Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.ArtiodactylaMammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Mycoplasma bovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.Malignant Catarrh: A herpesvirus infection of cattle characterized by catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory and alimentary epithelia, keratoconjunctivitis, encephalitis and lymph node enlargement. Syn: bovine epitheliosis, snotsiekte.Chief Executive Officers, Hospital: Individuals who have the formal authority to manage a hospital, including its programs and services, in accordance with the goals and objectives established by a governing body (GOVERNING BOARD).Echinostomatidae: A family of flukes (TREMATODA) characterized by a collar of spines at their anterior end. The body is elongated and is covered with spines, and the two suckers are usually close together. (Noble et al., Parasitology: the Biology of Animal Parasites, 6th ed, p183)Animals, ZooHospital Administrators: Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of hospitals.New MexicoColoradoMuseumsPolymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.LondonDNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.ExhibitionsExhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Galaxies: Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Potassium Acetate: A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)ADAM Proteins: A family of membrane-anchored glycoproteins that contain a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain. They are responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many transmembrane proteins and the release of their extracellular domain.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Animal DiseasesJournal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.HistoryBrucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Brucella melitensis: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Porpoises: Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Antlers: The horn of an animal of the deer family, typically present only in the male. It differs from the HORNS of other animals in being a solid, generally branched bony outgrowth that is shed and renewed annually. The word antler comes from the Latin anteocularis, ante (before) + oculus (eye). (From Webster, 3d ed)Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Hair Dyes: Dyes used as cosmetics to change hair color either permanently or temporarily.
Significant public bison herds that do not appear to have hybridized domestic cattle genes are the Yellowstone Park bison herd ... pressure from the other large grazing mammals in Wind Cave National Park might also help limit the number of bison in the herd ... The Wind Cave herd are of the Plains bison subspecies (Bison bison bison). The American bison (Bison bison) once numbered in ... Bison bison athabascae). However, the Yellowstone Park bison herd were pure plains bison (Bison bison bison), and not any of ...
... has some cattle genes present. However, the Henry Mountains bison herd has been shown to be purebred Bison bison based on ... the Wind Cave bison herd and the Wood Buffalo National Park bison herd and subsidiary herds started from it, in Canada. A ... pressure from the other large grazing mammals in the Henry Mountains may also help limit the number of bison in the herd, but ... Bison bison athabascae). However, the Yellowstone Park bison herd were pure Plains bison (Bison bison bison), and not any of ...
In the study, cattle genes were also found in small amounts throughout most national, state and private herds. "The ... In 2016, the American bison became the national mammal of the United States. The bison is a popular symbol in the Great Plains ... like most bison herds, the Antelope Island bison herd has a small number of genes from domestic cattle. In 2002, the United ... Significant public bison herds that do not appear to have hybridized domestic cattle genes are the Yellowstone Park bison herd ...
Significant public bison herds that do not appear to have hybridized domestic cattle genes are the Yellowstone Park bison herd ... 15 Facts About Our National Mammal: The American Bison Department of the Interior 5/9/2016 "Yellowstone bison population ... Bison bison) American Bison Society Animals of Yellowstone Bison hunting European bison Henry Mountains bison herd List of ... The Yellowstone Park bison herd was estimated in 2015 to be 4,900 bison The bison in the Yellowstone Park bison herd are ...
"Bubalus mindorensis". Mammal Species of the World (MSW). Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. 1993. Archived from ... McMillan, Brock R.; Michael R. Cottam; Donald W. Kaufman (July 2000). "Wallowing Behavior of American Bison (Bos bison) in ... As of 2011, Kali is the only surviving animal in the gene pooling project. The project was also not improved as the Protected ... Adults of the species do not occur in herds or smaller packs and are often encountered alone. Only juveniles exhibit the ...
Bison (might be part of Bos instead) Genus Bos (Linnaeus, 1758) - Taurine and Asiatic cattle Wild cattle are usually massive ... "Systematics and phylogeny of cattle" (PDF). The genetics of cattle: 1-14. Wilson, W. E.; Reeder, D. M., eds. (2005). Mammal ... Wild cattle are very social animals, which they accumulate into large herds, with some individual sizes that can go into the ... Fossil and genomic evidence constrains the timing of bison arrival in North America, Proceedings of the National Academy of ...
Small mammals house The newly constructed Small Mammals House has animals such as the grizzled giant squirrel and the Malayan ... The zoo officials reported Mani was the oldest of the herd of gaur living in the zoo, and added that this is an unusual ... "Bison gives birth at Vandalur zoo". indiatimes.com. Times of India. 16 April 2011. Retrieved 17 July 2011. "White tigress to ... Every day, about 190 kg of non-perishable food items, 300 kg of perishable foods, 750 kg of beef and fish, 430 kg of cattle ...
All species of domesticated large mammals had wild ancestors that lived in herds with a dominance hierarchy amongst the herd ... How epistasis and gene-by-environment effects influence crop domestication". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. ... African cattle are hybrids that possess both a European Taurine cattle maternal mitochondrial signal and an Asian Indicine ... cattle paternal Y-chromosome signature. Numerous other bovid species, including bison, yak, banteng, and gaur also hybridize ...
