Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Obesity, Abdominal: A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome: HYPOVENTILATION syndrome in very obese persons with excessive ADIPOSE TISSUE around the ABDOMEN and DIAPHRAGM. It is characterized by diminished to absent ventilatory chemoresponsiveness; chronic HYPOXIA; HYPERCAPNIA; POLYCYTHEMIA; and long periods of sleep during day and night (HYPERSOMNOLENCE). It is a condition often related to OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP APNEA but can occur separately.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Bariatric Surgery: Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.United StatesIntra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Mice, Inbred C57BLTriglyceridesMotor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Gastric Bypass: Surgical procedure in which the STOMACH is transected high on the body. The resulting small proximal gastric pouch is joined to any parts of the SMALL INTESTINE by an end-to-side SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS, depending on the amounts of intestinal surface being bypasses. This procedure is used frequently in the treatment of MORBID OBESITY by limiting the size of functional STOMACH, food intake, and food absorption.Gastroplasty: Surgical procedures involving the STOMACH and sometimes the lower ESOPHAGUS to correct anatomical defects, or to treat MORBID OBESITY by reducing the size of the stomach. There are several subtypes of bariatric gastroplasty, such as vertical banded gastroplasty, silicone ring vertical gastroplasty, and horizontal banded gastroplasty.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Body Weights and Measures: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Agouti Signaling Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Schools: Educational institutions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.CyclobutanesNutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Biliopancreatic Diversion: A surgical procedure which diverts pancreatobiliary secretions via the duodenum and the jejunum into the colon, the remaining small intestine being anastomosed to the stomach after antrectomy. The procedure produces less diarrhea than does jejunoileal bypass.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Weight Reduction Programs: Services providing counseling and activities that help overweight individuals to attain a more healthy body weight.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Basal Metabolism: Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Aurothioglucose: A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)JapanPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.BrazilJejunoileal Bypass: A procedure consisting of the SURGICAL ANASTOMOSIS of the proximal part of the JEJUNUM to the distal portion of the ILEUM, so as to bypass the nutrient-absorptive segment of the SMALL INTESTINE. Due to the severe malnutrition and life-threatening metabolic complications, this method is no longer used to treat MORBID OBESITY.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.MexicoHypertriglyceridemia: A condition of elevated levels of TRIGLYCERIDES in the blood.Hyperglycemia: Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Diet, Fat-Restricted: A diet that contains limited amounts of fat with less than 30% of calories from all fats and less than 10% from saturated fat. Such a diet is used in control of HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. (From Bondy et al, Metabolic Control and Disease, 8th ed, pp468-70; Dorland, 27th ed)Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Sleep Apnea, Obstructive: A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.
NHS (7 February 2008). "Childhood obesity is 'in the genes'". NHS. Retrieved 22 July 2013. Martin Jarvis Jane Wardle obituary ... Department, Public Relations (29 July 2008). "Obesity gene works by influencing appetite". King's College London News. ... and established that the FTO gene contributes to obesity in part through effects on eating behaviour styles. This stimulated ... Wardle set up a charity called Weight Concern in 1997 to tackle the rising problem of obesity; which won the Best New Charity ...
... obesity; faulty genes; a family history of kidney cancer; having kidney disease that needs dialysis; being infected with ...
... uncovered new candidate genes, and confirmed already known candidate genes (for homocysteine and vitamin B12 levels) in ... Christakis Nicholas A.; Fowler James H. (2007). "The Spread of Obesity in a Large Social Network Over 32 Years". New England ... Some genes increase risk of atrial fibrillation. Risk of poor memory is increased in middle aged men and women if the parents ... Lifetime risk for obesity is approximately 50%. The "SHARe" project is announced, a genome wide association study within the ...
Factors that increase the risk of kidney cancer include smoking, which can double the risk of the disease; obesity; faulty ... genes; a family history of kidney cancer; having kidney disease that needs dialysis; being infected with hepatitis C; and ...
Central obesity may be present. Complications include hypertension, insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia. The gene ... Type 4 is due to mutations in the PLIN1 gene. It is rare with only a small number of cases reported. Fat loss tends to affect ... Type 3 is due to mutations in the PPARG gene. It is rare with approximately 30 cases reported to date. It is similar to type 2 ... Type 5 is due to mutations in the AKT2 gene. It has been reported in four patients all members of the same family. Fat loss ...
... single gene mutations, obesity, along with other mechanisms.[21] ... Other genetic risk factors: There are at least 10 genes where ... Chu, S. Y.; Callaghan, W. M.; Kim, S. Y.; Schmid, C. H.; Lau, J.; England, L. J.; Dietz, P. M. (2007). "Maternal Obesity and ... Hillier, T. A.; Pedula, K. L.; Schmidt, M. M.; Mullen, J. A.; Charles, M. -A.; Pettitt, D. J. (2007). "Childhood Obesity and ... Children of women with GDM have an increased risk for childhood and adult obesity and an increased risk of glucose intolerance ...
As a recessive gene, Sickle-cell disease is only present if homozygous, with no dominant gene to beat them out. Sickle-cell ... This leads to obesity, which is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies have shown that consuming ... its genes are passed on to the next generation. Some of these genes may increase an organism's fitness while some may even be ... Genes that may have been advantageous in the past may be critically unfit for individuals in today's environment. Natural ...
Mutations in this gene have been associated with early onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, and red hair pigmentation. A study ... The POMC gene is located on chromosome 2p23.3. The POMC gene is expressed in both the anterior and intermediate lobes of the ... Study of obesity associated proopiomelanocortin gene polymorphism: Relation to metabolic profile and eating habits in a sample ... "A Deletion in the Canine POMC Gene Is Associated with Weight and Appetite in Obesity-Prone Labrador Retriever Dogs". Cell ...
