Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.2-Aminoadipic Acid: A metabolite in the principal biochemical pathway of lysine. It antagonizes neuroexcitatory activity modulated by the glutamate receptor, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE; (NMDA).Saccharopine Dehydrogenases: Amine oxidoreductases that use either NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.7) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.8) as an acceptor to form L-LYSINE or NAD+ (EC 1.5.1.9) or NADP+ (EC 1.5.1.10) as an acceptor to form L-GLUTAMATE. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERLYSINEMIAS.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Histone Demethylases: Enzymes that catalyse the removal of methyl groups from LYSINE or ARGININE residues found on HISTONES. Many histone demethylases generally function through an oxidoreductive mechanism.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Protein Methyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the methylation of amino acids after their incorporation into a polypeptide chain. S-Adenosyl-L-methionine acts as the methylating agent. EC 2.1.1.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Acetic Anhydrides: Compounds used extensively as acetylation, oxidation and dehydrating agents and in the modification of proteins and enzymes.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Jumonji Domain-Containing Histone Demethylases: A family of histone demethylases that share a conserved Jumonji C domain. The enzymes function via an iron-dependent dioxygenase mechanism that couples the conversion of 2-oxoglutarate to succinate to the hydroxylation of N-methyl groups.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.p300-CBP Transcription Factors: A family of histone acetyltransferases that is structurally-related to CREB-BINDING PROTEIN and to E1A-ASSOCIATED P300 PROTEIN. They function as transcriptional coactivators by bridging between DNA-binding TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and the basal transcription machinery. They also modify transcription factors and CHROMATIN through ACETYLATION.HomoarginineUbiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cadaverine: A foul-smelling diamine formed by bacterial decarboxylation of lysine.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Methyltransferases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Carboxy-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the addition of a carboxyl group to a compound (carboxylases) or the removal of a carboxyl group from a compound (decarboxylases). EC 4.1.1.Polyubiquitin: An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.Aspartate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of beta-aspartyl phosphate from aspartic acid and ATP. Threonine serves as an allosteric regulator of this enzyme to control the biosynthetic pathway from aspartic acid to threonine. EC 2.7.2.4.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Ornithine: An amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Adipates: Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.SUMO-1 Protein: A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.
  • Lee, MC & Spradling, AC 2014, ' The progenitor state is maintained by lysine-specific demethylase 1-mediated epigenetic plasticity during drosophila follicle cell development ', Genes & development , vol. 28, no. 24, pp. 2739-2749. (elsevier.com)
  • The second class of histone demethylases featured with the jumonji C (JmjC) domain has been shown to catalyze histone lysine demethylation through ferrous ion (Fe(II)) and α-ketoglutaric acid (α-KG)-dependent oxidative reactions . (prolekare.cz)
  • Specifically, ChIP-seq disclosed enrichment of histone crotonylation at the genes encoding the mitochondrial biogenesis regulator PGC-1α and the sirtuin-3 decrotonylase in both TWEAK-stimulated tubular cells and in AKI kidney tissue. (biologists.org)
  • Chromosomal aberrations and changes in expression of this gene may be found in tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Abnormal DNA CpG island hypermethylation and transcriptionally repressive histone modifications are associated with the aberrant silencing of tumor suppressor genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Importantly, cotreatment with low doses of oligoamines and a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor highly induces the reexpression of the aberrantly silenced SFRP2 gene and results in significant inhibition of the growth of established tumors in a human colon tumor model in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Aberrant epigenetic silencing of important tumor suppressor genes has been shown in essentially all human cancers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Changes in histone modification that impair normal gene regulation may allow certain cells to divide in an uncontrolled way, leading to the growth of a tumor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lysine-specific methyltransferase 2D is also believed to act as a tumor suppressor, which means it normally helps prevent cells from growing and dividing in an uncontrolled way. