Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.BRCA1 Protein: The phosphoprotein encoded by the BRCA1 gene (GENE, BRCA1). In normal cells the BRCA1 protein is localized in the nucleus, whereas in the majority of breast cancer cell lines and in malignant pleural effusions from breast cancer patients, it is localized mainly in the cytoplasm. (Science 1995;270(5237):713,789-91)Genes, BRCA1: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human CHROMOSOME 17 at locus 17q21. Mutations of this gene are associated with the formation of HEREDITARY BREAST AND OVARIAN CANCER SYNDROME. It encodes a large nuclear protein that is a component of DNA repair pathways.BRCA2 Protein: A large, nuclear protein, encoded by the BRCA2 gene (GENE, BRCA2). Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. The BRCA2 protein is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev. 2000;14(11):1400-6)Genes, BRCA2: A tumor suppressor gene (GENES, TUMOR SUPPRESSOR) located on human chromosome 13 at locus 13q12.3. Mutations in this gene predispose humans to breast and ovarian cancer. It encodes a large, nuclear protein that is an essential component of DNA repair pathways, suppressing the formation of gross chromosomal rearrangements. (from Genes Dev 2000;14(11):1400-6)Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Germ-Line Mutation: Any detectable and heritable alteration in the lineage of germ cells. Mutations in these cells (i.e., "generative" cells ancestral to the gametes) are transmitted to progeny while those in somatic cells are not.Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial: Neoplasms composed of glandular tissue, an aggregation of epithelial cells that elaborate secretions, and of any type of epithelium itself. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the various glands or in epithelial tissue.Genes, Neoplasm: Genes whose abnormal expression, or MUTATION are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous: A malignant cystic or semicystic neoplasm. It often occurs in the ovary and usually bilaterally. The external surface is usually covered with papillary excrescences. Microscopically, the papillary patterns are predominantly epithelial overgrowths with differentiated and undifferentiated papillary serous cystadenocarcinoma cells. Psammoma bodies may be present. The tumor generally adheres to surrounding structures and produces ascites. (From Hughes, Obstetric-Gynecologic Terminology, 1972, p185)Rad51 Recombinase: A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Breast Neoplasms, Male: Any neoplasms of the male breast. These occur infrequently in males in developed countries, the incidence being about 1% of that in females.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Receptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.DNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary: The condition of a pattern of malignancies within a family, but not every individual's necessarily having the same neoplasm. Characteristically the tumor tends to occur at an earlier than average age, individuals may have more than one primary tumor, the tumors may be multicentric, usually more than 25 percent of the individuals in direct lineal descent from the proband are affected, and the cancer predisposition in these families behaves as an autosomal dominant trait with about 60 percent penetrance.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of varying combinations of clear and hobnail-shaped tumor cells. There are three predominant patterns described as tubulocystic, solid, and papillary. These tumors, usually located in the female reproductive organs, have been seen more frequently in young women since 1970 as a result of the association with intrauterine exposure to diethylstilbestrol. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed)Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Genes, Tumor Suppressor: Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Jews: An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous: An adenocarcinoma producing mucin in significant amounts. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Carcinoma, Endometrioid: An adenocarcinoma characterized by the presence of cells resembling the glandular cells of the ENDOMETRIUM. It is a common histological type of ovarian CARCINOMA and ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA. There is a high frequency of co-occurrence of this form of adenocarcinoma in both tissues.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Tumor Suppressor Proteins: Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Tumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fallopian Tube Neoplasms: Benign or malignant neoplasms of the FALLOPIAN TUBES. They are uncommon. If they develop, they may be located in the wall or within the lumen as a growth attached to the wall by a stalk.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Genes, Transgenic, Suicide: Genes that are used transgenically, i.e., via GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES to induce CELL DEATH.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A common and benign breast disease characterized by varying degree of fibrocystic changes in the breast tissue. There are three major patterns of morphological changes, including FIBROSIS, formation of CYSTS, and proliferation of glandular tissue (adenosis). The fibrocystic breast has a dense irregular, lumpy, bumpy consistency.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Genes, p53: Tumor suppressor genes located on the short arm of human chromosome 17 and coding for the phosphoprotein p53.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating: A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Carcinoma, Lobular: A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Loss of Heterozygosity: The loss of one allele at a specific locus, caused by a deletion mutation; or loss of a chromosome from a chromosome pair, resulting in abnormal HEMIZYGOSITY. It is detected when heterozygous markers for a locus appear monomorphic because one of the ALLELES was deleted.Epididymal Secretory Proteins: Proteins secreted by the epididymal epithelium. These proteins are both tissue- and species-specific. They are important molecular agents in the process of sperm maturation.Tissue Array Analysis: The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.Cystadenocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. The neoplastic cells manifest varying degrees of anaplasia and invasiveness, and local extension and metastases occur. Cystadenocarcinomas develop frequently in the ovaries, where pseudomucinous and serous types are recognized. (Stedman, 25th ed)Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)United StatesAntigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Breast Implants: Implants used to reconstruct and/or cosmetically enhance the female breast. They have an outer shell or envelope of silicone elastomer and are filled with either saline or silicone gel. The outer shell may be either smooth or textured.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Neoplasm Grading: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Salpingectomy: Excision of one or both of the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Cell Growth Processes: Processes required for CELL ENLARGEMENT and CELL PROLIFERATION.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Gene Amplification: A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome: Autosomal dominant HEREDITARY CANCER SYNDROME in which a mutation most often in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 is associated with a significantly increased risk for breast and ovarian cancers.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.MCF-7 Cells: An estrogen responsive cell line derived from a patient with metastatic human breast ADENOCARCINOMA (at the Michigan Cancer Foundation.)Platinum Compounds: Inorganic compounds which contain platinum as the central atom.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mice, Inbred BALB CModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gliosarcoma: Rare mixed tumors of the brain and rarely the spinal cord which contain malignant neuroectodermal (glial) and mesenchymal components, including spindle-shaped fibrosarcoma cells. These tumors are highly aggressive and present primarily in adults as rapidly expanding mass lesions. They may arise in tissue that has been previously irradiated. (From Br J Neurosurg 1995 Apr;9(2):171-8)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.

*Synthetic lethality

... and mutations in these genes predispose individuals to breast cancer and ovarian cancer. The enzyme PARP1 is involved in ... The major pathway depends on BRCA1, PALB2 and BRCA2 while an alternative pathway depends on RAD52. Pre-clinical studies, ... prostate cancers, breast cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphomas and chondrosarcomas, plus at significant levels in the other cancers ... Thus a defect in a DDR gene is likely to be present in cancers (see, e.g. frequencies of epimutations in DNA repair genes in ...

*Variant of uncertain significance

... of other genetic variants in and around BRCA1 and other genes that may predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A ... recent study of the genes ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, PALB2, and TP53 found 15,311 DNA sequence variants in only 102 ... "Understanding of BRCA VUS genetic results by breast cancer specialists". BMC Cancer. 15: 936. doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1934-1. ... In a 2015 study in the UK, where BRCA VUSs occur in 10-20% of tests, 39% of breast cancer specialists taking part in the study ...

*Risk factors for breast cancer

... of BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes reduces the risk of developing breast cancer as well as reducing the risk of developing ovarian cancer ... DMBA induces mammary tumors and allows chemicals that predispose for mammary cancer to increase the number of mammary ... and BRCA2 Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Breast cancer database at Silent Spring Institute Risk factors for breast cancer at ... 2006). "Post-diagnosis weight gain and breast cancer recurrence in women with early stage breast cancer". Breast Cancer Res ...

*Cancer syndrome

... of breast and ovarian cancer, respectively, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for 80% of these cases. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are both tumor ... genes predispose the affected individuals to the development of cancers and may also cause the early onset of these cancers. ... These include; endometrial cancer, stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, cancers of the small bowel and pancreatic cancer. HNPCC is ... Other cancers that are inconsistently linked to this syndrome are pancreatic cancer, male breast cancer, colorectal cancer and ...

*Neoplasm

These epigenetic defects occurred in various cancers (e.g. breast, ovarian, colorectal and head and neck). Two or three ... are at increased risk of cancer. Some germ line mutations in DNA repair genes cause up to 100% lifetime chance of cancer (e.g ... largely unknown processes so as to predispose it towards development of cancer. Since then, the terms "field cancerization" and ... Tutt AN, van Oostrom CT, Ross GM, van Steeg H, Ashworth A (March 2002). "Disruption of Brca2 increases the spontaneous mutation ...

*List of events in NHGRI history

... show that three specific alterations in the breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with an increased risk of breast ... The cancers to be studied in the TCGA Pilot Project are lung, brain (glioblastoma) and ovarian. October 4, 2006: The National ... and other scientists find variants in a gene that may predispose people to type 2 diabetes, the most common form of the disease ... The map will accelerate the discovery of genes related to common diseases, such as asthma, cancer, diabetes and heart disease. ...

*Bruce Ponder

... which led to the identification of breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. BRCA2 specifically was identified by a ... United Kingdom Coordinating Committee on Cancer Research (UKCCCR) Familial Ovarian Cancer Study Group". Journal of the National ... to identify genes that predispose to cancer. His team pinpointed the RET gene as the cause of Multiple endocrine neoplasia type ... "A comprehensive model for familial breast cancer incorporating BRCA1, BRCA2 and other genes". British Journal of Cancer. 86 (1 ...