2017). "Polymorphisms in the SRNPN gene are associated with obesity susceptibility among Spanish population". J. Gene Med. doi: ... Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated protein N is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNRPN gene.[4][5] ... "Entrez Gene: SNRPN small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N".. *^ White HE, Durston VJ, Harvey JF, Cross NC (2006). " ... "Gene structure, DNA methylation, and imprinted expression of the human SNRPN gene". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 58 (2): 335-46. PMC ...
... (AdipoR1) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOR1 gene. It is a member of the progestin ... Obesity Reviews. 8 (5): 419-23. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2007.00348.x. PMID 17716299. Maruyama K, Sugano S (January 1994). " ... Wang H, Zhang H, Jia Y, Zhang Z, Craig R, Wang X, Elbein SC (August 2004). "Adiponectin receptor 1 gene (ADIPOR1) as a ... "Entrez Gene: ADIPOR1 adiponectin receptor 1". University of Tokyo to investigate data manipulation charges against six ...
Obesity is one consequence of mismatched genes. Known as "metabolic syndrome", this condition is also associated with other ... This trait serves as the main basis for the "thrifty gene hypothesis", the idea that "feast-or-famine conditions during human ... "Most people are simply not designed to eat pasta": evolutionary explanations for obesity in the low-carbohydrate diet movement ... Fast food combined with decreased physical activity means that the "thrifty gene" that once benefit human predecessors now ...
Shell E (January 1, 2002). "Chapter 4: On the Cutting Edge". The Hungry Gene: The Inside Story of the Obesity Industry. ... ISBN 978-1-4223-5243-4. Shell E (January 1, 2002). "Chapter 5: Hunger". The Hungry Gene: The Inside Story of the Obesity ... Okie S (February 11, 2005). "Chapter 2: Obese Twins and Thrifty Genes". Fed Up!: Winning the War Against Childhood Obesity. ... Coleman, DL (1978). "Obese and Diabetes: two mutant genes causing diabetes-obesity syndromes in mice". Diabetologia. 14: 141- ...
Clock genes as a link between addiction and obesity. European Journal of Human Genetics, január 2006, roč. 14, čís. 1, s. 5. ... Effect of fluoxetine and cocaine on the expression of clock genes in the mouse hippocampus and striatum. Neuroscience, 2005, ... "clock genes" (hodinkové gény),[18] ktoré sú spájané aj s účinkom zneužívaných drog a možno aj obezitou.[19][20] ...
"Entrez Gene: LPL lipoprotein lipase". Wang H, Eckel RH (2009). "Lipoprotein lipase: from gene to obesity". Am J Physiol ... The LPL gene is highly conserved across vertebrates. Lipoprotein lipase is involved in lipid transport in the placentae of live ... Wong H, Schotz MC (July 2002). "The lipase gene family". J. Lipid Res. 43 (7): 993-9. doi:10.1194/jlr.R200007-JLR200. PMID ... Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) (EC 3.1.1.34) is a member of the lipase gene family, which includes pancreatic lipase, hepatic lipase ...
Gene regulation[edit]. Main article: Regulation of gene expression. The genome of a given organism contains thousands of genes ... "Heritability of obesity-related traits among Nigerians, Jamaicans and US black people". International Journal of Obesity and ... A gene is represented by one or a few letters. Often a "+" symbol is used to mark the usual, non-mutant allele for a gene.[41] ... This interaction between genes is called epistasis, with the second gene epistatic to the first.[43] ...
K. S. Jayaraman (2005). "'Sumo' rats set researchers on hunt for obesity genes". Nature Medicine. 11 (2): 108. doi:10.1038/ ... "Mice to reveal key to human obesity - The Times of India". The Times Of India. "Australia-India food research partnerships on ... The institute majorly conducts research in obesity, diabetes, food chemistry, dietetics, drug toxicology, and micronutrient ...
Heber D, Carpenter CL (19 April 2011). "Addictive Genes and the Relationship to Obesity and Inflammation". Molecular ... "Dopamine Genes (DRD2/ANKK1-TaqA1 and DRD4-7R) and Executive Function: Their Interaction with Obesity". PLoS ONE. 7 (7): e41482 ... It is now known to be located in the coding region of the ANKK1 gene which controls the synthesis of dopamine in the brain. The ... This gene contains a single nucleotide polymorphism that causes an amino acid substitution within the 11th of 12 ankyrin ...
Manev H, Uz T (2006). "Clock genes as a link between addiction and obesity". European Journal of Human Genetics. 14 (1): 5. doi ... Knowledge of the gene expression of Clock (Clk) and Period2 (Per2), two of the many genes responsible for regulating circadian ... This negative feedback mechanism gives a 24-hour rhythm in the expression of the clock genes. Many genes are suspected to be ... How the gene expression cycle (so-called the core clock) connects to the neural firing remains unknown. Many SCN neurons are ...
Obesity[edit]. Various hereditary forms of obesity have been traced to defects in hypothalamic signaling (such as the leptin ... Other than genetically-stimulated appetite abnormalities, there are physiological ones that do not require genes for activation ... "Journal of Obesity. 2011: 1-10. doi:10.1155/2011/528401. PMC 3178198 . PMID 21949903. Article id:528401.. ... "Journal of Obesity. 2011: 1-10. doi:10.1155/2011/528401. PMC 3178198 . PMID 21949903. Article id:528401.. ...
Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome Lipoedema Phan J, Reue K (2005). "Lipin, a lipodystrophy and obesity gene". Cell Metab. 1 (1): 73-83. ... UCLA/VA Researchers discover fat gene James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: ...
Gene defects in the leptin gene (ob) are rare in human obesity.[78] As of July, 2010, only 14 individuals from five families ... January 1997). "Obese (ob) gene defects are rare in human obesity". Obesity Research. 5 (1): 30-35. doi:10.1002/j.1550- ... Main article: Genetics of obesity § Genes. The thrifty gene hypothesis (also called the famine hypothesis) states that in some ... Shell E (January 1, 2002). "Chapter 4: On the Cutting Edge". The Hungry Gene: The Inside Story of the Obesity Industry. ...