... would then compare the DNA to that of modern European cattle to determine which breeds still carry the creature's genes, and ... Steppe bison - The discovery of the mummified steppe bison of 9,000 years ago could help people clone the ancient bison species ... National Threatened Species Day has been held annually since 1996 on 7 September in Australia, to commemorate the death of the ... A problem to be faced, in addition to the many challenges of reproduction of a mammal by cloning, is that only females can be ...
... ruminant mammals that includes bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, antelopes, sheep, goats, muskoxen, and domestic cattle. A ... National Bison Association". Bisoncentral.com. Archived from the original on January 20, 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2015. ... This antelope hardly displays aggression, and tends to isolate itself or form loose herds, though in a favourable habitat, ... Prendergast, B. J.; Mosinger, B.; Kolattukudy, P. E.; Nelson, R. J. (2002). "Hypothalamic gene expression in reproductively ...
There is also a wild breeding herd of 16 animals (2013) in Poloniny National Park with increasing population. Spain: Two herds ... But they agree that limited gene flow from Bos primigenius taurus could account for the affiliation between wisent and cattle ... European bison media at ARKive Bison entry from Walker's Mammals of the World The Extinction Website - Caucasian European bison ... European bison are less tameable than the American ones, and breed with domestic cattle less readily. The European bison is a ...
"Grizzly bear predation on a bull bison in Yellowstone National Park" (PDF). Ursus. 13: 375-377. Forsyth, A. (1999). Mammals of ... Among domestic and farm animals, domestic cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) are sometimes exploited as prey. Cattle are bitten on ... Typically, they allow the herds to graze freely over sizeable tracts of land. As bears reclaim parts of their range, they may ... indicating extensive gene flow across Eurasia and North America. Notably, this contrasts with genetic signals from female- ...
... where they winter for up to six months on the National Elk Refuge. Conservationists there ensure the herd is well fed during ... Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Volume 2: Hooved Mammals. Lynx Edicions, 2009. ISBN 978-84-96553-77-4 "Elk Habitat". ... Though bison are more likely to transmit the disease to other animals, elk inadvertently transmitted brucellosis to horses in ... Wyoming and cattle in Idaho. Researchers are attempting to eradicate the disease through vaccinations and herd management ...
Roach, John (2010-06-22). "Fungi, Feces Show Comet Didn't Kill Ice Age Mammals?". National Geographic Daily News. National ... Ancient bison (Bison antiquus) (H) Long-horned/Giant bison (Bison latifrons) (H) Steppe bison (Bison priscus) (H) Bison ... Kurosawa Y. "モノが語る牛と人間の文化 - ② 岩手の牛たち" (PDF). LIAJ News No.109- Oshu City Cattle Museum p. 29-31. Rozzi, Roberto (2017-02-01). " ... The area was populated by many species of grazers which assembled in large herds similar in size to those in Africa today. ...
A bison charges an elk near Old Faithful in Yellowstone National Park. ... where they winter for up to six months on the National Elk Refuge. Conservationists there ensure the herd is well fed during ... "In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins ... Unlike white-tailed deer and moose, which are primarily browsers, elk are similar to cattle in that they are primarily grazers ...
Paleontology portal Ashurnasirpal II's hunting of "wild oxen" Chillingham Cattle Ur (rune) American bison (Bison bison) Beefalo ... Chianina and one breeding herd of Sayaguesa x Podolian cattle; a second breeding herd of Sayaguesa × Podolian cattle will be ... The modern cattle would be selectively bred to try to produce the aurochs-type genes in a single animal. Starting around 2007, ... and in the Hungarian Hortobágy National Park. The program in Hungary also includes Hungarian Grey cattle and Watusi. The Dutch- ...
... as is the case with most bison herds, some genes from domestic cattle have been found in the Antelope Island Bison Herd. The ... In Alberta, where one of only two continuously wild herds of bison exist in North America at Wood Buffalo National Park, bison ... Bison were the most numerous single species of large wild mammal on Earth. Russel Means states that bison were killed by using ... public bison herds and only two that are also free of brucellosis: the Henry Mountains Bison Herd and the Wind Cave Bison Herd ...
Estes, R.D. (1991). The Behaviour Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Johannesburg: ... With the exception of the mother and her calf there are no strong social bonds in the herd.[26][1][4] These herds are sometimes ... "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 89 (9): 3972-3976. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.9.3972. PMC 525613. PMID 1570322.. ... Despite being among the largest species of antelope, they are actually more closely related to cattle (Bos taurus), and ...
Estes, Richard D. (1991) The Behavior Guide to African Mammals: Including Hoofed Mammals, Carnivores, Primates. Berkeley and ... They seek out females only during mating time.[11] When they are with a herd of females, males do not coerce them or try to ... By managing all four populations as one, through strategic transfers, gene loss is reduced from 8% to 2% per decade, without ... the western/lowland bongo is both an important flagship species for protected areas such as national parks, and a major trophy ...
