Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Agouti-Related Protein: A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Mice, Inbred C57BLRats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)TexasPsoriasis: A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.JapanMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Douglas L. Coleman
Rosenbaum M (1998). "Leptin". The Scientist Magazine. Okie S (February 11, 2005). "Chapter 2: Obese Twins and Thrifty Genes". ... His work predicted that the ob gene encoded the hormone leptin, later co-discovered in 1994 by Jeffrey Friedman, Rudolph Leibel ... Friedman for the discovery of leptin. Coleman, DL (1978). "Obese and Diabetes: two mutant genes causing diabetes-obesity ... Shell E (January 1, 2002). "Chapter 4: On the Cutting Edge". The Hungry Gene: The Inside Story of the Obesity Industry. ...
The POMC gene is located on chromosome 2p23.3. The POMC gene is expressed in both the anterior and intermediate lobes of the ... Cowley MA, Smart JL, Rubinstein M, Cerdán MG, Diano S, Horvath TL, Cone RD, Low MJ (May 2001). "Leptin activates anorexigenic ... Mutations in this gene have been associated with early onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, and red hair pigmentation. A study ... This gene encodes a 285-amino acid polypeptide hormone precursor that undergoes extensive, tissue-specific, post-translational ...
Obesity and fertility
Leptin is also a product of the obese gene. Leptins interaction with the hypothalamus decreases appetite, therefore a mutation ... Spicer, L. J.; Francisco, C. C. (1998-01-01). "Adipose obese gene product, leptin, inhibits bovine ovarian thecal cell ... Leptin is a hormone which production is increased in obese animals. In cows, leptin can inhibit thecal cells from producing ... If given leptin administratively, the mutation would be reversed and puberty resumed. Leptin is further expressed in mature ...
Stein C, Caccamo M, Laird G, Leptin M (2007). "Conservation and divergence of gene families encoding components of innate ... The NWD1 gene of humans is located on chromosome 19. Current data suggests a causal role for tumor-associated over-expression ... NWD1, short for NACHT and WD repeat domain containing 1, is a gene found in vertebrates, which encodes a protein that contains ... It was originally identified during a search for immune system genes in zebrafish as a protein coding sequence related to APAF1 ...
"Leptin-specific patterns of gene expression in white adipose tissue". Genes & Development. 14 (8): 963-980. ISSN 0890-9369. PMC ... These genes are then activated for transcription. It has been indicated that SREBP-2 promote the expression of genes involved ... "Nutritional and insulin regulation of fatty acid synthetase and leptin gene expression through ADD1/SREBP1". Journal of ... can induce the gene products for liver's pyruvate kinase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase. These genes are ...
Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript
CART is altered in the ventral tegmental area of cocaine overdose victims, and a mutation in the CART gene is associated with ... CART peptides are inhibitors of food intake (anorexigenic) and closely associated with leptin and neuropeptide Y, two important ... CART expression is regulated by several peripheral peptide hormones involved in appetite regulation, including leptin, ... Gene. 169 (2): 241-5. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(96)88651-3. PMID 8647455. Kristensen P, Judge ME, Thim L, Ribel U, Christjansen KN ...
The gene affected by the ob mutation was identified by positional cloning. The gene produces a hormone, called leptin, that is ... Identification of the gene mutated in ob led to the discovery of the hormone leptin, which is important in the control of ... ob or obese mouse is a mutant mouse that eats excessively due to mutations in the gene responsible for the production of leptin ... One role of leptin is to regulate appetite by signalling to the brain that the animal has had enough to eat. Since the ob/ob ...
In humans, the gene for HMG-CoA reductase is located on the long arm of the fifth chromosome (5q13.3-14). Related enzymes ... This pathway likely transduces signals from leptin, adiponectin, and other signaling molecules. Oxidoreductase GRCh38: Ensembl ... Transcription of the reductase gene is enhanced by the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). This protein binds to ... Osborne TF, Goldstein JL, Brown MS (Aug 1985). "5' end of HMG CoA reductase gene contains sequences responsible for cholesterol ...
Eating disorders and memory
Previous studies have identified the effect of the adipocyte hormone leptin, reveal that leptin treatments reverse obesity in ... Work on characterizing rodent obesity syndromes spontaneously arising from single gene mutations has been critical in obesity ... Elmquist, J.K., Elias, C.F., Saper, C.B. (1999). From lesions to leptin: hypothalamic control of food intake and body weight. ... By 2007 there were 10 spontaneously single gene mutations characterized which deliberate an obesity phenotype. Currently, many ...