*Somatic evolution in cancer

"Measurement of steroid hormone receptors in breast cancer patients on tamoxifen". Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 26 (3): 237-46. doi ... cancer is usually fatal so there is selection for genes and the organization of tissues that suppress cancer. At the level of ... largely unknown processes so as to predispose it towards development of cancer. Since then, the terms "field cancerization" and ... Deficiency of DNA repair proteins PMS2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH3, MSH6 or BRCA2 can cause up to 100-fold increases in mutation ...
Fallopian Tube Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Fallopian Tube Serous Adenocarcinoma Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma Malignant Ovarian Brenner Tumor Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer Stage IIIA Ovarian ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response assay predicts long-Term survival of primary epithelial ovarian cancer. AU - Li, Lan Ying. AU - Kim, Sang Wun. AU - Nam, Eun Ji. AU - Lee, Jungyun. AU - Kim, Sunghoon. AU - Kim, Young Tae. PY - 2019/2/1. Y1 - 2019/2/1. N2 - Objective The aim of this study is to analyze the long-Term relapse-free survival and overall survival outcomes of primary ovarian cancer patients using adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response analysis. Methods In total, 162 primary epithelial ovarian cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy response assay for carboplatin, cisplatin, and paclitaxel by adenosine triphosphate-based chemotherapy response analysis prior to chemotherapy between December 2006 and November 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Chemosensitivity with single or combined three agents and clinical characteristics of patients were studied to ...
BRCA1 is a breast cancer susceptibility gene that is down-regulated in a significant proportion of sporadic breast cancers. BRCA1 is posttranscriptionally regulated by RNA-binding proteins, the identities of which are unknown. HuR is an RNA binding protein implicated in posttranscriptional regulation of many genes and is overexpressed in sporadic breast cancer. To investigate the possibility that these two molecules are functionally linked in breast cancer, we performed bioinformatic analysis of the BRCA1 3 untranslated region (UTR), RNA-protein assays with the HuR protein and the BRCA1 3UTR, and immunohistochemical analysis of a cohort of breast tumors using antibodies against BRCA1 and HuR. Here, we describe the identification of two ...
Given how BRCA2 is believed to function as a tumour suppressor, assays related to DNA repair are directly relevant to predicting the impact of BRCA2 variants on cancer risk and therapeutic response. Additionally, such assays have demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for predicting known benign and pathogenic variants. For these reasons, DNA repair-related assays are considered here.21 Since DNA repair-related domains are distributed throughout BRCA2, as discussed earlier, such assays should be based on expression of full-length BRCA2. BRCA2 is even larger than BRCA1 (the protein is ~390 kDa and the cDNA is 10 254 bp). Thus, it has been difficult to express full-length BRCA2 in human cells using a cDNA.69 73 As such, some functional studies of BRCA2 VUS have been based on heterologous expression of full-length BRCA2 variants in mouse ...
Breast Cancer is very common among Canadians. The Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation reported in 2014 " 1 in 9 women in Canada is expected to develop breast cancer during her lifetime." Today we are focusing on the genetic aspects of developing breast cancer in the body.. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes - BRCA1 and BRCA 2 known, as a Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 1 and Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene 2 are human genes and works as tumor suppressors.. How BRCA1 and BRCA2 connect to cancer? When any of those genes mutate, it causes DNA damage and it might not be able to repair properly, and as a ...
Cell lines and culture. The derivation, source, and propagation of human epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines, such as cisplatin-sensitive (A2780-PAR) and platinum-resistant (A2780-CP20 and RMG2) epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines, were maintained as previously described (30). The A2780-CP20 cell line was developed by sequential exposure of the A2780 cell line to increasing concentrations of cisplatin. All experiments were done with 70% to 80% confluent cultures.. ATP7A and ATP7B gene silencing by siRNA. siRNA constructs targeted to ATP7A and ATP7B were designed and purchased from Qiagen. The target sequences were 5′-CTGGACCGGATTGTTAATTAT-3′ (for ATP7A) and 5′-CCAATTGATATTGAGCGGTTA-3′ (for ATP7B). In vitro transient transfection was done as described previously (28). Briefly, cells were transfected with ATP7A- and/or ATP7B-specific or scrambled (control) siRNA using RNAiFect reagent (Qiagen). At selected time intervals, cells were ...
Background: While BRCA mutation carriers possess a 20-40% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer, knowledge about genetic modifying factors influencing the phenotypic expression remains obscure. We explored the distribution of the MDM2 polymorphisms SNP309T>G and the recently discovered SNP285G>C in Norwegian patients with BRCA related ovarian cancer.. G and the recently discovered SNP285G>C in Norwegian patients with BRCA related ovarian cancer.. C in Norwegian patients with BRCA related ovarian cancer.. Methods: 221 BRCA related ovarian cancer cases (BRCA1; n = 161 and BRCA2; n = 60) were tested for the MDM2 polymorphisms. Results were compared to healthy controls (n = 2,465).. Results: The SNP309G allele was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of growth of OV-1063 human epithelial ovarian cancers and c-jun and c-fos oncogene expression by bombesin antagonists. AU - Chatzistamou, I.. AU - Schally, Andrew V. AU - Sun, B.. AU - Armatis, P.. AU - Szepeshazi, K.. PY - 2000/10/2. Y1 - 2000/10/2. N2 - Receptors for bombesin are present on human ovarian cancers and bombesin-like peptides could function as growth factors in this carcinoma. Therefore, we investigated the effects of bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) antagonists RC-3940-II and RC-3095 on the growth of human ovarian carcinoma cell line OV-1063, xenografted into nude mice. Treatment with RC-3940-II at doses of 10 μg and 20 μg per day s.c. decreased tumour volume by 60.9% (P , 0.05) and 73.5% (P , 0.05) respectively, after 25 days, compared to controls. RC-3095 at a dose of 20 μg per day reduced the volume of OV-1063 tumours by 47.7% (P = 0.15). In comparison, luteinizing ...
Vectors based on adenoviruses have been designed as targeted anti-cancer therapeutics that showed promising results in pre-clinical applications. In clinical trials, these oncolytic adenoviruses have generally been proved safe in patients, but have fallen short of their expected therapeutic value. In this thesis the susceptibility of primary ovarian cancer cells to oncolytic adenoviruses was studied in order to identify cellular mechanisms that confer resistance to virotherapy. Using gene expression profiling of cancer cells either resistant or susceptible to viral oncolysis, it was discovered that the epithelial phenotype of ovarian cancer represents a barrier to infection by commonly used oncolytic adenoviruses targeted to coxsackie- and adenovirus receptor (CAR) or CD46. Accessibility to viral receptors was critically linked to depolarization and the loss of tight and adherens junctions, both hallmarks of ...
Response to microtubule-interacting agents in primary epithelial ovarian cancer cells. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Looking for online definition of BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex, subunit 1 in the Medical Dictionary? BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex, subunit 1 explanation free. What is BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex, subunit 1? Meaning of BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex, subunit 1 medical term. What does BRCA1/BRCA2-containing complex, subunit 1 mean?
Rapid developments in cancer genetics have exposed a knowledge vacuum about genetic testing for susceptibility to cancer. Our experience in testing for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in hereditary breast cancer (HBC) syndrome, with counseling about cancer surveillance and management, inclusive of the option of prophylactic surgery, provides some important information. We provided DNA-based (BRCA1, BRCA2 germ-line mutation) findings on 442 patients from 37 HBC families. The top two reasons for receiving genetic test results are for their children and for their own health surveillance. Of those women who have tested positive for BRCA1 and have been counseled, 40% had already developed breast cancer and 6% had already developed ovarian cancer, while in BRCA2 25% had ...
DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS: Histologically confirmed stage III ovarian epithelial cancer or primary peritoneal carcinoma of one of the following cell types: Serous adenocarcinoma Mucinous adenocarcinoma Clear-cell adenocarcinoma Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma (not otherwise specified) Undifferentiated carcinoma Transitional cell Malignant Brenners tumor Mixed epithelial carcinoma No borderline tumor (tumor of low malignant potential) Underwent prior standard initial cytoreductive surgery within the past 6 weeks Optimally resected disease with no residual site of disease more than 1 cm in greatest dimension Removal of all disease extending beyond the reproductive tract Total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy at cytoreductive surgery or in the past. PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS: Age: 18 and over Performance status: GOG 0-2 Life expectancy: Not specified Hematopoietic: WBC at least 3,000/mm3 Absolute neutrophil count at least 1,500/mm3 Platelet count at least 100,000/mm3 ...
A DNA repair pathway-focused score has the potential to help determine if first-line platinum based chemotherapy can benefit advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients, according to a study published April 13 in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.. Most ovarian cancer patients are diagnosed with advanced disease (stages III and IV). They undergo surgery to remove as much tumor as possible, and then undergo platinum-based chemotherapy. But tools to predict response to platinum-based chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients have been inadequate.. In order to determine if a DNA repair pathway-focused score could help predict outcomes for ovarian cancer patients treated with platinum-based chemotherapy, Josephine Kang, M.D., Ph.D., of the Department of Radiation Oncology at Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and colleagues gathered gene ...
Comparison of ERCC1/XPF genetic variation, mRNA and protein levels in women with advanced stage ovarian cancer treated with intraperitoneal platinum ...
Our study reaffirms that specific BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations found previously to recur in French Canadian breast cancer and breast-ovarian cancer families, also recur in women with ovarian cancer not selected for family history of cancer. This is especially evident with the number of BRCA1:C4446T mutation carriers (n = 15) identified in this study, which has been the most commonly reported mutation identified in this population and this has been attributed to shared ancestry as a consequence of common founders [24,25,27-29,32,33]. This mutation was also the most common mutation found in our previous study of 74 women with serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers screened for specific BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations [36].. Our study also highlights the significance of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of BRCT(BRCA1)-phosphoprotein interaction enhances the cytotoxic effect of olaparib in breast cancer cells. T2 - A proof of concept study for synthetic lethal therapeutic option. AU - Pessetto, Ziyan Yuan. AU - Yan, Ying. AU - Bessho, Tadayoshi. AU - Natarajan, Amarnath. PY - 2012/7. Y1 - 2012/7. N2 - Synthetic lethal therapeutic strategy using poly(adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor olaparib in carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation has shown promise in clinical settings. Since ≤5 % of patients are BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, small molecules that functionally mimic BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations will extend the synthetic lethal therapeutic option for non-mutation carriers. Here we provide proof of principle for this strategy using a BRCA1 inhibitor peptide 2 that targets the ...
The 12 tumors with a hypermethylated BRCA1 promoter were also analyzed for the two BRCA1 founder mutations common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population, BRCA1 185delAG (exon 2) and BRCA1 5382 insC (exon 20), and found to be free of mutation (Table 1) ⇓ . These samples were also analyzed and found to be absent for the BRCA2 6174delT (exon 11) Jewish founder mutation. The lack of a Jewish founder mutation does not, however, rule out the possibility that other BRCA1 mutations are present. The absence of BRCA1 protein staining in 2 of 9 unmethylated OCs suggests that mechanisms other than promoter hypermethylation may also inhibit BRCA1 protein expression.. A relationship between the BRCA and p53 genes has long been suspected, based upon the higher incidence of p53 mutations in tumors with BRCA mutations than in ...
Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs11249433 at 1p11.2 and rs999737 in RAD51L1 at 14q24.1. Although previously identified breast cancer susceptibility variants have been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, the involvement of these SNPs to breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers is currently unknown. To address this, we genotyped these SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers from 42 studies from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of ...
Germline mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been demonstrated in the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. The increased risk to develop both breast and ovarian cancer associated with inheriting a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation has been well established. It has also been suggested that is an overrepresentation of other cancers such as colon, prostate and pancreatic cancer present in BRCA1 or BRCA2 families. Population specific mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been identified. In the Ashkenazi Jewish population, 3 specific mutations have been seen in 2% of the population. This study will anonymously screen archived tissue samples of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals diagnosed with ...
