PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Basic functional unit of plants.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.
The parts of plants, including SEEDS.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Material prepared from plants.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
Physiological functions characteristic of plants.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
The reproductive cells of plants.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)
The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.
Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.
A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.
The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.
Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.
Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of sterols commonly found in plants and plant oils. Alpha-, beta-, and gamma-isomers have been characterized.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.
A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE best known for the thyme spice added to foods.
A mitosporic Hypocreales fungal genus, various species of which are important parasitic pathogens of plants and a variety of vertebrates. Teleomorphs include GIBBERELLA.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot). Many members contain OXALIC ACID and calcium oxalate (OXALATES).
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
The process of germ cell development in plants, from the primordial PLANT GERM CELLS to the mature haploid PLANT GAMETES.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
The absence of light.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.
A plant family of the order Selaginellales, class Lycopodiopsida, division Lycopodiophyta, subkingdom Tracheobionta. Members contain bilobetin. The rarely used common name of resurrection plant is mainly used with CRATEROSTIGMA.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.
Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.
A cluster of FLOWERS (as opposed to a solitary flower) arranged on a main stem of a plant.
Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/9588)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

UCP4, a novel brain-specific mitochondrial protein that reduces membrane potential in mammalian cells. (2/9588)

Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are a family of mitochondrial transporter proteins that have been implicated in thermoregulatory heat production and maintenance of the basal metabolic rate. We have identified and partially characterized a novel member of the human uncoupling protein family, termed uncoupling protein-4 (UCP4). Protein sequence analyses showed that UCP4 is most related to UCP3 and possesses features characteristic of mitochondrial transporter proteins. Unlike other known UCPs, UCP4 transcripts are exclusively expressed in both fetal and adult brain tissues. UCP4 maps to human chromosome 6p11.2-q12. Consistent with its potential role as an uncoupling protein, UCP4 is localized to the mitochondria and its ectopic expression in mammalian cells reduces mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings suggest that UCP4 may be involved in thermoregulatory heat production and metabolism in the brain.  (+info)

Patterns of evolutionary rate variation among genes of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. (3/9588)

The anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway is responsible for the production of anthocyanin pigments in plant tissues and shares a number of enzymes with other biochemical pathways. The six core structural genes of this pathway have been cloned and characterized in two taxonomically diverse plant species (maize and snapdragon). We have recently cloned these genes for a third species, the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea. This additional information provides an opportunity to examine patterns of evolution among genes within a single biochemical pathway. We report here that upstream genes in the anthocyanin pathway have evolved substantially more slowly than downstream genes and suggest that this difference in evolutionary rates may be explained by upstream genes being more constrained because they participate in several different biochemical pathways. In addition, regulatory genes associated with the anthocyanin pathway tend to evolve more rapidly than the structural genes they regulate, suggesting that adaptive evolution of flower color may be mediated more by regulatory than by structural genes. Finally, for individual anthocyanin genes, we found an absence of rate heterogeneity among three major angiosperm lineages. This rate constancy contrasts with an accelerated rate of evolution of three CHS-like genes in the Ipomoea lineage, indicating that these three genes have diverged without coordinated adjustment by other pathway genes.  (+info)

The origin and evolution of green algal and plant actins. (4/9588)

The Viridiplantae are subdivided into two groups: the Chlorophyta, which includes the Chlorophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Prasinophyceae; and the Streptophyta, which includes the Charophyceae and all land plants. Within the Streptophyta, the actin genes of the angiosperms diverge nearly simultaneously from each other before the separation of monocots and dicots. Previous evolutionary analyses have provided limited insights into the gene duplications that have produced these complex gene families. We address the origin and diversification of land plant actin genes by studying the phylogeny of actins within the green algae, ferns, and fern allies. Partial genomic sequences or cDNAs encoding actin were characterized from Cosmarium botrytis (Zygnematales), Selaginella apoda (Selaginellales), Anemia phyllitidis (Polypodiales), and Psilotum triquetrum (Psilotales). Selaginella contains at least two actin genes. One sequence (Ac2) diverges within a group of fern sequences that also includes the Psilotum Ac1 actin gene and one gymnosperm sequence (Cycas revoluta Cyc3). This clade is positioned outside of the angiosperm actin gene radiation. The second Selaginella sequence (Ac1) is the sister to all remaining land plant actin sequences, although the internal branches in this portion of the tree are very short. Use of complete actin-coding regions in phylogenetic analyses provides support for the separation of angiosperm actins into two classes. N-terminal "signature" sequence analyses support these groupings. One class (VEG) includes actin genes that are often expressed in vegetative structures. The second class (REP) includes actin genes that trace their ancestry within the vegetative actins and contains members that are largely expressed in reproductive structures. Analysis of intron positions within actin genes shows that sequences from both Selaginella and Cosmarium contain the conserved 20-3, 152-1, and 356-3 introns found in many members of the Streptophyta. In addition, the Cosmarium actin gene contains a novel intron at position 76-1.  (+info)

Temporal and multiple quantitative trait loci analyses of resistance to bacterial wilt in tomato permit the resolution of linked loci. (5/9588)

Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterium that causes the serious disease known as bacterial wilt in many plant species. In tomato, several QTL controlling resistance have been found, but in different studies, markers spanning a large region of chromosome 6 showed strong association with the resistance. By using two different approaches to analyze the data from a field test F3 population, we show that at least two separate loci approximately 30 cM apart on this chromosome are most likely involved in the resistance. First, a temporal analysis of the progression of symptoms reveals a distal locus early in the development of the disease. As the disease progresses, the maximum LOD peak observed shifts toward the proximal end of the chromosome, obscuring the distal locus. Second, although classical interval mapping could only detect the presence of one locus, a statistical "two-QTL model" test, specifically adapted for the resolution of linked QTL, strongly supported the hypothesis for the presence of two loci. These results are discussed in the context of current molecular knowledge about disease resistance genes on chromosome 6 and observations made by tomato breeders during the production of bacterial wilt-resistant varieties.  (+info)

Sexual dimorphism in white campion: complex control of carpel number is revealed by y chromosome deletions. (6/9588)

Sexual dimorphism in the dioecious plant white campion (Silene latifolia = Melandrium album) is under the control of two main regions on the Y chromosome. One such region, encoding the gynoecium-suppressing function (GSF), is responsible for the arrest of carpel initiation in male flowers. To generate chromosomal deletions, we used pollen irradiation in male plants to produce hermaphroditic mutants (bsx mutants) in which carpel development was restored. The mutants resulted from alterations in at least two GSF chromosomal regions, one autosomal and one located on the distal half of the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome. The two mutations affected carpel development independently, each mutation showing incomplete penetrance and variegation, albeit at significantly different levels. During successive meiotic generations, a progressive increase in penetrance and a reduction in variegation levels were observed and quantified at the level of the Y-linked GSF (GSF-Y). Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the behavior of the bsx mutations: epigenetic regulation or/and second-site mutation of modifier genes. In addition, studies on the inheritance of the hermaphroditic trait showed that, unlike wild-type Y chromosomes, deleted Y chromosomes can be transmitted through both the male and the female lines. Altogether, these findings bring experimental support, on the one hand, to the existence on the Y chromosome of genic meiotic drive function(s) and, on the other hand, to models that consider that dioecy evolved through multiple mutation events. As such, the GSF is actually a system containing more than one locus and whose primary component is located on the Y chromosome.  (+info)

Sexual dimorphism in white campion: deletion on the Y chromosome results in a floral asexual phenotype. (7/9588)

White campion is a dioecious plant with heteromorphic X and Y sex chromosomes. In male plants, a filamentous structure replaces the pistil, while in female plants the stamens degenerate early in flower development. Asexual (asx) mutants, cumulating the two developmental defects that characterize the sexual dimorphism in this species, were produced by gamma ray irradiation of pollen and screening in the M1 generation. The mutants harbor a novel type of mutation affecting an early function in sporogenous/parietal cell differentiation within the anther. The function is called stamen-promoting function (SPF). The mutants are shown to result from interstitial deletions on the Y chromosome. We present evidence that such deletions tentatively cover the central domain on the (p)-arm of the Y chromosome (Y2 region). By comparing stamen development in wild-type female and asx mutant flowers we show that they share the same block in anther development, which results in the production of vestigial anthers. The data suggest that the SPF, a key function(s) controlling the sporogenous/parietal specialization in premeiotic anthers, is genuinely missing in females (XX constitution). We argue that this is the earliest function in the male program that is Y-linked and is likely responsible for "male dimorphism" (sexual dimorphism in the third floral whorl) in white campion. More generally, the reported results improve our knowledge of the structural and functional organization of the Y chromosome and favor the view that sex determination in this species results primarily from a trigger signal on the Y chromosome (Y1 region) that suppresses female development. The default state is therefore the ancestral hermaphroditic state.  (+info)

Novel genes induced during an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and Glomus versiforme. (8/9588)

Many terrestrial plant species are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we have identified three cDNA clones representing genes whose expression is induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus versiforme. The three clones represent M. truncatula genes and encode novel proteins: a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related protein, a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP), and a putative homologue of the mammalian p110 subunit of initiation factor 3 (eIF3). These genes show little or no expression in M. truncatula roots prior to formation of the symbiosis and are significantly induced following colonization by G. versiforme. The genes are not induced in roots in response to increases in phosphate. This suggests that induction of expression during the symbiosis is due to the interaction with the fungus and is not a secondary effect of improved phosphate nutrition. In situ hybridization revealed that the putative AGP is expressed specifically in cortical cells containing arbuscules. The identification of two mycorrhiza-induced genes encoding proteins predicted to be involved in cell wall structure is consistent with previous electron microscopy data that indicated major alterations in the extracellular matrix of the cortical cells following colonization by mycorrhizal fungi.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - RNA commutes to work. T2 - Regulation of plant gene expression by systemically transported RNA molecules. AU - Ueki, Shoko. AU - Citovsky, Vitaly. PY - 2001/12/1. Y1 - 2001/12/1. N2 - Although long-distance movement of endogenous mRNAs in plants is well established, the functional contributions of these transported RNA molecules has remained unclear. In a recent report, Kim et al. showed that systemically transported mRNA is capable of causing phenotypic change in developing tissue. Here, this finding and its significance are reviewed and discussed in detail. In addition, in order to give proper perspective, long-distance transport of other types of RNAs, e.g., RNA elicitors of post-transcriptional gene silencing and RNA genomes of plant viruses, and its possible regulation are discussed.. AB - Although long-distance movement of endogenous mRNAs in plants is well established, the functional contributions of these transported RNA molecules has remained unclear. In a recent report, ...
A method for making a genetically modified plant comprising regenerating a whole plant from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated by a blocking sequence flanked on either side by specific excision sequences, a second gene that encodes a recombinase specific for the specific excision sequences linked to a repressible promoter, and a third gene that encodes the repressor specific for the repressible promoter. Also a method for making a genetically modified hybrid plant by hybridizing a first plant regenerated from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated by a blocking sequence flanked on either side by specific excision sequences to a second plant regenerated
Triticum monococcum aegilopoides is a ANNUAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is not frost tender. It is in flower from Jun to July, and the seeds ripen from Aug to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Suitable pH: acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It prefers moist soil.
Citation: Brooks, S.A., Huang, L., Herbel, M.N., Gill, B.S., Brown-Guedira, G., Fellers, J.P. 2006. Structural variation and evolution of a defense-gene cluster in natural populations of Aegilops tauschii. Theor. Appl. Genet. 112:618-626. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Genetic mapping and sequencing of plant genomes have been useful for investigating eukaryotic chromosome structural organization. In man cases analyses have been limited in the number of representatives sampled from specific groups. The degree of intraspecific genome diversity remains in question, and it is possible that a single model genome may have limited utility for identifying genes in related members of the species or genus. Genes of particular interest for crop-plant improvement are disease resistance genes that are harbored by wild relatives of modern cultivated crops. The genes are evolutionarily dynamic and under selective pressure by a broad range of pathogenic organisms. Using resistance gene analogs as ...
My research interests focus on the regulation of plant gene expression in response to abiotic stress and extreme environments, with particular interest in chromatin structure, genome organization and epigenetic change. Venues associated with spaceflight provide an opportunity to explore plant genomic responses to an environment that is outside the evolutionary experience of terrestrial organisms. This unique platform presents a background by which adaptive metabolisms can be observed as they are crafted to cope with a stress de novo; providing a window into the origins of adaptive processes.. ...
Buy Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics by Elizabeth A. Kellogg From WHSmith today! FREE delivery to store or FREE UK delivery on all orders over £20
( 2007, researchers at the BioEnergy Science Center, one of three Department of Energy-funded research centers, have partnered to figure out how to break down plants so that they easily release the simple ...
Background: Triticum monococcum (2n) is a close ancestor of T. urartu, the A-genome progenitor of cultivated hexaploid wheat, and is therefore a useful model for the study of components regulating photomorphogenesis in diploid wheat. In order to develop genetic and genomic resources for such a study, we constructed genome-wide transcriptomes of two Triticum monococcum subspecies, the wild winter wheat T. monococcum ssp. aegilopoides (accession G3116) and the domesticated spring wheat T. monococcum ssp. monococcum (accession DV92) by generating de novo assemblies of RNA-Seq data derived from both etiolated and green seedlings. Principal Findings: The de novo transcriptome assemblies of DV92 and G3116 represent 120,911 and 117,969 transcripts, respectively. We successfully mapped ~90% of these transcripts from each accession to barley and ~95% of the transcripts to T. urartu genomes. However, only ~77% transcripts mapped to the annotated barley genes and ~85% transcripts mapped to the annotated T. ...
DEKALB Genetics Corporation, the fastest growing agricultural seed company in the U.S., has an opening for an independent PhD level scientist in the area of PLANT GENE EXPRESSION. The successful candidate will join the Agronomic Traits Program of DEKALBs biotechnology research facility in Mystic, CT, a scenic shoreline community on Long Island Sound. The research focus of the position will be aimed towards understanding and manipulating factors that affect the expression of transgenes in plants, identifying suitable promoters and enhancers, and employing this technology in the development of transgenic plant products. Other responsibilities may include cloning agronomically important genes. Candidates should have a Ph.D. in a relevant biological science, more than three years experience in plant molecular biology and demonstrated expertise in the area of plant gene expression. Post-doctoral experience is preferred. In addition to a stimulating scientific environment, DEKALB offers excellent ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Analysis of Plant Gene Expression Using Flow Cytometry and Sorting. AU - Galbraith, David W. PY - 2007/5/21. Y1 - 2007/5/21. KW - Analysis of plant gene expression. KW - Combining flow and image cytometry. KW - Defining cellular states. KW - Flow cytometry. KW - Flow sorting. KW - Methods. KW - Technologies. KW - Use of protoplasts for confirmatory studies. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1002/9783527610921.ch17. DO - 10.1002/9783527610921.ch17. M3 - Chapter. AN - SCOPUS:46449131685. SN - 9783527314874. SP - 405. EP - 422. BT - Flow Cytometry with Plant Cells: Analysis of Genes, Chromosomes and Genomes. PB - Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. ER - ...
Author: Engelhorn, J.; Genre: Thesis; Published in Print: 2011; Title: Identification of developmental functions for Arabidopsis thaliana genes by a reverse genetics approach based on analysis of H3K27me3 distribution
Variation in morphological traits in evolution can be achieved by different routes, which include, but are not limited to, changes in a transcription factors expression pattern, biochemical properties (DNA binding properties or the ability to interact with other protein partners), and/or array of targets, either by recruitment of new targets, or loss of old targets. Currently, there is some debate surrounding the relative significance of cis-regulatory mutations versus mutations in coding regions of genes to drive morphological evolution (Hoekstra and Coyne, 2007; Wray, 2007). The data presented here hint that both mechanisms likely have been employed in the evolution of the KNOX1 and FLO/LFY pathways governing compound leaf development in the legumes.. We compared KNOX1 downregulation at the leaf initiation site in both early-diverging and more recently diverged clades in the Fabaceae and found that in all cases, including members of the IRLC, KNOX1 proteins are downregulated at P0. This ...
|p| Model plants for genetic studies are very important among all other plant species living on our planet. Models, as whole plant grown from seed as well as tissue or cellular culture, help researchers to study genetics of key biological phenomena, processes and characteristics that are useful for understanding the consequences of natural mutations, adaptation of plants to the harsh environment or changing climate, plant ecology and evolution as well as polyploidization. Knowledge gained in studying model plants for key characteristics of interest can be generally translated in other plant species with the knowledge that many key cellular and molecular processes are conserved and regulated by ‘blueprint’ genes inherited from common ancestor.|/p| |p| In this Model Organisms in Plant Genetics book we invite but not limited to chapters describing primitive, remnant, nonflowering, flowering, non-flowering, emerging model plant species for genetic studies and translation of gained
The sheer size of the wheat genome has been daunting in terms of whole genome sequencing. The Wheat genome is about five times the size of the human genome and hence was considered close to impossible to sequence. In Comparison to other important crop plants such as Soyabean and Rice, the difficulty of working with such a large genome has left wheat lagging behind in the race of genome sequencing. However, using advanced sequencing techniques employed by Roches 454 sequencers, the effort has managed to cover about 95% of the known wheat genes. The results of the study are now available for public use via Genbank, EMBL and CerealsDB. Nevertheless, there are those who warn that the gene map is far from complete and that the first high quality complete map data will be available only within five years. The full sequenced genome requires further read-throughs, assembly of the data into chromosomes and significant work to fully annotate the sequence data.. According to Dr. Neil Hall of the ...
The teosinte branched1 (tb1) gene is a major QTL controlling branching differences between maize and its wild progenitor, teosinte. The insertion of a transposable element (Hopscotch) upstream of tb1 is known to enhance the genes expression, causing reduced tillering in maize. Observations of the maize tb1 allele in teosinte and estimates of an insertion age of the Hopscotch that predates domestication led us to investigate its prevalence and potential role in teosinte. We assessed the prevalence of the Hopscotch element across an Americas-wide sample of 837 maize and teosinte individuals using a co-dominant PCR assay. Additionally, we calculated population genetic summaries using sequence data from a subset of individuals from four teosinte populations and collected phenotypic data using seed from a single teosinte population where Hopscotch was found segregating at high frequency. Genotyping results indicate the Hopscotch element is found in a number of teosinte populations and linkage disequilibrium
Empty clones: 1.33 %. Hybridization with labeled total DV92 DNA showed that all the other BAC clones have wheat DNA. 85% of the Not I fragments showed strong hybridization signal suggesting the presence of repetitive sequences.. ...
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Crops obtained by plant breeding technique mutagenesis should fall under laws restricting the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Europe
Is your compound leaf pinnate or palmate? And if its pinnate, is it pinnate odd, pinnate even, or twice pinnate? Find the answers easily with this illustrated guide.
The Plants Database includes the following 1 variety of Zea mays ssp. parviglumis . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for variety profiles ...
Plant Breeding Reviews presents state-of-the-art reviews on plant genetics and the breeding of all types of crops by both traditional means and molecular...
cDNAs were cloned to one host mRNA induced by a compatible virus-plant interaction and several host mRNAs induced by an incompatible virus-plant interaction. Regulatory sequences in two of the...
Here we will provide information on the various plant species that we have worked with in our research or may offer for sale from our store.
Classification for Kingdom Plantae Down to Species Gossypium hirsutum L. Click on names to expand them, and on P for PLANTS profiles ...
A gene from wild Indian rice plants can significantly raise the yield of common varieties in nutrient-poor soils by boosting root growth.
Spikelet ± sessile to stalked, breaking below glumes, falling as 1 unit; glumes ± equal or lower , upper, lower 1-veined, upper 1 3-veined; floret 1, slightly , or , glumes, bisexual; axis generally prolonged behind palea, short, bristle-like; lemma faintly 3 5-veined, short-awned just below acute tip, or awnless; palea ± , lemma; stamens 1 ...
Rice is one of the most important crops worldwide and is widely used as a model plant for molecular studies of monocotyledonous species. The plant hormone ...
File Title: Compensating effects and gene action estimates for the components of grain yield in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. em Thell ...
Pistacia khinjuk (Stocks) is a native species that, along with P. atlantica, is widely distributed from eastern to western Iran through the Makran Zone, Zagros Mountains and the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, ranging from 50 to 3300 m above sea level. The identification of resistance gene analogs holds great promise for developing resistant plants. A PCR approach with degenerate primers designed from conserved nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) regions of known disease resistance (R) genes was used to amplify and clone homologous sequences from P. khinjuk. The primers resulted in amplicons with an expected size of 500 bp. The nucleotide sequence of three amplicons was obtained through sequencing their predicted amino acid sequences compared to each other and to the amino acid sequences of known R-genes revealed significant sequence similarity. Alignment of deduced amino acid sequence of P. khinjuk resistance gene analogs (RGAs) showed strong identity (42-60%) to NBS-LRR proteins R-gene
The present investigation was undertaken with a view of expedition of putative restorers for the development of high yielding rabi sorghum hybrids. Three CMS line were tested with ten restorers in line × tester mating design to evaluate seed set per cent and fertility restoration behavior. Restorers AKRB-335-3, Rb-413-1, AKRB-428, AKRB-429, AKRB-430 and AKRB-431 exhibited high fertility restoration ability in the CMS lines and therefore, hybrids viz. AKMS 30A×AKRB-335-3, AKMS 30A×AKRB-428, AKMS 30A×Rb-413-1, AKMS 30A×AKRB-429, AKMS 30A×AKRB-430, AKMS 30A×AKRB-431, AKRMS 45A×AKRB-335-3, AKRMS 45A×AKRB-428 and AKRMS 45A×Rb-413-1 showed high seed set percentage with anther fertility rating (9.0). The inheritance of fertility restoration revealed that observed frequency fits well into Mendelian ration of 3:1 for seed setting indicates that fertility restoration is governed by single dominant gene. Cluster analysis differentiate thirty hybrids in three classes, fully fertile revealed that ...