Chianina and one breeding herd of Sayaguesa x Podolian cattle; a second breeding herd of Sayaguesa × Podolian cattle will be ... The modern cattle would be selectively bred to try to produce the aurochs-type genes in a single animal.[44] Starting around ... possibly herded with steppe bisons.[13][14]. *The Indian aurochs (B. p. namadicus) once inhabited India. It was the first ... "Mitochondrial diversity and the origins of African and European cattle". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
"National Geographic. 208 (5): 2-27. ISSN 0027-9358. Retrieved June 6, 2006.. Excerpt. See also National Geographic, "Sights & ... To produce milk from dairy cattle, calves are separated from their mothers soon after birth and slaughtered or fed milk ... Definition of meat [2a]: 2b; also: flesh of a mammal as opposed to fowl or fish. ... declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to ...
National Geographic. Retrieved 22 April 2017.. *^ Klingel, H. (1985). "Social organization of the camel (Camelus dromedarius ... 2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 646. ... They form herds of about 20 individuals, which are led by a dominant male. This camel feeds on foliage and desert vegetation; ... The dromedary generally suffers from fewer diseases than other domestic livestock such as goats and cattle.[49] Temperature ...
The largest extant representative of the bovids, a diverse and well-known family, is the Asian forest-dwelling gaur (Bos gaurus), in which bulls can weigh up to 1,500 kg (3,300 lb), 4.5 m (15 ft) in total length and stand 2.2 m (7.2 ft) at the shoulder.[7][8] The living American Bison (Bison bison) of North America 2 to 3.5 m (6.6 to 11.5 ft) long, the tail adding 30 to 91 cm (12 to 36 in). Shoulder heights in the species can range from 152 to 201 cm (60 to 79 in).[9] Weights can range from 318 to 1,000 kg (701 to 2,205 lb).[10][11] The heaviest wild American bull ever recorded weighed 1,270 kg (2,800 lb).[12] The European bison (Bison bonasus) may be less heavy than the American species,[9] but would exceed heights at withers with the tallest record of 210 cm (83 in).[13] When raised in captivity and farmed for meat, the ...
Historically, the lowland European bison's range encompassed most of the lowlands of northern Europe, extending from the Massif Central to the Volga River and the Caucasus. It may have once lived in the Asiatic part of what is now the Russian Federation. The European bison is known in southern Sweden only between 9500 and 8700 BP, and in Denmark similarly is documented only from the Pre-Boreal.[15] It is not recorded from the British Isles nor from Italy or the Iberian Peninsula.[16] A possible ancestor, the extinct steppe bison, B. priscus, is known from across Eurasia and North America, last occurring 7,000 BC,[17] and is depicted in the Cave of Altamira and Lascaux. Another possible ancestor, the Pleistocene woodland bison, B. schoetensaki, was last present 36,000 BC.[4] Cave paintings appear to distinguish between B. bonasus and B. priscus.[18]. Within mainland Europe, ...
The ancestors of the American bison (Bison bison) now in Alaska were transplanted from Montana in 1928, when 20 animals were imported by the Alaska Game Commission and released in the area of what is now Delta Junction. Additional herds have developed along the Copper River, Chitina River, and near Farewell from natural emigration and transplant. Small domesticated herds have also been established near Kodiak and Delta Junction, as well as on Popov Island.[15] Another sub-species of bison, the wood bison (b. b. athabascae) was once Alaska's most common large land mammal. The combined effects of pre-contact habitat change and human harvest were probably responsible for their disappearance. The last reported sighting of wood bison in Alaska was in the early ...
An apex predator, Smilodon primarily hunted large mammals. Isotopes preserved in the bones of S. fatalis in the La Brea Tar Pits reveal that ruminants like bison (Bison antiquus, which was much larger than the modern American bison) and camels (Camelops) were most commonly taken by the cats there.[38] In addition, isotopes preserved in the tooth enamel of S. gracilis specimens from Florida show that this species fed on the peccary Platygonus and the llama-like Hemiauchenia.[39] In rare cases, Smilodon may have also targeted glyptodonts, based on a Glyptotherium skull that bears elliptical puncture marks[40] consistent with the size and diameter of its canine teeth.[41] This was a juvenile glyptodont with an incompletely developed cephalic shield (head armor).[40] Isotopic studies of dire wolf (Canis dirus) and American lion (Panthera leo atrox) bones show an overlap with S. fatalis in prey, ...
Pigs lack functional sweat glands and are almost incapable of panting. To thermoregulate, they rely on wallowing in water or mud to cool the body. Adult pigs under natural or free-range conditions can often be seen to wallow when air temperature exceeds 20 °C. Mud is the preferred substrate; after wallowing, the wet mud provides a cooling, and probably protecting, layer on the body. When pigs enter a wallow, they normally dig and root in the mud before entering with the fore-body first. They then wriggle the body back and forth, and rub their faces in the mud so all of the body surface is covered. Before they leave the wallow, they often shake their heads and body, often finishing with rubbing against a tree or a stone next to the wallow. When indoors and hot, domestic pigs often attempt to wallow on wet floor surfaces and in the dunging areas.[23] Although temperature regulation seems to be the main motivation for wallowing in pigs, they will still wallow in colder weather. While many have ...