Purpose: Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes confer increased risks for breast cancers. However, the clinical presentation of breast cancer among women who are carriers of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2 carriers) mutations is heterogenous. We aimed to identify the effects of the reproductive histories of women with the BRCA1/2 mutations on the clinical presentation of breast cancer. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data on women with proven BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations who were recruited to the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study, from 2007 to 2014. Results: Among the 736 women who were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, a total of 483 women had breast ...
... Cell Signal. 2020 Jan 11;:109539 Authors: El-Arabey AA, Denizli M, Kanlikilicer P, Bayraktar R, Ivan C, Rashed M, Kabil N, Ozpolat B, Calin GA, Salama SA, Abd-Allah AR, Sood AK, Lopez-Berestein G Abstract High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the mos...
About 5% to 10% of breast cancers are thought to be hereditary, caused by abnormal genes passed from parent to child.. Genes are particles in cells, contained in chromosomes, and made of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA contains the instructions for building proteins. And proteins control the structure and function of all the cells that make up your body.. Most inherited cases of breast cancer are associated with two abnormal genes: BRCA1 (BReast CAncer gene one) and BRCA2 (BReast CAncer gene two).. Everyone has BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The function of the BRCA genes is to repair cell damage and keep breast ...
The role of estrogen in the growth and survival of ovarian cancer cells is controversial. In this study, we investigated the changes in cell-cycle regulatory proteins in ovarian cancer cell lines after estrogen treatment to explore the role of estrog
A breast cancer (BRCA) gene test is a blood test to check for specific changes (mutations) in genes that help control normal cell growth. Finding changes in these genes, called BRCA1 and BRCA2, can help determine your chance of developing breast cancer and ovarian cancer. A BRCA gene test does not test for cancer itself. This test is only done for people with a strong family history of breast cancer, ovarian cancer and sometimes for those who already have one of these diseases. Genetic counseling before and after a BRCA test is very important to help you understand the benefits, risks, and possible outcomes of the test.. A womans risk of breast and ...
Cancer Monthly. Ovarian Cancer treatments. Chemotherapy. Mansoura University, Mansoura, Dakahliya, Egypt. Compare therapy differences, longest survival rates, toxicity, side effects, hospitals.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantitative analysis of follicle-stimulating hormone receptor in ovarian epithelial tumors. T2 - A novel approach to explain the field effect of ovarian cancer development in secondary mullerian systems. AU - Wang, Jun. AU - Lin, Lynne. AU - Parkash, Vinita. AU - Schwartz, Peter E.. AU - Lauchlan, Stuart C.. AU - Zheng, Wenxin. PY - 2003/1/20. Y1 - 2003/1/20. N2 - The role of FSHR expression in ovarian cancer development is not clear. We examined quantitative expression of FSHR in different types of OET, presumed precursor lesions and peritoneal implants and further discussed FSH as a key growth-promotion factor for the process of ovarian epithelial tumorigenesis. Thirty-five primary OET specimens, including 5 serous cystadenomas, 4 papillary serous cystadenomas, 9 SBTs and 17 serous carcinomas, were examined for quantitative FSHR expression. Ten paired ...
Given that breast cancers in germline BRCA1 carriers are predominantly estrogen-negative and triple-negative, it has been suggested that women diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) younger than 50 years should be offered BRCA1 testing, regardless of family cancer characteristics. However, the predictive value of triple-negative breast cancer, when taken in the context of personal and family cancer characteristics, is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether TNBC is a predictor of germline BRCA1 mutations, in the context of multiple predictive factors. Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 were analyzed by Sanger sequencing and multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis in 431 women from the Malaysian Breast ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Novel mechanism of reduced proliferation in ovarian clear cell carcinoma cells. T2 - Cytoplasmic sequestration of CDK2 by p27. AU - Itamochi, Hiroaki. AU - Yoshida, Tomokazu. AU - Walker, Cheryl Lyn. AU - Bartholomeusz, Chandra. AU - Aoki, Daisuke. AU - Ishihara, Hideki. AU - Suzuki, Nao. AU - Kigawa, Junzo. AU - Terakawa, Naoki. AU - Ueno, Naoto T.. PY - 2011/9. Y1 - 2011/9. N2 - Objective: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) carries a poor prognosis because of its insensitivity to chemotherapy. We previously found an association between reduced proliferation of CCC and chemoresistance; here we investigated the mechanism of the reduced proliferation. Methods: We assessed cell cycle function by measuring the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and the protein expression of cyclins, the CDK inhibitors, and p53 in 22 ovarian cancer cell lines and 60 human ovarian cancer specimens. We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endometrial cancers in mutation carriers from hereditary breast ovarian cancer syndrome kindreds. AU - Casey, Murray J.. AU - Bewtra, Chhanda. AU - Lynch, Henry T.. AU - Snyder, Carrie L.. AU - Stacey, Mark. PY - 2015/5/7. Y1 - 2015/5/7. N2 - Objective The aim of this study was to categorize and report endometrial cancers in mutation carriers from hereditary breast ovarian cancer families. Methods Our Hereditary Cancer Registry was searched for gynecologic and peritoneal cancers linked to mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Invasive cancers were registered in 101 mutation carriers with complete pathology reports. Efforts were made to secure diagnostic surgical pathology tissues for review. All records and available diagnostic slides were meticulously studied, and primary ...
The expression of mismatch repair proteins hMSH2 and hMLH1 was investigated in human ovarian cancer cell lines and in biopsies of ovarian carcinomas obtained from 20 patients undergoing surgical operation. By Western blotting analysis hMSH2 protein was detected in all the tumor samples analyzed and in eight out of nine human ovarian cancer cell lines, while hMLH1 was undetectable in four out of 20 ovarian tumors and in five out of nine human ovarian cancer cell lines analyzed. The possible presence of frameshift mutations in the BAX gene, which contains a sequence of eight contiguous guanines in its third exon, was tested in all the samples. All the cell lines presented the normal alleles for the BAX gene while only in one of the tumor samples a heterozygous frameshift mutation was found. The frameshift mutation was associated to a low, almost undetectable, level of BAX ...
TapImmune Inc. (OTCQB:TPIV) is pleased to announce that a new grant funded Phase I clinical study on the safety and Immunogenicity of folate receptor alpha peptide vaccine in patients with advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer has started at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN. The folate receptor alpha peptides being used in this study are the same ones that are being used in a current Phase I study in breast and ovarian cancer. Folate receptor alpha is over a 100 fold elevated in 90% of ovarian cancer cells and is thus an excellent target for immunotherapy.. In this new trial the folate alpha receptor peptides are loaded on to the patients own dendritic cells. Dendritic cells (DCs) are often called natures adjuvants and thus have become an essential target in efforts to generate therapeutic immunity against cancer. Dendritic cell vaccination aims to induce tumour-specific ...
Krukenbergs tumours are metastatic tumours of the ovary. The colon and stomach are the most common primary tumour sites. Breast, lung, and pancreas are the other sites of metastasis. These tumours constitute 5-10% of ovarian neoplasms.. The differential diagnosis from a primary ovarian tumour is very important for therapeutic approach. Krukenbergs tumours are bilateral in 60-80% of cases. Therefore whenever bilateral ovarian involvement is detected, a search for a primary site, especially in the gastrointestinal system, should be carried out. In contrast to primary ovarian tumours, the ovaries keep their shape in Krukenbergs tumour. Some other radiological findings give important clues. Early in the development of these tumours, the solid component is most prominent, as seen in this case. At US Krukenberg tumor typically present as bilateral, solid ovarian masses, with clear well defined margins. An ...
While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.15, p = 1.9 x 10(-4) (false discovery rate ...
SNPedia currently contains 2606 BRCA1 SNPs and 3099 BRCA2 SNPs. Some of the variations in these genes are linked to Breast cancer and ovarian cancer, and other variations are benign. See also BRCA1 and BRCA2 for individual gene discussions and links. Microarray platforms used by DTC genomics testing companies such as FamilyTree DNA and 23andMe usually test a fraction of the known BRCA1 or BRCA2 SNPs, typically, the most common ones. While DTC genomics testing may lead to useful results, it is not a substitute for the full genetic panel testing or gene sequencing that may be warranted by a family history of breast cancer. The percent of known BRCA1 and BRCA2 syndrome disease-causing mutations that are tested by several companies is shown in ...
How can I reduce the risk of fallopian tube cancer? - Female Cancers: the facts - How can I reduce the risk of fallopian tube cancer? Because so little is known about the specific causes of fallopian tube cancer, there is little you can do to clearly lower your chances of developing it...
Ovarian granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) are the most frequent sex cord-stromal tumors. Several studies have shown that a somatic mutation leading to a C134W substitution in the transcription factor FOXL2 appears in more than 95% of adult-type GCTs. Its pervasive presence suggests that FOXL2 is the main cancer driver gene. However, other mutations and genomic changes might also contribute to tumor formation and/or progression. We have performed a combined comparative genomic hybridization and transcriptomic analyses of 10 adult-type GCTs to obtain a picture of the genomic landscape of this cancer type and to identify new candidate co-driver genes. Our results, along with a review of previous molecular studies, show the existence of highly recurrent chromosomal imbalances (especially, trisomy 14 and monosomy 22) and preferential co-occurrences (i.e. trisomy 14/monosomy 22 and trisomy 7/monosomy 16q). In-depth analyses showed the ...
Men with prostate cancer who are carriers of the BRCA2 gene mutation have significantly increased mortality rates.. The study identified 938 families with the BRCA2 mutation, of which 277 (29.5%) contained one or more cases of prostate cancer, with a total of 434 cases. Of these, 67 men were found to carry the familial BRCA2 mutation and 116 were probable mutation carriers. A comparison group of men with the BRCA1 mutation was also identified. Of 1,735 families, 316 contained one or more cases of prostate cancer (18.2%), with a total of 457 cases. Of these, 37 carried the BRCA1 mutation and 82 men were probable carriers. The average age at diagnosis was similar for the two groups.. Survival analysis was performed to establish the overall survival of BRCA2 carriers with prostate cancer and relative survival compared with ...
Ataxia-telangiectasia mutation (ATM) has previously been shown to be necessary for the phosphorylation of BRCA1 to occur in response to gamma-irradiation, and capable of directly phosphorylating BRCA1 in vitro (see additional information). This paper indicates that ATM can also cause the phosphorylation of BRCA1 by activating the hCds1/CHK2 kinase, for which BRCA1 is a substrate. Phosphorylation of BRCA1 in response to other genotoxins appears to be independent of ATM (Scully et al, Cell 1997, 90: 425-435 [Abstract]). ATM-independent activation of hCds1/CHK2 may explain how some of these other genotoxins cause BRCA1 phosphorylation.. The ATM-hCds1/CHK2-BRCA1 DNA damage response pathway is clearly important for tumour suppression since heterozygous carriers of mutant BRCA1, ATM and hCds1/hCHK2 genes (see additional information) have all been ...
Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are responsible for a large proportion of breast-ovarian cancer families. Protein-truncating mutations have been effectively used in the clinical management of familial breast cancer due to their deleterious impact on protein function. However, the majority of missense variants identified throughout the genes continue to pose an obstacle for predictive informative testing due to low frequency and lack of information on how they affect BRCA1/2 function. Phosphorylation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 play an important role in their function as regulators of DNA repair, transcription and cell cycle in response to DNA damage but whether missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) are able to disrupt this important process is not known. Here we employed a novel approach using NetworKIN ...
Chemokine receptor-ligand interactions are important to support functioning of both normal and pathologic cells. The expression and function of chemokine receptors in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is largely unknown. Here, we report that the lymphotactin receptor (XCR1) was expressed in primary and metastatic human epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) specimens and cell lines. In contrast, expression of XCR1 was not detected in the normal ovary or in human normal ovarian surface epithelial cells. Our data indicate that XCL1 and XCL2 are either present in the malignant ascites or expressed by the ovarian carcinoma cells. The addition of lymphotactin (XCL1 and XCL2) stimulated migration and proliferation of XCR1-positive cells. Reduction of XCR1 expression in ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV-3 resulted in abrogated diaphragm and peritoneal wall tumor formation and in reduced frequency of colonic, splenetic, and liver ...