New DNA Sequences ======================= AC013430 AC013430 88172bp DNA HTG 11-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana chromosome 1 clone F3F9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 6 unordered pieces. HTG; HTGS_PHASE1. ATF11C1 AL132976 105644bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F11C1 ATF15G16 AL132959 104868bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F15G16 ATF18N11 AL132953 91275bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F18N11 ATF1P2 AL132955 101154bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F1P2 ATF24B22 AL132957 100285bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F24B22 ATF24M12 AL132980 129515bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F24M12 ATF2A19 AL132962 95993bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F2A19 ATF2K15 AL132956 130956bp DNA PLN 12-NOV-1999 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA chromosome 3, BAC clone F2K15 ...
Citation: Liu, Z., Feng, S., Pandey, M.K., Chen, X., Culbreath, A.K., Varshney, R.K., Guo, B. 2013. Identification of expressed resistance gene analogs from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) expressed sequence tags. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology. 55(5):453-461. Interpretive Summary: Peanut production and seed quality are severely constrained by a wide variety of diseases. The most promising solution for managing peanut diseases is using resistant cultivars. A high yielding cultivar with disease resistance would present tremendous advantages for peanut farmers to fight the diseases. The objective of this study was to identify expressed resistance gene analogs (RGAs) from peanut expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for marker development. By using known R gene protein sequences to screen peanut ESTs, 385 unigenes were identified as peanut expressed RGAs. A total of 28 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified from 25 expressed RGAs. One SSR marker of RGA121 and two PCR-based markers, Ahsw-1 and ... Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) is a flowering plant belonging to the family Brassicaceae which contains economically important brassica and mustard species. Arabidopsis thaliana was the first plant to have its genome sequenced. Arabidopsis thaliana is not of economic value itself, but has risen to prominence because of its small size, short generation time and small genome, which make it an ideal plant to use for research. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome has a haploid chromosome number of 5, containing 135 Mb with 32,000 protein-coding genes. The reference proteome is derived from the genome sequence published in 2000 for the ecotype Columbia ( ...
Rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the most important crops in the world. With the rising world population, feeding people in a more sustainable and environment-friendly way becomes increasingly important. Therefore, rice research community needs to share resources to better understand functions of rice genes that are the foundation for future agricultural biotechnology development, and one way to achieve this goal is via the extensive study of insertional mutants.|br| We have constructed a large rice insertional mutant population in a japonica rice variety, Tainung 67. The collection contains about 93,000 mutant lines, among them 85% with phenomics data and 65% with flanking sequence data. We screened the phenotypes of 12 individual plants for each line grown under field conditions according to 68 subcategories and 3 quantitative traits. Both phenotypes and integration sites are searchable in the database at Taiwan Rice Insertional Mutants Database (|br| Detailed analyses of
Rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the most important crops in the world. With the rising world population, feeding people in a more sustainable and environment-friendly way becomes increasingly important. Therefore, rice research community needs to share resources to better understand functions of rice genes that are the foundation for future agricultural biotechnology development, and one way to achieve this goal is via the extensive study of insertional mutants.|br| We have constructed a large rice insertional mutant population in a japonica rice variety, Tainung 67. The collection contains about 93,000 mutant lines, among them 85% with phenomics data and 65% with flanking sequence data. We screened the phenotypes of 12 individual plants for each line grown under field conditions according to 68 subcategories and 3 quantitative traits. Both phenotypes and integration sites are searchable in the database at Taiwan Rice Insertional Mutants Database (|br| Detailed analyses of
Description of disease Arabidopsis thaliana. Treatment Arabidopsis thaliana. Symptoms and causes Arabidopsis thaliana Prophylaxis Arabidopsis thaliana
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The composition of the individual eukaryotes genome and its variation within a species remain poorly defined. Even for a sequenced genome such as that of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana accession Col-0, the large arrays of heterochromatic repeats are incompletely sequenced, with gaps of uncertain size persisting in them. Using geographically separate populations of A. thaliana, we assayed variation in the heterochromatic repeat arrays using two independent methods and identified significant polymorphism among them, with variation by as much as a factor of two in the centromeric 180 bp repeat, in the 45S rDNA arrays and in the Athila retroelements. In the accession with highest genome size as measured by flow cytometry, Loh-0, we found more than a two-fold increase in 5S RNA gene copies relative to Col-0; results from fluorescence in situ hybridization with 5S probes were consistent with the existence of size polymorphism between Loh-0 and Col-0 at the 5S loci. Comparative genomic hybridization
Disease resistance genes (R genes), as part of the plant defense system, have coevolved with corresponding pathogen molecules. The main objectives of this project were to identify non-Toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (nTNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary divergence across six plant genomes. Using reference sequences from Arabidopsis, we investigated nTNL orthologs in the genomes of common bean, Medicago, soybean, poplar, and rice. We used Hidden Markov Models for sequence identification, performed model-based phylogenetic analyses, visualized chromosomal positioning, inferred gene clustering, and assessed gene expression profiles. We analyzed 908 nTNL R genes in the genomes of the six plant species, and classified them into 12 subgroups based on the presence of coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding site (NBS), leucine rich repeat (LRR), resistance to Powdery mildew 8 (RPW8), and BED type zinc finger domains. Traditionally classified CC-NBS-LRR (CNL) genes
Of the many plant genes whose expressions are controlled by the circadian clock, one of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase genes in soya bean (Glycine max) exhibits the unusual property that its control is organ-specific - it is under circadian control in leaves but not in roots. Preliminary experiments suggest that the same is true for at least one gene in Arabidopsis thaliana. It will be important to define the extent and function of this phenomenon and the underlying mechanism.. ...
Understanding the evolutionary genetics of modern crop phenotypes has a dual relevance to evolutionary biology and crop improvement. Modern upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was developed following thousands of years of artificial selection from a wild form, G. hirsutum var. yucatanense, which bears a shorter, sparser, layer of single-celled, ovular trichomes (fibre). In order to gain an insight into the nature of the developmental genetic transformations that accompanied domestication and crop improvement, we studied the transcriptomes of cotton fibres from wild and domesticated accessions over a developmental time course. Fibre cells were harvested between 2 and 25 days post-anthesis and encompassed the primary and secondary wall synthesis stages. Using amplified messenger RNA and a custom microarray platform designed to interrogate expression for 40,430 genes, we determined global patterns of expression during fibre development. The fibre transcriptome of domesticated cotton is far more dynamic
Chen Xuewei,Shang Junjun,Chen Dexi,et al. a b-lectin receptor kinase gene conferring rice blast resistance[J]. Plant Journal,2006-01-01,46(5):794-804 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The First Plant Genome Sequence-Arabidopsis thaliana. AU - Feldmann, Kenneth A. AU - Goff, Stephen A. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The Arabidopsis thaliana genome was the first plant genome to be sequenced. The substrates for sequencing consisted of a minimum tiling path of BAC, P1, YAC, TAC and cosmid clones, anchored to the genetic map. Using these substrates, 10 contigs were developed from 1569 clones. Annotation at the time the sequence was finished identified 25,498 protein-coding genes. With the continued development of software trained on Arabidopsis genes, along with the availability of large numbers of ESTs and additional plant genome sequences, the number of annotated genes has increased. The final TAIR (TAIR10) genome annotation release contains 27,202 nuclear protein-coding genes, 4827 pseudogenes and transposable element genes and 1359 noncoding RNAs. Gene density (kb/gene) is 4.35, with 5.89 exons/gene, an average exon length of 296. nt and an average intron length of ...
CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS - LAB. The plant kingdom can include one celled organisms (diatoms) as well as complex organisms like angiosperms. Some plants and trees for example, have vascular tissue or well-developed conducting tissue through which water and solutes pass to various parts of the plant. Other plants are non-vascular or do not possess internal transport systems. Most non-vascular plants live in water or in wet environments that facilitate direct diffusion of water and nutrients. Vascular plants however, live on land and possess special features adapted to this environment including roots, stems and leaves. Dichotomous keys are ideal for plant classification. You can either eliminate or include plants based on several key characteristics. For instance, if it has woody tissue (bark) it is a vascular plant. Leaves, types of seed, type of flowers are also characteristics of vascular plants. However, before you can use dichotomous keys you need to describe plants. The classification of ...
Physcomitrella is also a model organism that is easily manipulated for study of how many plant genes function. Physcomitrella is to flowering plants what the fruit fly is to humans; that is, in the same way that the fly and mouse have informed animal biology, the genome of this moss will advance our exploration of plant genes and their functions and utility, said Joint Genome Institute director Eddy Rubin. Quatrano added that, unlike vascular plant systems, we can target and delete specific moss genes to study their function in important crop processes, and replace them with genes from crop plants to allow us to study the evolution of gene function. In addition to the genome, extensive genomic tools are now available in Physcomitrella to study comparative gene function and evolution as related to bioenergy and other processes of importance to crops. The availability of the Physcomitrella genome is expected to create important new opportunities for understanding the molecular mechanisms ...
Arabidopsis thaliana + , Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. + , Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) + , Arbisopsis thaliana + , mouse-ear cress + , thale cress + , thale-cress + ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ... The Brassicaceae Arabidopsis lyrata subsp. lyrata is a close relative of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana, from which is diverged around 10 million years ago. A. lyrata is an outcrossing diploid and, unlike the (generally) self-fertilising A. thaliana, has stable and spatially restricted populations or subspecies. This means that comparisons between the genomes of the closely related species could reveal the genetic basis of the invasive spread of A. thaliana and would also provide valuable data on the evolution of the A. thaliana genome.. The genome of A. lyrata subsp. lyrata is around 50% larger than A. thaliana (207 Mb and 125 Mb respectively) and is predicted to contain more protein coding genes (32,670 genes compared to 27,025 genes in A. thaliana). Analysis of their genomes suggest that reduction in genome size is the result of large-scale rearrangements and hundreds of thousands of small deletions found throughout the genome. ...
Our main interest was the identification of barley genes most similar to Arabidopsis FT and hence most likely to be significant as floral pathway integrators. The barley genes that we identified correspond to rice genes in groups 1 and 2 of Figure 2. Group 3 genes may exist in barley, but no ESTs have been found and no clones were identified in our library screens, probably because the nucleotide sequence is too diverged.. Differences in gene number between rice and barley are primarily attributable to differences in the fate of duplicated genes. HvFT1 corresponds to OsFLT2 and -3, which are likely to be a recent duplication. OsFTL9-10 and OsFLT12-13 are pairs resulting from duplications within the rice genome (Paterson et al. 2003; Salse et al. 2004), but for the former we detected only an equivalent of OsFLT10 (HvFT3) and for the latter only the equivalent of OsFLT12 (HvFT4), suggesting that two genes have been lost from barley. HvFT3 and HvFT5 are likely to derive from a more recent ...
Genetic differences between Arabidopsis thaliana accessions underlie the plants extensive phenotypic variation, and until now these have been interpreted largely in the context of the annotated reference accession Col-0. Here we report the sequencing, assembly and annotation of the genomes of 18 na …
The scientists focused on plant cysteine oxidases, or PCOs, which are plant oxygen sensors found to be a vital component of the plant oxygen signaling system that connects environmental stimulus with a cellular and physiological response. These plant enzymes were found to control hypoxia-dependent processes in plants, which includes adaptive responses to flooding. Specifically, the scientists documented how the structures of two PCOs of the Arabidopsis plant had effects of mutagenesis of key amino acids at their active site in both in vitro and in planta. To sum up, it was found that by the enzymes, the plant uses oxygen to regulate the stability of proteins that control gene activity ...
Arabidopsis thaliana has become a model plant species for genetic studies because of its small genome and short juvenility period. However, the small chromosomes of this species are not suitable for classical cytogenetic studies. Here we demonstrate that the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Scandinavian perspectives on plant gene technology. T2 - applications, policies and progress. AU - Eriksson, Dennis. AU - Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik. AU - Chawade, Aakash. AU - Holme, Inger B. AU - Hvoslef-Eide, Trine A K. AU - Ritala, Anneli. AU - Teeri, Teemu H. AU - Thorstensen, Tage. N1 - © 2017 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.. PY - 2018/2. Y1 - 2018/2. U2 - 10.1111/ppl.12661. DO - 10.1111/ppl.12661. M3 - Journal article. C2 - 29080293. VL - 162. SP - 219. EP - 238. JO - Physiologia Plantarum. JF - Physiologia Plantarum. SN - 0031-9317. IS - 2 Special Issue. ER - ...
Two adjacent nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat class genes are required to confer Pikm-specific rice blast resistance. ...
Arabidopsis annotated genes are represented by 7x7 pixel squares. The position of every gene reflects its position on the Arabidopsis chromosomes. Flower specific genes are represented in red, silique specific genes in purple, leaf specific genes in green, root specific genes in blue , callus specific genes in white, all other genes are dark grey squares. The gene squares are clickable and linked to the corresponding files in the MPSS Arabidopsis database ...
PLEXdb (Plant Expression Database) is a unified public resource for large-scale plant gene expression. PLEXdb serves as a bridge to integrate new and rapidly expanding gene expression profile data sets with traditional structural genomics and phenotypic data. Integrated portals to genetic and physical map positions, spliced alignments in PlantGDB, as well as protein pages in Gramene, GrainGenes, Legume Information System (LIS), SoyBase, MetNetDB, TIGR, and TAIR facilitates the use of whole-genome reference resources and parallel expression profiling for system-wide analysis of gene networks to facilitate crop improvement.
PLEXdb (Plant Expression Database) is a unified public resource for large-scale plant gene expression. PLEXdb serves as a bridge to integrate new and rapidly expanding gene expression profile data sets with traditional structural genomics and phenotypic data. Integrated portals to genetic and physical map positions, spliced alignments in PlantGDB, as well as protein pages in Gramene, GrainGenes, Legume Information System (LIS), SoyBase, MetNetDB, TIGR, and TAIR facilitates the use of whole-genome reference resources and parallel expression profiling for system-wide analysis of gene networks to facilitate crop improvement.
... s also appear, in some tests, to have improved the productivity of tomato plants when planted around them. Carrot ... One particular cultivar lacks the usual orange pigment due to carotene, owing its white colour to a recessive gene for ... As the plant grows, the bases of the seed leaves, near the taproot, are pushed apart. The stem, located just above the ground, ... The plant is depicted and described in the Eastern Roman Juliana Anicia Codex, a 6th-century AD Constantinopolitan copy of the ...
Typically thrips feeding alone on soybean plants does not cause economic damage, however it may if the plant is under some ... Virus Genes. 43: 289-295. doi:10.1007/s11262-011-0621-9. Smith, D.; Fritz, C.; Watson, Q.; Willis, D.; German, T.; Phibbs, A.; ... Adult thrips are then able via feeding to transmit the virus to the plant host. It is important to keep in mind with this ... Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV, previously: Soybean vein necrosis associated virus SVNaV) is a plant pathogenic virus of ...
Genes are the primary units of inheritance in all organisms. A gene is a unit of heredity and corresponds to a region of DNA ... Botany - the study of plants *Phycology - scientific study of algae.. *Plant physiology - concerned with the functioning, or ... Cells transcribe a DNA gene into an RNA version of the gene, and a ribosome then translates the RNA into a sequence of amino ... Genetics is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms.[45][46] Genes encode the information needed by ...
"Riboswitch control of gene expression in plants by splicing and alternative 3' end processing of mRNAs". The Plant Cell. 19 (11 ... "Riboswitch-dependent gene regulation and its evolution in the plant kingdom". Genes & Development. 21 (22): 2874-2879. doi: ... Riboswitch candidates are also consistently located in the 5' UTRs of protein-coding genes, and these genes are suggestive of ... Bocobza SE, Aharoni A (October 2008). "Switching the light on plant riboswitches". Trends Plant Sci. 13: 526-33. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... because flowers are genetically just an adaptation of normal leaf and stem components on plants, a combination of genes ... These gene functions are called A, B and C-gene functions. In the first floral whorl only A-genes are expressed, leading to the ... Most genes central in this model belong to the MADS-box genes and are transcription factors that regulate the expression of the ... In the third whorl, B and C genes interact to form stamens and in the center of the flower C-genes alone give rise to carpels. ...
"Riboswitch-dependent gene regulation and its evolution in the plant kingdom". Genes & Development. 21 (22): 2874-2879. doi: ... New genes and regulatory mechanisms". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (50): 48949-48959. doi:10.1074/jbc.M208965200. ... Sudarsan N, Barrick JE, Breaker RR (June 2003). "Metabolite-binding RNA domains are present in the genes of eukaryotes". RNA. 9 ... Serganov A, Polonskaia A, Phan AT, Breaker RR, Patel DJ (June 2006). "Structural basis for gene regulation by a thiamine ...
The Plant Cell. 5 (2): 145-6. doi:10.1105/tpc.5.2.145. PMC 160257. PMID 8453298. "Ophiostoma himal-ulmi" at the Encyclopedia of ... Virus Genes. 33 (1): 33-9. doi:10.1007/s11262-005-0028-6. PMID 16791416. S2CID 7774135. Stringer MA, Timberlake WE (February ...
... that repress gene expression through post-transcriptional gene silencing in land plants. Precursor transcripts from TAS loci ... TAS gene family numbers do not generally indicate orthology, e.g. the moss TAS1 gene family does not share an ancestor gene ... Initial descriptions found involvement of the plant protein suppressor of gene silencing 3 (SGS3), and the enzyme RNA-dependant ... Axtell, Michael J. (29 April 2013). "Classification and Comparison of Small RNAs from Plants". Annual Review of Plant Biology. ...
Placido A, Sieber F, Gobert A, Gallerani R, Giegé P, Maréchal-Drouard L (November 2010). "Plant mitochondria use two pathways ... Genes & Development. 17 (23): 2889-901. doi:10.1101/gad.1148603. PMC 289149. PMID 14633974. ...
The plant mir-166 microRNA precursor is a small non-coding RNA gene. This microRNA (miRNA) has now been predicted or ... Reinhart BJ, Weinstein EG, Rhoades MW, Bartel B, Bartel DP (July 2002). "MicroRNAs in plants". Genes & Development. 16 (13): ... "miRNA gene family: MIR166". mirBASE. University of Manchester. Retrieved 5 September 2011. Ambros V (December 2001). "microRNAs ... experimentally confirmed in a wide range of plant species. microRNAs are transcribed as ~70 nucleotide precursors and ...
Reinhart BJ, Weinstein EG, Rhoades MW, Bartel B, Bartel DP (July 2002). "MicroRNAs in plants". Genes & Development. 16 (13): ... In plants the precursor sequences may be longer, and the carpel factory (caf) enzyme appears to be involved in processing. In ... MicroRNA (miRNA) precursor miR156 is a family of plant non-coding RNA. This microRNA has now been predicted or experimentally ... The Plant Cell. 24 (8): 3320-32. doi:10.1105/tpc.112.101014. PMC 3462634. PMID 22942378. Page for mir-156 microRNA precursor at ...
Also see DNA damage theory of aging.) Ku70 and Ku80 have also been experimentally characterized in plants, where they appear to ... Genes & Development. 26 (15): 1703-13. doi:10.1101/gad.194944.112. PMC 3418588. PMID 22810623. Valuchova S, Fulnecek J, Prokop ... A substantial difference is that in plants, Ku is also involved in maintaining an alternate telomere morphology characterized ... The Plant Cell. 29 (6): 1533-1545. doi:10.1105/tpc.17.00064. PMC 5502450. PMID 28584163. Dynan, W. S.; Yoo, S. (1998). " ...
This states that only one working allele of a tumour suppressor gene is necessary for its function (the mutated gene is ... De Veylder L, Joubès J, Inzé D (December 2003). "Plant cell cycle transitions". Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 6 (6): 536-43 ... It has been shown that E2F stimulates expression of pro-apoptotic genes in addition to G1/S transition genes, however, cancer ... Some genes activated during the G1/S transition such as cyclin E are repressed by HDAC during early to mid-G1 phase. This ...
p53 activation has also been implicated as a necessary mechanism for the development of TNTs, as the downstream genes up- ... Plasmodesmata have been identified as functional channels interconnecting plant cells, and stromules interconnect plastids. ... Genes & Development. 19 (2): 189-95. doi:10.1101/gad.1271005. PMID 15655108. Köhler RH, Cao J, Zipfel WR, Webb WW, Hanson MR ( ... June 1997). "Exchange of protein molecules through connections between higher plant plastids". Science. 276 (5321): 2039-42. ...