The American is a breed of cattle originating in the United States and known for its heritage as an American Bison hybrid. It was developed in the 1950s by a New Mexico rancher looking for beef cattle which could survive on poor fodder in the arid Southwest. Today the American is one of only a few pure breeds with any known Bison genetics, with the more well-known breed being the Beefalo. Art Jones, the original breeder, began by crossing Hereford, Shorthorn and Charolais, and later added extensive crosses with Brahman cattle and Bison. Today all individuals of this rare breed display the genetic marker for Bison ancestry. American cattle are varying in appearance, though nearly all display the floppy Brahman ears, slight humps, and many have horns. Bovid hybrid Hybridmaster, another breed with some ...
The U.S. state of Alabama is home to these known indigenous mammal species.[1] Historically, the state's indigenous species included one armadillo species, sixteen bat species, thirteen carnivore species, six insectivore species, one opossum species, four rabbit species, twenty-two rodent species, and three ungulate species.[2][3][4][5][6][7] Four of these native species have become extirpated within the state, including the American bison, cougar, elk, and the red wolf.[1][8] There are six known introduced mammal species in the state. These include the black rat, brown rat, fallow deer, feral swine, house mouse, and nutria.[8] Several other mammal species have had verifiable sightings within the state, but are believed by biologists to be without established breeding populations. These include the California sea lion (in Mobile Bay), ring-tailed cat, and jaguarundi.[4] Human predation and habitat destruction has placed ...
What is today the province of Alberta, Canada, has a history and prehistory stretching back thousands of years. Recorded or written history begins with the arrival of Europeans. The rich soil was ideal for growing wheat, and the coming of the railroads in the late 19th century led a to large-scale migration of farmers from Eastern Canada, the United States, and Europe. Wheat remains important, but the farms are much larger and the rural population much smaller. Alberta has urbanized and its economic base has expanded from the export of wheat but the export of oil as well. The ancestors of today's First Nations in Alberta arrived in the area at least 8,000 years BC, according to the Bering land bridge theory. Southerly tribes, the Plain Indians, such as the Blackfoot, Blood, and Peigans eventually adapted to seminomadic Plains Bison hunting, originally without the aid of horses, but later with horses that Europeans had introduced. More northerly tribes, like the Woodland Cree ...
The real core issue I want to explain is that Giants [in the sense of large mammals and reptiles] did infact exist in the past-- and this should be no surprise. Prehistoric animals of colossal size; Mammoth, Bison, Camel, Bear, vulcher, and even beaver, of very large proportions have co-existed with our ancient ancestors in the dawn of pre-history between 2 million and 5,000 years ago in America and the entire globe. Examples of these giants would be: Teratornis-meriamii or Teratornis Woodburnensis, a giant vulture whose wingspan spread between 12 and 20 feet wide. Or how about the Columbian, or Imperial mammoth who stood 12-16 feet at the shoulder, Giant short faced bears 10- 12 feet tall, Beavers 6 to 8 feet long, Bison 9 feet tall at the shoulder, and camels 12 to 18 feet high. Not to mention giant lizards and reptillians whose ancient bones were excavated by native peoples--and legends likely sprang from such early ...
The formation of the North American Prairies started with the upwelling of the Rocky Mountains near Alberta. The mountains created a rain shadow that resulted in lower precipitation rates downwind, creating an environment which most tree species will not tolerate.[citation needed]. The parent material of most prairie soil was distributed during the last glacial advance that began about 110,000 years ago. The glaciers expanding southward scraped the landscape, picking up geologic material and leveling the terrain. As the glaciers retreated about 10,000 years ago, it deposited this material in the form of till. Wind based loess deposits also form an important parent material for prairie soils.[2]. Tallgrass Prairie evolved over tens of thousands of years with the disturbances of grazing and fire. Native ungulates such as bison, elk, and white-tailed deer, roamed the expansive, diverse, plentiful grassland before European colonization of the Americas.[3] For 10,000-20,000 years ...
... are a hardy breed of domestic cattle. These cattle are the result of an attempt by the Heck brothers to breed back the extinct aurochs from modern aurochs-derived cattle in the 1920s and 1930s. Controversy revolves around methodology and success of the programme. There are considerable differences between Heck cattle and the aurochs in build, height, and body proportions. Furthermore, there are other cattle breeds which resemble their wild ancestors at least as much as Heck cattle. Heck cattle originated in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s in an attempt to breed back domestic cattle to their ancestral form: the aurochs (Bos primigenius primigenius). In the first years of the Weimar Republic, the brothers Heinz and Lutz Heck independently started their extensive breeding-back programmes. Their motivation behind that was to rescue the aurochs from oblivion because it was ...