Mutations in genes such as LIN28, and LEP and LEPR, which encode leptin and the leptin receptor, have been associated with ... Su, Pen-Hua; Yang, Shun-Fa; Yu, Ju-Shan; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Jia-Yuh (15 February 2012). "Study of leptin levels and gene ... The gene MKRN3, which is a maternally imprinted gene, was first cloned by Jong et al in 1999. MKRN3 was originally named Zinc ... 2013). "Central precocious puberty caused by mutations in the imprinted gene MKRN3". N Engl J Med. 368: 2467-2475. doi:10.1056/ ...
Estrogen receptor alpha
Gene. 541 (2): 101-6. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2014.03.013. PMID 24625355. Shang Y, Brown M (2002). "Molecular determinants for the ... Eren E, Edgunlu T, Korkmaz HA, Cakir ED, Demir K, Cetin ES, Celik SK (2014). "Genetic variants of estrogen beta and leptin ... "Entrez Gene: DBI diazepam binding inhibitor (GABA receptor modulator, acyl-Coenzyme A binding protein)". Kos M, Reid G, Denger ... The development and function of these tissues is disrupted in animal models lacking active ERα genes, such as the ERα knockout ...
Spinal trigeminal nucleus
In mice, this thalamic nucleus has significant amounts of expression of leptin receptors, NPY and GLP-1. ... NPY and GLP-1 gene expression in the ovine and murine brainstem". Regulatory peptides. Elsevier. 75: 271-278.. CS1 maint: ... Mercer, Julian G, Moar, Kim M, Findlay, Patricia A, Hoggard, Nigel, Adam, Clare L (1998). "Association of leptin receptor (OB- ...
Based on studies in Drosophila, the abstrakt gene is widely required during post-transcriptional gene expression. GRCh38: ... Leptin M (Feb 2000). "Developmental and cell biological functions of the Drosophila DEAD-box protein abstrakt". Curr Biol. 9 ( ... "Entrez Gene: DDX41 DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 41". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a simple method to ... This gene encodes a member of this family. The function of this member has not been determined. ...
... her research group have identified patients with mutations in genes encoding leptin, the leptin receptor and biological targets ... "Effects of Recombinant Leptin Therapy in a Child with Congenital Leptin Deficiency". New England Journal of Medicine. 341 (12 ... From there, she went on to discover the first single gene defect that causes obesity. For most us, how much we eat is within ... Research in her laboratory has shown that people who carry variants of the MC4R gene have an increased preference for high fat ...
A major gene that causes obesity in mice was identified on chromosome 6. The obese gene (ob/ob) was determined from one mutant ... After injecting leptin into the obese mouse of each pair, she found that leptin circulated between the conjoined animals, but ... The gene also correlated to the severe onset of diabetes (db/db gene). The experimenters used parabiosis to conjoin a db/db ... Due to the discovery of leptin, she analyzed leptin concentrations of the mice in the parabiotic experiments. ...
Additionally, there was an increase in methylation of the leptin promoter, which turns down the production of the leptin gene. ... IGF2 gene is also maternally imprinted meaning that the mother's gene is silenced. The mother's gene is typically methylated at ... researchers have shown that high fat diets in utero cause modifications to the adiponectin and leptin genes that alter gene ... Hyperglycemia during pregnancy is thought to cause epigenetic changes in the leptin gene of newborns leading to a potential ...
Pathophysiology of obesity
In the ob/ob mouse, mutations in the leptin gene resulted in the obese phenotype opening the possibility of leptin therapy for ... Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account ... Caro's laboratory could not detect any mutations in the leptin gene in humans with obesity. On the contrary Leptin expression ... This field of research had been almost unapproached until the leptin gene was discovered in 1994 by J. M. Friedman's laboratory ...
Viral gene therapy of the salivary glands resulted in long-term intake reduction. Leptin also reduces appetite in response to ... Peptide YY (PYY) also known as peptide tyrosine tyrosine is a peptide that in humans is encoded by the PYY gene. Peptide YY is ... feeding, but obese people develop a resistance to leptin. Obese people secrete less PYY than non-obese people, and attempts to ...
"Phocid seal leptin: Tertiary structure and hydrophobic receptor binding site preservation during distinct leptin gene evolution ... The cladogram is based on molecular phylogeny of six genes in Flynn, 2005. Rhines, C (2003). "Martes pennanti (On-line)". ... "Pattern and timing of the diversification of the mammalian order Carnivora inferred from multiple nuclear gene sequences". ...