Notable publications of Briggs include Movement of Water in Plants. The standard author abbreviation G.E.Briggs is used to ... Chen, W. W.; Niepel, M.; Sorger, P. K. (2010). "Classic and contemporary approaches to modeling biochemical reactions". Genes ... Briggs, G. E. "Movement Of Water In Plants.." Science, vol 157, no. 3794, 1967, pp. 1297-1298. American Association For The ...
"Evolution and Diversity of Plant Cell Walls: From Algae to Flowering Plants" (PDF). Annual Review of Plant Biology. 62: 567-590 ... Arabidopsis thailana contain callose synthase genes that encode a catalytic subunit of B-1,3-glucan. Gain of function mutants ... Aaziz, R.; Dinant, S.; Epel, B. L. (1 July 2001). "Plasmodesmata and plant cytoskeleton". Trends in Plant Science. 6 (7): 326- ... Unlike animal cells, almost every plant cell is surrounded by a polysaccharide cell wall. Neighbouring plant cells are ...
Gene, Trends in Genetics,The Plant Cell, Annual Review of Plant Biology, Planta, Plant Physiology, Journal of Cell Science, The ... "The maize golden2 gene defines a novel class of transcriptional regulators in plants". The Plant Cell. 13 (5): 1231-44. doi: ... Langdale, J. A.; Malcolm, A. D. B. (1985). "A rapid method of gene detection using DNA bound to Sephacryl". Gene. 36 (3): 201- ... She is Professor of Plant Development in the Department of Plant Sciences at the University of Oxford and a Professorial Fellow ...
... plants are engineered to help discover the functions of certain genes. The simplest way to do this is to remove the gene and ... Some genes are only expressed in certain tissues, so reporter genes, like GUS, can be attached to the gene of interest allowing ... Gene therapy uses genetically modified viruses to deliver genes which can cure disease in humans. Although gene therapy is ... known as a gene drive). This approach has been taken further by using the gene drive to spread a lethal gene. In trials the ...
... but many plant immune responses involve systemic chemical signals that are sent through a plant. Individual plant cells respond ... but the T-cell expresses the gene CYP27B1, which is the gene responsible for converting the pre-hormone version of vitamin D, ... When a part of a plant becomes infected, the plant produces a localized hypersensitive response, whereby cells at the site of ... Systemic acquired resistance is a type of defensive response used by plants that renders the entire plant resistant to a ...
Chem->Sink 3-methylcyclopropene Chow B, McCourt P (2006). "Plant hormone receptors: perception is everything". Genes Dev. 20 ( ... "Compounds interacting with the ethylene receptor in plants". Plant Biol. 5 (5): 473-80. doi:10.1055/s-2003-44782. 1- ... Ethylene as a plant hormone Methylenecyclopropane, an isomer Daly James and Kourelis Bob, January 25, 2000. Synthesis methods, ... It is structurally related to the natural plant hormone ethylene and it is used commercially to slow down the ripening of fruit ...
Thummel CS, Chory J (December 2002). "Steroid signaling in plants and insects--common themes, different pathways". Genes & ... For uses in gene therapy, it may be necessary to investigate more thoroughly the natural sources of ecdysteroids in humans ( ... Adding or removing ecdysteroids from the animal's diet then gives a convenient way to turn the inserted gene on or off (see ... In humans, it is hypothesized to bind to the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) protein-coding gene. The primary sources of 20- ...
Some have most or all of the large leaves in a rosette at the base of the plant and produce a flowering stem that has leaves ... Subsequent to this, sunflower species are also experiencing the bottle neck effect in their gene pool as a result of selective ... Sunflowers are usually planted in the extreme southern or northern regions of the country. Frequently, in the southern regions ... Sunflowers are usually tall annual or perennial plants that in some species can grow to a height of 300 cm (120 in) or more. ...
"Introns act post-transcriptionally to increase expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana tryptophan pathway gene PAT1". The Plant ... Callis, J.; Fromm, M.; Walbot, V. (1987-12-01). "Introns increase gene expression in cultured maize cells". Genes & Development ... "Promoter-Proximal Introns in Arabidopsis thaliana Are Enriched in Dispersed Signals that Elevate Gene Expression". The Plant ... "A long leader intron of the Ostub16 rice β-tubulin gene is required for high-level gene expression and can autonomously promote ...
... (ClGMCNV) is a bipartite Begomovirus isolated from flowering plants in the Clerodendrum ... Virus Genes. 41 (2): 250-9. doi:10.1007/s11262-010-0493-4. PMID 20532974. S2CID 22976143. Valverde, R.A.; Singh, R.; ... The virus causes yellow mosaic disease in various plant species, including Nicotiana, Petunia, Solanum, and Capsicum species. ... European Journal of Plant Pathology. 133 (3): 499-503. doi:10.1007/s10658-011-9923-y. S2CID 15008338. v t e. ...
The reverse experiment, in which short sequences of plant genes were introduced into viruses, showed that the targeted gene was ... of Arabidopsis was shown to be involved in the regulation of several genes that control plant shape. In plants, the majority of ... it was known that induced gene silencing in plants could spread throughout the plant in a systemic effect and could be ... Lucy AP, Guo HS, Li WX, Ding SW (April 2000). "Suppression of post-transcriptional gene silencing by a plant viral protein ...
"Plant control genes." U.S. Patent 6,887,708, issued 3 May 2005. Coupland, George, and Joanna Putterill. "Genetic control of ... In 2017, Putterill was appointed director for Joint Graduate School in Plant and Food Science, a collaboration with Plant and ... "The CONSTANS gene of Arabidopsis promotes flowering and encodes a protein showing similarities to zinc finger transcription ... "Red colouration in apple fruit is due to the activity of the MYB transcription factor, MdMYB10." The Plant Journal 49, no. 3 ( ...
In higher eukaryotes Atg8 is not encoded by a single gene as in yeast, but derived from a multigene family. Four of its ... Suzuki NN, Yoshimoto K, Fujioka Y, Ohsumi Y, Inagaki F (July 2005). "The crystal structure of plant ATG12 and its biological ... genes known so far, including ATG8. How exactly ATG proteins are regulated is still under investigation, but it is clear that ... Genes to Cells. 9 (7): 611-8. doi:10.1111/j.1356-9597.2004.00750.x. PMID 15265004. Geng J, Klionsky DJ (September 2008). "The ...
... transpositions and many gene losses". Journal of Plant Research. 120 (2): 281-90. doi:10.1007/s10265-006-0055-y. PMID 17297557 ... gene content, polymorphism, and structural arrangement relative to other green plant chloroplast genomes". BMC Genomics. 11: ... "Complete plastid genome sequences suggest strong selection for retention of photosynthetic genes in the parasitic plant genus ... chloroplast genome with a comparative analysis of sequences among 9 dicot plants". Genes & Genetic Systems. 81 (5): 311-21. doi ...
Plant hybrids often suffer from an autoimmune syndrome known as hybrid necrosis. In the hybrids, specific gene products ... In general, all these genes have functions in the transcriptional regulation of other genes. The Nup96 gene is another example ... the expression of the genes that allow the growth of the hybrid. There will also be regulator genes. A number of these genes ... In at least one case, a pathogen receptor, encoded by the most variable gene family in plants, was identified as being ...
"The Bo-Cu Plant"". History of Anthropology Newsletter. XXIV (1): 3-10.. ... Gene Weltfish. This pamphlet was intended for American troops and set forth, in simple language with cartoon illustrations, the ...
"Mean" Gene Kelton, singer-songwriter, blues musician, and band leader of Mean Gene Kelton & The Die Hards ... The plant was officially closed in July 1986, due to a poor economic climate and the decline of American steel in the 1980s. ... Exxon-Mobil is still one of the major employers in the city and now runs over 10 plants in the area including a newly announced ... The Cedar Bayou plant, in operation since 1963, is Chevron Phillips Chemical's largest manufacturing site in the United States. ...
Virgaviridae: a new Familie of rod-shaped plant viruses. . In: Arch Virol. . 154, Nr. 12, 2009, S. 1967-72. doi:10.1007/s00705- ... Familie Geminiviridae (ssDNA(+/-): die einzelnen Gene haben unterschiedliche Polarität). *Genus Becurtovirus. *Genus ...
The study has uncovered toxin genes and other genes that may be responsible for the virulence of the fungus. In the long term ... "European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2012.. *^ a b "Den senaste om ... Young and newly planted trees with the disease would be destroyed; however, mature trees would not be removed because of the ... "European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. March 2012. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012. Retrieved 29 ...
Jannink, J; Bink, Mc; Jansen, Rc (August 2001). "Using complex plant pedigrees to map valuable genes". Trends in Plant Science ... It may indicate that plant height is controlled by many genes of small effect, or by a few genes of large effect. ... Several genes factor into determining a person's natural skin color, so modifying only one of those genes can change skin color ... The DNA sequence of any genes in this region can then be compared to a database of DNA for genes whose function is already ...
... which may be replaced with fresh grass and other non-toxic plants during summertime. Traditional rabbit pellets may be too high ... Registered rabbits are maintained in an official gene bank registry.[3] 4 week old Gotland rabbits ...
The plants are also available later in the season, as young plants or plugs. They are grown up canes, with the new shoots being ... the blue colour requiring two genes derived independently from the two white parents.[9] ... The sweet pea plant does suffer from some pests, the most common being aphids. These insects suck the sap out of the plants, ... Because of this, growers are encouraged to plant sweet peas away from fruit trees among other plants prone to early dieback or ...
... encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-strand mRNAs, which are then ... Of 24 plant and 19 vertebrate species experimentally inoculated with EBOV, only bats became infected.[86] The bats displayed no ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes.[46] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... Plants, arthropods, rodents, and birds have also been considered possible viral reservoirs.[1][29] ...
"American Society of Plant Biologists Annual Meeting. p. 628.. *^ a b c "Production/Crops, Quantities by Country for ... "Toward Identification of the Candidate Gene Controlling Anthocyanin Accumulation in Purple Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. ... water-soluble pigments that are found in many other plants and plant-based products, such as red cabbage and red wine.[18] ... In the 1st century AD, Pliny included what he called cyma among his descriptions of cultivated plants in Natural History: "Ex ...
... plant matter, while laying females ate 71.9% animal matter and only 28.1% plant matter.[66] Plants generally make up the larger ... The wild mallard is the ancestor of most domestic ducks, and its naturally evolved wild gene pool gets genetically polluted by ... The mallard usually feeds by dabbling for plant food or grazing; there are reports of it eating frogs.[69] However, in 2017 a ... Due to the variability of the mallard's genetic code, which gives it its vast interbreeding capability, mutations in the genes ...
In general, their actual diet in the wild is about 95% plant-based, with the remaining 5% filled with insects, eggs, and baby ... "Chimps, Humans 96 Percent the Same, Gene Study Finds". Retrieved 23 December 2013 ... During the Paleolithic, hominins grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and ... Men may have participated in gathering plants, firewood and insects, and women may have procured small game animals for ...
The 154 kb chloroplast DNA map of a model flowering plant (Arabidopsis thaliana: Brassicaceae) showing genes and inverted ... Gene content and protein synthesisEdit. The chloroplast genome most commonly includes around 100 genes[7][10] which code for a ... Wakasugi T, Sugita M, Tsudzuki T, Sugiura M (1998). "Updated gene map of tobacco chloroplast DNA". Plant Molecular Biology ... 3 Gene content and protein synthesis *3.1 Chloroplast genome reduction and gene transfer ...
These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ... Numerous other plant-derived therapies have demonstrated positive effects against acne (e.g., basil oil and oligosaccharides ... Genes[edit]. Acne appears to be strongly inherited; genetics explain 81% of the variation in the population.[15] Studies ... among others.[19] The 308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphism variation in the gene for TNF is associated with an increased risk ...
In recognition of their major contributions to plant physiology including fundamental studies on insectivorous plants, much of ... In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the theory of natural selection, the concept of its gene complex and the ... For his research on the population biology and evolution of plants which has greatly improved understanding of the adaptation ... For his work on extended oceanographical expeditions; and for his genetic studies in animals and plants. ...
Two genes, LAC12 and LAC4, allow K. marxianus to absorb and use lactose as a carbon source.[5] This species is considered to be ... It is also a naturally occurring colonist of plants, including corn.[8] ... Using 18S rRNA gene sequencing, it was suggested that K. marxianus, K. aestuarii, K. dobzhanskii, K. lactic, K. wickerhamii, K ... marxianus possesses the necessary genes to be crabtree positive.[5] K. marxianus is highly thermotolerant and able to withstand ...
Some genes may have two alleles with equal distribution. For other genes, one allele may be common, and another allele may be ... for the recessive allele producing white flowers in pea plants). The genotype of an organism that is homozygous-recessive for a ... Hemizygosity is also observed when one copy of a gene is deleted, or in the heterogametic sex when a gene is located on a sex ... A cell is said to be homozygous for a particular gene when identical alleles of the gene are present on both homologous ...
For example, Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen, Brucella abortus is an animal pathogen, and Sinorhizobium meliloti ... The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes.[7] The genome ... These five proteins directly control the timing of expression of over 200 genes. The five master regulatory proteins are ... and the breakdown of plant-derived carbon sources, in addition to many extracytoplasmic function sigma factors, providing the ...
"DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes. 15 (4): 173-183. doi:10.1093/ ... oryzae is a harmful pathogen to either plants or animals in the scientific literature.[19] Therefore, Health Canada considers A ...
Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, ... Many modern molecular tests such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, gene ... Prehistoric medicine incorporated plants (herbalism), animal parts, and minerals. In many cases these materials were used ... Genetics is the study of genes, and their role in biological inheritance. ...
... edible plants ever created.[20] Tobacco osmotic genes overexpressed in tomatoes produced plants that held a higher water ... where transgenic plants must be created to prove that a gene has been successfully isolated.[44] The plant peptide hormone, ... "Evaluation of transgenic tomato plants ectopically expressing the rice Osmyb4 gene". Plant Science. 173 (2): 231-239. doi: ... by adding antisense genes to silence the native gene or by adding extra copies of the native gene.[45][46] ...
Stinson RA, Spencer MS (1969). "Beta alanine aminotransferase (s) from a plant source". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 34 (1): ...
The genome contains 513 genes, 465 of which code for protein. Thirty genes are considered "plastid" genes, coding for plastid ... "The Origin and Establishment of the Plastid in Algae and Plants". Annual Review of Genetics. 41 (1): 147-68. doi:10.1146/ ... The B. natans genome contains 293 genes that code for proteins as compared to the 465 genes in G. theta. B. natans also only ... The G. theta sequence gave insight as to what genes were retained in nucleomorphs. Most of the genes that moved to the host ...
According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... how new alternative spliced isoforms of genes arise, how gene scrambling in ciliates evolved, and how pervasive pan-RNA editing ... If this decay results in a situation where all of the genes are now required, the organism has been trapped in a new state ...
Crosses generally fail between members of different gene pools. However, plant growth regulators and/or embryo rescue allows ... According to their inter-crossability Lens species can be divided into three gene pools: *Primary gene pool: L. culinaris (and ... The plant densities for lentils vary between genotypes, seed size, planting time and growing conditions and also from region to ... In West Asia and North Africa, some lentils are planted as a winter crop before snowfall. Plant growth occurs during the time ...
Scott F. Gilbert; with a chapter on plant development by Susan R. Singer (2000). Scott F. Gilbert, ed. Developmental Biology ( ... In males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the ... "Recruitment of the androgen receptor via serum response factor facilitates expression of a myogenic gene". The Journal of ...
Soil: Type of soil the plant prefers.. *Water: It can indicate "keep the soil lightly damp", "bottom water the plant", "drench ... The use of old varieties maintains diversity in the horticultural gene pool. It may be more appropriate for amateur gardeners ... Common plant name and the botanical name (in parentheses).. *Spacing and depth: How deep to place the seeds in the soil, space ... Planting, germination and harvest period: This information can be indicated by months or quarters of the year. ...
Darwin, Charles (1868). The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication. Volume 1 (1st ed.). London: John Murray. pp. ... DNA analysis consistently shows that all existing red wolves carry coyote genes. This has caused a problem for Canid taxonomy, ... In The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication Charles Darwin wrote: ... Kopaliani, N.; Shakarashvili, M.; Gurielidze, Z.; Qurkhuli, T.; Tarkhnishvili, D. (2014). "Gene Flow between Wolf and Shepherd ...
The popcorn remains free to donate its genes via its own pollen to other types of corn. The effectiveness of this restriction ... Ken Roseboro (August 28, 2014). "Plant breeder works to save organic corn from GMO contamination". Non GMO report. "What is the ... of the plants in a corn field is called "mid-silk". The silk lengthens from the basal ovules during the 10 to 14 days previous ... thereby preventing the ingression of genes (natural or engineered) from other types of corn. ...
First plant genome sequenced, Dec 2000.[9] Plant, Genlisea margaretae 6.34×107 Smallest recorded flowering plant genome, 2006.[ ... 1976). "Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature. 260 ... Plant Biology. 8: 770-777. *↑ The C. elegans sequencing consortium (1998). "Genome sequence of the nematode C. elegans: a ... They include animals, archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes, fungi, algae, plants, plastomes, and protists. Readers must look in the ...
a b David Lorenzen (2004), The Hindu World (Editors: Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby), Routledge, ISBN 0-415-21527-7, pp. 208-09 ... Matthew Hall (2011). Plants as Persons: A Philosophical Botany. State University of New York Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-4384-3430 ... The structure of the souls of plants, animals, and humans, according to Aristotle, with Bios, Zoê, and Psūchê ... In Jainism, every living being, from plant or bacterium to human, has a soul and the concept forms the very basis of Jainism. ...
Mendelian Genes Define the Commitment to Flowering- Understanding Plant Genes-The Cauliflower Gene-The "fruit-full" gene. A ... Understanding Plant Genes. Photos: (1) phenotype of the APETALA1 CAULIFLOWER double mutant. (A) phenotype of the APETALA1 ... Caption: Genes control Flowering Development in Plants: ...
The present review gives an overview of recombinant plant protein production methods using bacteria, yeast, insect cells, and , ... This technology is widely used for large-scale purification of plant proteins from microorganisms for biochemical and ... Heterologous expression allows the production of plant proteins in an organism which is simpler than the natural source. ... Heterelogous Expression of Plant Genes,. International Journal of Plant Genomics,. vol. 2009. ,. Article ID 296482. ,. 16. ...
A sea slug that gains the ability to turn sunlight into energy from the algae it eats is arguably the first functional plant- ... Solar-powered sea slug harnesses stolen plant genes. Video: Watch a sea slug eat algae to nab some of its chloroplasts, and the ... Gene theft. In their latest experiments, Rumpho and colleagues sequenced the chloroplast genes of Vaucheria litorea, the alga ... Other animals are able to harness sunlight after eating plants, says Rumpho, but this is only because they acquire entire plant ...
... has uncovered the first ever evidence of nuclear gene ... Using large-scale gene analysis, they combed 17,000 genes of ... One gene, ShContig9483, exhibited high similarity to genes in sorghum and rice, yet no relation to genes from Striga ... The discovery, reported in Science this week, hints at a greater role for horizontal gene transfer in plant evolution.. ... The discovery, reported in Science this week, hints at a greater role for horizontal gene transfer in plant evolution. ...
Characterization of Plant Architectural Genes in Maize for Increased Productivity * Conserved Genes and Signaling Networks that ... The Plant Gene Expression Center is located in Albany, CA and is part of the Pacific West Area.. The Center Director is Sarah ... USDA-ARS, PLANT GENE EXP. CTR. 800 BUCHANAN STREET. Albany, CA 94710. ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
2 Genes Better Than 1 For Important Plant Pest. by Sam Savage ... also use pili to infect plants is that it has duplicated a gene ... It is also a problem in wild plants and one Pseudomonas syringae type has recently infected half of all chestnut trees in the ... What we have found here is that the two-gene system in Pseudomonas syringae is an evolutionary innovation that had not been ... have revealed how two genes in the bacteria work together to launch the infection process that ultimately kills the plants ...
Plant Physiol. 1997 Mar;113(3):1003-5. Directory
Trends Plant Sci. 2004 Oct;9(10):490-8. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Review ... Trends Plant Sci. 2004 Oct;9(10):490-8.. Reactive oxygen gene network of plants.. Mittler R1, Vanderauwera S, Gollery M, Van ...
... publishes papers that focus on the regulation, expression,... ... Plant Gene is a companion title to Geneand a member of the Gene Family. ... Plant Gene is a companion title to Geneand a member of the Gene Family. Plant Gene publishes papers that focus on the ... Plant Gene is a companion title to Geneand a member of the Gene Family. Plant Gene publishes papers that focus on the ...
Such genes contain (a) a promoter region derived a gene which is expressed in plant cells, such as the nop ... This invention relates to chimeric genes which are capable of being expressed in plant cells. ... 1. A chimeric plant-expressible gene, said gene comprising in the 5 to 3 direction: (a) a promoter region derived from a gene ... Such genes contain (a) a promoter region derived a gene which is expressed in plant cells, such as the nopaline synthase gene ...
Gene Sequencing. We extracted DNA from silica gel-dried leaves by using Qiagen (Valencia, CA) Plant DNeasy mini kits. ... Although horizontal gene transfer is well documented in microbial genomes, no case has been reported in higher plants. We ... Horizontal gene transfer from flowering plants to Gnetum. Hyosig Won and Susanne S. Renner ... Horizontal gene transfer is the basis for the genetic engineering of commercially important crops, and natural horizontal gene ...