If obesity is redefined using WHR instead of BMI, the proportion of people categorized as at risk of heart attack worldwide ... Pear shaped' genes found - NHS Choices - Health News". www.nhs.uk. Singh D (August 1993). "Adaptive significance of female ... The WHO states that abdominal obesity is defined as a waist-hip ratio above 0.90 for males and above 0.85 for females, or a ... Also, in case the waist is convex rather than concave, such as is the case in pregnancy, different body types, and obesity, the ...
"NCBI Gene summary for DRD2 (interim reference)". "Milkshake study reveals brain's role in obesity". Reuters. 16 October 2008. ... favoring obesity and alcoholism but opposing neuroticism-anxiety and juvenile delinquency. This genetic variation has been ...
These include minimally invasive surgeries to treat cancer and obesity; microsurgeries to restore voice, hearing, and facial ... which allow real-time imaging of tumors and gene therapies during surgery to ensure complete treatment, as well as the nation's ... function; MRI-guided gene therapy for brain cancer; heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy for abdominal cancer; spine and joint ...
Entrez Gene: CNR1 cannabinoid receptor 1 (brain)".. *^ Demuth, D.; Molleman, A. (2006). „Cannabinoid signalling". Life Sciences ... International Journal of Obesity. 30: S13-S18. PMID 16570099. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803272.. ... OMIM: 114610 MGI: 104615 HomoloGene: 7273 IUPHAR: CB1 GeneCards: CNR1 Gene. ... Bonaldo MF, Lennon G, Soares MB (1997). „Normalization and subtraction: two approaches to facilitate gene discovery". Genome ...
... such as diet and obesity, other factors are not, such as increasing age, female gender, and genetics.[10] Obesity is more ... There are a number of rare cases of diabetes that arise due to an abnormality in a single gene (known as monogenic forms of ... Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than ... O'Gorman DJ, Krook A (September 2011). "Exercise and the treatment of diabetes and obesity". The Medical Clinics of North ...
Leptin: the tale of an obesity gene. Diabetes1996;45:1455-62. ... Leptin and the obesity hypoventilation syndrome: a leap of ... The obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is characterised by obesity and hypercapnia while awake in the absence of an ... which lack the gene responsible for production of leptin, demonstrate hypoventilation in addition to marked obesity (Paco2 on ... This impairment of the HCVR in ob/ob mice relative to wild type mice cannot be attributed to the mechanical effects of obesity ...
Gene Sienkiewicz MD Christye Sisson Mary J. Spencer MD, FAAP Sarah Stein MD William Van Stoecker MD Frances J. Storrs MD Erik J ... E66.2 - Morbid (severe) obesity with alveolar hypoventilation. SNOMEDCT:. 190966007 - Extreme obesity with alveolar ... Obesity hypoventilation syndrome. Subscriber Sign In VisualDx Mobile Feedback Select Language Share ... Obstructive sleep apnea is present in the majority (roughly 90%) of patients with obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). Risk ...
Nutrigenomics considers the relationship between specifc nutrients or diet and gene expression and, it is envisaged, will ... prevention of conditions such as obesity and allergy; (5) the appropriate ethical approach to the issues, e.g. the moral ... Issues arising in connection with genes and nutrition policy include both nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics. ...
Sedentary lifestyles, increased obesity and higher average age of populations have had the combined effects of increased ... dietary nutrients, as chemicals and as primary environmental factors that influence evolution, influence gene expression: e.g ... Dietary intake, by influencing gene expression, can become the associative cause of certain chronic diseases like ... which can secondarily cause changes in gene expression (Nutritional genomics: the next frontier in the post-genomic era, Jim ...
The rapidly rising population prevalence of obesity in recent decades has been attributed to an ... Obesity is the result of chronic energy imbalance in a person who consistently takes in more calories from food and drink than ... Table: Selected genes with variants that have been associated with obesity. Gene symbol. Gene name. Gene products role in ... What do genes have to do with obesity?. Obesity is the result of chronic energy imbalance in a person who consistently takes in ...
Stower, H. Narrowing down obesity genes. Nat Med 20, 349 (2014) doi:10.1038/nm.3532 ...
Obesity is in your genes, according to a study which found that one in six people inherits a trait which makes them feel less ... Obesity gene increases appetite. Obesity is in your genes, according to a study which found that one in six people inherits a ... "Weve known for a while that variations in the FTO gene are strongly linked with obesity, but until now we didnt know why. ... People with a mutation in a gene known as FTO have higher levels of a "hunger hormone" in their blood which make them feel ...
Scientists studying the gene maps of thousands of Europeans found three new genetic variations that increase the risk for ... obesity and said that together with what we already know about... ... Childhood Obesity Linked To Newly Discovered Genes. Written by ... The second mutation that was strongly linked to childhood and adult obesity was found in the NPC1 gene, which mouse studies ... As Froguel explained, understanding the genetic basis of obesity is the first step, and once we know which genes are ...
Obesity genes identified. By Sharon Gray. A professor of genetics at Memorial University has discovered 45 genes involved in ... "We discovered for the first time 45 genes induced by overfeeding, and six genes displayed a significant interaction effect ... The 45 genes identified in Dr. Suns study are involved in a wide variety of biological process known to be implicated in the ... "These genes may represent a protective mechanism at the molecular level in lean subjects in response to an energy surplus, and ...
... obesity gene, according to a new study. When this gene was silenced in mice, a drastic reduction of white fat followed. ... a discovery that may hold the key to tackling obesity. Fat cells were reduced after the obesity gene was silenced (left vs. ... "Until now, we did not know how this gene affected obesity. This study shows how fundamental research can address major health ... 50% reduction of white fat in mice with silenced gene The amount of white fat in mice with the silenced gene was reduced by 50 ...
