anti-Malarial Gene in Transgenic Anopheles gambiae Significantly Reduces Plasmodium Infections. (
  • Many vertebrates transmit nematodes, viruses and those protozoans that number Plasmodium among them. (
  • The data suggests a low level of baseline transcription from the majority of protein-coding genes. (
  • As most textbooks describe, in eukaryotes protein-coding genes are transcribed into monocistronic pre-mRNA transcripts containing exons (coding sequences) and introns (mostly non-coding sequences) that are processed into mature mRNAs through " cis -splicing" reactions. (
  • RNA polymerase II is the enzyme responsible for the transcription of protein-coding genes, whereas RNA polymerase I transcribes ribosomal RNA. (
  • iii) an extensive post-transcriptional modification of mitochondrial RNA known as RNA editing is required for the correct expression of mitochondrial enzymes, and, finally, iv) transcription of protein-coding genes can be achieved by RNA polymerase I (or an enzyme with similar properties). (
  • The isolated gene encodes a protein of 303 amino acids, termed TcPP2A, which displayed a high degree of homology (86%) with the catalytic subunit of Trypanosoma brucei PP2A. (
  • A PCR based assay was designed in order to amplify putative ras gene sequences of the GTPase superfamily eventually present in Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi . (
  • Genetic immunization with LYT1 or a pool of trans-sialidase genes protects mice from lethal Trypanosoma cruzi infection. (
  • In addition to T. brucei, I will address studies on gene regulation in a few species of Leishmania and the results obtained by a much more limited group of laboratories studying gene expression in Trypanosoma cruzi . (
  • In the Trypanosomatidae family, the genera Trypanosoma and Leishmania consist of several species of protozoa that are unicellular and uniflagellated. (
  • The parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma brucei has a complex life cycle. (
  • A large gene pool gives a created kind the genetic potential to produce a variety of types within the kind, allowing the offspring to adapt to varying ecosystems and ensure the survival of that kind of organism. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the movement of genetic material between kingdoms and is considered to play a positive role in adaptation. (
  • Gene transfer and genetic exchange have been studied in the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium volcanii and the hyperthermophilic archaeons Sulfolobus solfataricus and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius . (
  • 1932. Experimental production of chains and its genetic consequences in the Ciliate Protozoan Colpidium campylum . (
  • This application allows readers to explore NCBI data on author-tagged genes through an interactive genetic sequence viewer that supports flipping strands, zooming to a sequence, selecting a specific position, and more. (
  • Our data indicated that in addition to differences in mechanisms of uptake of L. pneumophila by macrophages and protozoa, there were also genetic loci required for L. pneumophila to parasitize mammalian but not protozoan cells. (
  • Genetics is the study of the genes found in genetic material (ex. (
  • By contrast, challenging in vitro conditions have been developed for T. vivax in the past, and this per se has contributed to defer both its genetic manipulation and subsequent gene function studies. (
  • The study of our genetic information & inheritance from how genes & DNA operate at a molecular level to observing the effects of genes on an organism (phenotype) & the role of genes versus the environment. (
  • Genetic engineering, biotechnology, manipulation of genes. (
  • Results showed that 29.4% of food-handlers were harbouring intestinal protozoa in stool samples: Entamoeba coli in 15.3%, Giardia lamblia in 9.7%, and Enta. (
  • In my textbook it just calls them 'intestinal protozoa' (so yeah, Entamoeba and such), but Wikipedia says that the term 'protozoa' is not used anymore in the scientific context. (
  • were carried out for detection of intestinal protozoa. (
  • Cysts/oocysts of intestinal protozoa were detected in 31% of sled dogs. (
  • Our group has recently explored RNAi to knock down gene-specific expression in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, through delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) oligonucleotides by the soaking approach. (
  • In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica , a DNA methyltransferase has been identified and treatment with 5- azacytidine (5-AzaC), a potent inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, has been reported to attenuate parasite virulence . (
  • Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscesses . (
  • Entamoeba histolytica , an enteric protozoan parasite, causes amebic colitis and extra intestinal abscesses in millions of inhabitants of endemic areas. (