... in Genome Biology that means an advance in the knowledge of epigenetic regulation by means of Polycomb-group proteins in plants ... How gene silencing works in plants This scientific advance could have biotechnological applications in the future as the ... Gene silencing controlled by marks in the chromatin occurs in both animals and plants. The PcG complexes were first ... "When a seed is created, a great number of its genes are silenced until the plant is adult and needs their activity", explains ...
... a discovery that could reduce the amount of water required for growing plants and help plants survive and thrive in adverse ... Purdue University researchers have found a genetic mutation that allows a plant to better endure drought without losing biomass ... Gene helps plants use less water without biomass loss. January 11, 2011 ... Analysis showed that the plant, which has a mutant form of the gene GTL1, did not reduce carbon dioxide intake but did have a ...
... and growing a hybrid plant from the hybrid seed. Plant cells, plant tissues, plant seed and whole plants containing the above ... Also a method for making a genetically modified hybrid plant by hybridizing a first plant regenerated from a plant cell that ... a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant ... to a second plant regenerated from a second plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a second gene ...
Gene finds could give us all the four-leaf clovers we want, as well as other rare coloured and patterned varieties, and new ... has found that four-leaf mutants develop with a variant of this gene that removes the block. They also identified genes for a ... A gene that controls whether clover develops into the common variety with three leaves or the sought-after four-leaf type has ... Previous work had suggested that the white clovers ancestors had had four or more leaves before it evolved a gene that blocks ...
Plant imprinted genes show parent-of-origin expression in seed endosperm, but little is known about the nature of parental ... Epigenetic asymmetry of imprinted genes in plant gametes Nat Genet. 2006 Aug;38(8):876-8. doi: 10.1038/ng1828. Epub 2006 Jul 2 ... Plant imprinted genes show parent-of-origin expression in seed endosperm, but little is known about the nature of parental ... Thus, plants seem to have developed similar strategies as mammals to epigenetically mark imprinted genes. ...
... a mustard-like plant that is a model for studying plant biology. The achievement paves the way to developing better varieties ... A team of University of California, Riverside researchers has identified all the genes expressed in the stem cells of ... in both plants and animals--give rise to specialized cells at all. Full Story ... of crops and plants. Besides revealing the molecular pathways that stem cells employ, the discovery also can help scientists ...
... has found that by transferring certain rat genes into lettuce, he can turn on the plants latent Vitamin-C-producing pathway. ... head of plant physiology, pathology, and weed science at Virginia Tech, ... Rat genes increase Vitamin C in plants. Virginia Tech. Funder. National Science Foundation, US Department of Agriculture. ... "We realize that a plant altered by a rat gene wouldnt appeal to consumers," he says. He and his colleagues are using what ...
... natural selection primarily operates on genes passed down from one generation to the next. This paradigm has been challenged, ... In plants and animals, natural selection primarily operates on genes passed down from one generation to the next. This paradigm ... these results show that certain plants are capable of adapting relatively quickly to environmental change by using the genes of ... contains nearly 60 genes acquired from at least nine donor grasses species. Some of these transferred genes code for enzymes ...
Unlike R2R3 MYB genes, which have been shown to upregulate the ABP, R3 MYB genes seem to downregulate the expression of genes ... 1999 Molecular analysis of the anthocyanin2 gene of petunia and its role in the evolution of flower color. Plant Cell 11: 1433- ... Pollinator isolation, a common prezygotic isolating barrier in flowering plants, reduces gene flow between populations because ... R3 MYB proteins, for instance, are known to control plant trichome and root-hair development in certain plants (e.g., Tominaga- ...
Researchers discover how plants respond to changes in light at the molecular level. Plants dont have eyes, but they do "see" ... An Iowa State University agronomist is charting mechanisms - gene by gene - that could lead to soybean varieties resistant to ... Crop gene discovery gets to the root of food security. Researchers from The University of Queensland have discovered that a key ... gene which controls flowering time in wheat and barley crops also directs the plants root growth. ...
... hair-like outgrowth on plants , plant cell , plant cell growth , plant cells grow , plant science research , trichome cells , ... plant cell »plant cell growth »plant cells grow »plant science research »trichome cells »young trichomes ... Gene controlling plant cell growth discovered 07.09.2009. Understanding how plant cells grow and develop is essential to ... With their latest discovery, published in the journal The Plant Cell, research teams at the RIKEN Plant Science Center have ...
A variety of poppy that produces high amounts of an alkaloid opiate requires a cluster of genes that encode key biosynthetic ... A variety of poppy that produces high amounts of an alkaloid opiate requires a cluster of genes that encode key biosynthetic ...
The activation of plant defensive genes in leaves of tomato plants in response to herbivore damage or mechanical wounding is ... Polypeptide signaling for plant defensive genes exhibits analogies to defense signaling in animals. D R Bergey, G A Howe, and C ... Polypeptide signaling for plant defensive genes exhibits analogies to defense signaling in animals ... Polypeptide signaling for plant defensive genes exhibits analogies to defense signaling in animals ...
Crops obtained by plant breeding technique mutagenesis should fall under laws restricting the use of genetically modified ... Gene editing has the potential to make hardier and more nutritious crops - as well as offering drug companies new ways to fight ... While older GMO technology typically adds new DNA to a crop or animal, gene editing can swiftly cause a mutation by changing a ... The biotech industry had argued that much of mutagenesis, or gene editing, is effectively little different to the mutagenesis ...
Scientists have identified a gene that enables wheat crops to fight off stem rust, a dreaded fungus that blights wheat fields ... Scientists have identified a gene that enables wheat crops to fight off stem rust, a dreaded fungus that blights wheat fields ... CNL9, or Sr35 as it may now be called, is part of a large family of disease resistance genes in plants. These act somewhat like ... Plant scientists aim to fight back with genes that confer resistance to Ug99. In 1984 Australian scientists identified a strain ...
... Stan D. Wullschleger and Stephen P. Difazio ... Stan D. Wullschleger and Stephen P. Difazio, "Emerging Use of Gene Expression Microarrays in Plant Physiology," Comparative and ...
... plant,tells,big,stories,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology ... Understanding which genes control traits like when a plant will flowe...An international collaboration of researchers including ... Little plant tells big stories. ...Understanding which genes control traits like when a plant will flowe...An international ... Understanding which genes control traits, like when a plant will flower, what soil type is best or its ability to persist in ...
  • This study was carried out using the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, but the experts assure that the findings can be extrapolated to other plants, which would mean future biotechnological applications for physiological improvement and development of plants. (
  • and Chal Yul Yoo, a horticulture graduate student, found that a genetic mutation in the research plant Arabidopsis thaliana reduces the number of stomata. (
  • The plant had the same biomass as a wild type of Arabidopsis when its shoot dry weight was measured. (
  • A team of University of California, Riverside researchers has identified all the genes expressed in the stem cells of Arabidopsis , a mustard-like plant that is a model for studying plant biology. (
  • An international collaboration of researchers, including biologists at the University of Utah (the U), compared genetic data from 19 different strains of a humble plant called Arabidopsis thaliana . (
  • Arabidopsis thaliana is widely used by the international community and has provided a wealth of knowledge about plant biology," says Richard Clark, University of Utah biologist and one of the authors of this multi-national project. (
  • Arabidopsis is a small flowering plant native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, and is to plant research as mice and fruit flies are to understanding the molecular nature of animals. (
  • We have studied diversity in Arabidopsis lyrata of sequences orthologous to the ARK3 gene of A. thaliana . (
  • Bandupriya HDD, Gibbings JG, Dunwell JM (2014) Overexpression of coconut AINTEGUMENTA - like gene, CnANT , promotes in vitro regeneration in transgenic Arabidopsis . (
  • Feng JX, Liu D, Pan Y, Gong W, Ma LG, Luo JC, Deng XW, Zhu YX (2005) An annotation update via cDNA sequence analysis and comprehensive profiling of developmental, hormonal or environmental responsiveness of the Arabidopsis AP2/EREBP transcription factor gene family. (
  • after touching, the arabidopsis plant, barometer colleagues called touch genes. (
  • Thale cress (Arabidopsis halleri) can store heavy metals in its plant cells and thus render them harmless. (
  • To identify the gene, the team worked with the Arabidopsis weed-a plant widely used in research laboratories and one of the few whose DNA has been so thoroughly studied that scientists know the order, or sequence, of essentially all its component nucleotide compounds, which make up the plant's genome. (
  • In the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana , differentiated nuclei are common and thus provide a good system to study this highly dynamic process. (
  • Genomes from Arabidopsis , common bean, poplar and soybean had one chromosome without any CNL R genes. (
  • Medicago and Arabidopsis had the highest and lowest number of gene clusters, respectively. (
  • Experiments on thale cress (Arabidopsis thaliana) and the wild tobacco plant Nicotiana benthamiana proved that the approach works. (
  • To investigate this, the researchers used the 'signature' of the avenacin genes to scan the genome of the model plant Arabidopsis. (
  • The thalianol gene cluster consists of four genes next to each other in the Arabidopsis genome. (
  • Although the oat, maize, rice and this new Arabidopsis gene clusters make related products, they have been assembled independently of each other as a result of relatively recent evolutionary events. (
  • Two maize genes with predicted translational similarity to the Arabidopsis FIE (Fertilization-Independent Endosperm) protein, a repressor of endosperm development in the absence of fertilization, were cloned and analyzed. (
  • fie2 is likely to be a functional ortholog of the Arabidopsis FIE gene, whereas fie1 has evolved a distinct function. (
  • The scientists, whose findings were published on 22 May in The Plant Journal, modified Arabidopsis thaliana , a relative of mustard that is often used in research on plant genetics. (
  • The genetically modified (GM) Arabidopsis plants produced more seeds under low boron conditions than non-GM plants and were twice as heavy. (
  • While gene drive technology has been developed in insects to help stop the spread of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, researchers in Professor Yunde Zhao's lab, along with colleagues at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, demonstrated the successful design of a CRISPR-Cas9-based gene drive that cuts and copies genetic elements in Arabidopsis plants. (
  • 2021) Selective inheritance of target genes from only one parent of sexually reproduced F1 progeny in Arabidopsis. (
  • We have analyzed promoters of genes encoding cytosolic seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS), cytosolic aspartyl-tRNA synthetase (AspRS) and cytosolic cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CysRS) in Arabidopsis thaliana L., and examined SerRS, AspRS and CysRS gene expression in the seedlings exposed to different abiotic stressors. (
  • Gene Expression Browser for Arabidopsis includes the data in 2435 ATH1 chips from 142 independent experiments. (
  • The MSU researchers found that the gene bZIP28 helps regulate heat stress response in Arabidopsis thaliana , a member of the mustard family used as a model plant for genetic studies. (
  • Weiberg and coworkers now report that small RNAs (sRNAs) from a fungal pathogen of plants act as effectors to block the immune systems of Arabidopsis and tomato. (
  • To determine the effect of Bc-sRNAs on host plant immunity directly, the researchers constructed transgenic Arabidopsis lines that ectopically expressed the three sRNAs (Bc-siR3.1, Bc-siR3.2 or Bc-siR5). (
  • To investigate the impact of overexpression of heterologous SUS on the growth and development of Arabidopsis, we transformed Arabidopsis plants with an overexpression vector containing an aspen SUS gene (PtrSUS1). (
  • PtrSUS1 expression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was confirmed by RT-PCR. (
  • Taken together, these results showed that the early flowering, faster growth and increased tolerance to higher sucrose in transgenic lines were caused by the genome integration and constitutive expression of the aspen PtrSUS1 gene in transgenic Arabidopsis. (
  • The Wisconsin scientists discovered the gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, a small plant used worldwide to study plant genetics, physiology and molecular biology. (
  • Arabidopsis plants typically flower quickly when days have 12 hours of light or more but take a long time to begin flowering when the day length is eight hours. (
  • genes) results in loss of transformation proficiency of Arabidopsis (rat, resistance to Agrobacterium transformation, phenotype). (
  • Although the plant they studied is the Arabidopsis thaliana , related to cabbage and mustard, ethylene functions as a key hormone in all plants, he adds. (
  • The researchers looked at what happens in Arabidopsis after ethylene gas causes activation of EIN3, a master transcription factor-a protein that controls gene expression-that Ecker had discovered and cloned in 1997. (
  • Using a technique known as ChIP-Seq, the researchers exposed Arabidopsis to ethylene and identified all the regions of the plant genome that bound to EIN3, which required using next-generation sequencing. (
  • The newly-discovered gene, which encodes a 448 amino acid protein with unknown function, occurs alongside nuclear genes in the Striga hermonthica genome, thus presenting the first clear case for nuclear HGT. (
  • 1978) "Expression of a DNA Animal Virus Genome in a Plant Cell," FEBS Letters 96(2):295-297. (
  • 1983) "Multiple Viral Specific Transcripts from the Genome of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus," Proceedings of the Miami Winter Symposium, Jan. 1983, published in Advances in Gene Technology: Molecular Genetics of Plants and Animals (Ahmad et al. (
  • Scientists like Zhou, Romero-Campero and their collaborators researched the localisation of these modifications of the genome in wild and mutant plants to determine if this sequence happened, but they found that it did not. (
  • The researchers found that in stably transformed HeLa cells, the integration event occurred at the right border of the Ti plasmid's T-DNA, exactly as would happen when it is being transferred into a plant cell genome. (
  • Published in the 18 February 2019 edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , the study reveals that the genome of Alloteropsis semialata , a grass found in Australia, contains nearly 60 genes acquired from at least nine donor grasses species. (
  • By examining the genome more and more finely, they were able to narrow their sights to a short stretch of DNA, which they sequenced and found to contain just four genes. (
  • The genome sequences of these strains, 18 of which are presented in the study, will now make it easier to study plants' surprisingly wide trait variation that underlies their adaptability. (
  • By comparing genetic information from multiple strains, we can now understand how genome differences between strains enable plants to adapt to different climates and situations. (
  • It has one of the smaller genomes among plants, thus facilitating genome sequencing studies, and was the first plant genome to be fully sequenced in 2001. (
  • In A. thaliana , the single-copy ARK3 gene is closely linked to the non-functional copies of the self-incompatibility loci, and the ortholog in A. lyrata (a self-incompatible species) is in the homologous genome region and is known as Aly8 . (
  • We found striking differences at specific sites in the genome between plants from locations with and without heavy metals,' said Rellstab. (
  • The study builds on the WSL researchers' experience with the genome of A. halleri and on previous research projects on the adaptation of plants to heavy metals and other environmental pollutants. (
  • Following infection with Agrobacterium , transfer of transfer DNA ( T-DNA ) to the nucleus and its integration into the plant genome occur consecutively during cocultivation, thus timing the induction of DNA double-strand breaks ( DSB s) on the target gene to coincide with the delivery of the HDR template is crucial. (
  • Prof Tester and his team say there is potential for the genome sequence to modify the quinoa plant for more widespread commercial use. (
  • Although they have completely sequenced its genome, scientists are just beginning the process of discovering the function of the plant's 25,000 or so individual genes-the various groups of nucleotides strung end to end along its DNA. (
  • The recent genome sequencing of some species has accumulated evidence that for a large number of traits, the control and action of genes are far more complex than previously thought. (
  • He has pioneered the use of flow cytometry in plant science for the analysis of nuclear genome size and regularly holds international training courses on the subject. (
  • He has studied plant genomes for almost 30 years and is an expert on intraspecific variation of genome size. (
  • He is a taxonomist specializing in plant biosystematics, including genome size determination and has co-authored a book on taxonomy analysis. (
  • CNL-D members were absent in rice, indicating a unique R gene retention pattern in the rice genome. (
  • Genome Structure and Gene Expression of Plant RNA Viruses 3. (
  • This text covers topics ranging from plant genome structure and the key control points in how genes are expressed, to the mechanisms by which proteins are generated and how their activities are controlled and altered by posttranslational modifications. (
  • These features include: inconsistency between phylogeny across genetic elements, high DNA or amino acid similarity from phylogenetically distant organisms, irregular distribution of genetic elements in a variety of species, similar genes shared among species within a specific habitat or geography independent of their phylogenetic relationship, and gene characteristics inconsistent with the resident genome such as high guanine and cytosine content, codon usage, and introns. (
  • A phylogeny was constructed from 1689 identified genes and all homologs available from the rice genome (3177 gene families). (
  • Plant shikimate pathway enzymes share similarities to prokaryote homologs and could have ancestry from a plastid progenitor genome. (
  • So while each new generation must steal new chloroplasts from the algae, the genes necessary to repair the chloroplasts and keep them running and photosynthesizing are already present within the slug's genome. (
  • Anne Osbourn and colleagues previously found that the genes needed to make an antifungal compound in oats, called avenacin, were next to each other in the genome. (
  • The thalianol gene cluster is one of the most conserved areas of the genome, suggesting that this beneficial combination of genes has recently and rapidly spread throughout the population. (
  • The sea creature's genes look more like those of animals, but the regulatory code that determines whether those genes are expressed resembles that in plants, according to a study published Tuesday (March 18) in the journal Genome Research. (
  • The size of an organism's genome doesn't correspond to how simple or complex that creature's body is, so some scientists hypothesized that more complicated links and networks between genes made for more sophisticated body plans. (
  • Schwaiger and her colleagues at the University of Vienna analyzed the genome of the sea anemone, not only identifying genes that code for proteins , but also assessing snippets of code known as promoters and enhancers, which help turn the volume up or down on gene expression. (
  • We show that the genome experiencing the highest gene flow is, in the majority of the cases, the best suited for species delimitation. (
  • If your goal is to profile the entire plant transcriptome or to use RNA sequencing to reduce the complexity of a large, complex and polyploid genome, transcriptome sequencing has never been easier than with the Ion Personal Genome Machine™ or the Ion Proton™ Systems . (
  • The book also describes how transgene expression is controlled in plants and how advanced transformation strategies can be used to manipulate and modify the plant genome. (
  • Genome content and the regulation of gene expression are crucial for plant development, form & function. (
  • Genome editied plants with no foreign DNA added were according to the Swedish competent authority Jordbruksverket falling outside of the EU definition of genetically modified plants, and should hence not be regulated. (
  • 1985). Agrobacterium Tumefaciens induced grown gall disease by integrating a part of its tumor inducing or Ti plasmid into the genome of the plant. (
  • This experiment is done to investigate whether a yeast gene, cen4 can be incorporated into plant genome through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, hence converted it into a chromosome capable of replicating in yeast. (
  • Hopefully, if this experiment proves to be successful, a vector can be construct base on algae chromosome bearing cen4 gen which can be use to introduce gene of interest into yeast genome. (
  • Since 1970's, there were many hypothesis regarding the mechanism of DNA transfer from Agrobacterium tumefaciens to the plant genome. (
  • However, the researchers suggest that the close feeding connections of parasitic plants with their hosts may increase the chances of intact genes traveling from the host to the parasite's genome where it can quickly become functional. (
  • So, they are stealing genes from their host plants, incorporating them into the genome and then turning those genes back around, very often, as a weapon against the host," said dePamphilis. (
  • To detect HGT in the plants, the researchers used data generated by their collaborative research effort funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation - the Parasitic Plant Genome Project - to generate evolutionary histories for thousands of genes in the parasitic plants, said dePamphilis. (
  • and Phelipanche aegyptiaca, called Egyptian broomrape, as well as the nonparasitic plant Lindenbergia philippensis, and genome sequences from 22 other nonparasitic plants. (
  • This genetic transformation is achieved by transporting a single-stranded copy (T-strand) of the bacterial transferred DNA region (T-DNA region) from the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid into the plant cell nucleus, followed by integration into the host genome (reviewed in 29, 30, 81). (
  • They then used genome-wide mRNA sequencing to identify those targeted genes whose expression actually changes due to interaction with EIN3. (
  • 1982) "Agrobacterium rhizogenes inserts T-DNA into the genomes of the host plant root cells," Nature 295:432-434. (
  • Although horizontal gene transfer is well documented in microbial genomes, no case has been reported in higher plants. (
  • The second intron of the nad1 gene, located between exons b and c, is a group II intron (ref. 11 and Fig. 1 A ). Group II introns are self-splicing RNAs that are typical components of contemporary organellar genomes in plants, algae, fungi, protists, and eubacteria ( 10 , 12 - 14 ). (
  • They examined thousands of progeny plants and their genomes, looking for genetic regions that always came along with the ability to stave off Ug99 infection. (
  • The study is part of an international project focused on sequencing the genomes of more than 10,000 plant species. (
  • The paper, "Genomes of subaerial Zygnematophyceae provide insights into land plant evolution," will be published in Cell on November 14, 2019 at 9 a.m. (
  • The WSL researchers Christian Sailer and Christian Rellstab investigated the entire genomes of plants from the contrasting locations. (
  • Targeted at beginners as well as experienced users, this handy reference explains the benefits and uses of flow cytometery in the study of plants and their genomes. (
  • He has constantly been developing novel techniques to study plant genomes, among them many methods based on flow cytometry. (
  • To shed some light on possible common genetic features in such a heterogeneous set of plant associations, the genomes of 92 Alphaproteobacteria strains were analyzed with a fuzzy orthologs-species detection approach. (
  • This showed that the different habitats and lifestyles of plant-associated bacteria (soil, plant colonizers, symbiont) are partially reflected by the trend to have larger genomes with respect to nonplant-associated species. (
  • The main objectives of this project were to identify non-Toll interleukin receptor, nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat (nTNL) genes and elucidate their evolutionary divergence across six plant genomes. (
  • We analyzed 908 nTNL R genes in the genomes of the six plant species, and classified them into 12 subgroups based on the presence of coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding site (NBS), leucine rich repeat (LRR), resistance to Powdery mildew 8 (RPW8), and BED type zinc finger domains. (