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although lysine-specific methyltransferase 2D is believed to be a tumor suppressor, a loss of this enzyme's function does not seem to increase cancer risk in people with Kabuki syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most of these mutations result in an abnormally short, nonfunctional lysine-specific methyltransferase 2D enzyme that cannot perform its role as a tumor suppressor, resulting in the development of cancer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is unknown whether these changes result primarily from increased activity (overexpression) of the KMT2D gene, extra copies of the gene in tumor cells, altered stability or processing of the enzyme, or other mechanisms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition, JARID1B may play a considerable role in cancer research as it assists in the propagation of breast cancer cells by repressing the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and HOXA5. (novusbio.com)
  • Gene group analysis showed differences mainly among immune-related transcripts, indicating the potential influence of tumor immune infiltration or signal within the primary tumor. (mdpi.com)
  • Despite normal initial Cd4 downregulation, G9a-deficient CD8 T cells derepress Cd4 and other helper lineage genes during repeated division in lymphopenia or in response to tumor Ag. (jimmunol.org)
  • A comparison of a set of plant LKR/SDH genes suggests regions of greater sequence conservation likely related to critical enzymatic functions and metabolic controls. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The regulation of lysine acylation in CVD development varies according to metabolic conditions or disease stages. (nature.com)
  • Comparative genomic analysis of V. spinosum using diaminopimelate/lysine metabolic genes from Chlamydia trachomatis suggests that V. spinosum employs the L,L -diaminopimelate aminotransferase (DapL) pathway for diaminopimelate/lysine biosynthesis. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have focused our RNA regulatory research to metabolite-sensing mRNAs, given the new and unexpected role for non-coding RNA as a riboswitch, and because structural-energetics information will be critical for defining allosteric mRNA transitions associated with the modulation of gene expression levels and metabolic homeostasis. (mskcc.org)
  • An autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the SLC3A1 and SLC7A9 genes. (fpnotebook.com)
  • A better understanding of the role of LSD1 in the regulation of gene expression should aid in the discovery of strategies for reexpressing inappropriately silenced genes as a rational approach for the treatment of cellular pathologies, including cancer. (pnas.org)
  • As guanidines have been shown to inhibit both SMO/PAOh1 and other polyamine oxidases ( 15 , 16 ), we sought to determine whether unique biguanide and bisguanidine polyamine analogues were effective inhibitors of LSD1 and whether cellular inhibition of LSD1 could lead to the reexpression of aberrantly repressed genes important in cancer. (pnas.org)
  • We hypothesized that a novel class of oligoamine analogues would effectively inhibit LSD1 and thus cause the reexpression of aberrantly silenced genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The results of the initial in vitro studies from our laboratory and others were consistent with the hypothesis that LSD1 was a rational target for inducing the reexpression of aberrantly silenced genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To determine the role of LSD1 during this early period of embryogenesis, we have generated loss-of-function gene trap mice and conditional knockout embryonic stem (ES) cells. (asm.org)
  • Analysis of postimplantation gene trap embryos revealed that LSD1 expression, and therefore function, is restricted to the epiblast. (asm.org)
  • The gene coding for brachyury, a key regulator of mesodermal differentiation, is a direct target gene of LSD1 and is overexpressed in e6.5 Lsd1 gene trap embryos. (asm.org)
  • 1 LSD1 belongs to the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent amine oxidase superfamily and specifically demethylates mono- and dimethylated histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me and H3K4me2). (rsc.org)
  • Study on the obtaining of transgenic wheats with GNA alien gene by biolistic particle, Scientia Agricultura Sinica (in Chinese with English abstract), 2001, 34 (1): 1-4. (springer.com)
  • abstract = "Advancing biotechnology spurs the development of new pharmaceutically engineered gene delivery vehicles. (nebraska.edu)
  • abstract = "Lys-gingipain (KGP), so termed due to its peptide cleavage specificity for lysine residues, is a cysteine proteinase produced by the Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. (elsevier.com)
  • Genomic analysis of V. spinousm show that the organism contains all the genes necessary for the synthesis of diaminopimelate/lysine de novo and thus the bacterium is prototrophic for lysine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mixed oligonucleotide primers designed from the NH 2 -terminal sequence of the purified enzyme were used to clone the KGP-encoding gene (kgp) from the organism. (elsevier.com)