  • In wild and laboratory mice, several protozoa have been documented to be disease causing, whereas others, such as Entamoeba muris and Tritrichomonas muris , are considered nonpathogenic members of the murine microbiome ( Baker, 2008 ). (
  • In the very year he and Wallace published their natural selection ideas, Owen (1858) established the kingdom Protozoa for the most primitive unicellular organisms, which eventually undermined the two-kingdom animal-vegetable viewpoint dominating biological thinking since Linnaeus. (
  • Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterium which normally exists in water, in soil, and within free-living unicellular protozoa, yet it has developed unique strategies that permit multiplication within the phagosomes of human macrophages. (
  • Experimental procedures using the RNA interference (RNAi) approach have recently emerged as a powerful tool for gene silencing in eukaryotic microbes for which gene replacement techniques have not yet been developed. (
  • Our phylogenetic analysis of a collection of protozoan and metazoan MAPK genes in relation to ERK8-like genes demonstrates that an ERK8-like family, which includes the pzMAPK2 subfamily, is represented across a large variety of eukaryotic kingdoms and is evolutionarily very distant from other MAPK families. (
  • I discuss eukaryotic deep phylogeny and reclassify the basal eukaryotic kingdom Protozoa and derived kingdom Chromista in the light of multigene trees. (
  • The simpler picture for Protozoa, with only seven phyla of distinctive cellular body plan, makes it easier to solve longstanding problems of the position of the root of the eukaryotic tree ( Roger & Simpson 2009 ) and nature of the first eukaryotes. (
  • These are illuminated here by the hypothesis that the eukaryotic root lies between the protozoan phylum Euglenozoa and all the remaining eukaryotes (neokaryotes). (
  • Mechanisms of toxic action of silver nanoparticles in the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila: From gene expression to phenotypic events. (
  • Here, the effects of protein-coated AgNPs (14.6 nm, Collargol) were studied on viability, oxidative stress and gene expression levels in wild type strains (CU427 and CU428) of ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. (
  • The complex pattern of gene expression from 18S SSU rRNA raised concern about the phylogenetic trees derived from these genes ( 16 ). (
  • In higher eukaryotes DNA methylation regulates important biological functions including silencing of gene expression and protection from adverse effects of retrotransposons . (
  • However , the overall extent of DNA methylation and its subsequent effects on global gene expression in this parasite are currently unknown . (
  • In this study, employing custom-made Affymetrix microarrays, we performed time course (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h) gene expression analysis upon L-cysteine deprivation. (
  • To our surprise, L-cysteine depletion caused only limited changes in the expression of genes involved in sulfur-containing amino acid metabolism and oxidative stress defense. (
  • In contrast, we observed significant changes in the expression of several genes encoding iron sulfur flavoproteins, a major facilitator super-family transporter, regulator of nonsense transcripts, NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase, short chain dehydrogenase, acetyltransferases, and various other genes involved in diverse cellular functions. (
  • Each new gene is switched in turn into a VSG expression site (ES). (
  • RNA silencing is an important mechanism to regulate gene expression and antiviral defense in plants. (
  • S. sclerotiorum inoculation strongly induced the expression of BnCAMTA3 genes while significantly suppressed that of some CGCG-containing RNA silencing component genes, suggesting that RNA silencing machinery might be targeted by CAMTA3. (
  • The uptake of donor DNA and its recombinational incorporation into the recipient chromosome depends on the expression of numerous bacterial genes whose products direct this process. (
  • E. coli conjugation is mediated by expression of plasmid genes, whereas mycobacterial conjugation is mediated by genes on the bacterial chromosome. (
  • p>Covers cases where the annotation is inferred from the timing or location of expression of a gene. (
  • Using quantitative RT-PCR on mRNA from heterophils isolated from control and SE-stimulated heterophils of each line, we profiled the expression of all chicken homologous genes identified in a reference TLR pathway. (
  • Several differentially expressed genes found were involved in the TLR-induced My88-dependent pathway, showing higher gene expression in line A than line B heterophils following SE stimulation. (
  • However, we focused all of these studies on downstream events and/or end products (cell effector functions and cytokine/chemokine gene expression), which led us to ask whether the differences were initiated at either the level of receptor recognition or downstream signaling events induced by ligation of the receptors. (