Obesity. Obesity is a condition where there is excess accumulation of body fat which poses a risk to the health of the ... Bariatric SurgeryObesityBulimia NervosaBody Mass IndexLiposuctionBattle of the BulgeDiabesityHunger Fullness and Weight Control ... Maria De Luca, who led the study of 228 women, says that natural variation in the human LAMA5 gene may be a key determinant of ... As to whether the use of flies in a study of human obesity may prove beneficial, Maria said: "Insects store fat like mammals do ...
... those who have genes that put them at high risk for obesity might benefit the most. ... European Association for the Study of Obesity, and head, global obesity program, University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland; ... And though Qi said hes previously reported on how exercise can protect against obesity, the latest analysis did not take that ... Qi serves as director of the Obesity Research Center at the Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, in ...
home/health & living center/ diet & weight management a-z list/ what matters for obesity risk, genes or lifestyle? article ... For years, research into obesity genes has led many Americans to believe that their DNA makes becoming overweight and obese ... Obesity is complex and, unfortunately, will continue to rise at ever increasing levels until we have more robust methods to ... So, your BMI -- a measure of weight divided by height -- in youth appears to be the best predictor of your long-term obesity ...
... they have discovered genes that play key roles in the development of the bone-loss disorder osteoporosis and extreme obesity, ... Obesity is three to five times less prevalent in France than in the United States. To study obesity and the gene in this ... Variations in the BMP2 gene were verified as major risk factors.. The gene associated with obesity was discovered by ... Both the osteoporosis gene and the gene for obesity were patented by their finders. ...
An effort to create a genetic map of obesity has uncovered more than 90 new gene regions related to gaining weight. including ... An effort to create a genetic map of obesity has uncovered more than 90 new gene regions related to gaining weight. including ... But the role of other genes in obesity is not yet understood. The large number of genetic regions involved reinforces the ... Researchers think some genes contribute to how we control our appetites, and others to learning and memory around food. ...
A modified version of the CRISPR gene-editing technique could help fight obesity without having to alter any genes, a new study ... A modified version of the CRISPR gene-editing technique could help fight obesity without having to alter any genes, a new study ... home/health & living center/ diet & weight management a-z list/ gene tweaking prevented obesity in mice article ... This new technique boosts the activity of certain genes and prevented severe obesity in mice genetically altered to be ...
Blood cells taken from the obesity-risk group also had higher levels of FTO gene expression and more ghrelin mRNA than the low- ... Together these findings explain for the first time why people with the obesity-risk variant of the FTO gene eat more and prefer ... Weve known for a while that variations in the FTO gene are strongly linked with obesity, but until now we didnt know why. ... variations in the genetic code of the FTO gene are linked with an increased risk of obesity, and this behaviour is present even ...
Genes involved in schizophrenia and obesity have been highlighted in a new UCL study, which could lead to a better ... Genes involved in schizophrenia and obesity highlighted. University College London. Journal. Annals of Human Genetics. Funder. ... Genes involved in schizophrenia and obesity have been highlighted in a new UCL study, which could lead to a better ... As expected, two variants in the MC4R gene which were previously known to protect against developing obesity were seldom seen ...
Genes and miRNAs associated with adipogenesis were retrieved from literature, OGM, Gene Cards, MGI, and RGD. OGM: Obesity gene ... Studies have revealed a large number of genes/markers that are associated with obesity and/or obesity-related phenotypes, ... Obesity gene atlas in mammals.. Kunej T1, Jevsinek Skok D1, Zorc M2, Ogrinc A1, Michal JJ3, Kovac M1, Jiang Z3. ... Association of human orthologs of obesity genes with molecular networks, biological functions and canonical pathways according ...
Emerging research suggest that children who are genetically predisposed to be overweight due to common gene variants can still ... Lifestyle Changes Help Kids with Obesity Genes Lose Weight. By Rick Nauert PhD Associate News Editor ... Nauert PhD, R. (2019). Lifestyle Changes Help Kids with Obesity Genes Lose Weight. Psych Central. Retrieved on January 23, 2019 ... Home » News » Lifestyle Changes Help Kids with Obesity Genes Lose Weight. .fn{margin:-2px 0 0 0;font-size:90%!important}.time- ...
... people who have a gene linked with obesity may be protected from depression. ... Pass it on: A gene linked with obesity may help protect people against depression. ... Scientists Find The Fat And Happy Gene. Scientists Find The Fat And Happy Gene Shields against depression. ... The researchers further supported the link they found by analyzing data on genes of patients in three additional large ...
A gene previously linked to obesity has now been found to make people put on weight by disrupting the bodys ability to control ... A gene previously linked to obesity has now been found to make people put on weight by disrupting the bodys ability to control ... adults with two copies of the FTO gene are typically 3kg heavier than those with no copies of the gene, while people with a ... A recent study in Nature Genetics found that a common mutation in the PCSK1 gene, carried by around one in every four ...
This means genes, environment and time are key factors. ... that a common genetic variant increases the risk of obesity ... The study focused on a particular variant in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene. This gene was found in several ... One obesity-associated genetic variant seems to have a greater impact on the risk of obesity for people born more recently, ... "We know that environment plays a huge role in the expression of genes, and the fact that our effect can be seen even among ...
A childs risk of obesity as they grow up can be influenced by modifications to their DNA prior to birth, a new University of ... Risk of obesity influenced by changes in our genes. University of Southampton ... Analysis showed that a 10 percent decrease in methylation at the CDKN2A gene was associated with an increase in fat mass of ... They found that lower DNA methylation at the CDKN2A gene, which regulates the production of fat cells, was associated with a ...
Cite this: New Genes Hold Clue to Why Many With Obesity Dont Get Diabetes - Medscape - Mar 19, 2018. ... New Genes Hold Clue to Why Many With Obesity Dont Get Diabetes. ... Obesity is a recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but of ... "The 5% of people with most of these genes will be about half a kilogram heavier, for average height, but at about 40% lower ... The researchers, led by Hanieh Yaghootkar, MD, PhD, from the University of Exeter, UK, say that people carrying these genes ...