  • There is thus a clear need for somatic tissues to maintain their genetic integrity in the face of environmental challenges, and two types of interactions have been shown to play important roles in the conservation as well as flexibility of plant genomes: homologous recombination of repeated sequences and silencing of multiplied genes. (
  • Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics by El. (
  • Plant Genes, Genomes and Genetics provides a comprehensive treatment of all aspects of plant gene expression. (
  • Her work focuses on the evolution of plant genes, genomes and development, particularly in the cereal crops and their wild relatives. (
  • This suggests that plant species are able to show remarkable plasticity in their genomes to assemble these gene clusters. (
  • The maize FIE2 and sorghum FIE proteins form a monophyletic group, sharing a closer relationship to each other than to the FIE1 protein, suggesting that maize fie genes originated from two different ancestral genomes. (
  • sequencing the genomes of more than 10,000 plant species. (
  • Genomes of Subaerial Zygnematophyceae Provide Insights into Land Plant Evolution. (
  • Since some plant pathogenic viruses have double-stranded RNA genomes, RISCs play an important role in protecting plants against such infections. (
  • The scientists at the University of Delhi have shown that inserting a bacterial gene that makes a protein named Cry1Ac into genomes of plants appears to cause developmental defects, growth retardation and sterility in the plants. (
  • possess homologues of the dlt genes in their genomes which, in Gram-positive bacteria, are involved in resistance to AMPs. (
  • Instead, they found that the foreign sequences had been derived from entire genes of past host plants and incorporated into the parasitic plants genomes. (
  • The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Genomic Science program, managed within the Office of Science's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) supports genomics-based research and technological innovation that will lead to transformative approaches to determine and validate gene function in systems biology research on plant genomes, gene systems, and molecular processes within the DOE BER mission space of research in bioenergy and the environment. (
  • Heterologous expression allows the production of plant proteins in an organism which is simpler than the natural source. (
  • This technology is widely used for large-scale purification of plant proteins from microorganisms for biochemical and biophysical analyses. (
  • Heterologous expression involves identification of genes and transfer of the corresponding DNA fragments to hosts other than the original source for synthesis of the encoded proteins. (
  • This methodology allows large-scale production of plant proteins in microorganisms to study their biochemical and biophysical features. (
  • Recombinant plant proteins and peptides produced by heterologous expression are also used in industrial applications. (
  • It also provides a survey of recent examples of application of heterologous expression technology to plant proteins. (
  • A comprehensive list of plant proteins expressed heterologously is given in Table 1 . (
  • The genes are then incorporated into the sea slug's own DNA, allowing the animal to produce the necessary proteins for the stolen chloroplasts to continue working. (
  • Some of these transferred genes code for enzymes involved in photosynthesis, or for proteins involved in disease resistance or soil adaptation. (
  • Constitutive overexpression of the prosystemin gene in transgenic tomato plants resulted in the overproduction of prosystemin and the abnormal release of systemin, conferring a constitutive overproduction of several systemic wound-response proteins (SWRPs). (
  • To discover how plants control the amount of fungal colonization, Harrison and colleagues looked at genes that encode short proteins called CLE peptides in the species Medicago truncatula and Brachypodium distachyon . (
  • Plants have their own networks of defense against plant pathogens that include a vast array of proteins and other organic molecules produced prior to infection or during pathogen attack. (
  • Plant nucleosomes are composed of a protein octamer that contains two molecules of each of the core histone proteins: H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. (
  • The histone H3 proteins have been extensively characterized in many plant species. (
  • Efforts to understand nuclear organization in plant cells have received little assistance from the better-studied animal nuclei, because plant proteomes do not contain recognizable counterparts to the key animal proteins involved in nuclear organization, such as lamin nuclear intermediate filament proteins. (
  • Our results indicate that the LINC coiled-coil proteins are important determinants of plant nuclear structure. (
  • Analysis of differentially expressed cDNAs, a new β-tubulin gene, and expression of genes encoding cell wall proteins. (
  • New studies of cod genes show that as much as 75 per cent of marine proteins can be replaced by plant proteins in feed for farmed Atlantic cod without triggering stress genes. (
  • For instance, fish may experience stress when they are given a new feed containing a high level of plant proteins instead of fish meal. (
  • As the liver plays an important role in protein metabolism, the cod liver was examined to see if there was any evidence of changes in the genes involved in stress and the metabolism of proteins. (
  • Cod weighing around 1.7 kg were given a feed containing either 25, 50, 75 or 100 per cent plant proteins. (
  • The composition of amino acids in the feed met the requirements set by the National Research Council, Canada, but the balance of amino acids was different between the fish meal and the plant proteins. (
  • That was until this study revealed that the sea slug's chromosomes actually contain genes that code for chloroplast proteins, acquired from the algae. (
  • It can also improve resistance to plant pests and reduce the need to use pesticides, while improving yields and boosting the production of plant proteins. (
  • Knotted1-like homeobox (KNOX) proteins are homeodomain transcription factors that maintain an important pluripotent cell population called the shoot apical meristem, which generates the entire above-ground body of vascular plants. (
  • KNOX proteins regulate target genes that control hormone homeostasis in the meristem and interact with another subclass of homeodomain proteins called the BELL family. (
  • Studies in novel genetic systems, both at the base of the land plant phylogeny and in flowering plants, have uncovered novel roles for KNOX proteins in sculpting plant form and its diversity. (
  • Here, we discuss how KNOX proteins influence plant growth and development in a versatile context-dependent manner. (
  • Today, a substantial body of information exists on the function of KNOX proteins in both model and non-model plants. (
  • These studies have revealed parallels with the mechanistic action of animal TALE (see Glossary, Box 1 ) homeodomain proteins, and have helped us to understand how these proteins influence plant development and to unravel key aspects of the logic that underpins cell fate allocation and tissue differentiation in the 'green branch' of the tree of life. (
  • In this review, we discuss the functions of Class I KNOX proteins during development and the advances in understanding of KNOX gene regulatory networks, including upstream regulators, protein partners and downstream effectors of KNOX function. (
  • Importantly, increased levels of plant aaRSs during stress may serve as a pool of aaRS proteins that can participate directly in stress responses through their noncanonical activities. (
  • Proteins are composed of strands of amino acids, which in turn, contain amine groups, NH 2 (and thus the name ' amino acid').The low amount of nitrogen available to most types of plants seems to prevent them from producing a significant amount of proteins. (
  • The legumes (or other nearby plants), can then use the ammonia to make amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. (
  • While some plants have significant amounts of certain proteins, they also have considerable amounts of other substances like cellulose. (
  • Since muscle is mostly protein (plus fats), it would be hard to produce a plant that reached the same high percentage of proteins as found in muscle. (
  • If you want this plant for nutritional reasons, there is no reason for the proteins to be in the form of actin/myosin fibers, since your gut breaks these down into short amino acids before digesting them. (
  • In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen-signaling proteins in pollen tubes from the lilly Agapanthus umbellatus. (
  • Now that we know the genes that ethylene ultimately activates, we will be able to identify the key genes and proteins involved in each of these branch pathways, and this might help us manipulate the discrete functions this hormone regulates," Ecker says. (
  • without these proteins, ethylene has no effect on the plant. (
  • The transfer of genetic material between non-mating species, known as horizontal gene transfer (HGT), has attracted growing attention as a powerful mechanism for genetic evolution. (
  • 1983) "Ti and Ri Plasmids as Vectors for Genetic Engineering of Higher Plants," Proceedings of the Miami Winter Symposium, Jan. 1983, published in Advances in Gene Technology: Molecular Genetics of Plants and Animals (Ahmad et al. (
  • 1981) "Aspects of plant genetic manipulation," Nature 293:265-270. (
  • 1982) "Plant Cell Transformation by Agrobacterium Plasmids," Proceedings of a symposium held Aug. 15-19, 1982 at the University of California, Davis, published in Genetic Engineering of Plants: An Agricultural Perspective, Basic Life Sciences (Kosuge et al. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer is the basis for the genetic engineering of commercially important crops, and natural horizontal gene transfers across kingdoms have been documented between Agrobacterium and Nicotiana ( 1 ), Wolbachia and its insect host Callosobruchus ( 2 ), and bacteria and land plants ( 3 , 4 ). (
  • Purdue University researchers have found a genetic mutation that allows a plant to better endure drought without losing biomass, a discovery that could reduce the amount of water required for growing plants and help plants survive and thrive in adverse conditions. (
  • The genetic engineering community has assumed that Agrobacterium, a commonly used gene transfer vector for plants, does not infect animal cells, and certainly would not transfer genes into them. (
  • In crop genetic manipulation (GM), the growth-stimulating genes that give rise to tumours are replaced by GM constructs which include genes for antibiotic resistance, plant viral promoters and genes for desired crop traits such as herbicide tolerance. (
  • Humans still have the gene, but a genetic defect has rendered it inoperative. (
  • For instance, Hopkins and Rausher (2011) identified genetic changes in two genes involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway (ABP) that cause changes in flower pigment intensity (from violet to dark red) between co-occurring populations (sympatry) of the plants Phlox drumondii and P. cuspidata . (
  • In a tour de force, Yuan and colleagues discover a gene that causes pollinator isolation between Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis by using a series of QTL fine-mapping experiments coupled with stable genetic transformation of candidate genes, and RNA interference-induced knockouts. (
  • While mechanisms governing plant cell growth are known to exist, the genetic origins of such mechanisms have remained unclear. (
  • The basic premise for using genetic engineering here is to 1) create plants in greater quantities 2) produce healthier plants and 3) yield plants that are more resistant to pest attacks and diseases. (
  • MST)-Natural genetic engineering allowed plants to move from water to land, according to a new study by an international group of scientists from Canada, China, France, Germany, and Russia. (
  • We'll learn how plants change their structure to cope with windy conditions, and go over some of the rather complex biology that is involved in the genetic response in plants to being touched. (
  • While CIN-like and PCF-like genes have multiplied in Asparagales, likely enhancing the genetic network for cell proliferation, CYC-like genes remain as single, shorter copies with low expression. (
  • A short description of the use of plant genes to fight against pathogens within the framework of genetic engineering and plant transgenic research is given below. (
  • The first , published in August 2014 in Science magazine, presented the discovery of a novel form of inter-organism communication using messenger RNA, showing that plants share an extraordinary amount of genetic information with one another. (
  • T hey say breeders could use their new genetic information to control plant size to favour shorter, stockier plants that are less likely to fall over. (
  • They then observed how the development of the mutant plant's pollen-production cells differed from that of a normal plant and they also used genetic techniques to determine specifically which gene was disabled by the mutation. (
  • This building block helps to produce significantly more Cas9 enzyme in the plants, which acts as a scissor for the genetic material,' explains Stuttmann. (
  • Only in the case of conspicuous changes in the plant's traits would it then be necessary to specifically analyse the genetic material of the new plants. (
  • Plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer is the movement of genetic material between individuals in the plant and fungus kingdoms. (
  • Even after such plants become commercially available, we need to find out whether their genetic potential can be realised without applying boron fertiliser in soil-deficient situations", he told SciDev.Net. (
  • Such genetic engineering could be used in agriculture to help plants defend against diseases to grow more productive crops. (
  • Developing superior crops through traditional genetic inheritance can be expensive and time consuming as genes are passed through multiple generations. (
  • Compared to the approximately 34,000 active genes the number of 350 to 750 genes that are additionally activated in hybrids is relatively small" says Prof. Hochholdinger, "And yet the small genetic contribution of each of these gene could significantly increase growth and vigor of hybrids. (
  • Over time DNA randomly mutates and investigation of genetic drift between the genes for these transcripts, between the parasite and host, showed that some time has passed since the genes were acquired and that they were acquired gradually. (
  • The sea anemone is an oddball: half-plant and half-animal, at least when it comes to its genetic code, new research suggests. (
  • Dr Jill Harrison, the study's lead author and Senior Lecturer from Bristol's School of Biological Sciences, explains: "By comparing our new findings from a moss with previous findings, we can see that a pre-existing genetic network was remodelled to allow shoot systems to arise in plant evolution. (
  • The scientists used a series of genetic tricks to test the effects of overexpressing or disabling genes that enable cells to make certain enzymes involved in oil production. (
  • Whole-transcriptome analysis is very important in understanding how altered expression of genetic variants contributes to complex plant phenotypes. (
  • Michigan State University plant scientists have discovered another piece of the genetic puzzle that controls how plants respond to high temperatures. (
  • Indian scientists have discovered that the genetic modification of plants with a gene already used in crops worldwide may severely damage the plants, a surprising finding that may stir a debate on current crop biotechnology science. (
  • A research team at RIKEN, Japan's flagship research organization, has uncovered the first ever evidence of nuclear gene transfer from host to parasite plant species. (
  • The research team set out to determine whether HGT occurs between parasite and host plant species, where implications for evolution would be particularly profound. (
  • Using large-scale gene analysis, they combed 17,000 genes of the parasite witchweed Striga hermonthica, a source of devastating damage to sorghum and rice crops in Africa, for traces of transfer from host species. (
  • During work on the phylogeny of Gnetum , we developed specific primers to amplify the second intron in the nad1 gene, plus flanking exons, from numerous previously unstudied species of Gnetum . (
  • From an ecological perspective, these results show that certain plants are capable of adapting relatively quickly to environmental change by using the genes of neighbouring species. (
  • provide compelling evidence that the R3 MYB gene causes differences in anthocyanin concentration in the flowers of Mimulus lewisii and M. cardinalis , and is in fact likely responsible for pollinator-mediated reproductive isolation in areas where the two species co-occur. (
  • These processes have major implications for the origin of traits and species both in the animal and plant kingdoms. (
  • Jorge Dubcovsky, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute-Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Investigator at the University of California in Davis and Eduard Akhunov of Kansas State University worked for five years to identify the resistance gene in a species of wild wheat. (
  • Unlike vertical gene transfer, such as the transfer of DNA from parent to child, horizontal gene transfer occurs between different species. (
  • 1993). The production of active oxygen species like superoxide anions, hydroxy radicals and hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2 , have been observed in many plant-pathogen interactions and are known to play an important role in plant defense (Wu, et al. (
  • The assailant utilizes a highly sophisticated method of disarming its victims involving cross-species gene manipulation that has never before been seen from a parasitic plant. (
  • With the advent of biotechnology, selection became possible directly in the genotype by means of molecular marker techniques and by gene introduction into unrelated species through recombinant DNA technology. (
  • Alphaproteobacteria show a great versatility in adapting to a broad range of environments and lifestyles, with the association between bacteria and plants as one of the most intriguing, spanning from relatively unspecific nonsymbiotic association (as rhizospheric or endophytic strains) to the highly species-specific interaction of rhizobia. (
  • The Panels concluded that the antibiotic resistance genes nptII and aadA occur at different frequencies in different bacterial species and strains, and environments. (
  • Nonphagotrophic mechanisms have been seen in the transmission of transposable elements, plastid-derived endosymbiotic gene transfer, prokaryote-derived gene transfer, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated DNA transfer, cross-species hybridization events, and gene transfer between mitochondrial genes. (
  • That makes this little emerald animal the only known example of functional gene transfer from one multi-cellular species to another, and an amazing example of rapid evolution in the natural world. (
  • Using a gene cluster that makes an antifungal compound in oats as a template, they uncovered a previously unknown gene cluster making a related compound in a very different species, and now want to extend the search to other plants. (
  • It affects at least 132 plant species in 80 countries. (
  • Success of species assignment using DNA barcodes has been shown to vary among plant lineages because of a wide range of different factors. (
  • In this study, we confirm the theoretical prediction that gene flow influences species assignment with simulations and a literature survey. (
  • Compared to traditional microarray technology-which can only be used for gene expression profiling in species with known transcriptome sequences-next-generation sequencing technologies enable plant researchers to perform these studies in any plant species, and do so with assays that have a higher dynamic range at a lower cost. (
  • Thus, P. placenta and P. chrysosporium gene expression patterns are influenced substantially by wood species. (
  • It is the major causal agent of crown gall diseases in dicotyledon plants from over 600 species belonging to 90 families (De Block et al. (
  • Host plant species and also the origin of infection are among the factors affecting the morphology of crown gall to be form (Gelvin, 1990). (
  • The transferred genes then became functional in the parasitic species. (
  • Although considered rare in more plants and other complex species, like plants, HGT may thus occur in some parasitic plants, an insight that could lead to better methods of controlling parasitic plants that threaten agriculture, he added. (
  • While horizontal gene transfers in less complex species, such as bacteria, is are common, most evolution in more complex organisms is driven by the sexual exchange of DNA, along with mutation and natural selection. (
  • The scientists used three samples of the same cress plant species to test this. (
  • See, in harsh conditions, photosynthesis can actually produce something called "reactive oxygen species," which are harmful to plants. (
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens elicits neoplastic growths on many plant species (15). (
  • Although plants represent the natural hosts for Agrobacterium , this microorganism can also transform a wide range of other eukaryotic species, from fungi (16, 62) to human cells (48). (
  • The present review gives an overview of recombinant plant protein production methods using bacteria, yeast, insect cells, and Xenopus laevis oocytes and discusses the advantages of each system for functional studies and protein characterization. (
  • The present review covers the recent literature on plant gene expression in bacteria, yeast, insect cells and Xenopus oocytes and presents the comparative advantages and disadvantages of each system. (
  • While common in bacteria, however, HGT is less well understood in plants, with evidence largely confined to its role in the transfer of mitochondrial genes. (
  • Researchers funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) have revealed a novel molecular mechanism that triggers plant infection by Pseudomonas syringae, the bacteria responsible for bacterial speck in tomatoes. (
  • The scientists from the Department of Life Sciences at Imperial College London have revealed how two genes in the bacteria work together to launch the infection process that ultimately kills the plant's cells and causes disease, significantly reducing crop quality and yield. (
  • The researchers hope that by understanding the molecular basis for how the bacteria attack plant cells they will be able to find new targets for pesticides and devise better strategies for disease management. (
  • Speaking about the findings, published today (1 February 2011) in Nature Communications Dr Jörg Schumacher, the senior author on the study, explains: "These bacteria have quite a sophisticated system for infecting plants. (
  • Pseudomonas syringae are very versatile bacteria and their pili help them to infect a very large range of plants causing numerous symptoms in different plants, for example black/brown specks on tomato fruits. (
  • From what we know, these bacteria only produce their pili and launch infection when they have already invaded the plant tissue. (
  • What we have found here is that the two-gene system in Pseudomonas syringae is an evolutionary innovation that had not been described in bacteria. (
  • This mechanism, quite common in bacteria, had rarely been observed in plants. (
  • The movement of plants from water to land was made possible when genes from soil bacteria were transferred to algae through a process called horizontal gene transfer. (
  • These algae mingled with and received key genes from soil bacteria that helped them and their descendants to cope with the harsh terrestrial environment and eventually evolve into the land plant flora that we see today. (
  • Not all pathogens can attack all plants and a single plant is not susceptible to the whole plethora of plant pathogenic fungi, viruses, bacteria or nematodes. (
  • Plant-Bacteria Association and Symbiosis: Are There Common Genomic Traits in Alphaproteobacteria? (
  • A relatively large set of genes specific to symbiotic bacteria (73 orthologous groups) was found, with a remarkable presence of regulators, sugar transporters, metabolic enzymes, nodulation genes and several genes with unknown function that could be good candidates for further characterization. (
  • Interestingly, 15 orthologous groupspresent in all plant-associated bacteria (symbiotic and nonsymbiotic), but absent in nonplant-associated bacteria, were also found, whose functions were mainly related to regulation of gene expression and electron transport. (
  • Overall these results lead us to hypothesize that plant-bacteria associations, though quite variable, are partially supported by a conserved set of unsuspected gene functions. (
  • The Panels concluded that, according to information currently available, adverse effects on human health and the environment resulting from the transfer of the two antibiotic resistance marker genes, nptII and aadA, from GM plants to bacteria, associated with use of GM plants, are unlikely. (
  • In their joint opinion, the GMO and BIOHAZ Panels concluded that transfers of ARMG from GM plants to bacteria have not been shown to occur either in natural conditions or in the laboratory. (
  • The key barrier to stable uptake of antibiotic resistance marker genes from GM plants to bacteria is the lack of DNA sequence identity between plants and bacteria. (
  • Gene clusters are common in bacteria and fungi but extremely rare in plants. (
  • Bacteria use horizontal gene transfer to exchange resistance to antibiotics. (
  • These genes are widespread in Gram-positive bacteria, and they are also found in a few Gram-negative bacteria. (
  • In this study, we show that these genes confer resistance to AMPs, probably by modifying LPSs, and that they are required for the fitness of the bacteria during plant infection. (
  • At the beginning of the century, it was found that a pure culture of bacteria which has been isolated from tumorous tissue can be use to induce tumor formation in a healthy dicotyledon plant (Binns, 2008). (