  • This book explores the forces that have shaped the evolution of organelle genomes and the expression of the genes encoded by them. (
  • This book places particular emphasis on the current techniques used to study the evolution of organelle genomes and gene expression. (
  • This includes changes in gene activity and gene expression levels, without altering the underlying DNA sequence, that may be passed on to generations to come. (
  • In addition, some traits may simply be too complex to alter because they are governed by many genes, their expression is shaped by the external environment, or they are modified by internal or development cues (e.g., epigenetics) that are not yet fully elucidated. (
  • Laboratory work often include parasite culture, parasite CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, microscopy, protein expression and purification. (
  • The study of mechanisms which control gene expression in trypanosomatids has developed at an increasing rate since 1989 when the first successful DNA transfection experiments were reported. (
  • In addition, with the increasing numbers of parasite genes that have now been submitted to molecular dissection, it is also becoming evident that, among the various strategies for gene expression control, there is a predominance of regulatory pathways acting at the post-transcriptional level. (
  • We have also constructed the first T. vivax specific expression vector that drives constitutive expression of the luciferase reporter gene. (
  • With the advent of new and improved high-throughput sequencing technologies in the last few years, a growing number of novel classes of small RNA, other than miRNAs or siRNA, has emerged, which appear as new actors in gene expression regulation. (
  • Among these ncRNAs, the small ncRNAs (sRNAs) of ~20-30 nt in length have been recognized as key players in the regulation of gene expression at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, which is far from being completely characterized. (
  • Studies of pathogenic organisms indicate that gene expression is coordinately regulated in response to environmental signals such as the absence of certain amino acids, pH, temperature, oxygen availability, and the concentration of ions like iron, calcium, and magnesium ( 25 , 54 ). (
  • Cells in stationary phase exhibit increased osmotolerance, resistance to oxidative stresses such as H 2 O 2 , and survive starvation as a result of RpoS-dependent gene expression ( 19 , 29 , 48 ). (
  • The sequence and gene group of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes of Leishmania main Friedlin (LmjF) had been decided. (
  • Based on comparison of the sequences of genes encoding various ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), the phylogenetic relationships in seven out of eight known classes of ciliates are discussed. (
  • The tree shown above is based on several phylogenetic analyses of gene sequences of nuclear small subunit (SSU) ribosomal DNA (Lutzoni et al. (
  • These "new sRNAs" could derive from pre-existent molecules with canonical functions such as ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), transfer RNA (tRNA), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs), and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), which could define a group of RNAs that have a wide range of roles in gene regulation in addition to having the structural and/or functional roles for which they were originally characterized. (
  • Genomic group, transcription, splicing and gene regulation in Leishmania . (
  • The parasitic protozoan Leishmania is the aetiological agent of a spectrum of scientific illnesses, starting from disfiguring pores and skin lesions to life-threatening visceral an infection, and is a critical well being downside in tropical and subtropical areas world-wide. (
  • In contrast to other intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania , Mycobacterium , and Toxoplasma which use many of the same strategies for survival ( 73 ), L. pneumophila can be genetically manipulated and grown with relative ease both on bacteriological media and intracellularly within cell culture lines and protozoan hosts. (
  • R. Americana has played a significant role in understanding the scope of antiquity of what bacterial DNA was captured because its mitochondrial DNA collection is more complete than that of other eukaryotes, which have discarded many and various genes. (
  • According to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, the sulfate assimilation pathway, where CysQ plays an important role, is well conserved in most eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes. (
  • Thus, we show for the first time that digestive vacuoles of free-living protozoa appear to be an important ecological micro-niche, where gene transfer by conjugation (or retromobilisation) will be favoured. (