  • The science explores ways and means by which dietary intakes can change a healthy phenotype to a chronic disease phenotype by changes in gene expression or variance in activities of proteins and enzymes, which can secondarily cause changes in gene expression (Nutritional genomics: the next frontier in the post-genomic era, Jim Kaput and Raymond L. Rodriguez, 2003). (studentshare.net)
  • Dietary intake, by influencing gene expression, can become the associative cause of certain chronic diseases like atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, cancer, and others (Nutritional genomics: the next frontier in the post-genomic era, Jim Kaput and Raymond L. Rodriguez, 2003). (studentshare.net)
  • We know that environment plays a huge role in the expression of genes, and the fact that our effect can be seen even among siblings born during different years implies that global environmental factors such as trends in food products and workplace activity, not just those found within families, may impact genetic traits. (digitaljournal.com)
  • Gene Ontology analysis in knockout cells demonstrated altered expression of genes that regulate gene expression and that are localized to the nucleus. (plos.org)
  • Thus, the cooperative effect of IGF-1 on FSH- and LH-dependent signaling may enhance the expression of genes which are crucial for optimal follicular growth and ovulation. (unl.edu)
  • Obesity is in your genes, according to a study which found that one in six people inherits a trait which makes them feel less full after eating. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Dr Rachel Batterham, who led the study, explained: ""We've known for a while that variations in the FTO gene are strongly linked with obesity, but until now we didn't know why. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • This paper is the first of its kind in the field of obesity study in the world. (mun.ca)
  • Results from the largest ever genome-wide study on obesity were published this year , strengthening the genetic link to the condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Maria De Luca, who led the study of 228 women, says that natural variation in the human LAMA5 gene may be a key determinant of weight. (medindia.net)
  • As to whether the use of flies in a study of human obesity may prove beneficial, Maria said: "Insects store fat like mammals do, as lipid droplets accumulated in the fat body, the functional equivalent of both mammalian liver and white adipose tissue. (medindia.net)
  • But the new study shows that daily lifestyle -- not genes -- probably plays the much bigger role. (medicinenet.com)
  • A person's DNA is not the key to obesity for most Americans, agreed study senior author Dr. Ravi Shah. (medicinenet.com)
  • To study obesity and the gene in this country, research soon will begin with colleagues at Columbia University, Froguel said. (chicagotribune.com)
  • That, according to the study published in the journal Nature, suggests that obesity could partly have a neurological basis. (healthcentral.com)
  • Though this particular study focused on obesity, we believe our system could be applied to any situation in which having only one functional copy of a gene leads to disease," said study senior author Nadav Ahituv, a professor of bioengineering and therapeutic sciences at UCSF. (medicinenet.com)
  • We are now able to study directly the changes in DNA sequence which alter the code of specific genes, rather than simply studying genetic markers which lie close to genes. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the present study, we collected a total of 1,736 obesity associated loci and created a freely available obesity database, including 1,515 protein-coding genes and 221 microRNAs (miRNAs) collected from four mammalian species: human, cattle, rat, and mouse. (nih.gov)
  • However, attempts to find specific genes associated with depression have not produced convincing evidence so far, according to the study. (businessinsider.com)
  • While recent research has shown that the FTO gene is strongly linked with children's body weight and food intake, this study tells us more about how the gene could be exerting its effect,' she added. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The study focused on a particular variant in the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene. (digitaljournal.com)
  • The new study helps provide a better understanding of human behavior and mood by clearly identifying genes associated with mental disorders. (psychcentral.com)
  • The new study suggests that people with fewer copies of the AMY1 gene have lower levels of this enzyme and therefore will have more difficulty breaking down carbohydrates than those with more copies. (scienceblog.com)
  • This work provides a crucial piece of evidence supporting the notion that the FTO gene itself is likely to be involved in the effects of common human genetic variants on body fat," says Professor Stephen O'Rahilly of the University of Cambridge , who was not involved in the study. (abc.net.au)
  • The study suggests that a less common version of the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene may predispose people to obesity by producing lower levels of BDNF protein, a regulator of appetite, in the brain. (financialexpress.com)
  • This study explains how a single genetic change in BDNF influences obesity and may affect BDNF protein levels. (financialexpress.com)
  • Overall, the study suggests that the C allele of the BDNF gene may be linked to obesity in people. (financialexpress.com)
  • RxPG] Washington, Oct 4 - Inactivating a pair of key genes involved in 'fat burning' actually increases energy expenditure and helps lower obesity, according to a new study. (rxpgnews.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the variation in expression profile of clock genes and obesity using peripheral blood mononuclear (PMN) cells. (nih.gov)
  • OBJECTIVE A genome-wide association study (GWAS) in Pima Indians ( n = 413) identified variation in the ataxin-2 binding protein 1 gene ( A2BP1 ) that was associated with percent body fat. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • People from different ethnic groups can use physical activity to blunt the effect of a major gene for obesity, according to a new study . (rcinet.ca)
  • The study, which was done in laboratory mouse models, points to the absence of a gene called CD38. (innovations-report.com)
  • Genes play a role in about 50 percent of cases, and in this study, we demonstrate that CD38 regulates body weight," states Eduardo Chini, M.D., Ph.D., an anesthesiologist at Mayo Clinic and corresponding author of the study. (innovations-report.com)
  • The study was published Monday in the International Journal of Obesity . (ecochildsplay.com)
  • This is the first major study that shows how small changes in one master regulator gene can cause a cascade of other metabolic effects in other genes," said Spector. (dailytech.com)
  • Presence of the obesity-associated A allele in the FTO gene had no bearing on the relationship between dietary energy content at age 10 and fat mass at age 13 in a large prospective study, reported Laura Johnson, Ph.D., of University College London, and colleagues in the PLoS ONE online journal. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Although this new study further advances our knowledge on the genetic mechanisms of obesity the main cause of this condition in humans can still be explain by lack of exercise and high caloric diets. (scitizen.com)