Combination drug therapy appears a promising approach to overcome drug resistance and reduce drug-related toxicities in ovarian cancer treatments. In this in vitro study, we evaluated the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in combination with Bithionol (BT) against a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines with special focus on cisplatin-sensitive and cisplatin-resistant cell lines. The primary objectives of this study are to determine the nature of the interactions between BT and cisplatin and to understand the mechanism(s) of action of BT-cisplatin combination. The cytotoxic effects of drugs either alone or in combination were evaluated using presto-blue assay. Cellular reactive oxygen species were measured by flow cytometry. Immunoblot analysis was carried out to investigate changes in levels of cleaved PARP, XIAP, bcl-2, bcl-xL, p21 and p27. Luminescent and colorimetric assays were used to test caspases 3/7 and ATX activity. The efficacy of the ...
The expression of mRNA for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, EGF and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) was determined in 76 malignant, six borderline and 15 benign primary ovarian tumours using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and related to clinical and pathological parameters. Of the malignant tumours, 70% (53/76) expressed EGF receptor mRNA, 31% (23/75) expressed EGF mRNA and 35% (26/75) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA. For the borderline tumours, four of six (67%) expressed EGF receptor mRNA, 1/6 (17%) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA and none expressed EGF mRNA. Finally, 33% (5/15) of the benign tumours expressed EGF receptor mRNA, whereas 40% (6/15) expressed EGF mRNA and 7% (1/15) expressed TGF-alpha mRNA. The presence of the EGF receptor in malignant tumours was associated with that of TGF-alpha (P = 0.0015) but not with EGF (P = 1.00), whereas there was no relationship between the presence of EGF and TGF-alpha (P = 1.00). EGF receptor mRNA expression was ...
PURPOSE: To determine the cellular and molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity induced by Haishengsu (HSS), nature extract from Tegillarca granosa, toward human ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV-3 and OVCAR-3. METHODS: The cytotoxic effects of HSS on two ov
This study aimed to determine whether telomere length (TL) is a marker of cancer risk or genetic status amongst two cohorts of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and controls. The first group was a prospective set of 665 male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls (mean age 53 years), all healthy at time of enrollment and blood donation, 21 of whom have developed prostate cancer whilst on study. The second group consisted of 283 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls (mean age 48 years), half of whom had been diagnosed with breast cancer prior to enrollment. TL was quantified by qPCR from DNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Weighted and unweighted Cox regressions and linear regression analyses were used to assess whether TL was associated with BRCA1/2 mutation status or cancer risk. We found no evidence for association ...
article{ac3c1e27-9238-408a-9002-fb95610acc6d, abstract = {Introduction - A small fraction of breast cancer is the result of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer susceptibility genes. Mutation carriers frequently have a positive family history of breast and ovarian cancer, are often diagnosed at a young age, and may have a higher incidence of double or multiple primary breast tumours than breast cancer patients in general. Objectives - To estimate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in young Danish patients affected with bilateral or multifocal breast cancer and to determine the relationship of mutation status to family history of cancer. Subjects - From the files of the ...
Epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancers remain the most lethal of all the gynecologic malignancies. In 2010, approximately 21,880 women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in the United States; of these, 13,850 will be expected to die from this disease.1 Cancers arising from the fallopian tube and peritoneum are significantly less common that those arising from the ovarian epithelium, but share several similarities in their epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and associated outcomes. Because the vast majority of fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers exhibit a high-grade papillary serous histology, comparisons to similar disease in primary ovarian cancers suggest common molecular pathways that may promote carcinogenesis within the serous classification of these tumors. Several recent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genetic testing in an ethnically diverse cohort of high-risk women. T2 - A comparative analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in American families of European and African ancestry. AU - Nanda, Rita. AU - Schumm, L. Philip. AU - Cummings, Shelly. AU - Fackenthal, James D.. AU - Sveen, Lise. AU - Ademuyiwa, Foluso. AU - Cobleigh, Melody. AU - Esserman, Laura. AU - Lindor, Noralane Morey. AU - Neuhausen, Susan L.. AU - Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.. PY - 2005/10/19. Y1 - 2005/10/19. N2 - Context: Ten years after BRCA1 and BRCA2 were first identified as major breast cancer susceptibility genes, the spectrum of mutations and modifiers of risk among many ethnic minorities remain undefined. Objectives: To characterize the clinical predictors, spectrum, and frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in an ethnically diverse high-risk clinic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor inhibits cell growth through apoptotic pathway on ovarian cancer. AU - Nakamura, Keiichiro. AU - Takamoto, Norio. AU - Hongo, Atsushi. AU - Kodama, Junichi. AU - Abrzua, Fernando. AU - Nasu, Yasutomo. AU - Kumon, Hiromi. AU - Hiramatsu, Yuji. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - In light of the poor prognosis for ovarian cancer, research continues for innovative and efficacious treatment modalities. It is now widely accepted that new approaches for the treatment of ovarian cancers are pivotal in further improving prognosis of this disease. Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is an 11.7-kDa non-glycosylated, serine protease inhibitor that has a broad inhibitory spectrum against serine protease. SLPI showed potential therapeutic inhibitory effects mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), TNF-α, death receptor (DR)-4, ...
Complex ovarian cysts in postmenopausal women are not associated with ovarian cancer risk factors: preliminary data from the Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial
Abstract. Presented here are scientific reports which add considerable information to the area of early stage ovarian cancer detection and the application of this detection to ovarian cancer screening. In this volume, the following presentations are made:1) The performance of different ultrasound-based International Ovarian Tumor Analysis (IOTA) strategies is analyzed to discriminate between early stage ovarian malignancy and benign abnormalities of the ovary.2) Since oophorectomy confers protection against ovarian cancer, when adjustment for oophorectomy was made, rates of ovarian cancer were substantially higher.3) The frequency of symptoms relevant to ovarian cancer was found to be more than two-hundred times higher than the occurrence of ovarian cancer and it was found ...
Estrogen and progesterone receptors were measured in cystosols prepared from 32 normal ovaries and 25 benign and 49 malignant ovarian tumors. In normal ovarian tissue, estrogen and progesterone receptors were detected in 22 and 75% of specimens, respectively. Estrogen receptors were present in low concentrations ranging from 2 to 9 fmol/mg cytosol protein. The estrogen receptor content and distribution were similar in benign tumors (20%), but progesterone receptors were significantly decreased in 16% of specimens (P less than 0.001). In malignant ovarian tissues, estrogen receptors were present in 57% of specimens in concentration ranging from 1 to 132 fmol/mg cytosol protein. Of these, 72% of tissues had estrogen-receptor concentrations greater than 10 fmol/mg cytosol protein. The presence of estrogen receptors in ovarian cancer was significantly different from normal ovaries and benign tumor tissues (P less than 0.01). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) plays a key role in ovarian cancer cell adhesion and motility. AU - Lu, Renquan. AU - Sun, Xinghui. AU - Xiao, Ran. AU - Zhou, Lei. AU - Gao, Xiang. AU - Guo, Lin. PY - 2012/3/9. Y1 - 2012/3/9. N2 - Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a novel and specific biomarker for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We previously demonstrated that serum HE4 levels were significantly elevated in the majority of EOC patients but not in subjects with benign disease or healthy controls. However, the precise mechanism of HE4 protein function is unknown. In this study, we generated HE4-overexpressing SKOV3 cells and found that stably transduced cells promoted cell adhesion and migration. Knockdown of HE4 expression was achieved by stable transfection of SKOV3 cells with a construct encoding a short hairpin DNA directed against the HE4 gene. Correspondingly, the proliferation and spreading ability of HE4-expressed ...
9(60%) patients had certain symptoms like abdominal pain or distention on the detection of ovarian tumor, while 6(40%) had no symptoms. Metachronous ovarian metastasis occurred in 7(46.7%) and synchronous metatsis in 8(53.3%) patients. The median period between primary tumor resection and oophorectomy in the patients with metachronous ovarian metastasis was 14 months (8-36 months). Combined metastases occurred in 10 patients (66.7%), including peritoneal metastasis in 7 of the patients and liver metastasis in 5. Bilateral ovarian metastasis was found in 7 patients (46.7%). The median ovarian metastasis tumor size was 10 cm. The regions of primary tumor were on the sigmoid colon in 6 patients, the rectum in 5, the ascending colon in 2 and the transverse colon in 2. As the pathological features of primary tumor, a well-differentiated type and a moderately differentiated type were seen in 13 (86.7%), subserosa or deeper ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methoxyphenyl chalcone sensitizes aggressive epithelial cancer to cisplatin through apoptosis induction and cancer stem cell eradication. AU - Su, Yu Kai. AU - Huang, Wen Chien. AU - Lee, Wei Hwa. AU - Bamodu, Oluwaseun Adebayo. AU - Zucha, Muhammad Ary. AU - Astuti, Indwiani. AU - Suwito, Heri. AU - Yeh, Chi Tai. AU - Lin, Chien Min. PY - 2017/5. Y1 - 2017/5. N2 - Current standard chemotherapy for late stage ovarian cancer is found unsuccessful due to relapse after completing the regimens. After completing platinum-based chemotherapy, 70% of patients develop relapse and resistance. Recent evidence proves ovarian cancer stem cells as the source of resistance. Therefore, treatment strategy to target both cancer stem cells and normal stem cells is essential. In this study, we developed a novel chalcone derivative as novel drug candidate for ovarian ...
BACKGROUND: Less than 50% of ovarian cancers respond to paclitaxel. Effective strategies are needed to enhance paclitaxel sensitivity. METHODS: A library of silencing RNAs (siRNAs) was used to identify kinases that regulate paclitaxel sensitivity in human ovarian cancer SKOv3 cells. The effect of dasatinib, an inhibitor of Src and Abl kinases, on paclitaxel sensitivity was measured in ovarian cancer cells and HEY xenografts. The roles of p27(Kip1), Bcl-2, and Cdk1 in apoptosis induced by dasatinib and paclitaxel were assessed using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay, siRNA knockdown of gene expression, transfection with Bcl-2 and Cdk1 expression vectors, and flow cytometry. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Src family and Abl kinases were identified as modulators of paclitaxel sensitivity in SKOv3 cells. The siRNA knockdown of Src, Fyn, or Abl1 ...
article{9a867211-15c1-48ad-af36-1d7fbbbfc375, abstract = {,p,BACKGROUND/AIM: To assess preoperative blood levels of a biomarker panel in relation to the new classification system of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) type I and II.,/p,,p,PATIENTS AND METHODS: Preoperative plasma levels of B7-family protein homolog 4 (B7-H4), intact and cleaved soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) and cancer antigen 125 (CA125) were analyzed in 350 patients with adnexal lesions.,/p,,p,RESULTS: The levels of suPAR(II-III), HE4, CA125 were all higher in EOC II than in EOC I, borderline and benign ovarian tumors. B7-H4 was increased in EOC II compared with benign ovarian tumors. The combination of suPAR(II-III), HE4, CA125 and age in premenopausal women discriminates EOC and borderline tumors from benign tumors to higher accuracy compared to the Risk of Ovarian Malignancy ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A high incidence of BRCA1 mutations in 20 breast-ovarian cancer families. AU - Serova, Olga. AU - Montagna, Marco. AU - Torchard, Delphine. AU - Narod, Steven A.. AU - Tonin, Patricia. AU - Sylla, Bakary. AU - Lynch, Henry T.. AU - Feunteun, Jean. AU - Lenoir, Gilbert M.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - We have analyzed 20 breast-ovarian cancer families, the majority of which show positive evidence of linkage to chromosome 17q12, for germ-line mutations in the BRCA1 gene. BRCA1 mutations cosegregating with breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility were identified in 16 families, including 1 family with a case of male breast cancer. Nine of these mutations have not been reported previously. The majority of mutations were found to generate a premature stop codon ...
article{8622899, abstract = {BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm ...
Endodermal sinus tumor (EST), also known as yolk sac tumor (YST), is a member of the germ cell tumor group of cancers. It is the most common testicular tumor in children under 3, and is also known as infantile embryonal carcinoma. This age group has a very good prognosis. In contrast to the pure form typical of infants, adult endodermal sinus tumors are often found in combination with other kinds of germ cell tumor, particularly teratoma and embryonal carcinoma. While pure teratoma is usually benign, endodermal sinus tumor is malignant. The histology of EST is variable, but usually includes malignant endodermal cells. These cells secrete alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which can be detected in tumor tissue, serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and, in the rare case of fetal EST, in amniotic fluid. When there is incongruence between biopsy and AFP test results for EST, the result indicating presence of EST dictates treatment. This is because EST often occurs as small "malignant foci" within a larger ...