Human presence in the Fremont region extends back thousands of years. Physical evidence of this comes from the Paisley Caves (location of the discovery of a 14,500 year old human coprolite[3]) Fort Rock Cave (the location of the now famous 'oldest shoes in the world' sagebrush sandals[4]), and more recently, Connolly Caves (where bison remains and delicate Ice Age bone needles have been found and dated to well over 10k years old[5]). These sites are within 10 to 20 miles from the Fremont Forest boundary. Further archaeological evidence of later human activity can be found at Carlon Village and Picture Rock Pass, and many more smaller house rings and artifact scatters throughout the area. Through clear cultural relationships seen in the artifact record, as well as legends and oral knowledge tying them to this place, the decedents of these early people are the Klamath. The Paiute and Modoc also have a long and rich cultural connection to the Fremont Forest. Native people were ...
The early ornithopods were only about 1 metre (3 feet) long, but probably very fast. They had a stiff tail, like the theropods, to help them balance as they ran on their hind legs. Later ornithopods became more adapted to grazing on all fours; their spines curved, and came to resemble the spines of modern ground-feeders such as the bison. As they became more adapted to eating while bent over, they became facultative quadrupeds; still running on two legs, and comfortable reaching up into trees; but spending most of their time walking or grazing while on all fours. The taxonomy of dinosaurs previously ascribed to the Hypsilophodontidae is problematic. The group previously consisted of all non-iguanodontian bipedal ornithischians, but a phylogenetic reappraisal has shown such species to be paraphyletic. As such, the hypsilophodont family is currently represented only by Hypsilophodon.[6]. Later ornithopods became larger, but never rivalled the incredible size of the ...
America, animal, Bison, bred, cattle, herd, historic, livestock, mammal, national, pure, Utah, Yellowstone ... Researchers analyzed genetic samples from 129 individual Bison in the area and found no evidence of cattle genes. ... Our National Mammal. In case you did not know this, the American Bison is the US National Mammal, a designation owing to the ... The isolated Bison herd reportedly originated from Bison that had been transplanted there from Yellowstone National Park in the ...
Significant public bison herds that do not appear to have hybridized domestic cattle genes are the Yellowstone Park bison herd ... pressure from the other large grazing mammals in Wind Cave National Park might also help limit the number of bison in the herd ... The Wind Cave herd are of the Plains bison subspecies (Bison bison bison). The American bison (Bison bison) once numbered in ... Bison bison athabascae). However, the Yellowstone Park bison herd were pure plains bison (Bison bison bison), and not any of ...
... population viability analyses among them to determine how to move bison around and decrease kinship as well as cattle genes. ... rescuing enough bison to re-grow herds, one taking up residence at the Bronx Zoo. Progeny of the Zoos bison would supply ... the National Bison Legacy Act made the North American bison (Bison bison) the new U.S. National Mammal when President Obama ... Chapters of the National Mammal Story Tens of millions of bison engineered the grasslands and boreal forests that became ...
... has some cattle genes present. However, the Henry Mountains bison herd has been shown to be purebred Bison bison based on ... the Wind Cave bison herd and the Wood Buffalo National Park bison herd and subsidiary herds started from it, in Canada. A ... pressure from the other large grazing mammals in the Henry Mountains may also help limit the number of bison in the herd, but ... Bison bison athabascae). However, the Yellowstone Park bison herd were pure Plains bison (Bison bison bison), and not any of ...
It is one of the few herds free of cattle genes." Photo #34 by Jim Peaco / Yellowstone National Park Service ... Yellowstone bison, Yellowstone mammals, Yellowstone National Park, Yellowstone wildlife ... Plains bison in winter at Yellowstone National Park. NPS reported that "the bison population fluctuates from 2300 to 4500 ... Bison of Yellowstone National Park. Photo #3 by Diane Renkin / Yellowstone National Park Service ...
... bison herd as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). On the basis of our review of the petition ... announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Yellowstone National Park (YNP) ... measured in terms of allelic richness and gene diversity). Those herds were: YNP, National Bison Range (Montana), Wichita ... which includes domestic cattle. Two subspecies of bison are currently recognized in North America-the plains bison (Bison bison ...
Montana has just one public herd of 400, genetically-diluted bison fenced into 18,500 acres on the National Bison Range ... This Fort Knox-like stratagem is due to the fear of bison mingling with cattle, of which there are many around Shelby. The ... but it was North Americas largest land mammal that was of most interest to them. The sight of bison meant that they had ... free of cow genes) bison in the country. ... each herd should have at least 1,000 bison. Only five herds of ...
American bison, ,Temporal range: ,Pleisto... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias ... In the study cattle genes were also found in small amounts throughout most national, state and private herds. "The ... There is even a market for kosher bison meat; these bison are slaughtered at one of the few kosher mammal slaughterhouses in ... like most bison herds, the Antelope Island bison herd has a small number of hybrid genes from domestic cattle. In 2002 the ...
Most bison herds in the United States have cattle genes mixed into their genome, but Yellowstones bison are one of the few ... Montana government is doing by the senseless slaughter of our national mammal-Yellowstones genetically unique and wild bison. ... Stop Bison Slaughter. By George Wuerthner On February 16, 2017 · 5 Comments · In Activism, Bison, Cattle, Montana ... Fact: There are numerous Indian tribes that wish to start or augment their own bison herds if only Montana would allow them to ...