  • To elucidate the mechanisms of IL-6-induced MMPs gene activation in RASFs, we investigated cell surface expression of the IL-6 receptor (gp130 and membrane-bound IL-6Rα) by flow cytometry, phosphorylation of STAT3 by immunoblotting, and binding of STAT3 to the MMP promoters after IL-6 stimulation by ChIP assay in RASFs and OASFs. (acrabstracts.org)
  • It was suggested that binding of STAT3 to the promoters resulted in MMP-1, 3 and 13 gene activation after IL-6 stimulation in RASFs. (acrabstracts.org)
  • RNA polymerase II is recruited to the promoters of protein-coding genes in living cells. (wikiversity.org)
  • Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene expression patterns that are not regulated by changes in the primary DNA sequence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we debut a high-throughput functional proteomics platform that maps the sequence determinants of lysine methyltransferase (KMT) substrate selectivity without a priori knowledge of a substrate or target proteome. (sciencemag.org)
  • Sequence corresponding to the SAOUHSC_02572 and SAR2384 CDS genes is highlighted in red and blue, respectively. (asm.org)
  • We modified the maize γ-zein gene through the introduction of lysine-rich (Pro-Lys)n coding sequences at different sites of the γ-zein coding sequence. (deepdyve.com)
  • It was recently shown that short-chain fatty acids could serve as precursors for synthesis of their corresponding acyl-CoAs that in turn regulate histone modifications and gene expression 10 . (nature.com)
  • Remarkably, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate is a precursor for the synthesis of 2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA and moreover, lysine 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation (K hib ), a new type of histone PTM 15 . (nature.com)
  • The reduction of zein synthesis in the maize (Zea mays L.) opaque-2 mutant is associated with an increased percentage of lysine in the endosperm protein. (nih.gov)
  • This study offers, for the first time, insights into the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of the antimicrobial protein lysine-ε-oxidase in M. mediterranea , which could be important in the microbial colonization of the seagrass P. oceanica . (asm.org)
  • Methods are provided for increasing plant growth rate, biomass and tolerance to stress by genetically engineering plants to contain and express a gene of the ascorbic acid synthesis-cell wall synthesis network (e.g. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A method for increasing the growth rate, biomass or stress tolerance of a plant, comprising the steps of genetically engineering said plant to contain and over-express at least one functional gene product of an ascorbic acid synthesis-cell wall synthesis network. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. A transgenic plant, wherein said transgenic plant is genetically engineered to contain and over-express at least one functional gene product of an ascorbic acid synthesis-cell wall synthesis network. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Upon the formation of the S -adenosyl- l -methionine-SET8-histone 4 lysine 20 intermediate complex followed by lysine deprotonation, the reaction goes through an early, asymmetrical transition state (TS) with the small engagement of the C-N bond and the partial dissociation of the C-S bond. (pnas.org)
  • The x-ray crystal structure of the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), and [4Fe-4S]-dependent lysine-2,3-aminomutase (LAM) of Clostridium subterminale has been solved to 2.1-A resolution by single-wavelength anomalous dispersion methods on a L-selenomethionine-substituted complex of LAM with [4Fe-4S]2+, PLP, SAM, and L-alpha-lysine, a very close analog of the active Michaelis complex. (rcsb.org)
  • This gene is a member of the myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) family and encodes a nuclear protein with an AT hook DNA-binding domain, a DHHC-type zinc finger, six PHD-type zinc fingers, a SET domain, a post-SET domain and a RING-type zinc finger. (nih.gov)
  • The gene lodA , encoding the lysine oxidase, forms part of an operon with a second gene, named lodB , which encodes a protein required for the expression of lysine-ε-oxidase (LOD) activity ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • The analysis of a wheat LKR/SDH gene and comparative structural and functional analyses among available plant genes provides new information on this important gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vivo analysis using functional complementation confirmed that the dapL ortholog was able to functionally complement an E. coli mutant that confers auxotrophy for diaminopimelate and lysine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Evolutionary context analysis demonstrates a significant tendency of essential E. coli genes to be preserved throughout the bacterial kingdom. (asm.org)
  • 15 ) demonstrated that LAT converts lysine to 1-piperideine-6-carboxylate as the first step of a two-step reaction converting lysine to α-aminoadipate (αAA). (asm.org)