  • During 1990's, Bacterium tumefaciens has been determined as the earliest bacteria known to cause crown gall diseases in plant by (Smith and Townsend, 1907). (
  • No doubt, at least initially, any synthetic meat will be a combination of plant and bacteria products. (
  • Protein isolation, especially from plant sources, can be costly, cumbersome and lengthy, and heterologous expression provides a convenient alternative. (
  • 5. A method according to claim 3, wherein the first gene encodes ribosomal inhibitor protein (RIP). (
  • In their experiments, the researchers discovered that by disrupting the gene encoding a novel protein, GTL1, trichome cells could be induced to grow to twice their normal size, indicating that GTL1 represses cell growth. (
  • In every cell, there are 'messages' between the gene and the protein it creates, which in turn affects traits," says Joshua Steffen, University of Utah post-doctoral researcher, and co-author on the paper. (
  • is a plant is touched, is a calcium binding protein called calmodulin. (
  • Silvestrol works by targeting an RNA helicase, a type of protein that regulates genes by changing the structure of their RNA. (
  • Without this RNA helicase, cells are unable to translate the MYC gene into the MYC protein, preventing the cancer-inducing activity of the gene. (
  • To date, four classes of SSN -meganucleases (homing endonuclease), zinc finger nucleases ( ZFN s), transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases ( TALENs ), and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat ( CRISPR )/ CRISPR -associated protein 9 ( Cas9 )-have been developed to cleave genes of interest. (
  • In one of these mechanisms, similar to blood clotting after a cut, the plants produce a protein that clots the flow of nutrients to the site of the parasite. (
  • This research is the first indication that a specific kind of protein known as a receptor-linked protein kinase, which results from the gene, is important for pollen production in the anther - the male reproductive organ in flowers," says Hong Ma, professor of biology and the leader of the research team that made the discovery. (
  • The scientists then went on to determine the nature of the protein that the cellular machinery produces from the code contained in the EMS1 gene, and to speculate on its function. (
  • Previous studies identified a plant-specific insoluble nuclear protein in carrot ( Daucus carota ), called Nuclear Matrix Constituent Protein1 (NMCP1), which contains extensive coiled-coil domains and localizes to the nuclear periphery. (
  • Mason HS, Mullet JE (1990) Expression of two soybean vegetative storage protein genes during development and in response to water deficit, wounding and jasmonic acid. (
  • Plant meal is an alternative source of protein that is already widely used. (
  • Previous studies carried out by the National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research (NIFES) indicate that cod can consume a feed consisting of up to 75 per cent plant protein without any significant reduction in the growth. (
  • Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether a high level of plant protein in the feed would affect cod health, or have any other subtle negative effects on the Atlantic cod. (
  • Liver samples were taken from cod that had been given feed containing 75 per cent plant protein. (
  • We also examined genes involved in protein turnover (synthesis and metabolism) and the gene expression was lower for a few of these genes in the cod that had been fed with 75 per cent plant protein. (
  • Mr Lie chose to focus on the cod group that had been given 75 per cent plant protein as they did not show reduced growth. (
  • The cod that were given 100 per cent plant protein showed reduced growth and were therefore not suitable for more in depth studies to establish whether cod react to stress before the stress reduces their growth. (
  • From the phylogenetic analysis, horizontal gene transfer events could have contributed to the L-fucose permease sugar transporter, zinc binding alcohol dehydrogenase, membrane transporter, phospholipase/carboxylesterase, iucA/iucC family protein in siderophore biosynthesis, DUF239 domain protein, phosphate-response 1 family protein, a hypothetical protein similar to zinc finger (C2H2-type) protein, and another conserver hypothetical protein. (
  • As RNA is the courier that delivers the gene's instructions to make a protein, by changing the instructions for the RNA strand, a gene can be prevented from making its protein - therefore 'silencing' the gene. (
  • We highlight the discovery of a novel class of KNOX genes that lack a homeobox and insights into KN1 protein trafficking in plants ( Box 2 ). (
  • If a certain protein is required, a copy of the corresponding gene is made from the DNA in the nucleus of the cell. (
  • This copy of the gene a 'transcript' is used as a blueprint for producing the relevant protein. (
  • SerRS gene expression did not change, however participation of SerRS in stress response could be regulated at the protein level. (
  • When the scientists also added a gene for olesin, a protein known to encapsulate oil droplets (fused to green fluorescent protein to confirm its location), clusters of smaller, more stable oil droplets formed (right). (
  • At ANU we use molecular genetics to understand gene regulation, epigenetic control processes, evolution and gene/protein function. (
  • Several experimental and commercial genetically-modified plants, including GM cotton cultivated in India and other countries, make the Cry1Ac protein which is toxic to some insects. (
  • The Indian government had approved commercial cultivation of GM cotton containing Cry1Ac in 2002, and research groups have been trying to equip other plants with this protein. (
  • In this proposal, we shall develop a novel technology, termed Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BMFC), to study protein-protein interactions in plants. (
  • The gaseous hormone ethylene, also known as the fruit ripening hormone, "talks to" many of the other plant growth controlling pathways using a protein called EIN3. (
  • The image displays gene networks for each of the major plant hormone biosynthesis, signaling and response pathways and which genes the EIN3 protein "touches" (potentially regulates). (
  • Now we can see that by altering the expression of one protein, ethylene produces cascading waves of gene activation that profoundly alters the biology of the plant. (
  • DEKALB Genetics Corporation, the fastest growing agricultural seed company in the U.S., has an opening for an independent PhD level scientist in the area of PLANT GENE EXPRESSION. (
  • Highlighting the latest research in genetics and more, we will delve into the inner lives of plants and draw parallels with the human senses to reveal that we have much more in common with sunflowers and oak trees than we may realize. (
  • Following a brief introduction that highlights general considerations when analyzing plant cells by flow cytometric methods, the book goes on to discuss examples of application in plant genetics, genomic analysis, cell cycle analysis, marine organism analysis and breeding studies. (
  • Dr Joseph Chappell joined the faculty at the University of Kentucky in 1985, where he has developed an internationally recognized research program pioneering the molecular genetics and biochemistry of natural products in plants.Dr Elizabeth Kellogg is a Member of the Donald Danforth Plant Science Center in St. Louis, Missouri, and was formerly the E. Desmond Lee and Family Professor of Botanical Studies at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. (
  • The book is geared toward advanced students of genetics and plant sciences as well as applied and basic research scientists who work with transgenic organisms and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. (
  • In another surprising development, the researchers found the algal gene in E. chlorotica 's sex cells, meaning the ability to maintain functional chloroplasts could be passed to the next generation. (
  • The researchers believe many more photosynthesis genes are acquired by E. chlorotica from their food, but still need to understand how the plant genes are activated inside sea-slug cells. (
  • Indeed the researchers have found the duplicated gene in all the strains of Pseudomonas syringae they have studied, which makes them think that it is very likely to provide some selective advantage in the infection process. (
  • The researchers say that being able to select for plants with four leaves would provide more nutritious fodder. (
  • Researchers from The University of Queensland have discovered that a key gene which controls flowering time in wheat and barley crops also directs the plant's root growth. (
  • To isolate Sr35, the researchers crossed stem rust-sensitive wheat with wheat they knew contained the resistance gene. (
  • In a companion paper in the same issue of Science Express , researchers at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in Australia reported on the identification of another stem rust resistance gene, Sr33. (
  • Now that researchers have identified Sr35 and Sr33, they should be able to directly transfer those genes into domestic wheat, without any tagalong genes that could decrease yields. (
  • Researchers discovered two plant genes that may reduce the effects of over-fertilization. (
  • Researchers at the Boyce Thompson Institute have uncovered the function of a pair of plant genes that could help farmers improve phosphate capture, potentially reducing the environmental harm associated with fertilization. (
  • The researchers found that two of these CLE genes are key modulators of AM fungal symbiosis. (
  • Memorial Sloan Kettering researchers have found a naturally occurring compound that can destroy cancer cells in mice by targeting MYC , a cancer-causing gene that has remained elusive until now. (
  • Using the CRISPR gen-editing technique, a team of researchers altered the flowers on morning glory plants from purple to white. (
  • This was demonstrated by WSL researchers using plants from locations with different levels of contamination. (
  • In a different approach, other researchers have used various single compounds that are part of more complex networks aimed at fighting against plant pathogens. (
  • To discover both the gene that is required for pollen development and its specific effect on the plant's anther cells, the researchers first generated a group of plants with different mutations and identified among them one plant with a mutation that disabled its ability to produce pollen. (
  • As they studied the development of pollen grains in the mutant plant, the researchers examined the behavior of cells called microsporocytes, which normally undergo a process called meiosis during which they each divide into four daughter calls called microspores that later develop into pollen grains. (
  • The researchers then allowed the transposon to jump away from the gene, and they found that the plant's ability to produce pollen was restored to normal, proving that the jumping gene's former location was within a gene that is essential for pollen production. (
  • Using an improved version of the gene editing tool CRISPR/Cas9, researchers knocked out up to twelve genes in plants in a single blow. (
  • The approach was developed by researchers at Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg (MLU) and the Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry (IPB). (
  • In their work, the researchers used markers to distinguish between different plant seeds. (
  • Since the 1970s researchers knew that the sea slug was able to acquire chloroplasts from the algae Vaucheria litorea (chloroplasts being the organelles in plants that contain the green pigment chlorophyll that converts light to energy). (
  • Having successfully discovered one gene cluster, the researchers now plan to look for other gene clusters that may produce novel natural products of value for crop protection or as medicines, and investigate how and why these clusters evolve. (
  • Researchers have genetically modified a plant to make it tolerate low levels of boron, a nutrient often lacking from soils, especially in southeast China and Pakistan. (
  • Previously, researchers developed tobacco plants able to tolerate low boron levels but this affected the plant's ability to process sugars. (
  • CSIRO's RNAi gene silencing technology is enabling researchers around the world to protect plants and animals from diseases, and to develop new plant varieties with beneficial attributes. (
  • Researchers at the University of Bonn and their colleagues at Iowa State University and the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in Tbingen compared gene activity in roots of young homozygous and hybrid corn plants. (
  • Researchers are now surveying all transcripts present in the cell to know which genes are active. (
  • Researchers now want to find out more about the advantages that additional gene activity in hybrids could provide. (
  • Researchers from Singapore, Malaysia and USA collaborated to systematically investigate the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between these two plants. (
  • Most of these genes had been integrated into the parasite's nucleus, allowing the researchers to perform genomic analysis. (
  • The genes that first enabled plants to grow shoots and conquer the land have been identified by University of Bristol researchers. (
  • Plant researchers utilize a variety of approaches to understand gene expression. (
  • In order to study plant functional genomics, researchers also utilize epigenetic tools as well as plant miRNA, small RNA, and RNAi studies to decipher the root cause behind phenotypes of interest. (
  • The researchers focused on three of these sRNAs (Bc-siR3.1, Bc-siR3.2 and Bc-siR5) that were abundantly expressed in the infected plants and had potential targets likely to be involved in the immunity of both kinds of plants. (
  • The researchers found that several genes targeted in the coding region by Bc-sRNA were indeed suppressed. (
  • Plants from all over the globe respond to temperature changes in remarkably similar ways, researchers have found. (
  • Researchers from the University of Illinois have identified the genes and metabolic pathways which are responsible for safener efficacy in grain sorghum. (
  • The Delhi researchers say such observations may have been overlooked in the past as most previous studies were aimed at finding plant varieties that can be genetically altered just enough so that they are suitable for cultivation. (
  • The researchers have themselves shown that if the plants are modified in such a way that the Cry1Ac is confined in their chloroplasts - the site of photosynthesis in plant cells - they do not show any developmental defects. (
  • Now, scientists led by University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers report that they have discovered a gene that regulates when plants flower and is critical for keeping a plant's 24-hour clock running accurately. (
  • In a study, researchers detected 52 incidents of the nonsexual transfer of DNA - known as horizontal gene transfer, or HGT - from a host plant that later became functional into members of a parasitic plant family known as the broomrapes, said Claude dePamphilis, professor of biology, Penn State. (
  • A team of researchers at Oxford may have found an answer by tinkering with a gene used for photosynthesis. (
  • Analyses of 70 seed plant nad1 exons b and c and intron 2 sequences, including representatives of all angiosperm clades, support that this copy originated from a euasterid and was horizontally transferred to Gnetum . (
  • We discovered that Gnetum harbors two copies of nad1 intron 2 and reasoned that a larger-scale survey of complete nad1 intron 2 sequences should allow identification of the source of the different copies because major seed plant lineages have specific intron signatures. (
  • A method for making a genetically modified plant comprising regenerating a whole plant from a plant cell that has been transfected with DNA sequences comprising a first gene whose expression results in an altered plant phenotype linked to a transiently active promoter, the gene and promoter being separated. (
  • Plant cells, plant tissues, plant seed and whole plants containing the above DNA sequences are also claimed. (
  • 6. A method according to claim 3, wherein the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences and the second gene encodes CRE. (
  • 8. A method according to claim 3, wherein the plants are cotton plants, the transiently active promoter is a LEA promoter, the specific excision signal sequences are LOX sequences, the first gene encodes RIP, the second gene encodes CRE, and sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (
  • Furthermore, the sequences carried within the T-DNA in the transforming bacterium can be expressed in the transformed cells (the viral promoter CaMV has been found to be active in HeLa cells [2]) and constructions currently being tested include pharmaceutically active human genes such as the interleukins [3]. (
  • Only one of those four genes contained sequences that were always present in resistant wheat, and always absent in sensitive wheat. (
  • This information is critical in understanding how differences in DNA and gene sequences lead to differences in traits. (
  • Our matrix contains 452 sequences representing the three major clades of TCP genes. (
  • To cite an electronic Plant Gene Register article as a bibliographic reference, follow the style given below: Schmidt M, Feierabend J (1998) Characterization of cDNA nucleotide sequences encoding two differentially expressed catalase isozyme polypeptides from winter rye (accession nos. (
  • These sRNAs then interact with RISC to suppress expression of viral genes that carry the target sequences. (
  • Furthermore, VirE2 alone is sufficient to transport ssDNA into the nucleus of the plant cell (95), and may be responsible for T-complex nuclear import if the NLS sequences are deleted from VirD2 (28). (
  • The research focus of the position will be aimed towards understanding and manipulating factors that affect the expression of transgenes in plants, identifying suitable promoters and enhancers, and employing this technology in the development of transgenic plant products. (
  • They transferred this gene, called CNL9, into sensitive plants using transgenic approaches and found it enabled them to block Ug99. (
  • This approach would provide the transgenic plant with a first level of pathogen control. (
  • 4. Transformed Cells and Transgenic Plants. (
  • Both fresh weights and dry biomass yields of the whole plants from these three selected transgenic lines were significantly increased to 125% of the controls. (
  • Transgenic PtrSUS1 lines also had a higher tolerance to higher concentration of sucrose which was reflective of the increased SUS activity in transgenic versus wild-type plants. (
  • The growth differences between wild-type and transgenic plants, either in root and hypocotyl length or in fresh and dry weight of whole plant, became more pronounced on the media containing higher sucrose concentrations. (
  • Plastid transformation technology has been well established and widely utilized in plant transgenic research. (
  • The analysis of transgenic potato plants carrying a LEMMI9 promoter-β glucuronidase ( GUS) fusion has demonstrated that the tomato promoter was activated in Meloidogyne incognita -induced galls in a heterologous system. (
  • Besides revealing the molecular pathways that stem cells employ, the discovery also can help scientists better understand why stem cells--in both plants and animals--give rise to specialized cells at all. (
  • According to Nessler, the method plants use to produce vitamin C is virtually unknown to scientists. (
  • Scientists have identified a gene that enables wheat crops to fight off stem rust, a dreaded fungus that blights wheat fields with rusty brown lesions and reduces yields. (
  • Scientists beat back the fungus by breeding wheat containing a few effective resistance genes. (
  • Plant scientists aim to fight back with genes that confer resistance to Ug99. (
  • In 1984 Australian scientists identified a strain of Ug99-resistant wild wheat and traced its resistance to a gene they called Sr35 , for stem rust 35. (
  • This meeting brings together a group of international scientists with interests in plant gene expression. (
  • But scientists have not yet been able to find a drug to inhibit MYC, one of the first cancer-causing genes discovered and one of the most well studied. (
  • The scientists investigated the parasite's microRNAs as they entered the host and discovered that microRNAs are shutting off specific genes in the host plant. (
  • A new gene shown to be essential for pollen production in flowering plants has been discovered by scientists at Penn State University. (
  • The scientists found that meiosis in the mutant plant proceeded completely normally until the very last step, when the cells failed to divide and the pollen grains never formed. (
  • The book is addressed to scientists working on plant biology and recombination, to newcomers in the field and to advanced biology students. (
  • John Innes Centre scientists have found that plants may cluster the genes needed to make defence chemicals. (
  • With a goal of breeding resilient crops that are better able to withstand drought and disease, University of California San Diego scientists have developed the first CRISPR-Cas9-based gene drive in plants. (
  • I am delighted that this gene drive success, now achieved by scientists affiliated with TIGS in plants, extends the generality of this work previously demonstrated at UC San Diego, to be applicable in insects and mammals. (
  • RNAi gene silencing technology has enabled scientists to develop a safflower seed oil that contains more than 90 per cent oleic acid, a valuable fatty acid for industrial applications. (
  • UPTON, NY-Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory have identified the key genes required for oil production and accumulation in plant leaves and other vegetative plant tissues. (
  • What would happen in leaves, the scientists wondered, if they activated the gene for oleosin along with PDAT? (
  • When scientists 'fixed' human embryos carrying a defect in a gene linked to a form of developmental heart condition, they found that the error was fixed from the complementary region of the corresponding healthy chromosome, rather than the supplied patch. (
  • According to Christoph Benning, MSU professor of biochemistry and molecular biology and a member of the research team, the scientists were looking for genes that turn other genes on and off and are tied to cell membranes. (
  • The Delhi scientists have now shown through laboratory experiments that modifying cotton or tobacco with Cry1Ac has a detrimental effect on these plants. (
  • But scientists caution that the study describes observations and the mechanism of how the toxin harms host plants remains unclear. (
  • So far, scientists haven't found any genes similar to ELF4 outside the plant kingdom," Amasino says. (
  • Sneaky parasitic weeds may be able to steal genes from the plants they are attacking and then use those genes against the host plant, according to a team of scientists. (
  • California has been experiencing the worst drought in 500 years, and it's had scientists wondering how plants could survive a hotter, dryer planet in the future. (
  • Well, the scientists experimented further, and found lower-than-normal levels of toxic compounds in the SP1-juiced plants. (
  • With this knowledge, scientists could engineer plants to over-express for the SP1 gene, and possibly survive the harsh conditions our planet will likely face in the coming decades thanks to climate change. (
  • In the online journal eLIFE , a large international group of scientists, led by investigators at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, have traced the thousands of genes in a plant that are activated once ethylene, a gas that acts as a plant growth hormone, is released. (
  • Teasing out the specific genes that perform each of these discrete functions from the many genes found to be activated by ethylene might allow scientists to produce plant strains that slow down growth when needed, accelerate or prevent ripening, retard rotting or make plants more resistant to disease, says the senior investigator, Joseph R. Ecker , of Salk's Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Laboratory . (
  • They found that thousands of genes in the plant responded to EIN3. (
  • Plant Molecular Biology 24:105-117, 1994. (
  • Candidates should have a Ph.D. in a relevant biological science, more than three years experience in plant molecular biology and demonstrated expertise in the area of plant gene expression. (
  • While older GMO technology typically adds new DNA to a crop or animal, gene editing can swiftly cause a mutation by changing a few pieces of DNA code, such as with the CRISPR/Cas9 tool, a type of molecular scissor technology that can be used to edit DNA. (
  • and molecular diversity studies of such genes are thus of interest in testing these ideas and gaining an understanding of the combined effects of both balancing selection and recombination across this region. (
  • Furthermore, biotechnology facilitates the discovery and elucidation of the molecular interactions between plants and pathogens. (
  • Understanding the molecular basis of plant-pathogen interactions increases our ability to deploy selected plant resistance genes from virtually any plant. (
  • Phytoalexins are low-molecular weight compounds of a non-proteinaceous nature with antimicrobial and antifungal activity produced by plants after exposure to microorganisms. (
  • These molecular tests indicate that our mutant plants have absolutely no tapetum cells and that they have additional microsporocytes where the tapetum cells normally should be," Ma says. (
  • Then, using standard molecular techniques, they revealed the identity of the jumping gene's location in that plant-within the gene whose pollen-production function they suspected was being disabled by the presence of the jumping gene. (
  • We have led the way in the development of what has been hailed as a major breakthrough in molecular biology: silencing gene expression by RNA interference (RNAi). (
  • This discovery generated considerable excitement among developmental biologists, not least because the isolation of animal homeobox genes a few years earlier had revolutionized our understanding of the molecular basis of metazoan development and evolution. (
  • The findings of the research team now support at a molecular level the complementation model hypothesized in 1917, which suggests that beneficial heritable characters from both parental lines complement deleterious or absent characters in the hybrid plant. (