  • The results, published in the International Journal of Obesity were replicated in other groups of children and adults, notably the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study and the UK BIOCLAIMS cohort. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • The study team identified two novel loci, one near the OLFM4 gene on chromosome 13, the other within the HOXB5 gene on chromosome 17. (healthcanal.com)
  • Previous studies have focused on more extreme forms of obesity primarily connected with rare disease syndromes, while this study includes a broader range of children. (healthcanal.com)
  • In the mouse study, the research team determined that mutations in the Mrap2 gene led the animals to eat less initially but still gain about twice as much weight as they normally would. (beliefnet.com)
  • This new study used genome sequencing and found mutations in one specific gene related to obesity: adenylate cyclase 3 (ADCY3). (eurasiareview.com)
  • An important link between PCOS and obesity was corroborated genetically for the first time by data from a case-control study in the United Kingdom that involved 463 patients with PCOS and more than 1300 female controls. (medscape.com)
  • A new study suggests that even moderate physical activity can reduce the influence of an obesity-related gene variation by more than one-quarter. (health.com)
  • The study shows that the "extra weight" associated with gene variations is "not inevitable but can be lost by being active," says Dr. Veerman, who wrote an editorial accompanying the study. (health.com)
  • Dr Jude Oben , co-founder of the Obesity Action Campaign and senior lecturer in hepatology at University College London, said: 'That this size of study and its robust statistical methodologies support common sense is great. (bionews.org.uk)
  • And this could explain why people with the gene have so much trouble maintaining a healthy weight as they age, a new U.S. study says. (drugs.com)
  • About 45 percent of people in this study had at least one copy of the pro-obesity FTO variant, Thambisetty said, which tracks with the white population in the United States. (drugs.com)
  • This pilot study aimed to evaluate whether probiotic supplementation during pregnancy could modify the DNA methylation status of the promoters of obesity and weight gain-related genes in mothers and their children. (springer.com)
  • On the basis of our pilot study, we suggest that probiotic supplementation during pregnancy may affect the DNA methylation status of certain promoters of obesity and weight gain-related genes both in mothers and their children, thereby providing a potential mechanism for long-lasting health effects. (springer.com)
  • While brains generally shrink with age, lead researcher Paul Thompson, a neurologist at UCLA, said that the study shows if you carry the mutated FTO gene, your weight can affect tissue loss, and ultimately lead to degenerative brain diseases. (weightlosssurgerychannel.com)
  • A previous study of people who had the FTO gene but were physically active indicated that physical activity can overcome a genetic predisposition to obesity. (weightlosssurgerychannel.com)
  • Nevertheless, its underlying molecular mechanism is still obscure and thus the focus of this study was to explore the influence of quercetin on human SGBS (Simpson Golabi Behmel Syndrome) adipocytes' gene expression. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Results: Of 149 women in the study, anthropometric measurements were obtained from 140 women and gene expression was tested in 139. (rti.org)
  • A study led by Imperial College London found the variants of a gene called ADCY3 (adenylate cyclase 3) to be linked to the disease that, according to the World Health Organisation, causes 2.8 million deaths a year worldwide. (eveningexpress.co.uk)
  • The study focused on children living with obesity in Pakistan, 30% of whom were identified to have genetic links to the disease. (eveningexpress.co.uk)
  • Our study provides the first genetic link between carbohydrate metabolism and obesity. (natureasia.com)
  • Falchi says this study "may potentially lead to future personalized plans for prevention of obesity, and potential treatment based on the manipulation of levels of digestive enzymes. (natureasia.com)
  • A new study suggests that obesity actually is genetic - here's why. (babwnews.com)
  • The study, published in the journal Cell Reports, recognizes that obesity is a serious problem in the United States. (babwnews.com)
  • The study examined BDNF genes in four groups containing over 31,000 people. (babwnews.com)
  • We call it fault-free obesity," said Vann Bennett, M.D., Ph.D., senior author of the study and George Barth Geller Professor of Biochemistry at Duke University School of Medicine. (duke.edu)
  • In addition, the study showed that the association between overconsumption of fried foods and obesity was particularly pronounced among people with a greater genetic predisposition to obesity. (naturalproductsinsider.com)
  • HealthDay)-Age and obesity affect gene regulation in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, according to a study published in the October issue of The Journal of Urology . (medicalxpress.com)
  • While these assumptions may have some truth to them, a new study has discovered that severe obesity may be linked to mutations in our genes as well. (belmarrahealth.com)
  • Study offers confirmation that it is the FTO gene that can predispose some people to obesity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Chris Church, a PhD student from MRC Harwell and first author on the study, said: For the first time we have provided convincing proof that the FTO gene causes obesity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This study demonstrates that MYT1L variants are associated with syndromic obesity in humans. (plos.org)
  • We have identified a new genetic condition caused by MYT1L mutations, further study of this gene will help us understand, and treat, intellectual disability and obesity. (plos.org)
  • The new genes might indicate how their interactions with lifestyle factors like exercise or diet can influence weight gain, the study suggests. (informationaboutdiabetes.com)
  • The present study was undertaken to detect 10 lipid-related gene SNPs and their interactions with overweight/obesity on blood pressure levels. (mdpi.com)
  • In the current study blood serum and granulosa cells were obtained from LY (Ay/a) and age-matched B6 controls (C57BL/6J) to identify changes in metabolic hormone profiles and gene expression, respectively. (unl.edu)
  • Summary: Study reveals people with obesity have more mutations in semaphorin signaling in the hypothalamus, implying semaphorins may be critical for maintaining a healthy body weight. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate a polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the TNFR2 gene on chromosome 1 in relation to BMI, leptin levels, and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • One of the main epigenetic modifications is DNA methylation, which plays a key role in embryonic development and the formation of different cell types, regulating when and where genes are switched on. (eurekalert.org)