Ovarian cancer is a deadly disease that kills an estimated 15,000 women annually in the United States. It is estimated that approximately 10% of ovarian cancers are due to familial inheritance. The most commonly mutated genes in familial ovarian cancer are BRCA1 and BRCA2. It has been reported that cells carrying the BRCA1 185delAG mutation undergo an enhanced caspase-3 mediated apoptotic response. Here, we report on the transfection of cDNA coding for the putative truncated protein product of the BRCA1 185delAG mutant gene into BRCA1 wild-type human immortalized ovarian surface epithelial (IOSE) cells and ovarian cancer cells. Cells transfected with the BRCA1 185delAG truncation protein (BRAt) showed increased levels of ...
Anderson Cancer Center between January 1992 and December 2004 and who did not meet any of the following exclusion criteria: stage III or IV ovarian cancer, appendectomy as part of a second-look procedure or secondary tumor-reductive surgery, primary appendiceal cancer, primary gastrointestinal malignancy with metastasis to the appendix, incomplete clinicopathologic data, appendicitis as a preoperative diagnosis, primary fallopian tube cancer, primary peritoneal cancer, or documented dual primary tumors ...
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of lymph node ratio (LNR) in patients with stage III ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC). Methods: A multicenter, retrospective department database review was performed to identify patients with ovarian HGSC at 6 gynecologic oncology centers in Turkey. A total of 229 node-positive women with stage III ovarian HGSC who had undergone maximal or optimal cytoreductive surgery plus systematic lymphadenectomy followed by paclitaxel plus carboplatin combination chemotherapy were included. LNR, defined as the percentage of positive lymph nodes (LNs) to total nodes recovered, was stratified into 3 groups: LNR1 (,10%), LNR2 (10%,= LNR,50%), and LNR3 (,= 50%). Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate survival data. Factors predictive of outcome were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Thirty-one women (13.6%) were classified as stage IIIA1, 15 (6.6%) as stage IIIB, ...
Transcriptional repression of ubiquitin B (UBB) is a cancer-subtype-specific alteration that occurs in a substantial population of patients with cancers of the female reproductive tract. UBB is 1 of 2 genes encoding for ubiquitin as a polyprotein consisting of multiple copies of ubiquitin monomers. Silencing of UBB reduces cellular UBB levels and results in an exquisite dependence on ubiquitin C (UBC), the second polyubiquitin gene. UBB is repressed in approximately 30% of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) patients and is a recurrent lesion in uterine carcinosarcoma and endometrial carcinoma. We identified ovarian tumor cell lines that retain UBB in a repressed state, used these cell lines to establish orthotopic ovarian tumors, and found that inducible expression of a UBC-targeting shRNA led to tumor regression, and substantial long-term survival benefit. Thus, we ...
Learn more about Ovarian Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®) (Patients) from the National Cancer Institute at Siteman Cancer Center.
The majority of ovarian cancer patients present with advanced disease and despite aggressive treatment, prognosis remains poor. Significant improvement in ovarian cancer survival will require the development of more effective molecularly targeted therapeutics. Commonly, mouse models are used for the in vivo assessment of potential new therapeutic targets in ovarian cancer. However, animal models are costly and time consuming. Other models, such as the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay, are therefore an attractive alternative. CAM assays have been widely used to study angiogenesis and tumor invasion of colorectal, prostate and brain cancers. However, there have been limited studies that have used CAM assays to assess ovarian cancer invasion and metastasis. We have therefore developed a CAM assay protocol to ...
Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight ...
A dysgerminoma is a type of germ cell tumor;[1] it usually is malignant and usually occurs in the ovary.. A tumor of the identical histology but not occurring in the ovary may be described by an alternate name: seminoma in the testis[2] or germinoma in the central nervous system or other parts of the body.. Dysgerminoma accounts for less than 1% of ovarian tumors overall. Dysgerminoma usually occurs in adolescence and early adult life; about 5% occur in pre-pubertal children. Dysgerminoma is extremely rare after age 50. Dysgerminoma occurs in both ovaries in 10% of patients and, in a further 10%, there is microscopic tumor in the other ovary.. Abnormal gonads (due to gonadal dysgenesis and androgen insensitivity syndrome) have a high risk[3] of developing a dysgerminoma. Most dysgerminomas are associated with elevated serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), which is sometimes used as a tumor marker. ...
Looking for online definition of endometrioid carcinoma in the Medical Dictionary? endometrioid carcinoma explanation free. What is endometrioid carcinoma? Meaning of endometrioid carcinoma medical term. What does endometrioid carcinoma mean?
Discussion. Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumours are uncommon neoplasms of the upper female genital tract that account for 0.5% of all ovarian neoplasms.3 They include SLCTs, which have a frequency of 0.2-0.5%.3,9 They have been reported in patients from 6 months to 84 years of age, but are most commonly diagnosed in young women 25-28 years of age, except the retiform variant, which has a worse prognosis and is diagnosed at 16 years of age on average.1,5,9 Less than 10% are diagnosed in premenarchal and postmenopausal patients.9 They are typically unilateral and confined to the ovary. Just 1.5% are bilateral.1,10. These tumours should always be suspected in young women with a pelvic mass under study and/or signs and symptoms of virilisation.3 However, it should be borne in mind that 20% of cases are too small to be detected by imaging techniques.1 Signs of excess androgens, with elevated serum testosterone levels, are identified in up to 50% to 60% of patients.9 Initially, there ...
Brenner tumors are an uncommon subtype of the surface epithelial-stromal tumor group of ovarian neoplasms. The majority are benign, but some can be malignant. They are most frequently found incidentally on pelvic examination or at laparotomy. Brenner tumours very rarely can occur in other locations, including the testes. On gross pathological examination, they are solid, sharply circumscribed and pale yellow-tan in colour. 90% are unilateral (arising in one ovary, the other is unaffected). The tumours can vary in size from less than 1 centimetre (0.39 in) to 30 centimetres (12 in). Borderline and malignant Brenner tumours are possible but each are rare. Histologically, there are nests of transitional epithelial (urothelial) cells with longitudinal nuclear grooves (coffee bean nuclei) lying in abundant fibrous stroma. Transitional cell carcinoma is an even rarer entity, in which neoplastic transitional epithelial cells similar to transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder are seen in the ...
Ruptured cysts that cause mild symptoms can often be managed with pain medicines. The tumor marker CA-125 is only elevated in the blood of only about half the women with early-stage ovarian cancer. 11 weeks later I got another ultrasound and my ovarian cyst was eliminated, completely eliminated, I couldnt believe it, but I could see it with my own eyes.. Ovarian Cyst Pregnancy! Depending in what stage of the menstrual cycle the woman is, the functional cyst will form out of the follicle or of the corpus luteum. Cysts having a maximum size of 2 inches in diameter are called the follicular cyst. Several types of cysts are cystadenomas, functional cysts, polycystic ovary, dermoid cysts or endometriosis.. To assess ARID1A-encoded protein (BAF250a) and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) expression, apoptosis, and the DNA damage response pathway in endometrioid and clear cell ovarian cancers (endometriosis-associated ...
This study reports on the efficacy and mechanism of action of the small-molecule multikinase inhibitor foretinib in preclinical models of ovarian cancer metastasis. Our data suggest 4 principal mechanisms for how foretinib inhibits ovarian cancer growth and metastasis. In ovarian cancer cell lines, the inhibitor: (i) blocked activation of c-Met signaling; (ii) reduced proliferation mediated by a G2-M cell-cycle arrest; (iii) induced cell death through a 2-step mechanism in which cells detach followed by a caspase-dependent form of anoikis; and (iv) reduced proliferation, adhesion, migration, and invasion during early tumor development. In mouse models of ovarian cancer metastasis, foretinib reduced tumor burden and metastasis mediated by reduced angiogenesis, proliferation, and increased apoptosis. The multiple activities of foretinib are ...
The combination of carboplatin-paclitaxel is a global standard following recent consensus recommendations [20, 4]. Although this treatment is highly effective, most patients recur. The majority are platinum-sensitive at first relapse, thus, candidates for re-treatment with platinum. Indeed, these patients will be generally re-treated with a platinum-taxane combination, especially in the light of recent trials showing advantage over platinum monotherapy [9]. However, the cumulative neurotoxicity of both drugs, as well as the increased risk of neurotoxicity for patients in relapse and the further experience of alopecia, are essential considerations when selecting second-line therapy [21]. As treatment at relapse is rarely curative, toxicity, tolerance, ease of administration and QoL should be interrelated to efficacy and survival prolongation when novel platinum-based combinations are evaluated for patients with platinum-sensitive OC.. This study was originally designed in 1999, in an era when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Malignant Brenner tumor mimicking a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. AU - Badve, Sunil. AU - Fehmian, C.. AU - Cass, I.. AU - Goldberg, G. L.. AU - Jones, J. G.. PY - 1999/9. Y1 - 1999/9. N2 - An 86-year-old female presented with a necrotic cervical mass that was biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma. She had an elevated CA-125 and a pelvic mass. At surgery, this mass was found to be of adnexal origin and contiguous with the cervix. Histology showed a malignant Brenner tumor with abundant squamous differentiation eroding the cervix and simulating a primary cervical malignancy. We describe this case and review the literature on metastatic tumors to the cervix.. AB - An 86-year-old female presented with a necrotic cervical mass that was biopsy-proven squamous cell carcinoma. She had an elevated CA-125 and a pelvic mass. At surgery, this mass was found to be of adnexal origin and contiguous with the cervix. Histology showed a malignant Brenner tumor with abundant ...
Background: Immunization against self-antigens can induce regulatory responses that inhibit the development of desirable Type I antitumor immune responses. Removing epitopes that bias toward a regulatory phenotype may enhance vaccine efficacy. We developed a novel IGFBP-2 targeting DNA plasmid vaccine capable of selectively inducing Type I immunity. IGFBP-2 is an important regulator of ovarian cancer invasiveness and metastases. Eradication of cancer cells expressing IGFBP-2 through effective immunization could prevent disease relapse or metastatic spread. Methods: In a single-arm non-randomized study of advanced stage (III/IV) or recurrent ovarian cancer patients treated to complete remission after primary or salvage therapy, 25 patients received 3 monthly doses of an IGFBP-2 DNA vaccine by intradermal injection. All adverse events (AE) were reported using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4.0. ...
Objective: This retrospective observational study aims to review patients with malignant ovarian germ cell tumours (MOGCTs) treated at Groote Schuur Hospital over a 15-year period. Method: A medical chart review of adult patients with MOGCTs treated between 1994 and 2008 was conducted. Gathered data were transferred to an electronic spreadsheet. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to obtain five year survival data. Results: Forty patients were treated for MOGCTs. Median age at the time of diagnosis was 30.2 years (a range of 13-63 years). Ten patients (25%) had dysgerminoma and 30 (75%) had non-dysgerminomatous types. The latter group comprised immature teratoma (10 patients), yolk sac tumour (8), mixed germ cell tumour (3), and mature teratoma with malignant transformation (MTMT) (9). Standard staging surgery was performed with fertility sparing procedures wherever possible. Chemotherapy entailed a three-day modified bleomycin/etoposide/cisplatinum (BEP) regimen during the study period. ...
Yolk sac tumors (YST) are also known as endodermal sinus tumors (EST) and infantile embryonal carcinoma. They are a type of germ cell tumor that can be found in infants and adults.
Hereditary Cancer Syndromes can be caused by faulty changes in genes called as "Hereditary Mutations." These can be passed down from parent to child and cause cancer to run in the family, making it a Hereditary Cancer. Women who carry a mutation in either of BRCA genes have a condition called Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancers (HBOC) syndrome. Approximately 10-15 percent of Ovarian cancer cases and 10 percent of Breast cancer cases are caused by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Some more genes have also been found to be responsible for Hereditary Breast or Ovarian Cancer. In addition, mutation carriers ...
en] BACKGROUND: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare neoplasms thought to be of putative endometrial stromal origin and solely composed of sex cord elements. Our study aimed to delineate the immunophenotype of these tumors and to verify whether their morphology reflects true sex cord-like differentiation. DESIGN: Representative paraffin blocks from 12 UTROSCTs were selected after confirmation of the diagnosis. Cords and/or trabeculae were seen in all tumors, whereas tubules, diffuse areas, and a retiform pattern were present in 9, 6, and 2 cases, respectively. Tumors were stained for sex cord (inhibin, calretinin, WT1, and melan-A), epithelial (KL1 and epithelial membrane antigen), and smooth muscle markers (smooth muscle actin, desmin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, h-caldesmon, and histone deacetylase-8), CD10, HMB45, S100, and CD117. Intensity and percentage of staining were recorded. RESULTS: Six out of 12 tumors were positive for sex cord markers ...
Mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) are common in patients with high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas, and, when the wild-type allele is lost, BRCA mutations can impair DNA-damage repair by homologous recombination, leading to deletion or duplication of chromosomal regions, which is termed genomic loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Homologous recombination-deficient tumors are sensitive to PARP inhibitors such as rucaparib, but although homologous recombination deficiencies can also occur in ovarian tumors without BRCA mutations, molecular predictors of rucaparib sensitivity in BRCA wild-type tumors have not been identified. Swisher, Lin, and colleagues hypothesized that genomic LOH might predict homologous recombination deficiency and rucaparib sensitivity and enrolled 206 patients in an open-label phase II trial of rucaparib in patients with relapsed, platinum-sensitive, ...
Epithelial ovarian cancer has the highest fatality rate of all gynecologic malignancies. Although the majority of patients achieve complete clinical response after initial cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, most recur and almost all will eventually acquire platinum-resistance for which treatment options become limited. The objective of the study was to describe response and tolerability of metronomic chemotherapy regimen GFIP/BDC, a modification of the G-FLIP regimen, in patients with persistent or recurrent epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer. A retrospective descriptive analysis of 20 patients from a single academic institution who received combination GFIP/BDC therapy from January 1, 2011 to August 31, 2016 for persistent or recurrent EOC/FT/PP. Treatment consisted of a 2-day combination of gemcitabine 300 mg, 5-fluorouracil 500 mg/m2, irinotecan 20-30 mg/m2, cisplatin 20 mg/m2, ...
Women are filing talcum powder cancer lawsuits against Johnson & Johnson for knowing about the possible risk of ovarian cancer and fallopian tube cancer with the use of their products. They failed to warn doctors, women and the public. If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with ovarian cancer or fallopian tube cancer after using these products you may be eligible to join other women in a products liability lawsuit. Complete the form to see if you may qualify for joining the lawsuit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is invasive micropapillary serous carcinoma a low-grade carcinoma?. AU - Ohishi, Yoshihiro. AU - Imamura, Hiroko. AU - Aman, Murasaki. AU - Shida, Kaai. AU - Kaku, Tsunehisa. AU - Kato, Kiyoko. AU - Oda, Yoshinao. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - "Invasive micropapillary serous carcinoma" has been proposed as a synonym for low-grade serous carcinoma by some expert pathologists. In contrast, Singer and colleagues reported that some serous carcinomas with conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern (SC-IMPs) can show high-grade nuclear atypia. However, the molecular features of such tumors have not been well documented. The aim of this study was to demonstrate and emphasize the fact that high-grade serous carcinoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry and molecular analysis can show conspicuous invasive micropapillary pattern. We selected 24 "SC-IMPs" and investigated: (1) their morphologic features; (2) the immunostaining pattern of p53 protein; and (3) KRAS/BRAF/TP53 gene ...
Currently, uveal melanoma is not considered within the Lynch syndrome tumor spectrum. However, there are studies suggesting a contribution of microsatellite instability in sporadic uveal melanoma tumorigenesis. We report a 45-year-old woman who was referred for genetic counseling due to a family history of Lynch syndrome caused by a MLH1 mutation. She originally underwent enucleation (removal) of the right eye secondary to a uveal spindle cell melanoma diagnosed at age 25. The tumor recurred 22 years later presenting as an ovarian metastasis and concurrently a microscopic endometrial endometrioid carcinoma, grade 1/3 was diagnosed. Subsequent studies highlighted that the uveal melanoma showed high microsatellite instability and loss of MLH1 and PMS2 protein expression, with no MLH1 promoter methylation or BRAF mutation. Additionally, a GNAQ mutation was found. We conclude that our patients uveal melanoma is most likely related to MLH1 germline mutation and ...
Adenomyosis is a condition when the endometrium (inner lining of the uterus) infiltrates the myometrium, the muscular layer. This causes a global enlargement of the uterus. Symptoms include painful menstruation (dysmenorrhea) and increased bleeding (menorrhagia). More myometrium = more bleeding. During my OBGYN rotation, I spent a few days with the pathologist to learn more about gynecological pathology. While I was looking at slides of ovarian pathology under the microscope, the pathologist gave me a slide and asked what I saw. I took a look and scratched my head, "It looks like thyroid tissue with colloid in the center…" I was right! It was thyroid tissue, but it was growing in the ovary. This rare ovarian tumor is called struma ovarii.. Struma ovarii, as seen on the right hand side of the doodle, is a monodermal teratoma which contains thyroid tissue. Its name, struma ovarii, literally means "Goitre of the Ovary." Depending on the histologic findings, the tumor may be ...
Type 2 diabetics have better glucose control Diabetes mellitus part 1: physiology and complications of diabetes mellitus of steroid therapy and diabetes associated with hormonal disorders Method: A Markov model was designed to estimate Giving your pet sugar-free products can be harmful. This disease can be caused by certain type 2 diabetes medications like Januvia and Byetta. Gluten Free Roti Bread Recipe researchers stated that there is a desperate need for new ovarian cancer treatments.. Comfort Fit Far Infrared Socks SKU: PRO-S01 have little white spots on my legs and arms Id like to. Dialysis Diabetes Reverse Diabetic Neuropathy Dialysis Diabetes ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days. and expertise creating the Meals Made Easy for Diabetes Program: Patty Case o Action Plan Worksheet: The lesson plans do not include the use of Exchange Lists Diabetes High Blood Pressure Treatment Diabetes & Alternative Diabetes Treatment Diabetes ...
Assessment of adnexal masses using ultrasound: a practical review Noam Smorgick, Ron Maymon Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Assaf HaRofeh Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel Abstract: Pelvic ultrasound is commonly used as part of the routine gynecologic exams, resulting in diagnosis of adnexal masses, the majority of which are functional or benign. However, due to the possible complications involving benign adnexal cysts (ie, adnexal torsion, pelvic pain) and the utmost importance of early diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer, the correct ultrasound diagnosis of adnexal masses is essential in clinical practice. This review will describe the typical ultrasound appearance of the common physiologic, benign, and malignant adnexal masses with the aim of aiding the clinician to reach the correct diagnosis. Keywords: adnexal cyst, Doppler, ovarian cancer
Dr. Andrea Hayes Jordan discusses ovarian teratomas, ovarian torsion, soft tissue sarcomas. Her presentation covers ovarian masses, ovarian germ cell tumors...
We report a patient with Graves disease who remained persistently hyperthyroid after a total thyroidectomy and also developed de novo Graves ophthalmopathy 5 months after surgery. She was subsequently found to have a mature cystic teratoma containing struma ovarii after undergoing a total hysterectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy for an incidental ovarian lesion. ...
Peter R. Dottino, MD, has been appointed Director of the Division of Gynecologic Oncology in the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York. He also holds an appointment as Associate Clinical Professor at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai.. Dr. Dottino is Director of the Group for Women and Co-Director with John A. Martignetti, MD, of the Ovarian Cancer Translational Research Laboratory at Mount Sinai. He previously served as the Director of Gynecologic Oncology at Mount Sinai and also is one of the founders of the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund, a United States charity funding ovarian cancer research.. New Faculty. Rudy Albert Segna, MD, named Associate Director of Gynecologic Oncology, and Ann Marie Beddoe, MD, named Director of the Gynecologic Oncology Chemotherapy Infusion Service join Dr. Dottino at Mount Sinai as faculty members.. ...
Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 10q has been reported in approximately 40% of endometrial carcinomas. PTEN, a candidate tumor suppressor gene located at chromosome 10q23.3, was recently identified and found to be homozygously deleted or mutated in several different types of human tumors. To determine if PTEN is a target of 10q loss of heterozygosity in carcinomas of the endometrium, we examined 32 primary endometrial carcinomas for mutations in PTEN. The tumors included the two major histopathological types of endometrial carcinoma: endometrioid (n = 26; 14 microsatellite instability (MI)-positive and 12 MI-negative) and serous (n = 6). Overall, mutations were detected in 50% of the endometrial carcinomas we analyzed. Mutations were present in 12 of 14 (86%) MI-positive and 4 of 12 (33%) MI-negative endometrioid tumors. Furthermore, mutations were found in all three histological grades of MI-positive endometrioid carcinoma. All six serous endometrial carcinomas lacked detectable mutations. ...
OBJECTIVE We previously described vascular invasion-associated changes, defined as the presence of vascular invasion or perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates, as key prognostic indicators in stage I endometrioid carcinoma. The current study was undertaken to examine the prognostic value of HER-2/neu expression in relation to other factors, including vascular invasion-associated changes, in surgical stage I endometrioid carcinoma. STUDY DESIGN Seventy-one patients with surgical stage I endometrioid carcinoma treated by hysterectomy and followed up were randomly chosen for retrospective analysis of prognostic indicators including standard clincopathologic features, deoxyribonucleic acid ploidy, and HER-2/neu expression. The latter was examined by an objective computerized quantitative immunohistochemical system. RESULTS By univariate analysis many factors were found to correlate with outcome, including age, tumor grade, depth of invasion, ploidy, HER-2/neu expression, and vascular invasion-associated
The U.S. Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation will likely consider oral arguments on the motion during an upcoming hearing session scheduled for September 29 in Washington, D.C. While the talcum powder litigation has rapidly grown in size and scope over the past few months, lawsuits over ovarian cancer from Johnsons Baby Powder and Shower-to-Shower have been pending in various state court systems for years. A handful of cases have already gone to trial at the state court level, resulting in multi-million dollar damage awards after evidence was presented about Johnson & Johnsons failure to warn about the ovarian cancer risk. However, a growing number of cases are likely to be filed in the federal court system as more women and families learn about the link between a diagnosis of ovarian cancer and Baby Powder, Shower-to-Shower or another talcum powder product used for feminine hygiene purposes.. The ...
With this type of septated ovarian cyst, the cyst can appear like the form of an foetus, according to size. A cyst may be formed with this process in case the egg definitely released effectively, or in case the follicle does not dissolve in the future. However , you will discover natural remedies which often can reduce the indications of pilonidal vulgaris with more affordable risks engaged.. Medications to find ovarian vulgaris have uncovered a new intend with of utilizing holistic remedies. Ovarian cyst soreness, while do not ever a fun simple fact of your life, is usually accomplish harmful an individual. Last year, a great ovarian cancer tumor patient did find a general oncologist (not a gynecologic oncologist) because my mom was having significant indications of recurrence.. Ovarian cyst is certainly one among these people which will need medical care. An auto dvd unit that contained 2 professional ...
Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian teratoma characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue as the major component. Malignant transformation of the thyroidal component (malignant struma ovarii) has been reported in approximately 5% of struma ovarii. The management and follow-up of this unusual disease remain controversial. We report the case of a woman with a history of autoimmune thyroiditis and a previous resection of a benign struma ovarii that underwent hystero-annexiectomy for malignant struma ovarii with multiple papillary thyroid cancer foci and peritoneal involvement. Total thyroidectomy and subsequent radioiodine treatment lead to complete disease remission after 104 months of follow-up. The diagnosis and natural progression of malignant struma ovarii are difficult to discern, and relapses can occur several years after diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory; after surgical excision of malignant struma, thyroidectomy in combination with 131I therapy should ...
I am Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecology Oncology at the Markey Cancer Center. My major interests include early detection of ovarian cancer, novel strategies in treatment of advanced ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal cancers, surgical education, as well as population-based cancer research. I have recently completed fellowship in gynecologic oncology. During residency, fellowship, and as attending faculty member, I have educated and enrolled patients in numerous cooperative group trials. At the University of Kentucky, I facilitated the development of the intraperitoneal chemotherapy program, thus allowing our division to open a cooperative group clinical trial involving intraperitoneal chemotherapy. I am an active member of the Gynecologic Oncology Group as I believe that clinical trials offer the best option for treatment for many of our gynecologic oncology ...
article{81b520fa-fde6-40e1-9977-b09909f3e717, abstract = {Inherited mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose carriers to breast and ovarian cancer. The authors have identified a mutation in BRCA2, 7845+1G > A (c.7617+1G > A), not previously regarded as deleterious because of incorrect mapping of the splice junction in the originally published genomic reference sequence. This reference sequence is generally used in many laboratories and it maps the mutation 16 base pairs inside intron 15. However, according to the recent reference sequences the mutation is located in the consensus donor splice sequence. By reverse transcriptase analysis, loss of exon 15 in the final transcript interrupting the open reading frame was demonstrated. Furthermore, the mutation segregates with a cancer phenotype in 18 Danish ...