In the ob/ob mouse, mutations in the leptin gene resulted in the obese phenotype opening the possibility of leptin therapy for ... Caro's laboratory could not detect any mutations in the leptin gene in humans with obesity. On the contrary Leptin expression ... This field of research had been almost unapproached until the leptin gene was discovered in 1994 by J. M. Friedman's laboratory ... Zhang, Y; Proenca, R; Maffei, M; Barone, M; Leopold, L; Friedman, JM (Dec 1, 1994). "Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene ...
Moreover, as geneticists learn more from the few cases of leptin gene mutations, the possibility remains that, although leptin ... June 2010). "A new missense mutation in the leptin gene causes mild obesity and hypogonadism without affecting T cell ... Like leptin, these hormones also affect energy balance and metabolism. Like leptin, observations in both humans and animal ... Indeed, Leibel's work has shown that the decreases in serum leptin that occur post-weight-loss constitute a state of leptin ...
This field of research had been almost unapproached until the leptin gene was discovered in 1994 by J. M. Friedman's laboratory ... Thus a deficiency in leptin signaling, either via leptin deficiency or leptin resistance, leads to overfeeding and may account ... People with two copies of the FTO gene (fat mass and obesity associated gene) have been found on average to weigh 3-4 kg more ... Both groups of arcuate nucleus neurons are regulated in part by leptin. Leptin inhibits the NPY/AgRP group while stimulating ...
Gene defects in the leptin gene (ob) are rare in human obesity. As of July, 2010, only 14 individuals from five families ... Because adipocytes produce leptin, leptin levels are elevated in the obese. However, hunger remains, and-when leptin levels ... elevated leptin in obesity is known as leptin resistance. The changes that occur in the hypothalamus to result in leptin ... Although its discoverers dubbed this gene the adipose gene, it is not a gene responsible for creating adipose tissue. ...
Bruger:Drlectin/sandkasse1, den frie encyklopædi
... activate networks of other genes. These regulatory genes produce proteins that bind to and affect the activity of other genes. ... Leptin. AMP/ATP. LKB1. ATM. Akt. IL-6. Insulin. PP2C. CaMKK. Ca2+. Adiponectin. Lipolysis. Fatty Acid. ... RAD51 is a eukaryote gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family which assist in repair of ... The best studied regulatory genes are the Hox genes that are so highly conserved as to predate the appearance of animals.  ...
Leptin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue. Its primary target organ is the hypothalamus. The leptin level seems to ... The specific genes affecting timing are not yet known. Among the candidates is an androgen receptor gene. Researchers have ... Leptin might be the cause of the GnRH rise. Leptin has receptors in the hypothalamus which synthesizes GnRH. Individuals who ... The levels of leptin increase with the onset of puberty, and then decline to adult levels when puberty is completed. The rise ...
The region flanking the 5' end of the gene lacks a TATA box, but contains many GC's and also has two CAAT boxes. The gene also ... 2009). "Leptin modulates ACAT1 expression and cholesterol efflux from human macrophages". Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. ... gene. Acetyl-Coenzyme A acetyltransferase 1 is an acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase enzyme. The gene spans approx. 27 kb and ... "Structure and expression of the human mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase-encoding gene". Gene. 109 (2): 285-90. doi:10.1016 ...
肥胖症 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Kaplan AS, Levitan RD, Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy JL (January 2008). "A DRD4/BDNF gene-gene interaction ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or abrineurin, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO: ... The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11. Structurally, BDNF ...
Eritropoetin - Wikipédia
Deletion of the gene encoding the multidrug efflux pump Pdr5 sensitizes cells to puromycin. ... Resistance to puromycin is conferred by the pac gene encoding a puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (PAC) that was found in a ... Puromycin resistance in yeast can also be conferred through expression of the puromycin N-acetyl-transferase (pac) gene. ...
Genes involved in these mechanisms are TOR, PKA, SCH9, MSN2/4, RIM15, and SIR2. Importantly, yeast ... "Genes & Development. 18 (1): 12-16. doi:10.1101/gad.1164804. ISSN 0890-9369. PMC 314267. PMID 14724176.. ... "Genes & Development. 13 (19): 2570-2580. doi:10.1101/gad.13.19.2570. PMC 317077. PMID 10521401.. ...