... points out that the American bisons we avidly protect are only mostly bison, with quite a lot of cattle genes. Suppose we ... When the herds of northern megaherbivores were killed off by humans ten millennia ago, Zimov says, the largest biome on earth, ... The return of wolves to Yellowstone National Park after an absence of 70 years is regarded as one of the great recent ... And how do you then get to a living animal? With mammals youll have to do interspecies cloning - somatic-cell nuclear transfer ...
Most bison herds in the United States have cattle genes mixed into their genome, but Yellowstones bison are one of the few ... But this is exactly what the Montana government is doing by the senseless slaughter of our national mammal -Yellowstones ... Gallatin National Forest and other state and federal lands outside of Yellowstone National Park where bison could winter or ... Fact: There are numerous Indian tribes that wish to start or augment their own bison herds if only Montana would allow them to ...
They may also hold the key to preserving bison genetics--and the prairie. ... They may also hold the key to preserving bison genetics--and the prairie. ... bull bison do battle on the prairie. These fights determine which bulls get to breed. ... bull bison do battle on the prairie. These fights determine which bulls get to breed. ...
SEEKING PROPERTY FOR BISON HERD. Seeking additional properties for a herd of 1,000 AUM minimum. Interested in partnering with ... They could then look for a version of that gene in hares. If hares in Montana and Washington had different forms of the gene, ... Winner of National Association of Science Writers 2013 Science in Society Award!. Hillary Rosner Oct. 1, 2013 From the print ... Located on a 10,000 acre cattle ranch. * EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR. Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition, based in Ely, Nevada is ...
Bison bison (American bison), and (vii) Bison bonasus (European bison). ... In IUCN/SSC Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group 1988 IUCN Gland, Switzerland:IUCN/SSC Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group. ... The five non-coding nuclear fragments include two regions of the SRY gene in the Y-chromosome (SRY-5′ and SRY-3′) and introns ... The mammals of the Indomalayan region: a systematic review. In Natural History Museum publications, Oxford University Press ...
The producers had gathered for the 2016 National Bison Association Summer Conference held in June at Elk River, Minnesota. ... Shirbroun specializes in ruminant health issues including those seen in the American bison, which became the official U.S. ... addressed more than 200 bison producers regarding the pathology and prevention of diseases caused by Mycoplasma bovis. ... But bison tend to be much more susceptible to Mycoplasma than domestic cattle are. Whether its because of different strains or ...
... the herd of the largest of Europes mammals remains divided, and thus its gene pool. Belarus, which has not removed its statues ... If the bison herd withers, they would join all the other extinct megafauna that even our total disappearance could never bring ... Today it is a national wildlife refuge, home to bald eagles that feast on its prodigious prairie dog population. ... world where ships collided with schools of whales and where sharks were so abundant they would swim up rivers to prey on cattle ...
Grazing (historically bison and elk and now cattle) affects prairie vegetation in various ways. While it helps seeds to ... In earlier times it was home to herds of bison and pronghorn antelope, and red wolves roamed among the riverine forests that ... Stars represent national wildlife refuges. History The Coastal Prairie is located along the western gulf coast of the United ... plants are adapted to local conditions and their gene pools should be preserved. Restorationists do not agree on how far from a ...
... such as the TNC Ordway herd). That reduces but does not eliminate introgressed cattle nuclear genes and could inadvertently ... 5 Henry Mountains 33 bison from 13 herds predicted not to have mitochondrial disease hapB U12944 P33 1 National Bison Range 38 ... Fortunately, numbering systems carry over without change to bison and yak since no indels occur in this gene within mammals. ... Here it could be conjectured that wild female cattle joined herds of bison or wandering bison bulls displaced wild cattle bulls ...
... cowbirds were largely confined to the mid-continental prairies where they presumably followed herds of nomadic bison, and ... Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchlers associations for the eleven ... They are also present in adjacent grasslands and areas cleared of shrubs for agriculture and cattle grazing [69]. On the lower ... Current status of the brown-headed cowbird in the Sierra National Forest. Auk. 100: 355-368. [24958] 71. Wirtz, William O., II ...
... but also capable of affecting other mammals, including man, and occasionally birds. ... Herd quarantine can be lifted 21 days after the last death. Decontamination of the site(s) where the index case or other case(s ... The genes for both the virulence factors of B. anthracis are carried on plasmids. Those for the toxin components and their ... Cattle and horses: 2ml; sheep and goats: 1ml; foals, calves and small animals: 0.5ml. Administered subcutaneously annually. ...
Anthrax, caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, poses a threat to wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) ... Since then, marine mammal Brucella infections were found to be widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. Two Brucella ... According to the national park records, piroplasmosis is a cause of high mortality in young takhi (19%). The results suggested ... Herd immunity is practically achievable because of the small sizes of monk seal populations and the animals accessibility on ...