  • Working with plant molecular biologist Richard Amasino in the Department of Biochemistry, Doyle identified the new gene, which they called early flowering 4 (ELF4). (
  • Molecular nitrogen (N 2 ) composes about 78% of the atmosphere, but it is fairly stable, and so, it remains useless to most plants. (
  • Developments in omics technologies have enabled unprecedented views of plants across scales, from the molecular to the ecosystem level. (
  • Craig Nessler, head of plant physiology, pathology, and weed science at Virginia Tech, has found that by transferring certain rat genes into lettuce, he can turn on the plant's latent Vitamin-C-producing pathway. (
  • This week we continue our systematic review of a plant's sensory systems by exploring responses to tactile stimulation (in other words, what a plant feels). (
  • What is useful in one plant/pathogen system may be transferred to another, increasing the recipient plant's ability to defend itself from a previously uncontrollable pathogen. (
  • Toru Fujiwara of the University of Tokyo, Japan and colleagues increased the activity of the plant's BOR1 gene, which controls the uptake of boron. (
  • And, perversely, the fungus uses the plant's own RISCs to silence the plant's defense genes. (
  • Gene controls plant's clock and flow. (
  • According to Stuttmann, this is a major progress: 'As far as I know, our group has been the first to successfully address so many target genes at once. (
  • The target genes of the FIS complexes are not known, but they are likely to be key players in initiating developmental programs in the zygote. (
  • 1982) "Transformation in plants: potential and reality," (Abstract of Conference paper from University of Nottingham). (
  • Understanding the evolutionary driving forces behind their assembly will give insights into why some plant product pathways are maintained in these clusters whilst others are not, and this may have implications for our understanding of plant metabolism. (
  • Analysis of these genes shows that their functions range from respiration to metabolism, and that some of them have even replaced the parasites own gene activity. (
  • The research group also found that some genes involved in dhurrin synthesis and metabolism were triggered in response to safeners too. (
  • When integrated with computational modeling and data analysis, these technologies have the potential to greatly enhance understanding of critical plant processes such as metabolism, development, and inter/intraspecies signaling and communications. (
  • Plant Gene publishes papers that focus on the regulation , expression , function and evolution of genes in plants, algae and other photosynthesizing organisms (e.g., cyanobacteria), and plant-associated microorganisms. (
  • BRUSSELS (Reuters) - Crops obtained by plant breeding technique mutagenesis should fall under laws restricting the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), Europe's highest court said on Wednesday, in a victory for environmental campaigners. (
  • However, most organisms have defense mechanisms to prevent foreign genes from affecting them. (
  • Sequence-specific nucleases ( SSN s) have been used successfully in homology-directed repair ( HDR )-mediated gene targeting ( GT ) in many organisms. (
  • We don't yet know how they are being exchanged in terms of the mechanism, but it seems that many different organisms, including plants, fungi and insects, are using microRNAs as remote signals against other organisms. (
  • These gene editing tools can be used to cut the DNA of organisms at specific sites. (
  • Plant-fungus interactions could play a part in a multi-horizontal gene transfer pathway among many other organisms. (
  • Genes are found in living organisms and are passed on from one generation to the next. (
  • This continuous development contrasts with how animals develop and allows for plasticity in plant form, such that plants (which are sessile organisms) can readily modify their development in response to environmental cues. (
  • Vertical gene transfer is that between parents and their offspring, while horizontal gene transfer is the movement of genes between two different organisms. (
  • Plants, as sessile organisms, have evolved intricate mechanisms to adapt to various environmental changes and challenges. (
  • Ray Mowling, a vice president for Monsanto Canada in Mississauga, concedes to the Washington Post that some cross-pollination does occur between Monsanto's genetically modified plants and other plants. (
  • RNAi technology can be used to identify which genes are responsible for particular traits so that breeders can produce non-genetically modified plants. (
  • The European Union (EU) has very strict regulations for genetically modified plants, but gene editing challenges the basis of the legislation. (
  • Shortly after he and his colleagues had successfully introduced the gene into lettuce, another scientist's paper stated that plant and animal biochemical pathways differed so much that animal genes could not work in plants. (
  • He theorizes that plants may have both plant and animal pathways, or that there may be a stronger connection between the pathways than previous research has shown. (
  • The similarities between the defense signaling pathway in tomato leaves and those of the defense signaling pathways of macrophages and mast cells of animals suggests that both the plant and animal pathways may have evolved from a common ancestral origin. (
  • Plants have evolved a number of transcription factors, many of which are implicated in signaling pathways as well as regulating diverse cellular functions. (
  • The BBM gene has been implicated to play an important role as a gene marker in multiple signaling developmental pathways in plant development. (
  • This temporal integration of hormone pathways allows plants to fine tune phytohormone responses for seasonal and shade-appropriate growth regulation. (
  • As global negative regulators of transcription, the FIS/Polycomb complexes may control different pathways through the silencing of key genes. (
  • BER solicited applications that address the challenges and opportunities in associating gene(s) to function (i.e., genotype to phenotype) in plant systems of relevance to the BER mission in energy and the environment, with the goal of elucidating and validating the functional roles of genes, gene families, and associated pathways. (
  • 1983), "A chimaeric antibiotic resistance gene as a selectable marker for plant cell transformation," Nature 304:184-187. (
  • Unfortunately, without knowing the precise location of the resistance gene, it is difficult to separate it from the other genes. (
  • Five years ago, Dubcovsky and Akhunov set out to identify the actual gene responsible for the resistance to Ug99, to separate it from other undesirable genes and better understand its mode of action. (
  • Then the team asked which of those genes was necessary for stem rust resistance. (
  • CNL9, or Sr35 as it may now be called, is part of a large family of disease resistance genes in plants. (
  • While current commercial wheat varieties possesses many resistance genes, most of them lack the one that recognizes and responds to Ug99 and related fungi. (
  • Recombinant DNA technology allows the enhancement of inherent plant responses against a pathogen by either using single dominant resistance genes not normally present in the susceptible plant (Keen 1999) or by choosing plant genes that intensify or trigger the expressions of existing defense mechanisms (Bent and Yu 1999, Rommens and Kishore 2000). (
  • Ideally a plant could be engineered to show an incompatible reaction with an invading pathogen that leads to localized cell death through HR by transforming it with an appropriate plant resistance gene or an elicitor molecule. (
  • Although we have yet to apply this sophisticated approach to bolster plant resistance networks, individual components of such systems are being tried with different degrees of success. (
  • Disease resistance genes (R genes), as part of the plant defense system, have coevolved with corresponding pathogen molecules. (
  • An EFSA statement[1] has been published today that provides a consolidated overview of the use of antibiotic resistance marker genes (ARMG)[2] in GM plants, including a joint scientific opinion of the GMO and BIOHAZ Panels. (
  • Uncertainties in this opinion are due to limitations related, among others, to sampling and detection, as well as challenges in estimating exposure levels and the inability to assign transferable resistance genes to a defined source. (
  • Two members of the BIOHAZ Panel expressed minority opinions concerning the possibility of adverse effects of antibiotic resistance marker genes on human health and the environment. (
  • Recent analyses of total bacterial populations using the most advanced technologies[4] have demonstrated that resistance genes to the antibiotics kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin are present in all environments investigated. (
  • The presence of antibiotics in the environment and antibiotic usage are key factors in driving the selection and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. (
  • However, he rejects Monsanto's claim that Schmeiser infringed on the company's patent when he planted the crop since the presence of Monsanto's Roundup Resistance canola was not a result of any deliberate action on the part of Schmeiser. (
  • Subsequent functional bioassays confirmed that the gene stacks conferred a high level of resistance against both insects and phytopathogens. (
  • It was not regulated by PhoP, which controls the expression of some genes involved in AMP resistance, but was regulated by ArcA, which has been identified as an activator of genes involved in AMP resistance. (
  • Two other genes involved in resistance to AMPs have also been characterized, phoS and phoH . (
  • Decreased fitness of the dltB , phoS , and phoH mutants in chicory leaves indicates that their products are important for resistance to plant AMPs. (
  • Two other new genes involved in resistance were also analyzed. (
  • Plant Gene encourages submission of novel manuscripts that present a reasonable level of analysis, functional relevance and/or mechanistic insight. (
  • Plant Gene also welcomes papers that have predominantly a descriptive component but improve the essential basis of knowledge for subsequent functional studies, or provide important confirmation of recently published discoveries. (
  • Lateral transfers of large DNA fragments spread functional genes among grasses. (
  • Stan D. Wullschleger and Stephen P. Difazio, "Emerging Use of Gene Expression Microarrays in Plant Physiology," Comparative and Functional Genomics , vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 216-224, 2003. (
  • By recording the content of the messages (called mRNA) of all the genes in each of the 19 different strains, we have captured information vital to understand which genes are functional in a given strain. (
  • To maintain functional incompatibility, the SCR and SRK genes must be in linkage disequilibrium, with each haplotype carrying alleles at the two loci that are recognized as incompatible. (
  • This is the first large scale analysis of TCP-like genes in Asparagales that will serve as a platform for in-depth functional studies in emerging model monocots. (
  • Differential gene expression patterns of the nTNL genes were often found to correlate with number of introns and GC content, suggesting structural and functional divergence. (
  • Their yield increases significantly when plant breeders make use of the heterosis effect: "Heterozygous hybrids are significantly more vigorous than homozygous varieties" says Prof. Dr. Frank Hochholdinger, chair of Crop Functional Genomics at the University of Bonn. (
  • Current limitations in our understanding of the individual functional components of a given biological system represent a major obstacle to answering fundamental questions in plant biology. (
  • Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Plant Physiology. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the Plant Physiology web site. (
  • The big news is that we now have evidence of a function for RNA that is being exchanged between dodder and its quarry," said Jim Westwood, professor of plant pathology, physiology, and weed science in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, an author of the paper. (
  • Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 42(4), 299-306. (
  • Plant Physiology, 141(3), 1106-1119. (
  • Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. (
  • Once you've taken this course, if you are interested in a more in-depth study of plants, check out my follow-up course, Fundamentals of Plant Biology. (
  • In the traits that Mendel studied, the rule that only one gene determines a specific trait, for example the colour of the peas, happened to apply,' says plant geneticist Dr Johannes Stuttmann from the Institute of Biology at MLU. (
  • Written by a highly respected team of specialists in plant biology with extensive experience in teaching at undergraduate and graduate level, this textbook will be invaluable for students and instructors alike. (
  • It is also an invaluable starting point for professionals entering the field of plant biology. (
  • His research focuses on plant systems biology. (
  • High-throughput automatic sequencing machines at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology in Tbingen helped to identify the gene transcripts. (
  • The findings, published in Current Biology [1 August], explain how a 450-million years ago a switch enabled plants to delay reproduction and grow shoots, leaves and buds. (
  • A KNOX-cytokinin regulatory module predates the origin of indeterminate vascular plants by Y Coudert, Ondrej Novak, C.J Harrison in Current Biology. (
  • These approaches are used to study such problems as organ development, plant-pathogen interactions & plant energy biology. (
  • A breakthrough in the employment of antisense ODN inhibition as a powerful approach in plant biology was recently presented through our work on intact barley leaves. (
  • However, a substantial amount of computational systems biology analyses lack experimental validation of gene function and are purely correlative or computationally inferred. (
  • Thus, Agrobacterium T-complex trafficking through the plant cell is an excellent and unique model system to study a large number of important and diverse plant cell biology processes. (
  • The vectors that we shall develop, and the cDNAs that we shall express from these vectors, will serve a large segment of the plant cell biology community. (
  • He said the next step in the research is to determine the role of GTL1 in a crop plant. (
  • Professor of Plant Science Mark Tester, who led the project team, said: 'Quinoa was the staple 'Mother Grain' that fuelled the ancient Andean civilisations, but the crop was marginalised when the Spanish arrived in South America and has only recently been revived as a new crop of global interest. (
  • Their findings may provide a way to discover new natural plant products of use as drugs, herbicides or crop protectants. (
  • This advance will revolutionize plant and crop breeding and help address the global food security problem. (
  • Viruses are a significant problem in many of Australia's crop plants, so having virus-resistant plants can mean many benefits to farmers, the environment and the economy. (
  • If we can transfer this strategy to crop plants being used to generate renewable energy or to feed livestock, it would significantly increase their energy content and nutritional values," said Brookhaven biochemist Changcheng Xu, who led the research. (
  • If we can transfer this strategy to crop plants being used to generate renewable energy or to feed livestock, it would significantly increase their energy content and nutritional values. (
  • Monsanto claims that in 1998, Schmeiser planted 1,030 acres with seed from his 1997 canola crop containing a gene or cell that was protected by Monsanto's 1993 (see February 23, 1993 ) patent on glyphosate-resistant plants and that he did so without permission from Monsanto. (
  • Terry Zakreski, Schmeiser's attorney, does not deny that the some of the canola plants in Schmeiser's 1998 crop contained Monsanto's patent-protected Roundup-resistant gene. (
  • Independent studies have earlier shown that levels of Cry1Ac in some commercial GM cotton decline progressively over the life-cycle of the plant and are produced at such low levels in vulnerable parts of the crop that insects can continue to consume them. (
  • Farmers throughout the world struggle with these types of parasitic plants, which are so numerous in some areas of the world that they become a major source of crop loss. (
  • In future, it will also be possible to test random combinations of several genes in order to identify redundancies. (
  • it photosynthesises with genes "stolen" from the algae it eats. (
  • She has known for some time that E. chlorotica acquires chloroplasts - the green cellular objects that allow plant cells to convert sunlight into energy - from the algae it eats, and stores them in the cells that line its gut. (
  • One possibility is that, as the algae are processed in the sea slug's gut, the gene is taken into its cells as along with the chloroplasts. (
  • CLE peptides are involved in cellular development and response to stress, and they are present throughout the plant kingdom, from green algae to flowering plants. (
  • Elysia chlorotica , as it is known in the scientific community, has previously been recognized as a creature that's able to photosynthesize by acquiring plant organelles from the algae it eats, but a recent study reveals that the brilliant sea slug is actually incorporating some of the genes from the algae into its own DNA. (
  • This expression correlates with overrepresentation of a cis-acting element (CACATG) in phytohormone gene promoters, which is sufficient to confer the predicted diurnal and circadian expression patterns in vivo. (
  • Expression of the examined aaRS genes in stress correlated well with the length of their predicted promoters and a number of available binding sites for the stress related transcription factors. (
  • As part of an investigation of the phylogeny of Gnetum (Gnetales, gymnosperms), we studied the distribution of a group II intron in the mitochondrial (mt) nad1 gene, which encodes subunit 1 of the respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase. (
  • The other necessary genes are found in the algae's nuclear DNA. (
  • They then turned their attention to the sea slug's own DNA and found one of the vital algal genes was present. (
  • Now a team from the University of Georgia in Athens and The Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation in Ardmore, Oklahoma, has found that four-leaf mutants develop with a variant of this gene that removes the block. (
  • However, very few studies have found the genes responsible for flower-color variation associated with demonstrated cases of plant speciation ( Rieseberg and Blackman 2010 ). (
  • GTL1 is the first transcription factor to have been found to actively down-regulate the growth of plant cells. (
  • This structure is found in many other cancer-causing genes, or oncogenes, which means that Silvestrol is able to inhibit other important oncogenes in addition to MYC . (
  • Silvestrol is a natural product found in a plant called Aglaia foveolata , which is native to Indonesia, Brunei, and Malaysia. (
  • The remaining two genes were found to be homologous to CENH3 . (
  • Interestingly, we also found that overexpression of switchgrass histone H3 and CENH3 genes in N. benthamiana could trigger cell death of the transformed plant cells. (
  • A paper describing the team's discovery of the gene, whose activity they found is necessary for the formation of cells required for pollen production, will be published in the 1 August 2002 issue of the journal Genes and Development. (
  • But we found that no cells in the developing anther of our mutant plants ever grew into tapetum cells," he says. (
  • Ma and his team cultivated plants that contained this jumping gene and found one plant that did not produce pollen. (
  • After testing the expression of around 500 genes we found no changes to indicate a stress response in the cod. (
  • Publishing in the journal Science , they identified a gene cluster for a new pathway that makes and modifies a triterpene called thalianol, which has not been found in plants before. (
  • If a fingerprint is found, then it proves that the corresponding gene is active. (
  • By looking at the transcriptome (the transcribed products of switched on genes) they found 49 genes transcribed by the parasite, accounting for 2% of their total transcriptome, which originally belonged to the host. (
  • What's more, the complicated network of gene interactions found in the simple sea anemone resembles that found in widely divergent, more complex animals. (
  • The team found the sea anemone's simple anatomy hides a complicated network of gene interactions, similar to those found in higher animals such as fruit flies and humans. (
  • We found no editing in any of the plants, but unsure why this would be the case and what we could do to ensure editing in the future? (
  • They found specific genes and gene regions that were switched on in the safener-treated plants, and they were genes that coded for two GSTs. (
  • The book "Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants: The Role of Transcript Structure and Processing" describes how structural differences in RNA transcripts can affect gene expression in plants. (
  • The histone modifications do not alter the DNA sequence, but do alter the structure of the chromatin, which affects the expression of the genes. (
  • Gene silencing controlled by marks in the chromatin occurs in both animals and plants. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer could bypass eukaryotic barrier features like linear chromatin-based chromosomes, intron-exon gene structures, and the nuclear envelope. (
  • Gene regulation in plants occurs via epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation, chromatin structure, and noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). (
  • This book summarizes current knowledge and working hypotheses about the frequencies and mechanisms of mitochondrial, plastid, nuclear and viral recombination and the inactivation of repeated genes in plants. (
  • All the cells in an organism contain the same information in their DNA so that, in order that two different cellular types can exist and that there can be two different development processes, the genes that are not needed at a specific moment have to be switched off. (
  • Furthermore, it is often not possible to find out precisely from which organism an ARM gene present in another organism may have originated nor to give a precise estimation of the extent of the phenomenon[5]. (
  • The achievement paves the way to developing better varieties of crops and plants. (
  • Although Nessler does not think that lettuce enriched in Vitamin C through rat genes will ever be commercially available, he does hope that his research will result in more acceptable ways to turn on latent vitamin production in lettuce and other crops. (
  • Understanding how plant cells grow and develop is essential to achieving increases in the size and yield of crops, one of the fundamental goals of plant science research. (
  • Gene editing has the potential to make hardier and more nutritious crops - as well as offering drug companies new ways to fight human disease. (
  • The European Union has long restricted the use of GMOs widely adopted around the world, but there was legal uncertainty as to whether modern gene editing of crops should fall under the same rules. (
  • Dodder, a parasitic plant that levies millions of dollars' worth of damage on crops each year is a stealthy invader with the ability to wage war on the genes of its host plants. (
  • Plant breeders eventually may be able to use this information to control pollination in important agricultural crops such as wheat, rice, and soybeans, where such control previously has not been feasible. (
  • It increases plants' susceptibility to diseases and affects flower development and seed growth, causing a decline in quality in crops such as rice and wheat. (
  • This discovery furthers our basic understanding of how genes regulate plant shape, which could inform efforts to engineer shape and improve the yield of future crops. (
  • That may allow plant breeders to create new varieties of crops that flourish in warmer, drier climates. (
  • Gene silencing is relevant for agricultural biotechnology because stable expression of transgenes is required for the successful commercialization of genetically engineered crops. (
  • We expect the gene to behave the same way in crops like wheat as it does in cress," lead researcher Paul Jarvis told (
  • Dr Schumacher continues: "The motivation for this study was to find out how having a duplicated gene could provide Pseudomonas syringae with the 'edge' in terms of evolutionary advantage. (
  • Colors also signal reward ( Hamilton and Zuk 1982 ), or possibly atavistic preferences ( Ryan 1998 ), and drive fundamental evolutionary processes such as sexual selection in animals ( Andersson 1994 ) and pollination preferences in plants ( Grant 1949 ). (
  • Ecological association can facilitate horizontal gene transfer in plants and fungi and is an unstudied factor in shared evolutionary histories. (
  • The evolutionary history of the pathway could have been influenced by a prokaryote-to-eukaryote gene transfer event. (
  • Finally, we consider how evolutionary changes in KNOX gene regulation may have influenced plant diversity. (
  • Using phylogenetic analysis, the team traced ShContig9483's origins to sorghum genes, strongly suggesting recent horizontal transfer from host to parasite, possibly as mRNA or cDNA. (
  • Similarly, lox P1 mRNA levels increase rapidly when pea plants are wilted. (
  • AGO is an endonuclease that cleaves the target mRNA, thereby effectively silencing the corresponding gene. (
  • Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. (
  • We used Hidden Markov Models for sequence identification, performed model-based phylogenetic analyses, visualized chromosomal positioning, inferred gene clustering, and assessed gene expression profiles. (
  • This process is what is known as gene silencing. (
  • Importantly, the small remnants of the messenger RNA can then function like additional microRNAs, binding to other copies of the messenger RNA, causing further gene silencing. (