  • Sporozoa are parasitic protozoa which generally obtain nutrients by absorbing organic molecules from the host organism. (
  • The two most basic requirements for a target organism of gene drive work are that it reproduces sexually and that it reproduces rapidly (see Box 3-1 ). (
  • Molecular evolution of ciliates (Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans Lukashenko, N. 2009-08-25 00:00:00 The review summarizes current evidence, including the findings related to molecular phylogeny of ciliates (type Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans. (
  • The review summarizes current evidence, including the findings related to molecular phylogeny of ciliates (type Ciliophora) and some related groups of protozoans. (
  • This compendium has eleven chapters written by leading experts in their field and provides current research information on the molecular biology of parasitic protozoans causative agents of a broad spectrum of diseases around the world. (
  • The Mottram laboratory works on the molecular genetics, cell biology and biochemistry of the parasitic protozoa that cause neglected tropical diseases such as leishmaniasis and Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT). (
  • However, despite their close association with arthropods (both in their food and as their ectoparasites), only a few molecular surveys have been published on their role as carriers of vector-borne protozoa. (
  • A S-adenosylmethionine synthetase gene from the pathogenic piscinehemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica . (
  • A metalloproteinase gene from the pathogenic piscine hemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica . (
  • A cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase gene from the pathogenic piscine hemoflagellate, Cryptobia salmositica . (
  • Ticks are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of bac- competence in the transmission of pathogenic spirochetes, terial, viral, and protozoan agents (1). (
  • Pathogenic protozoa have several common features. (
  • Two novel genes in the center of the 11p15 imprinted domain escape genomic imprinting. (
  • i) genes that were endogenously silenced by genomic DNA methylation and for which 5-AzaC treatment induced transcriptional de- repression , and (ii) genes that have genomic DNA methylation, but which were not endogenously silenced by the methylation. (
  • Microarrays were developed containing 11,484 PCR products that included a number of known genes and 10,464 random 1 kb genomic DNA fragments. (
  • In the future, gene therapy, genomic medicine, and preventative treatments may reduce the likelihood of disease and allow manufacturers to tailor drugs to specific individuals. (
  • Spirostomum is a large Ciliate Protozoan, up to 3 mm long and visible even without a microscope. (
  • 1930. Cause, inheritance, and effects of the chain-forming tendency in the Ciliate Protozoan, Colpidium campylum . (
  • Mendelian methods applied to the Ciliate Protozoan, Paramecium aurelia . (
  • Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular parasite of freshwater protozoa and human macrophages. (
  • Furthermore, they support the hypothesis that the ability of L. pneumophila to parasitize macrophages and hence to cause human disease is a consequence of its prior adaptation to intracellular growth within protozoa. (
  • Consistent with the reliance of the intracellular developmental stages on the host cell for many metabolites, numerous genes encoding membrane transporters have been identified [ 1 ]. (
  • Massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) was used to analyze the transcriptome of the intracellular protozoan Theileria parva. (
  • We recently cloned a novel stress-response MAPK gene (tgMAPK1) from Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular human parasite that can cause life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients, and we now present data on a second T. gondii MAPK gene (tgMAPK2) that we cloned. (
  • We identified 32 mutants with various degrees of defects in cytopathogenicity, intracellular survival, and replication within human macrophages, and most of the mutants exhibited wild-type phenotypes within protozoa. (
  • We hypothesize that L. pneumophila has evolved as a protozoan parasite in the environment but has acquired loci specific for intracellular replication within macrophages. (
  • Moreover, compared with Arabidopsis, some AGO and RDR genes such as AGO1, AGO4, AGO9 , and RDR5 had significantly expanded in these Brassica species. (
  • In the environment, L. pneumophila is a parasite of at least 13 species of amoebae and ciliated protozoa ( 20 ). (
  • With about 35,000 species, protozoa are remarkably diverse in form and activity. (
  • Canadian researchers have now looked for similar BIP genes in other species. (
  • The scientists don't find the genes outside the land plants--except for a species of green algae, Mesostigma viride. (