Diet segregation in American bison (Bison bison) of Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming, USA).. ... Although elk were the presumed source of cattle infections, occurrences of affected livestock herds were only weakly associated ... Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bialowieza, Poland.. [Ti] T tulo:. Stable isotope signatures of large ... The aim of this study was to assess gene expression, protein synthesis and immunohistochemical localization of MT1 and MT2 ...
... have played an important role in developing the chromosomal patterns that are seen in cattle today. ... American bison (Bison bison), and European bison or wisent (Bison bonasus). This is believed to be the ancestral karyotype and ... High frequency of a Robertsonian translocation in a herd of British White cattle. The Veterinary Record 97(4):71-73. ... Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:4792-4795. ...
... in the area around Yellowstone National Park could be restored by using bison free of cattle disease to establish new herds ... They are a very important source of genes that harken back to the ancient DNA of North American bison." (Read more) ... "Other endangered species that are doing well in the heavy snowfall include snowshoe hare (Wikipedia photo), a mammal that turns ... national debt (7) National Guard (4) national monuments (3) national parks (134) national security (22) Native Americans (188) ...
It is currently unknown if the Highland Wisent was descended from American Bison with cattle genes although this is probably ... 1] Mammal Research Institute, Polish Academy of Science: European Bison Bison bonasus: Current state of the species and an ... Herds are in private hands apart from Yellowstone Bison each herd has hybrid traits. The US is trying to keep hybrids and pure ... Wood Buffalo National Park) or not even to purge out the influence of domestic cattle in the American bison. ...
  • Syncerus caffer buffalo herds were located using very high-frequency radio-aided rangers positioned in various observation points around the crater in the NCA. (bioone.org)
  • Bison are herbivores , grazing on the grasses and sedges of the North American prairies . (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • We investigated how do environmental and climatic factors, but also management, affect the carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope composition in bone collagen of the two largest contemporary herbivores: European bison (Bison bonasus) and moose (Alces alces) across Europe. (bireme.br)
  • Anthrax is a per-acute, acute or sub-acute disease, primarily affecting herbivores as a soil-borne infection, but also capable of affecting other mammals, including man, and occasionally birds. (au-ibar.org)
  • Bison are supposed to be strictly grazers: herbivores that focus exclusively on grasses. (nature.org)
  • The giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal , the tallest living terrestrial animal and the largest ruminant . (worldlibrary.org)
  • Tens of millions of bison engineered the grasslands and boreal forests that became America. (aza.org)
  • Two problems challenge recovery of wild and free-roaming herds, those that can help bring back the grasslands-95 percent of which has been lost to land conversion. (aza.org)
  • To answer this question, Craine researched actual bison diets in two herds on grasslands that differ in mean annual temperature by 6 degrees Celsius: the Samuel H. Ordway Jr. Memorial Preserve in South Dakota and the warmer Konza Prairie Biological Station in Kansas. (nature.org)
  • Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands , or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot , where they are usually fed a ration of grain , protein, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The European bison , B. bonasus , or wisent , is found in Europe and the Caucasus , reintroduced after being extinct in the wild. (cfapps.io)
  • The American bison and the European bison (wisent) are the largest surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe. (cfapps.io)
  • (The difference in this case is that what would be the first lumbar vertebra has ribs attached to it in American bison and is thus counted as the 15th thoracic vertebra, compared to 14 thoracic vertebrae in wisent. (cfapps.io)
  • or a hybrid of banteng with either zebu cattle, gaur or water buffalo. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • I wrote that I think actually a lot of primitive zebu cattle yet unknown to us might be grazing around in southern Asia, waiting to be discovered and used in effigy breeding. (blogspot.com)
  • A photo provided by Jochen Ackermann, who recently came across a zebu herd on Sri Lanka, confirmed this. (blogspot.com)
  • Warranted or not, some ranchers fear neighbor bison will infect their cattle. (aza.org)
  • But while industry and government officials stress that the risk is small, cattle ranchers fear the mix-up might be enough to taint public perception, just as beef was rebounding after a decade of flat sales. (mad-cow.org)
  • For the first two months of life, calves are lighter in color than mature bison. (worldebooklibrary.org)
  • This meant that if someone captured a bull and cow bison and raised calves, anyone else could shoot the calves and claim them for their own. (ti.org)
  • Someone shooting calves of domestic cattle that belonged to someone else could be prosecuted for rustling as easily, and sometimes with less sympathy, as someone who robbed banks. (ti.org)
  • What he found, using sophisticated DNA analysis of fecal samples, contained some major surprises about what bison ate - including disproving the long-held belief that bison are strictly grazers. (nature.org)
  • Bison are nomadic grazers and travel in herds . (cfapps.io)