  • Analysis showed that a 10 percent decrease in methylation at the CDKN2A gene was associated with an increase in fat mass of around 220g, at age 4 years. (eurekalert.org)
  • They found that lower DNA methylation levels at the SLC6A4 gene at birth was associated with a higher fat mass at six to seven years of age. (southampton.ac.uk)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Adolescent body weight appears to coincide with DNA methylation patterns at genes previously implicated in obesity, according to new research from investigators at Pennsylvania State University and the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill. (genomeweb.com)
  • Epigenetic DNA methylation has been proposed to impact on gene activity, thereby providing a plausible molecular mechanism for a broad range of biological processes and diseases. (springer.com)
  • The women's and their children's DNA methylation status of obesity (623 genes) and weight gain-related (433) gene promoters were analyzed from blood samples at the mean of 9.8 months (range 6.1-12.7 months) postpartum. (springer.com)
  • Probiotic supplementation led to significantly decreased levels of DNA methylation in 37 gene promoters and increased levels of DNA methylation in one gene promoter in women. (springer.com)
  • In their children, 68 gene promoters were significantly affected consistently with a lower level of DNA methylation in the probiotic group. (springer.com)
  • Common assays were used to evaluate expression of 5α-reductase type 2 protein and gene promoter methylation status. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The most commonly implicated gene is MC4R , which encodes the melanocortin 4 receptor. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS Association analysis suggests that variation in A2BP1 influences obesity, and functional studies suggest that A2BP1 could potentially affect adiposity via the hypothalamic MC4R pathway. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Overconsumption might be a key component in the link between obesity and screen time, too, according to another of the new studies . (scientificamerican.com)
  • A common variant of the FTO gene, found in 46 percent of Western Europeans, causes those who have it to weigh about 1.2 kg more on average and have about 1 cm greater waist circumference than those without the variant. (alzforum.org)
  • This variation in copy numbers, also known as 'copy number variants' (CNV) has been underestimated as a genetic cause of disease, but the link between CNV in the amylase gene and obesity provides an indication that other major diseases may be influenced by similar mechanisms. (scienceblog.com)
  • Low copy number of the salivary amylase gene predisposes to obesity. (natureasia.com)
  • Dr. Sun said that obesity or uncontrolled weight gaining is the result of chronic positive energy balance or overfeeding. (mun.ca)
  • Also, although DNA analyses can easily spot genetic variations linked to obesity, the genetic propensity for gaining weight is itself a complex calculation. (webmd.com)
  • Murthy noted that calculating BMI is also much easier and cheaper than genetic testing, so doctors could have weight/height records for patients on hand for discussions about their risks for obesity. (medicinenet.com)
  • An effort to create a genetic map of obesity has uncovered more than 90 new gene regions related to gaining weight. (healthcentral.com)
  • Emerging research suggest that children who are genetically predisposed to be overweight due to common gene variants can still lose weight by changing their diet and exercise habits. (psychcentral.com)
  • The data suggest that a physically active lifestyle can "substantially decrease the genetic effect of the major obesity gene FTO on body weight in a multiethnic population" by up to 75 per cent. (rcinet.ca)
  • New Genes IDd in Obesity: How Much of Weight is Genetic? (beliefnet.com)
  • Obesity is commonly measured using the body mass index (BMI) [weight/height2 in kg/m although recently alternative measures, such as the waist-to-hip ratio, have been suggested that may be better predictors of mortality [Welborn, (cdc.gov)
  • The data implicate syndecan-3 in the regulation of body weight and suggest that inhibition of syndecan-3 may provide a therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity resulting from exposure to high-fat diets. (jci.org)
  • While NHS Choices acknowledges that these results 'sound like good news' and appear to suggest that all those who want to lose weight have an equal chance of success, it points out that these studies only analysed weight loss with regards to the FTO gene variant, and that it is feasible that other gene variants may have a bearing on weight loss. (bionews.org.uk)
  • Many Down syndrome individuals have difficulties regulating their weight, and this gene may provide additional insight into that issue. (biospace.com)
  • Subsequent studies focused on gene expression levels across tissues and how they were impacted by weight status, or if animals were intact, spayed or neutered. (petfoodindustry.com)
  • Dietary interventions to induce obesity, promote weight loss or alter dietary nutrient profile have also been investigated. (petfoodindustry.com)
  • Cells are the gatekeepers of energy in the body and the way genes influence these cells can cause them to store more energy than necessary, resulting in weight gain. (babwnews.com)
  • His sibling, below, has the gene and is normal weight. (duke.edu)
  • Too much activity of this gene can lead to putting on weight by overeating . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Genetic predisposition to obesity may have greater effects on body weight in young compared with older adulthood for FTO , suggesting changes by age, generation, or secular trends," Graff and colleagues write. (empr.com)
  • However, genetic difference does not explain the significant rise in body weight since the 1960s as it has affected both those with and without pro-obesity genes. (thefrontierpost.com)
  • In other words, she explains, "This man's 13.9 kg excess weight is caused mostly by today's unhealthy lifestyle, but also by how his genes interplay with the environment. (thefrontierpost.com)
  • While many similar studies have also concluded that the causes likely result from interactions between genes and environment, they have relied mainly on short age spans and follow-ups and self-reported body weight. (thefrontierpost.com)
  • They then looked for associations between the forms of these three genes and being overweight (defined by a measure that considers weight and height) or having abdominal obesity (defined by waist measurement). (annals.org)
  • Take on a constructive attitude and understand that you can keep extra weight off permanently regardless of the existence of the obesity gene in your family tree. (agingparentsauthority.com)
  • The TNFR2 gene may be involved in weight-control mechanisms. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Since 2006, genome-wide association studies have found more than 50 genes associated with obesity, most with very small effects. (cdc.gov)