  • It remains unclear how post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants discriminates aberrant RNAs from canonical messenger RNAs (mRNAs). (
  • What is RNAi gene silencing? (
  • Because of its effect on RNA, gene silencing is also referred to as RNA interference (RNAi). (
  • In the 1990s, CSIRO's research led to the discovery of this naturally occurring gene silencing mechanism in plants. (
  • The RISC silencing mechanism can be induced by endogenously expressed sRNAs, as a means of regulating expression of genes involved in various cellular processes, or by the invasion of pathogens, as a means of defense. (
  • This book is an up-to-date and comprehensive collection of reviews on various aspects of epigenetic gene silencing in plants. (
  • The reviews have been written by distinguished authors who have made significant contributions to plant gene silencing research. (
  • This volume supersedes other books on gene silencing by focussing on plant systems, where many pioneering experiments have been performed, and by including the latest developments from top laboratories. (
  • There are many possible vectors, such as plant-fungus-insect interactions. (
  • One of the key goals of the plant, officially named the Lonza Houston Center of Excellence, will be to engineer viruses as gene-therapy vectors-shortages of which have created bottlenecks across the industry in recent years. (
  • 5. Plant Viruses as Vectors. (
  • The work could help plant breeders develop new ornamental varieties or breed "lucky" four-leaf clovers routinely. (
  • An Iowa State University agronomist is charting mechanisms - gene by gene - that could lead to soybean varieties resistant to sudden death syndrome. (
  • A group of French agricultural associations brought the case to the ECJ, saying plant varieties obtained via mutagenesis should not be exempt from GMO rules under French law. (
  • The chromosome region carrying Sr35 that was transferred to bread wheat is too long and carries other detrimental genes that have limited its use in commercial varieties. (
  • Until now, plant breeders use extensive field trials to find out which combinations of the thousands of various corn varieties result in efficient hybrids. (
  • Over the course of half a billion years of evolution, plants have evolved from tiny and simple ground-hugging forms into diverse and complex varieties that abound the Earth today, from the garden rose to the 100-metre tall redwood tree. (
  • How these different traits are inherited and how to select for them has long puzzled plant breeders and geneticists. (
  • This article discusses possible implications of new insights into the gene concept on the work of plant breeders. (
  • Advanced vocational training of plant breeders must be continuously maintained, focusing on phenotype-based selection in as accurate as possible experiments. (
  • In terms of scientific knowledge, the concept of genes/alleles is of course, primarily essential for plant breeders. (
  • 2010). It is an open question how the gene concept will affect the work of breeders in the future. (
  • The purpose of this review is to approach the changing concept of genes and specifically discuss the implications of current insights into gene regulation and action on the work of plant breeders in the coming years. (
  • Plant breeders have known this for more than 100 years and used this effect called heterosis for richer harvests. (
  • Though Canada's Plant Breeders' Rights Act protects the intellectual property rights of seed developers, Monsanto felt a patent would provide more protection since it would deny farmers the right to save and re-use seeds containing the company's patented genes and cells. (
  • The discovery stems from scientist Maria Harrison's focus on plants' symbiotic relationships with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. (
  • AM fungi colonize plant roots, creating an interface where the plant trades fatty acids for phosphate and nitrogen. (
  • The fungi also can help plants recover from stressful conditions, such as periods of drought. (
  • But feeding the AM fungi with fatty acids is costly, so plants don't let this colonization go unchecked. (
  • Most plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer events are ancient and rare, but they may have provided important gene functions leading to wider substrate use and habitat spread for plants and fungi. (
  • Most horizontal gene transfers from fungi into plants predate the rise of land plants. (
  • Evidence for gene transfer between fungi and eukaryotes is discovered indirectly. (
  • Fourteen candidate plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer events were identified, nine of which showed infrequent patterns of transfer between plants and fungi. (
  • Some plants may have obtained the shikimate pathway from symbiotic fungi. (
  • To address this issue, we examined gene expression of these fungi colonizing aspen (Populus grandidentata) and pine (Pinus strobus). (
  • Such adaptations to the carbon source may also reflect fundamental differences in the mechanisms by which these fungi attack plant cell walls. (
  • The transferred DNA is integrated essentially randomly (no apparent sequence bias at the site of insertion) into the plant chromosomes and normally add bacterial genes that stimulate plant tumour cell growth. (
  • In addition to harboring the chromosomes and supporting the coordinated expression of a host of genes, the nucleus also participates in the transport of a variety of macromolecules to and from the cytoplasm. (
  • The result: Overexpression of the two genes together resulted in a 130-fold increase in production of leaf oil compared with control plants. (
  • They confirmed that if the sea slug used the algal chloroplasts alone, it would not have all the genes needed to photosynthesise. (
  • Tiny organelles within plants called chloroplasts assist in energy-producing photosynthesis. (
  • A gene called SP1 helps those chloroplasts develop. (
  • In their latest experiments, Rumpho and colleagues sequenced the chloroplast genes of Vaucheria litorea , the alga that is the sea slug's favourite snack. (
  • He and his colleagues are using what they've learned from the rat-gene work to try to discover other ways to stimulate the Vitamin C gene in lettuce and other plants. (
  • A variety of poppy that produces high amounts of an alkaloid opiate requires a cluster of genes that encode key biosynthetic enzymes. (
  • The discovery, reported in Science this week, hints at a greater role for horizontal gene transfer in plant evolution. (
  • Among eukaryotic lineages, however, very few natural horizontal transfers have been reported, and none of them involve transfers across groups of seed plants. (
  • Unlike group I introns, at least one of which appears to have been traded within flowering plants ( 16 ), group II introns in plants have been thought to be strictly vertically inherited ( 17 - 19 ), and the only known horizontal transfer of a group II intron in eukaryotes occurred in haptophytes, marine unicellular flagellates ( 20 ). (
  • If the origin of the two copies in Gnetum could be traced, this might provide evidence for horizontal gene transfer, adding a new dimension to our understanding of group II intron evolution. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer research often focuses on prokaryotes because of the abundant sequence data from diverse lineages, and because it is assumed not to play a significant role in eukaryotes. (
  • Fungus-plant-mediated horizontal gene transfer can occur via phagotrophic mechanisms (mediated by phagotrophic eukaryotes) and nonphagotropic mechanisms. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer occurs between microorganisms sharing overlapping ecological niches and associations like parasitism or symbiosis. (
  • The hypothesis incorporates the "continual hypothesis", which states that horizontal gene transfer is constantly occurring in operational genes. (
  • Plant-fungus horizontal gene transfer could take place during plant infection. (
  • It is possible that the shikimate pathway and the pentafunctional arom have their ancient origins in eukaryotes or were conveyed by eukaryote-eukaryote horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Recent studies have shown that plants can also use horizontal gene transfer, especially parasitic plants and their hosts due to their intimate physical connections. (
  • Prof Charles Davis, from the Harvard University Herbaria, who co-led this project with Prof Joshua Rest from Stony Brook University, explained, "The elevated rate of horizontal gene transfer between T. rafflesiae and its parasite R. cantleyi raises the possibility that there is a 'fitness' benefit to the parasite. (
  • Parasitic plants seem to have a far greater rate of horizontal gene transfer than non-parasitic plants and we think this is because of their very intimate connection they have with their host," said dePamphilis. (
  • Future research may investigate the mechanism of horizontal gene transfer to help engineer improved plant defenses against parasitic attacks, dePamphilis said. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer is more frequent with increased heterotrophy and contributes to parasite adaptation. (
  • Localization and deletion analyses of the histone H3 and CENH3 genes revealed that nuclear localization of the N-terminal tail is essential and sufficient for triggering the cell death phenotype. (
  • Our results deliver insight into the mechanisms underlying the histone-triggered cell death phenotype and provide a foundation for further studying the variations of the histone H3 and CENH3 genes in switchgrass. (
  • The evident changes in the available concept of genes confirmed what the past experience had shown, i.e, selection should focus on the phenotype, under the same conditions as the plant is to be cultivated in. (
  • Ever since the domestication of plants, selection has been based on the phenotype. (
  • At the same time, the intention was to provide up-to-date reviews, by expert contributors, on current research topics in plant virology of interest and referential use to virologists and plant biologists. (
  • Its discovery constitutes a key step toward understanding the mechanisms of plant cell growth, offering new directions for research and promising further advances in agricultural production. (
  • Recent discoveries about the BBM gene will inevitably help to unlock the long-standing mysteries of different biological mechanisms of plant cells. (
  • A better understanding of these mechanisms could help breeding particularly resistant plants for soil remediation. (
  • In order to be able to use adapted plants for remediation, we need to know the exact mechanisms of heavy metal adaptation,' says plant physiologist Pierre Vollenweider from WSL. (
  • When a plant is attacked by a parasite it initiates a number of defense mechanisms. (
  • Although it has been established that a number of plant genes change their expression pattern during giant cell differentiation, virtually no data are available about the mechanisms involved in that change. (
  • We were wondering why we didn t have any edits in our wheat plants using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and what we could possibly do to ensure we would have edits in the future? (
  • Disruption of either gene caused a reduction in nuclear size and altered nuclear morphology. (
  • Moreover, combining linc1 and linc2 mutations had an additive effect on nuclear size and morphology but a synergistic effect on chromocenter number (reduction) and whole-plant morphology (dwarfing). (
  • although a distinct nuclear lamina has not been unequivocally identified in yeast or plants. (
  • In plant cells, the T-complex likely interacts with cellular factors that mediate cytoplasmic trafficking, nuclear import, and T-DNA integration (Figure 1). (
  • Gene expression analyses suggested unique patterns of expression for each of the CNL clades. (
  • Despite their different patterns of growth, similar genes are responsible for elongating the stems of mosses and plants with more elaborate shoots. (
  • Identification of specific genes and enzymes involved in conversion of lignocellulosics from an expanding number of potential feedstocks is of growing interest to bioenergy process development. (
  • Think about it in the familiar terms of calories: Oil is twice as energy-dense as carbohydrates, which make up the bulk of leaves, stems, and other vegetative plant matter. (
  • But plants don't normally store much oil in their leaves and other vegetative tissues. (
  • The first step was to identify the genes responsible for oil production in vegetative plant tissues. (
  • The discovery adds a new piece to the still-unfinished puzzle of how plants regulate the transition from vegetative growth to flowering, and control their daily rhythmic activity. (
  • BLACKSBURG, Va., July 27, 2001 - Genes from the lowly rat may hold the key to increasing Vitamin C in the world's food supply. (
  • Caption: Genes control Flowering Development in Plants: Mendelian Genes Define the Commitment to Flowering- Understanding Plant Genes-The Cauliflower Gene-The "fruit-full" gene. (
  • Plants can naturally control the opening and closing of stomata, pores that take in carbon dioxide and release water. (
  • Of the 20 genes known to control stomata, SDD1 was highly expressed in the mutant. (
  • Little plant tells big stories ( Understanding which genes control tr. (
  • Understanding which genes control traits like when a plant will flowe. (
  • Understanding which genes control traits, like when a plant will flower, what soil type is best or its ability to persist in drought conditions provides insight into the ability of plants to adapt to new environments. (
  • Braybrook SA, Stone SL, Park S, Bui AQ, Le BH, Fischer RL, Goldberg RB, Harada JJ (2006) Genes directly regulated by LEAFY COTYLEDON2 provide insight into the control of embryo maturation and somatic embryogenesis. (
  • The identified genes control the reactions of plants to adverse environmental conditions. (
  • It holds tremendous promise as a therapeutic agent to control disease and prevent infection in plant and animal cells and has been adopted by research and biotechnology laboratories around the world. (
  • But when the plant is stressed by heat, one end of bZIP28 is cut off and moves into the nucleus of the cell where it can turn on other genes to control the heat response. (
  • Our primary interest is in understanding what this new gene does to control flowering, but it may be difficult to separate that from its effects on the clock that determines plant rhythms," says Doyle, a research assistant in the College of Agricultural and Life Sciences. (
  • The HGT discovery is really part of our effort to try to better understand how parasitic plants work and how we can better control them. (
  • First, when EIN3 is activated by ethylene, it goes back to control the genes in the pathway that were used to activate the EIN3 transcription factor in the first place. (
  • It is unclear how they sense the plant tissue environment that triggers infection, but we do know that the regulatory mechanism that controls pili formation is essential in this process. (
  • Due to the different results obtained from animals, for more than a decade it was that the PcG complex action mechanism in plants was similar to that observed in animals, in which the trimethylation mark established by the PRC2 serves to anchor the PRC1, which at the same time has a monoubiqutin effect on the H2A. (
  • This suggests that Agrobacterium transforms human cells by a mechanism similar to that which it uses for transformation of plants cells. (
  • RNA interference is a naturally occurring mechanism that has evolved in plants and animals over millions of years as a defence against viruses. (
  • Their discovery led to a greater understanding of how the mechanism operates, in both plants and animals. (
  • Contrary to prior work, the results demonstrate a nascent mechanism for shoot development as plants first emerged on land and suggest that a change in the timing and location of gene activity triggered the radiation of shooting forms. (
  • High on the list of RNA regulatory activities is RNA interference (RNAi), a mechanism by which certain double-stranded small RNA (sRNA) molecules suppress the expression of specific genes. (
  • We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. (
  • Other animals are able to harness sunlight after eating plants, says Rumpho, but this is only because they acquire entire plant cells, which is very different to transforming an animal cell into a solar-powered plant-animal hybrid. (
  • This invention relates to chimeric genes which are capable of being expressed in plant cells. (
  • This repressed or silenced state of the genes is transmitted to the daughter cells after division so that a cellular memory is established. (
  • The bacterium causes the tumours by transferring genes to the cells of the infected plant cells from a tumour inducing plasmid (Ti). (
  • The Ti plasmid has virulence genes that determine attachment to cells and transfer of a segment of the plasmid, T-DNA, to the plant cell. (
  • Many of the most effective cancer therapies available today have been developed by determining which genes lead cells to become cancerous and figuring out how to block the activity of those genes with drugs. (
  • Plants grow poorly here because the toxins slow down the biological activity in the soil and hinder important processes in the plant cells. (
  • Not only can it withstand extremely high concentrations of heavy metals, but also absorb large quantities of them from the soil and store them harmlessly in its plant cells. (
  • This approach, referred to as gene targeting ( GT ), is accomplished by the introduction of DNA fragments encoding a sequence variant of a gene of interest into cells. (
  • We had previously learned that messenger RNA, a nucleic acid present in all living cells whose primary role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA, moves between parasitic plants and their hosts, but we have yet to discover the significance of this exchange. (
  • In normal plants, a shell-like structure in the anther of a flower, called the tapetum, provides a kind of nest where the pollen cells form. (
  • Whereas in animals the well-defined, protected cells of the germ line separate early, germ cells in plants differentiate from somatic cells only after many cycles of mitotic division. (
  • Therefore somatic mutations in plants can be transmitted via the germ cells to the progeny. (
  • The liver cells were apparently unaffected by the high level of plant meal, says Mr Lie. (
  • In flowering plants, the ovule contains the female gametophyte that is composed of the egg and the central, synergid, and antipodal cells ( Reiser and Fischer, 1993 ). (
  • The team discovered that around 450-million years ago a switch enabled plants to delay reproduction and displace new cells downwards from the shoot tips, paving the way to plant diversification. (
  • These plants, which represent a starting point for plant evolution, are raised upwards by new cells generated in the middle of the stem. (
  • Though oil isn't stored in these tissues, almost all plant cells have the capacity to make oil. (
  • In contrast, overexpressing the gene for PDAT-that is, getting cells to make more of this enzyme-resulted in a 60-fold increase in leaf oil production. (
  • Previous research has shown that the nucleus, the "brain" of the cell, and cytosol, the fluid inside cells, play a role in how plants respond to heat. (
  • It contains events related to the event August 6, 1986: Monsanto Files Patent Application in Canada for Glyphosate-Resistant Plant Genes and Cells . (
  • Canada grants Monsanto patent no. 1313830 for glyphosate-resistant plant genes and cells. (
  • It asserts that the mere action of planting seeds containing Monsanto's patented genes and cells-their presence intentional or not-infringed on the company's patent. (
  • The company further alleges that in doing so Schmeiser illegally used, reproduced, and created genes, cells, plants, and seeds containing the patent-protected genes and cells. (
  • Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. (
  • However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. (
  • Plant-endoparasitic root-knot nematodes feed on specialized giant cells that they induce in the vascular cylinder of susceptible plants. (
  • We have isolated and characterized a genomic clone from tomato containing the promoter region of LEMMI9, one of the few plant genes that have been reported to be highly expressed in galls (predominantly in giant cells). (
  • Maize has a gene cluster for a defence-related compound, and another possible cluster has been reported in rice. (
  • The findings suggest a greater role for HGT in the relationship between parasite plants and their hosts, with deep implications for our understanding of plant evolution. (
  • What distinguishes Pseudomonas syringae from other related pathogens that also use pili to infect plants is that it has duplicated a gene during evolution that is involved in producing the pili. (
  • Their findings fundamentally advance our knowledge of speciation in plants and further open the doors for understanding the evolution of color and its consequences in nature. (
  • With the aim of assessing TCP gene evolution in the Asparagales, we isolated TCP-like genes from publicly available databases and our own transcriptomes of Cattleya trianae (Orchidaceae) and Hypoxis decumbens (Hypoxidaceae). (
  • Although the first plant homeobox gene was cloned over 20 years ago, only recently are we beginning to understand how KNOX genes function in diverse developmental contexts, and how these functions relate to developmental transitions during land plant evolution. (
  • That belies the notion that more complex gene networks always correlate with more elaborate body plans, and also suggests the evolution of this level of gene regulation happened before sea anemones, fruit flies and humans diverged, about 600 million years ago. (
  • Nessler chose to use rats in his research because the gene was readily available and rodents are natural producers of Vitamin C. (
  • With their latest discovery, published in the journal The Plant Cell, research teams at the RIKEN Plant Science Center have marked a major step toward clarifying these origins. (
  • The research teams studied mutants of the Arabidopsi leaf trichome, a specialized epidermal cell that forms a small hair-like outgrowth on plants. (
  • The mutation in the research plants was caused by a gene known as a transposon that has the distinctive ability to jump to different locations along the DNA molecule, inserting itself inside one gene or another. (
  • The results of our studies showed that the stress genes appeared to be unaffected, says researcher Kai Lie from the Aquaculture Nutrition Research Programme at NIFES. (
  • Dr Ben Field, who contributed to the research, said "This suggests that gene clusters, as well as keeping beneficial combinations of genes together, may prevent toxic side-effects by strictly controlling where and when the pathway is switched on. (
  • Research suggests that rising greenhouse gas emissions will make the problem worse as plants are likely to require more nutrients, particularly boron, as levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increase. (
  • New research published today in BioMed Central's open access journal BMC Genomics reveals that the Malaysian parasitic plant Rafflesia cantleyi , with its 50cm diameter flowers, has 'stolen' genes from its host Tetrastigma rafflesiae . (
  • The research is described in two new publications in The Plant Journal and Plant Cell . (
  • Life Technologies offers an extensive product portfolio for gene expression analysis, from transcriptome sequencing and TaqMan® real-time PCR solutions to products for epigenetics research-all aimed at facilitating gene expression analysis in a fast, reliable, and accurate way. (
  • Since then, plant transformation technology has developed rapidly and in the last few years the benefits of this research have become apparent in the commercial production of engineered plants that are resistant to pests and diseases, plants with enhanced or modified traits and plants that are used as factories to produce valuable molecules. (
  • 7. A method according to claim 3, wherein the sequence that causes male sterility is the RIP gene linked to an anther specific promoter. (
  • We show here that single differentially methylated regions (DMRs) correlate with allele-specific expression of two maternally expressed genes in the seed and that one DMR is differentially methylated between gametes. (
  • Nessler says his work is a specific way to do what nature has been doing throughout the earth's history - the hybridization of plants. (
  • But now we have the ability, through biotechnology, to be very specific in what new traits we introduce into plants. (
  • With the precision of the scalpel, we can breed very specific traits into plants. (
  • CSIRO's RNAi technology adapts this naturally occurring process to provide a targeted and specific method of altering gene activity. (
  • One possibility is differential promoter recognition by the transcription factor(s) responsible for the expression of specific genes. (
  • They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. (
  • Cancer can be triggered by activation of oncogenes (ie, cancer genes) or inactivation of cancer suppressing genes. (
  • Some success has been achieved, but much remains to be done and recent findings on gene action and regulation allow the identification of some difficulties, particularly with regard to biotechnological methods, to contribute effectively to the establishment of new cultivars. (
  • The inheritance of traits in plants is rarely as simple and straightforward as Gregor Mendel described. (
  • Parasitic plants 'steal' genes from t. (
  • These parasitic plants that we study from the broomrape family include some of the the world's most devastating agricultural weeds," said dePamphilis. (
  • Inhibitors of the octadecanoid pathway, and a mutation that interrupts this pathway, block the induction of SWRPs by wounding, systemin, and oligosaccharide elicitors, indicating that the octadecanoid pathway is essential for the activation of defense genes by all of these signals. (
  • By comparison, the expression levels of two plant defense genes that lacked Bc-sRNA target sites ( PDF1.2 and BIK) were greatly increased after infection, indicating that suppression was not due to cell death and that some, but not all, plant defense genes are targeted by sRNAs. (