  • These data suggest that L. pneumophila employs similar genes and mechanisms to infect human cells and protozoa. (
  • These observations have suggested that many of the mechanisms utilized by L. pneumophila to parasitize mammalian and protozoan cells are similar, but our data have not excluded the possibility that there are unique mechanisms utilized by L. pneumophila to survive and replicate within macrophages but not protozoa. (
  • Alternatively, ecological coevolution with protozoa has allowed L. pneumophila to possess multiple redundant mechanisms to parasitize protozoa and that some of these mechanisms do not function within macrophages. (
  • Uptake of L. pneumophila by macrophages and protozoa occurs by different mechanisms ( 5 , 29 ). (
  • While these phenomena have been described in mammals and extensive work has been performed to elucidate mechanisms, this review will focus primarily on RNA-mediated transgenerational inheritance in ciliated protozoans and plants. (
  • Diversity: Selections are intended to reflect a range of plausible target organisms, applications, mechanisms of action, and locations (in terms of where gene drive research is carried out and where organisms could potentially be released). (
  • Cryptosporidium parvum is a parasitic protozoan that causes an infectious disease. (
  • This micro-biotope provides a selective pressure which might enhance the acquisition of virulence genes in cases of mutual interactions between genetically modified micro-organisms and wild-type pathogens. (
  • Plausibility: Selection of organisms suitable for the development of a gene drive. (
  • Many organisms and traits are not suitable for gene drive research. (
  • 1940. Present Status of Genetics: Concept of the Gene, Sociology Dept. (
  • The ciliated protozoa : characterization, classification, and guide to the literature. (
  • according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification. (
  • Recent phylogenetic advances reveal that several major protist groups formerly treated as Protozoa really belong in the kingdom Chromista, necessitating radical reinterpretation of chromist evolution and revision of higher classification of both kingdoms, effected here. (
  • Protozoa' is considered an outdated classification in more formal contexts. (
  • To determine whether Mip is also involved in L. pneumophila infection of protozoa, we examined the ability of a strain lacking Mip to parasitize Hartmannella amoebae and Tetrahymena ciliates. (
  • Partial gene conversion occurs among nonhomologous copies of the 18S SSU rRNA genes that are expressed during different parasite stages. (
  • Repetitive components ( IGSRE ) of 63 bp occurred within the intergenic spacer ( IGS ) between the LSUepsilon and the SSU rRNA genes. (
  • Both genomes are about 9 Mb in size and their gene complements appear to be identical, each coding for about 3900 genes. (
  • A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees," PLoS Biology , vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 976-985, 2005. (
  • Chromosomes, centromeres, regulation of genes. (
  • Studies also show that RpoS likely regulates chromosomal as well as plasmid-encoded virulence genes in S. typhimurium ( 20 , 42 ), including those required for acid tolerance ( 46 ). (
  • C. parvum and C. hominis protein coding gene nucleotide and amino acid sequences were downloaded from CryptoDB [ 12 ] ( ) release 3.2. (
  • This procedure resulted in 2465 pairs of orthologous gene sequences. (
  • DNA methylation can silence genes by directly blocking the interaction of transcription factors to their regulatory sequences [ 7 , 8 ]. (
  • Apparently, the rDNA repeat unit contained a duplicated 526 bp fragment on the 3′ finish of the unit with two copies of the LSUepsilon rRNA gene. (
  • We have recently shown that many mutants of Legionella pneumophila exhibit similar defective phenotypes within both U937 human-derived macrophages and the protozoan host Acanthamoeba (L.-Y. Gao, O. S. Harb, and Y. Abu Kwaik, Infect. (
  • Although the mutant strain was able to kill HL-60- and THP-1-derived macrophages, it could not replicate within a protozoan host, Acanthamoeba castellanii . (
  • However, the Apicomplexa, including C. parvum, largely lack orthologous genes of the pathway, suggesting its loss in those protozoan lineages. (
  • Therefore, the present study was initiated to screen bat samples for arthropod-borne protozoa (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida and related groups). (
  • A 2.5-Mb transcript map of a tumor-suppressing subchromosomal transferable fragment from 11p15.5, and isolation and sequence analysis of three novel genes. (
  • Sequence homology between the L. tarentolae 9 and 12s RNA genes and the T. brucei 9 and 12s RNA genes was observed. (
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include DNA-binding transcription factor activity and sequence-specific DNA binding . (