Beta polipeptid luteinizirajućeg hormona
Roy AC, Liao WX, Chen Y, et al. (1997). "Identification of seven novel mutations in LH beta-subunit gene by SSCP". Mol. Cell. ... Adipozno tkivo: leptin • adiponektin • rezistin Skeleton: Osteokalcin Bubreg: JGA (renin) • peritubularne ćelije (EPO) • ... Jiang M, Pakarinen P, Zhang FP, et al. (1999). "A common polymorphic allele of the human luteinizing hormone beta-subunit gene ... Sherman GB, Wolfe MW, Farmerie TA, Clay CM, Threadgill DS, Sharp DC, Nilson JH (June 1992). "A single gene encodes the beta- ...
Insulin-like growth factor 2
Gene structure. In humans, the IGF2 gene is located on chromosome 11p15.5, a region which contains numerous imprinted ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • insulin receptor binding. • hormone activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth ... regulation of gene expression by genetic imprinting. • skeletal system development. • cellular protein metabolic process. • ... The protein CTCF is involved in repressing expression of the gene, by binding to the H19 imprinting control region (ICR) along ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Kaplan AS, Levitan RD, Yilmaz Z, Davis C, Tharmalingam S, Kennedy JL (January 2008). "A DRD4/BDNF gene-gene interaction ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene. BDNF ... The BDNF protein is encoded by a gene that is also called BDNF, found in humans on chromosome 11. Structurally, BDNF ... Common SNPs in BDNF gene. BDNF has several known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), including, but not limited to, ...
Discovery of leptin, a hormone that regulates appetite and body weight-a breakthrough that opened obesity research to molecular ... Discoveries that revealed an unanticipated world of tiny RNAs that regulate gene function in plants and animals. ... For bold, imaginative, and diverse contributions to medical science and human rights - she discovered the BRCA1 gene locus that ... For discoveries elucidating how gene expression is influenced by chemical modification of histones-the proteins that package ...
Debelost - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
Za leptin in grelin menijo, da se v svojem vplivu na apetit dopolnjujeta; grelin, ki ga sintetizira želodec, naj bi kratkoročno ... Loos RJ; Bouchard C (maj 2008). "FTO: the first gene contributing to common forms of human obesity". Obes Rev. Vol. 9 no. 3. ... Čeprav se leptin in grelin tvorita na periferiji, nadzorujeta apetit s svojim vplivom na osrednje živčevje. Konkretno delujeta ... Hamann A; Matthaei S (1996). "Regulation of energy balance by leptin". Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes. Vol. 104 no. 4. str. ...
Glucocorticoids may also inhibit the rates of POMC gene transcription and peptide synthesis. The latter is an example of a slow ... The long term actions of ACTH include stimulation of the transcription of the genes coding for steroidogenic enzymes, ... In addition to steroidogenic enzymes, ACTH also enhances transcription of mitochondrial genes that encode for subunits of ...
Gene regulation. Main article: Regulation of gene expression. At the cellular level, homeostasis is carried out by ... To achieve energy homeostasis appetite is regulated by two hormones, grehlin and leptin. Grehlin stimulates hunger and the ... At the cellular level, receptors include nuclear receptors that bring about changes in gene expression through up-regulation or ... intake of food and leptin acts to signal satiety (fullness). Clinical significance. Many diseases are the result of a ...
Interleukin-18 bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Mechanisms of Leptin in Mammary Tumorigenesis. 2007. pp. 3-. ISBN 978-0-549-16664-1. .. ... contains the MKL1 gene, which has been found to modulate the transcriptional activity of ERα). Many of these polymorphisms ... Leptin has also been found to be an important factor in mammary gland development, and has been found to promote mammary ... the absence of the common 19-repeat allele in the IGF1 gene is also positively associated with breast volume in women, as well ...
Galanin receptor 1
"Alcoholism is associated with GALR3 but not two other galanin receptor genes". Genes, Brain, and Behavior. 6 (5): 473-81. PMID ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • G-protein coupled receptor activity. • neuropeptide binding. • signal transducer activity ... Galanin receptor 1 (GAL1) is a G-protein coupled receptor encoded by the GALR1 gene. ... Nicholl J, Kofler B, Sutherland GR, Shine J, Iismaa TP (Dec 1995). "Assignment of the gene encoding human galanin receptor ( ...