  • Federal regulation requires you to stay at least 100 yards (91 m) away from bears and wolves, and at least 25 yards (23 m) away from all other wild animals, such as bison, elk, bighorn sheep, deer, moose, and coyotes. (lovethesepics.com)
  • An identical copy of it, though, with its own particular individuality, a clone: The first successful mammal cloning brought to life Dolly the sheep -whose stuffed remains are now placed at Edinburg's Royal Museum- in 1996 and myriads of conflicts apropos of ethical and practical issues making allusion even to a forthcoming demise of the humanity. (questioz.com)
  • Beef byproducts are banned for cattle or sheep feed but commonly used in swine and poultry feed. (mad-cow.org)
  • Sheep is the reservoir host of a similar virus that causes the same disease in cattle. (sava.co.za)
  • Sheep and goats, which are also ruminants like cattle, shouldn't touch the stuff either. (motherearthnews.com)
  • otherwise, someone else would come along--often a transient sheep herd--and overgraze the land. (ti.org)
  • sarcocystis in feces of coyotes from montana: prevalence and experimental transmission to sheep and cattle. (liverpool.ac.uk)
  • American bison can weigh from approximately 400 kilograms (880 lb) to 900 kg (2,000 lb) and European bison can weight from 800 kilograms (1,800 lb) to 1,000 kilograms (2,200 lb) . (cfapps.io)
  • Significant apex predators that could help control the bison population would include brown bear, grizzly bear, and wolves, and these are currently absent from the area. (wikipedia.org)
  • By slaughtering bison, the winter kill and other sources of mortally are reduced and vulnerable animals that wolves and grizzlies can capture. (thewildlifenews.com)
  • Occasionally wolves will prey on birds or small mammals such as mice and voles, but these are supplementary to their requirements for large amounts of meat. (wolfquest.org)
  • In addition, in the 1960s, one single bull bison was received from Theodore Roosevelt National Park. (wikipedia.org)
  • By human standards, bull bison are cantankerous, ill-tempered beasts. (nature.org)
  • A bull bison checks a cow's receptivity for mating. (nature.org)
  • I'm sitting in the back of a pick-up with two Gustavus Adolphus University students, intently observing bull bison fight , bellow, wallow and taste cow urine - all part of their annual mating ritual. (nature.org)
  • This all impacts behavior and genetics of the herd. (nature.org)
  • The role of genes in the human adaptation to rapid environmental changes has been postulated for many decades, but only with advances in molecular genetics can we identify with some clarity the interactions between genes and environmental components such as diet. (blogspot.com)
  • Diet segregation for bison in the Central Range was more pronounced during the mating season than for the multi-year period and females had higher quality diets than males. (bireme.br)
  • Giraffes live in herds of related females and their offspring, or bachelor herds of unrelated adult males, but are gregarious and may gather in large aggregations. (rug.nl)
  • A mature bison in South Dakota averaged 500 pounds larger than one in Kansas. (nature.org)
  • Non-native mountain goats have colonized northern portions of the park and numerous small mammals are found throughout the park. (lovethesepics.com)
  • For both Alternatives A, B, and C, the cull would drastically reduce the component herds per falsely-estimated population-levels. (protectmustangs.org)
  • An eight-year scientific study estimated that a rigorous badger cull could reduce the rate of increase in cattle TB by 12-16% over nine years . (blogspot.com)
  • Two years ago, the government ignored that study's conclusion (a badger cull can make "no meaningful contribution" to reducing cattle TB) to commence a four-year "pilot" badger cull in parts of Somerset and Gloucestershire. (blogspot.com)
  • It commissioned an independent panel of scientific experts to judge this, although, to save money, decided not to test whether shot badgers actually had bovine TB or scientifically measure how the pilot cull affected cattle TB. (blogspot.com)
  • In the meantime, a very extensive SNP bead chip allows querying of the nuclear genome on a herd scale. (ucsc.edu)
  • They are typical artiodactyl (cloven hooved) ungulates, and are similar in appearance to other bovines such as cattle and true buffalo. (cfapps.io)
  • We found that δ13C of modern bison and moose decreased with increasing forest cover. (bireme.br)
  • Decreasing forest cover, increasing mean annual temperature and feeding on farm crops caused an increase in δ15N in bison, while no factor significantly affected δ15N in moose. (bireme.br)
  • Variation in both isotopes in bison resulted from inter-population differences, while in moose it was mainly an effect of intra-population variation. (bireme.br)
  • The deer was in a farm-raised elk and deer herd. (pschitt.info)
  • Cattle and badgers transmit the disease to each other , with the latter being just one "wildlife reservoir" of a poorly understood disease that is spread by everything from pigs to deer. (blogspot.com)
  • One winner was Visakha SPCA founder Pradeep Kumar Nath, familiar to ANIMAL PEOPLE readers from coverage of his work on behalf of nesting sea turtles, cattle rescued from the illegal slaughter traffic, and street dogs and cats. (animalpeopleforum.org)
  • Melding into "buffalo" lifeways, Native Americans structured whole societies around great herd migrations. (aza.org)
  • The technique involves altering a few regulatory genes, which has the effect of "reprogramming" the adult skin cells back to an embryonic state so that it can then develop into any of the specialised tissues of the body - including the germ-line cells that give rise to sperm and eggs. (spectrevision.net)
  • In 1963, the herd moved again, this time into the mountains themselves, abandoning the desert life. (wikipedia.org)