  • Land plants evolved still more copies of BIP for growth, and then in later lineages, some of these genes were co-opted yet again for new uses. (
  • The early-branching eukaryote Giardia lamblia is perhaps the only protozoan capable of colonizing the lumen of the upper small intestine of many vertebrates, including humans 6 . (
  • Cryptosporidium parvum and C. hominis are related protozoan pathogens which infect the intestinal epithelium of humans and other vertebrates. (
  • Protozoa in the environment have been implicated as both potential hosts harboring pathogens and as agents enhancing pathogen survival and pathogenicity. (
  • Therapeutic targeting potential of hexose transporters of other protozoan pathogens is also reviewed and discussed. (
  • Demonstration of microbial/protozoan DNA from bat faeces is not only informative on prey insect (or bat intestinal) pathogens. (
  • To investigate regulatory networks in Legionella pneumophila , the gene encoding the homolog of the Escherichia coli stress and stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS was identified by complementation of an E. coli rpoS mutation. (
  • An insertion mutation was constructed in the rpoS gene on the chromosome of L. pneumophila , and the ability of this mutant strain to survive various stress conditions was assayed and compared with results for the wild-type strain. (
  • These data suggest that L. pneumophila possesses a growth phase-dependent resistance to stress that is independent of RpoS control and that RpoS likely regulates genes that enable it to survive in the environment within protozoa. (
  • Among them, cgd2_1810, which has been annotated as CysQ, a sulfite synthesis pathway protein, is listed as one of the candidates of genes horizontally transferred from bacterial origin. (
  • Of 2465 pairs of orthologous genes, a total of 27 (1.1%) showed a high ratio of nonsynonymous substitutions, consistent with positive selection. (
  • The tickborne protozoa of the genus Babesia reproduce in chain reaction assays with subsequent sequencing. (
  • The MPSS transcripts per million for seven genes encoding schizont antigens recognized by bovine CD8 T cells varied 1000-fold. (
  • The growth kinetics of many mutants belonging to groups I to III were also examined, and these were shown to have a similar defective phenotype in peripheral blood monocytes and a wild-type phenotype within another protozoan host, Hartmannella vermiformis . (
  • Arrays were hybridized in triplicate and genes showing two-fold or greater changes in 2/3 experiments were scored as differentially expressed. (
  • This set of genes included most of those previously identified in the literature as differentially regulated as well as a number of novel genes. (
  • This partial gene conversion among nonhomologous genes can generate misleading phylogenetic results ( 11 , 17 ). (
  • The methanogens in the rumen are found free in the rumen fluid, attached to particulate material and rumen protozoa, associated as endosymbionts within rumen protozoa, and attached to the rumen epithelium. (
  • Two transcription activators, Myb2 and Myb3, and a Myb1 repressor were demonstrated to coregulate inducible transcription of the ap65-1 gene ( 15 , 34 , 35 , 44 ), which encodes a 65-kDa malic enzyme that may also serve as an adhesion protein under iron-replete conditions ( 21 , 31 ). (
  • This gene encodes a member of the F-box protein family which is characterized by an approximately 40 amino acid motif, the F-box. (
  • Whereas "housekeeping genes" are under purifying selection to conserve many metabolic functions, genes that enable the parasite to adapt to different host environments may evolve more rapidly. (
  • Our work is a significant breakthrough in the field as it should lead, in the future, to the identification of parasite genes that are relevant to its biology and fate, and to work that may shed light on the intricacies of T. vivax- host interactions. (
  • However, previous efforts to identify genes showing stage regulated changes in transcript abundance have yielded relatively few. (
  • This gene may play a role in malignancies and diseases that involve this region, and it is also involved in hematopoietic cell function. (
  • Protective immunity in fish against protozoan diseases. (
  • You'll discover how your genes have been shaped through millennia spent battling against infectious diseases. (
  • Parasitic protozoa live in or upon animal or human in cell (cytozoic) or in tissue (histozoic) and may cause diseases. (
  • Knowledge about genes and an individual's DNA have already given scientists a way to predict the likelihood of certain diseases among individuals. (
  • The DNA was extracted, and analysed with PCR and sequencing for the presence of arthropod-borne apicomplexan protozoa. (
  • Previously conducted studies using two chicken lines (A and B) show that line A birds have increased resistance to a number of bacterial and protozoan challenges and that heterophils isolated from line A birds are functionally more responsive. (