Course Content - #93112: Contraception - NetCECourse Content - #93112: Contraception - NetCE

BRCA: genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) whose specific mutations predispose to breast or ovarian cancer. ... COCs may be used in women with benign breast disease or even a family history of breast cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations [ ... Oral contraceptives and risk of ovarian cancer and breast cancer among high-risk women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. ... Cibula D, Zikan M, Dusek L, Majek O. Oral contraceptives and risk of ovarian and breast cancers in BRCA mutation carriers: a ...
more infohttps://www.netce.com/coursecontent.php?courseid=1765

A BRCA2 mutation incorrectly mapped in the original BRCA2 reference sequence, is a common West Danish founder mutation...A BRCA2 mutation incorrectly mapped in the original BRCA2 reference sequence, is a common West Danish founder mutation...

Inherited mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose carriers to breast and ovarian cancer. The authors ... Inherited mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose carriers to breast and ovarian cancer. The authors ... Inherited mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose carriers to breast and ovarian cancer. The authors ... Hereditary breast cancer, BRCA2, 7845+1G , A, Founder mutation, Mutation age, SNP array, RT-PCR. in Breast Cancer Research and ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/81b520fa-fde6-40e1-9977-b09909f3e717

Proto-oncogenes | definition of Proto-oncogenes by Medical dictionaryProto-oncogenes | definition of Proto-oncogenes by Medical dictionary

BRCA1 and BRCA2, which predispose to familial early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer, are tumor suppressor genes. ... Studies of the HER-2/neu proto-oncogene in human breast and ovarian cancer.. Quantification of c-erbB-2 gene expression in ... Mentioned in: Breast Cancer. oncogene. viral gene (e.g. in certain retroviruses) inducing host cell neoplasia. on·co·gene ( ... a potentially cancer-inducing gene. Under normal conditions such genes play a role in the growth and proliferation of cells, ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Proto-oncogenes

Patent US20050214827 - Assay device and method - Google PatentsPatent US20050214827 - Assay device and method - Google Patents

... for detection of point mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that predispose to breast and ovarian cancers, must be able to ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US20050214827

Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: new genes in confined pathways.  - PubMed - NCBIHereditary breast and ovarian cancer: new genes in confined pathways. - PubMed - NCBI

Nat Rev Cancer. 2016 Sep;16(9):599-612. doi: 10.1038/nrc.2016.72. Epub 2016 Aug 12. Review ... Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). ... Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: new genes in confined pathways.. Nielsen FC1, van Overeem Hansen T1, Sørensen CS2. ... the possibilities for functional testing of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=136174

Fundraiser by Julie Andres : Julies medical fundFundraiser by Julie Andres : Julie's medical fund

Your radiology report shows questionable tissue in your left breast. We need you to come back in for an ultrasound guided ... My Cancer Story:Dashboard In the first week of May, 2017 I got the phone call no woman wants: ... BRCA1 or BRCA2), if inherited in a mutated form, may predispose some carriers to develop breast or ovarian cancer. After 3 ... The very next day I did the BRACA gene mutation test to see how all 33 of my genes look. This test shows if either of two genes ...
more infohttps://www.gofundme.com/2ddm6z-julies-medical-fund

Oalib searchOalib search

... for genomic rearrangements.Germ line mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose individuals to breast and ovarian cancer ... BMC Cancer , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-5-40 Abstract: In the current study genomic DNA or RNA from ten unrelated FAP ... BMC Cancer , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-4-61 Abstract: The approach used is based on dHPLC mutation screening of the BRCA1 ... deletion and single point mutations in the BRCA1 gene in a Greek cohort of families with suspected hereditary breast cancer ...
more infohttp://www.oalib.com/search?kw=%20Markos%20Mihalatos&searchField=authors

Evaluating the NCCN Clinical Criteria for Recommending BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genetic Testing in Patients With Breast Cancer.  -...Evaluating the NCCN Clinical Criteria for Recommending BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genetic Testing in Patients With Breast Cancer. -...

Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes predispose individuals to a significantly elevated risk for breast and ovarian cancers. ... "diagnosed with breast cancer at any age with ≥2 close blood relatives with breast cancer at any age" tested positive (95% CI, 0 ... Evaluating the NCCN Clinical Criteria for Recommending BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genetic Testing in Patients With Breast Cancer.. Cropper ... Departments of Clinical Cancer Genetics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. 3. Departments of Breast Medical ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=phg&id=12552

Synthetic lethality - WikipediaSynthetic lethality - Wikipedia

... and mutations in these genes predispose individuals to breast cancer and ovarian cancer. The enzyme PARP1 is involved in ... The major pathway depends on BRCA1, PALB2 and BRCA2 while an alternative pathway depends on RAD52. Pre-clinical studies, ... prostate cancers, breast cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphomas and chondrosarcomas, plus at significant levels in the other cancers ... Thus a defect in a DDR gene is likely to be present in cancers (see, e.g. frequencies of epimutations in DNA repair genes in ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic_lethality

BRIEF  AMICUS CURIAE IN SUPPORT OF PLAINTIFFS OPPOSITION TO DEFENDANTS MOTIONS TO DISMISS AND IN SUPPORT OF PLAINTIFFS MOTION...BRIEF AMICUS CURIAE IN SUPPORT OF PLAINTIFFS OPPOSITION TO DEFENDANTS MOTIONS TO DISMISS AND IN SUPPORT OF PLAINTIFFS MOTION...

Some people have DNA sequences in their BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes that do not predispose them to breast cancer and/or ovarian ... Everyone has at least two genes related to breast cancer in his or her body (known as BRCA1 and BRCA2). These genes have ... Myriad effectively controls all of the naturally occurring BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer genes from everyones bodies. No woman ... The international Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium was sequencing the genes in a cooperative effort and planned to make the ...
more infohttps://docs.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/new-york/nysdce/1:2009cv04515/345544/107/

Variant of uncertain significance - WikipediaVariant of uncertain significance - Wikipedia

... of other genetic variants in and around BRCA1 and other genes that may predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. A ... recent study of the genes ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, CHEK2, PALB2, and TP53 found 15,311 DNA sequence variants in only 102 ... "Understanding of BRCA VUS genetic results by breast cancer specialists". BMC Cancer. 15: 936. doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1934-1. ... In a 2015 study in the UK, where BRCA VUSs occur in 10-20% of tests, 39% of breast cancer specialists taking part in the study ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Variant_of_uncertain_significance

www.Shivambu.in ,Alternative Medicine, Self Urine Therapy, Shivambu, Accupressure, Sujok, Accupunture, Triorigin, Meridians,...www.Shivambu.in ,Alternative Medicine, Self Urine Therapy, Shivambu, Accupressure, Sujok, Accupunture, Triorigin, Meridians,...

Inherited mutations in these genes predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers. ... Two of the proteins used in homologous recombination are encoded by the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. ... Mutations in either of these genes predisposes the person to an inherited form of colon cancer. So these genes qualify as tumor ... an elevated incidence of skin cancer.. It turns out that XP can be caused by mutations in any one of several genes - all of ...
more infohttp://munot.in/instruction_for_cancer_patients/dna

www.Shivambu.in ,Alternative Medicine, Self Urine Therapy, Shivambu, Accupressure, Sujok, Accupunture, Triorigin, Meridians,...www.Shivambu.in ,Alternative Medicine, Self Urine Therapy, Shivambu, Accupressure, Sujok, Accupunture, Triorigin, Meridians,...

Inherited mutations in these genes predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers. ... Two of the proteins used in homologous recombination are encoded by the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. ... Mutations in either of these genes predisposes the person to an inherited form of colon cancer. So these genes qualify as tumor ... an elevated incidence of skin cancer.. It turns out that XP can be caused by mutations in any one of several genes - all of ...
more infohttp://www.munot.in/instruction_for_cancer_patients/dna

Genetic Testing and Counselling | World Ovarian Cancer DayGenetic Testing and Counselling | World Ovarian Cancer Day

Mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with high risks for breast and ovarian cancers. Both genes predispose to ... breast cancer are at increased risk for ovarian cancer while those with inherited ovarian cancer are at higher risk for breast ... Individuals with a family history of ovarian, breast or related cancers are encouraged to speak with their doctor to find out ... The first World Ovarian Cancer Day took place May 8th, 2013. It is dedicated to creating and raising awareness about ovarian ...
more infohttp://ovariancancerday.org/genetic-testing-and-counselling/

Germline mutation - WikipediaGermline mutation - Wikipedia

Other examples include mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes which predispose to breast and ovarian cancer, or mutations in ... Cancer[edit]. Mutations in tumour suppressor genes or proto-oncogenes can predispose an individual to developing tumours.[15] ... "Cancer.Net. 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2017-12-01.. *^ a b "The Genetics of Cancer". National Cancer Institute. NIH. 2015-04-22. ... "NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms". National Cancer Institute. 2011-02-02. Retrieved 2017-11-30.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{ ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germline_mutation

Breast Cancer / Ovarian Cancer / Colon Cancer  - Cancerous Tumors in the Immediate FamilyBreast Cancer / Ovarian Cancer / Colon Cancer - Cancerous Tumors in the Immediate Family

In some cases, genes whose inheritance from generation to generation is responsible for an increased risk of cancer have been ... Two genes that predispose for breast cancer and ovarian cancer have been identified to date - these are the BRCA1 and BRCA2 ... Breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer. The frequency of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in the population is relatively high, ... Breast Cancer / Ovarian Cancer / Colon Cancer - Cancerous tumors in the immediate family. ...
more infohttp://www.geneticsofpregnancy.com/Encyclopedia/Cancerous_tumors_in_the_immediate_family.aspx?pid=64&cid=57

Functional characterization and identification of mouse Rad51d splice variants | BMC Molecular Biology | Full TextFunctional characterization and identification of mouse Rad51d splice variants | BMC Molecular Biology | Full Text

... mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, known to predispose carriers to breast and ovarian cancers, were found to disrupt ... Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2003, 37: 314-320. 10.1002/gcc.10221View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ... Thacker J: The RAD51 gene family, genetic instability and cancer. Cancer Lett. 2005, 219: 125-135. 10.1016/j.canlet.2004.08.018 ... Venables JP: Aberrant and alternative splicing in cancer. Cancer Res. 2004, 64: 7647-7654. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1910View ...
more infohttps://bmcmolbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2199-10-27

DECLARATION of Emanuel Petricoin, Ph for Association For Molecular Pathology et al v. United States Patent and Trademark Office...DECLARATION of Emanuel Petricoin, Ph for Association For Molecular Pathology et al v. United States Patent and Trademark Office...