  • They then investigated these in another 14,186 Europeans and found three mutations that are significantly linked to obesity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The third variant was found near the MAF gene, which controls the making of insulin and glucagon, plus chains of amino acids known as glucagon-like peptides, all of which are important for metabolizing glucose and carbohydrates and in controlling feelings of fullness after eating. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • One particular gene encodes a protein called 14-3-3zeta, which is found in every cell of the body. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They over-expressed the FTO gene and found that this altered the chemical make-up of ghrelin mRNA (the template for the ghrelin protein) leading to higher levels of ghrelin itself. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The collaborative team found that the number of copies of the AMY1 gene (salivary amylase) was consistently linked to obesity. (scienceblog.com)
  • They also found a degree of evidence for two other gene variants. (healthcanal.com)
  • Copy number of AMY1 is reported to be the largest genomic influence on obesity4, although genome-wide association studies for obesity have found this locus unremarkable. (uncommondescent.com)
  • Instead, we found that the promoter for IRX3, a gene several hundred thousand base pairs away, did interact with these introns, as well as a large number of other elements across the vast genetic distance we studied," said co-author Jose Luis Gomez-Skarmeta, a geneticist at the Andalusian Center of Developmental Biology in Sevilla, Spain. (uchicago.edu)
  • What we've found is that the switches that control IRX3 are far away from the gene and actually inside the FTO gene", said Nobrega. (uchicago.edu)
  • Although we have found a genetic variant with a reasonable biological mechanism, this genetic variant is just one part of the many reasons for the high levels of BMI and obesity among Samoans," noted McGarvey in a press statement. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • We see a dose effect, where these changes in impulsivity or a preference for fatty foods increase with multiple copies of the gene," Thambisetty said. (drugs.com)
  • To receive news and publication updates for Journal of Obesity, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • The next step is to find out more about the activity of this digestive enzyme, and whether this might prove a useful biomarker or target for the treatment of obesity. (scienceblog.com)
  • Despite these dangerous health possibilities, treatment of obesity has been difficult. (onlineclinic.co.uk)
  • This important distinction might help define disease mechanisms and critical periods of intervention for the treatment and prevention of obesity disorders," says Rios, corresponding author and an assistant professor of neuroscience at the Sackler School. (science20.com)
  • Gene transcription modifications may preclude clinical signs, which may become a useful tool in the management and prevention of obesity. (petfoodindustry.com)
  • Although epigenetics might help explain how early exposures such as infant feeding influence adult obesity, epidemiologic studies using these techniques are still at an early stage. (cdc.gov)
  • These genes may represent a protective mechanism at the molecular level in lean subjects in response to an energy surplus, and they represent valuable candidates for downstream studies related to obesity. (mun.ca)
  • Studies have revealed a large number of genes/markers that are associated with obesity and/or obesity-related phenotypes, indicating an urgent need to develop a central database for helping the community understand the genetic complexity of obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Because thousands of genes are involved in mood, anxiety, or obesity, it allows us to root our studies on a solid foundation. (psychcentral.com)
  • Recent large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have uncovered common variants in several loci associated with obesity in multiple populations ( 1 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Such studies provide further evidence for the polygenetic control of obesity in animals. (scitizen.com)
  • The growing sample size of genome-wide association studies has facilitated the discovery of gene-environment interactions (GxE). (nature.com)
  • Although lifestyle factors, such as diet and exercise, are important determinants of obesity, genetic studies have produced estimates of heritability for BMI between 30-70% [Bell et al. (cdc.gov)
  • Variations of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene were first linked to obesity in 2007, and since then dozens of studies have explored the effect of these variations on body size and other health measures. (health.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicates that since 2006, genome-wide studies have identified more than 50 genes associated with obesity, although most have small effects. (biospace.com)
  • These types of studies are important to disentangle the mechanism of why FTO is associated with obesity, but it's only one piece of a huge puzzle," Loos said. (drugs.com)
  • Zambrano E, Nathanielsz PW (2013) Mechanisms by which maternal obesity programs offspring for obesity: evidence from animal studies. (springer.com)
  • Objectives: 1) Providing groundwork for future studies relating PCB and DDE exposure to changes in gene expression and the consequent influences on obesity and other health outcomes. (rti.org)
  • In general, the outcomes derived from these studies demonstrated that dogs and cats share similar adipokines and hormones to other species, and they are affected in a similar fashion during obesity. (petfoodindustry.com)
  • Genome-wide association studies have done a fantastic job narrowing down the areas in the genome responsible for obesity. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Genetic factors alone can not explain the rapid rise in obesity rates, Froguel said, but they may provide clues about how to do something about it. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Professor Froguel added: "Obesity is not always gluttony, as is often suggested, and I think we should have a positive outlook considering the new treatments that are becoming possible. (eurasiareview.com)
  • An example for miRNA let-7b associated with five obesity-associated traits is shown in red. (nih.gov)
  • B) Close up of miRNAs with regulatory roles in obesity-associated traits. (nih.gov)
  • For example, the gene FTO has been unequivocally associated with BMI, obesity and other obesity-related traits," says Dr Eleanor Wheeler, first author from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Still, we observe that the global contribution of specific GRSxE to complex traits is substantial for nine obesity-related measures (including leg impedance and trunk fat-free mass). (nature.com)
  • In this way genetic traits such as obesity can appear in a single generation and be passed on to kids, grandkids and beyond. (mirror.co.uk)
  • Human chromosomes with obesity-associated loci. (nih.gov)
  • Genomic view of the obesity-associated candidate loci presented as human orthologs. (nih.gov)
  • To search for loci that may be important in determining obesity in Pima Indians, we recently completed a GWAS using the Affymetrix 100K genotyping array in a group of 413 nondiabetic full-heritage Pima Indians who were phenotyped for various measures of body composition including percent body fat. (diabetesjournals.org)