... genetic and molecular techniques to identify and isolate the BRCA genes that pre-dispose women to breast and/or ovarian cancer ... With considerable skill and inventiveness, both the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were isolated, and mutations in those genes that pre- ... Moreover, although the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have use within the body, isolated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (not found in nature) ... and analyze these genes to determine if a patient carries one or more mutations associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer. ...
more infohttps://docs.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/new_york/nysdce/1:2009cv04515/345544/203

A homozygous FANCM mutation underlies a familial case of non-syndromic primary ovarian insufficiency | eLifeA homozygous FANCM mutation underlies a familial case of non-syndromic primary ovarian insufficiency | eLife

... are involved in a familial case of Primary Ovarian Insufficiency establishing a link between infertility and cancer. ... a DNA-damage response gene whose heterozygous mutations predispose to breast cancer, ... The third group includes BRCA1, BRCA2, RAD51, PALPB2 and BRIP1, whose mutations predispose to breast and ovarian cancer (BOC) ( ... as well as a previous study that links primary ovarian failure to other breast cancer genes such as BRCA1: Oktay et al., 2010. ...
more infohttps://elifesciences.org/articles/30490

Tier 1 Genomics Applications and their Importance to Public Health | CDCTier 1 Genomics Applications and their Importance to Public Health | CDC

... increased risk for breast, ovarian, tubal, peritoneal, and other cancers due to mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes; ... in the United States are at increased risk for adverse health outcomes because they have genetic mutations which predispose ... Lynch syndrome (LS) - increased risk for colorectal, endometrial, ovarian, and other cancers associated with mutations in ... Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOC) - ... mismatch-repair genes; or. *Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/genomics/implementation/toolkit/tier1.htm

Lab Soft News: BRCA-Positive Males at Higher Risk for Prostate and Pancreatic CancerLab Soft News: BRCA-Positive Males at Higher Risk for Prostate and Pancreatic Cancer

... which are tumor suppressor genes....Harmful mutations in these genes may produce a hereditary breast-ovarian... ... A BRCA mutation is a mutation in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, ... Here is a brief description about BRCA gene mutations and the manner in which they predispose to various cancers (see: BRCA ... Here is a brief description about BRCA gene mutations and the manner in which they predispose to various cancers (see: BRCA ...
more infohttps://labsoftnews.typepad.com/lab_soft_news/2016/12/brca-testing-in-males.html

DNA Repair Deficiency in Breast Cancer: Opportunities for ImmunotherapyDNA Repair Deficiency in Breast Cancer: Opportunities for Immunotherapy

STimulator of INterferon Genes) pathway. Breast tumors with DNA repair deficiency are associated with upregulation of immune ... Here we describe DNA repair pathways in breast cancer and activation of innate immune pathways in DNA repair deficiency, in ... Somatic Mutations of DNA Repair Genes in Breast Cancer. While BRCA1 and BRCA2 are highly penetrant germline cancer ... ovarian, lung, colorectal and oropharyngeal cancers, and melanoma [8-11]. Notably triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jo/2019/4325105/

Prostate cancer breakthrough as scientists crack genetic code behind nine in 10 tumours - TelegraphProstate cancer breakthrough as scientists crack genetic code behind nine in 10 tumours - Telegraph

Nine out of 10 cases of late stage prostate cancer can now be linked to changes in the DNA of sufferers, the Institute of ... cent of patients also had mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes which are known to raise the risk of breast and ovarian cancer ... The researchers also found for the first time that some people are born with genes which predispose them to prostate cancer, ... 7 ways to protect yourself against prostate cancer Dr Iain Frame, Director of Research at Prostate Cancer UK said: "This is ...
more infohttp://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11621351/Prostate-cancer-breakthrough-as-scientists-crack-genetic-code-behind-nine-in-10-tumours.html

Personal Genomics: 2006-03-19Personal Genomics: 2006-03-19

Inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to high risks of breast and ovarian cancer. Lifetime risks of breast cancer ... Despite a negative (normal) genetic test for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, about 12 percent of breast cancer patients ... Among white women in the U.S., 5 percent to 10 percent of breast cancer cases are due to inherited mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ... "As more breast cancer susceptibility genes of different penetrances are identified, clinicians will be increasingly challenged ...
more infohttp://personalgenomics.blogspot.com/2006_03_19_archive.html

Patent Docs: Curiouser and CuriouserPatent Docs: Curiouser and Curiouser

Patent and Trademark Office and the Justice Department over the question of patent-eligibility for isolated genes seems to be ... Kings PNAS paper from last year on massively parallel sequencing of 20-some genes that predispose to breast and ovarian cancer ... and at the same time as others found BRCA2. I frankly suspect they have poisoned the well for subsequent innovators in DNA ... But with much stronger incentives to test other genes and adopt the newest sequencing technologies. ...
more infohttps://www.patentdocs.org/2011/02/curiouser-and-curiouser.html
  • They add that for families testing negative (wild type) for BRCA1 and BRCA2 by conventional sequencing, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA - a molecular method to detect genetic variation) followed by sequence confirmation of breakpoints in patients' genomic DNA is the current best choice for evaluating the wide range of genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 and BRCA2. (blogspot.com)
  • Since then the germline mutations within these genes were linked to genomic instability and increased risk of many other cancer types. (jcancer.org)
  • Both BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins play a crucial role in the maintenance of genomic integrity through the process of precise DNA repair by homologous recombination [ 7 ], [ 8 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Loss of BRCA functions results in the genomic instability that eventually results in the oncogenic transformation of non-tumorigenic cells into tumor initiating cells, or cancer stem cells (CSCs) and further tumor evolution. (jcancer.org)
  • Given an extensive self-renewal and clonogenic potential of CSCs coupled to a high level of genomic instability attributed to tumor cells, CSCs might play a role as an engine of cancer evolution [ 9 ], [ 10 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • Identified oncongenes include ras , originally noted in bladder tumors, and p53, a mutated version of a gene on chromosome 17 that has been shown to be involved in more than half of all human cancers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • There is another type of colon cancer that is sometimes associated with tumors in other organs of the body. (geneticsofpregnancy.com)
  • Breast tumors with DNA repair deficiency are associated with upregulation of immune checkpoints including PD-L1 (Programmed Death Ligand-1) and may represent a target population for single agent or combination immunotherapy treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • Notably, an estimated 60-69% of triple negative breast cancers (with absence of oestrogen receptor (ER) progesterone receptor (PR) as well as nonamplified HER2) are reported to have a defect in DNA repair, with features in common with BRCA1/2 mutated tumors described as "BRCAness" [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Mrs. Jolie-Pitt underwent a double mastectomy about two years back, as her mother, aunt, and grandmother were all diagnosed, and later succumbed to breast cancer. (dovemed.com)
  • In this Review article, we examine HBOC genes, focusing on their role in genome maintenance, the possibilities for functional testing of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making. (cdc.gov)
  • Researchers at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have found the cost of different breast cancer chemotherapy treatments can vary widely, with little or no correlation to effectiveness. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • looked at all the genes in genomes of three women in one Finnish family: two sisters and their mother. (elifesciences.org)
  • The exomes of 6 different tumor types of the pancreas have been sequenced, and large-scale sequencing of the genomes of additional cancers is under way through the International Cancer Genome Consortium and The Cancer Genome Atlas programs ( 3-7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is dedicated to creating and raising awareness about ovarian cancer, the women's cancer with the lowest survival rate for which there is little awareness and no cure. (ovariancancerday.org)
  • Despite a negative (normal) genetic test for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, about 12 percent of breast cancer patients from high-risk families carried previously undetected cancer-associated mutations, according to a study in the March 22/29 issue of JAMA, a theme issue on women's health. (blogspot.com)
  • WebMD's women's cancer expert, Harold J. Burstein, talks to WebMD's chief medical editor about treatment advances, research breakthroughs, and the prognosis for the future. (webmd.com)
  • How far have we come in women's cancer ? (webmd.com)
  • For a clearer picture of the state of women's cancer treatment today and tomorrow, WebMD chief medical editor, Michael W. Smith, MD, turned to WebMD's resident cancer expert, Harold J. Burstein, MD, PhD. (webmd.com)
  • This means that diagnosis of this type of colon cancer is more complicated than that of the type caused by mutations in the APC gene. (geneticsofpregnancy.com)
  • out of 913 men who underwent screening, three-quarters of the ones carrying the mutated BRCA1 gene had a prostate cancer diagnosis before reaching 64 years of age, indicating clearly that the presence of the faulty gene might serve as an early warning for individuals with a higher risk of developing the disease at a younger age. (typepad.com)
  • He was the principal author of "United States Health Policies and Late-Stage Breast and Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis: Why Such Disparities by Age? (consumeraffairs.com)
  • It used the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) database and examined data that was reported between 2004 and 2009 in order to determine whether area cancer screening use or accessibility to health care providers affected odds of late-stage diagnosis. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • The AACR marshals the full spectrum of expertise from the cancer community to accelerate progress in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer through high-quality scientific and educational programs. (healthcanal.com)
  • Effect of BRCA1/2 Mutations on Long-Term Survival of Invasive Ovarian Cancer, 26 J. Clin. (justia.com)
  • The IMpassion130 study of the PD-L1 targeting antibody atezolizumab in combination with nab-paclitaxel demonstrated a significant improvement in overall survival in PD-L1 positive TNBC (22.0 vs 15.5 months) indicating the potential clinical impact of exploiting immunotherapies in this subgroup of breast cancer [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Doctors from the Royal Marsden and hospitals in the US studied the genetic make-up of 150 tumours from patients with advanced prostate cancer who have a slim chance of survival. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • In results presented at the AACR 102nd Annual Meeting 2011, held April 2-6, Kelly Bolton, a fellow at the National Cancer Institute, said the findings describe the effect of these mutations in ovarian cancer survival. (healthcanal.com)
  • We also provide the first solid evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations don't have the same impact on ovarian cancer survival. (healthcanal.com)
  • Our goal is to identify individuals and families who may be at an increased risk of developing specific types of cancer and to inform them about the appropriate prevention and screening recommendations available. (cheo.on.ca)
  • What's your take on breast cancer prevention strategies? (webmd.com)
  • and Cancer Prevention Research . (healthcanal.com)
  • If the ratio of approximately 20 DNA sequence variants per gene holds over the entire genome (with approximately 20,000 genes) that means that every person who elects to have their genome sequenced will be provided with almost half a million Variants of Unknown Significance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of a family of genes that normally encodes proteins that are involved in cell growth or regulation (e.g., protein kinases, GTPases, nuclear proteins, growth factors) but that may foster malignant processes if mutated or activated by contact with retroviruses. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the first week of May, 2017 I got the phone call no woman wants: "Your radiology report shows questionable tissue in your left breast. (gofundme.com)
  • June 14, 2017: Lumpectomy with breast reconstruction. (gofundme.com)
  • Adding to this complexity, invasive cancers of the pancreas can arise from several histologically distinct noninvasive precursor lesions, and invasive cancers can give rise to clinically discrete patterns of metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Now, the specter is raised of one part of the Executive Branch arguing to the Court that the considered judgment and almost three-decade history of practice of another department of that same government has been (and continues to be) wrong in granting patents not only on isolated human genes but also on any isolated biological (or 'natural') product. (patentdocs.org)
  • Men who carry the mutated BRCA1 gene have a four times greater chance of developing prostate cancer than other males. (typepad.com)
  • Men with the mutated BRCA1 gene are also more susceptible to the very aggressive form of prostate cancer. (typepad.com)
  • In Great Britain, more than 50% of prostate cancer cases are diagnosed in males over the age of 70 years, making age the main risk factor. (typepad.com)
  • Thousands of men suffering from advanced prostate cancer have been offered new hope of a cure after scientists discovered the genetic cause behind 90 per cent of tumours. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Scientists said the breakthrough was like uncovering the 'Rosetta Stone' for prostate cancer, in reference to the stone tablet which helped Egyptologists break the code of hieroglyphics. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Our study shines new light on the genetic complexity of prostate cancer as it develops and spreads, revealing it to be not a single disease, but many diseases each driven by their own set of mutations," said Johann de Bono, Professor of Experimental Cancer Medicine at The Institute of Cancer Research, London, and Consultant at The Royal Marsden in London. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Nearly 50,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year in the UK and more than 10,000 will die from the disease when it moves into its advanced stage and begins spreading through the body. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The researchers also found for the first time that some people are born with genes which predispose them to prostate cancer, meaning that screening programmes could be effective at preventing the disease. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Dr Iain Frame, Director of Research at Prostate Cancer UK said: "This is incredibly exciting and ground breaking research. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • It suggests for the first time the list of genetic mutations to search for in order to build up a blueprint of a man's prostate cancer once it has spread. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The next step is to confirm whether those drugs would have the same impact if used to target those mutations when found in prostate cancer. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Genes of mutations that can permit or induce uncontrolled cellular proliferation and malignant change are of two types: protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (antioncogenes). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Under normal conditions such genes play a role in the growth and proliferation of cells, but, when altered in some way by a cancer-causing agent such as radiation, a carcinogenic chemical, or an oncogenic virus, they may cause the cell to be transformed to a malignant state. (thefreedictionary.com)