The genetic basis for the formation of the fin rays is thought to be genes coded for the production of certain proteins. It has ... Gene Helfman, Bruce Collette, Douglas Facey, & Brian Bowen. (2009) The Diversity of Fishes: biology, evolution, and ecology. ... Gatesy, J. (1 May 1997). "More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen ... "Fossils, genes and the evolution of animal limbs" (PDF). Nature. 388 (6643): 639-648. Bibcode:1997Natur.388..639S. doi:10.1038 ...
... the more leptin would be produced. This overproduction of leptin will cause the hypothalamus to become resistant to leptin and ... Other than genetically-stimulated appetite abnormalities, there are physiological ones that do not require genes for activation ... "How The Hormones Ghrelin and Leptin Affect Appetite". The Monterey Diet.. *^ Sader, S; Nian, M; Liu, P (2003). "Leptin: a novel ... Leptin is a peptide hormone that affects homeostasis and immune responses. Lowering food intake can lower leptin levels in ...
... in beta cells of transgenic mice overexpressing the gene for human IAPP and transplanted human islets". Diabetologia. 49 (6): ... vraćanjem hipotalamiuse osjetljivosti na leptin. Međutim, u kliničkim ispitivanjima, studija je zaustavljena u fazi 2, 2011 ... "Leptin responsiveness restored by amylin agonism in diet-induced obesity: evidence from nonclinical and clinical studies" ...
Lincoln GA, Andersson H, Loudon A (October 2003). "Clock genes in calendar cells as the basis of annual timekeeping in mammals ... During the night, melatonin regulates leptin, lowering its levels. PlantsEdit. Until its identification in plants in 1987, ... "Molecular cloning of genomic DNA and chromosomal assignment of the gene for human aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, the ...
Similar patterns of gene expression can be detected in the developing pharynx of amphioxus and hemichordates. However, the ... Depew, M J; Lufkin, T; Rubenstein, J L (2002). "Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes". Science. 298 (5592): 381-385. ... In fish, Hox gene expression regulates mechanisms for tooth initiation. ... "An Ancient Gene Network Is Co-opted for Teeth on Old and New Jaws". PLOS Biology. 7 (2): e31. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000031 ...
Most cases of narcolepsy in humans are not linked to mutations in the genes encoding orexin peptides or receptors, but are ... and the appetite-regulating peptide hormones leptin and ghrelin, among others. Notably, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is ... leptin, and ghrelin. They also receive inputs from limbic structures. Orexin neurons are, therefore, in a position not only to ... leptin, adiponectin, endogenous opioids, and corticotropin-releasing hormones are involved (Viveros et al., 2008).. ...
Osteokalcin - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Gene. 413 (1-2): 8-17. PMID 18321663. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2007.12.025.. CS1 одржавање: Експлицитна употреба et al. (веза) ... Adipozno tkivo: leptin · adiponektin · rezistin Skeleton: Osteokalcin Bubreg: JGA (renin) · peritubularne ćelije (EPO) · ... 2008). „SNP combinations in chromosome-wide genes are associated with bone mineral density in Taiwanese women.". Chin J Physiol ... Puchacz E, Lian JB, Stein GS, Wozney J, Huebner K, Croce C (1989). „Chromosomal localization of the human osteocalcin gene". ...
... studying 128 different polymorphisms related to 43 genes including genes involved in regulation of eating behavior, motivation ... leptin, neuropeptide Y and orexin, may contribute to the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa by disrupting regulation of hunger ... Focus on human gene association studies and systems controlling food intake". Brain Res Rev. 62 (2): 147-64. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Mir-181 microRNA precursor
This new class of genes has recently been shown to play a central role in malignant transformation. miRNA are downregulated in ... and circulating leptin, adiponectin, interleukin-6. The expression of miR-181a may contribute to intrinsic differences between ... In these conditions, they regulate the tumor suppressor gene CDON. It has been shown that miR-181 targets the homeobox protein ... Weber MJ (January 2005). "New human and mouse microRNA genes found by homology search". The FEBS Journal. 272 (1): 59-73. doi: ...
FTO: the first gene contributing to common forms of human obesity". Obes Rev. 9 (3): 246-50. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00481 ... Regulation of energy balance by leptin". Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes. 104 (4): 293-300. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1211457. PMID ... Începând din 2006, peste 41 de loci ai acestor gene au fost asociați cu apariția obezității, sub acțiunea unor factori ...
Association between asthma and serum adiponectin concentration in women | Thorax
Association between leptin and asthma in adults. Thorax 2006;61:300-5. ... Association of adiponectin mutation with type 2 diabetes: a candidate gene for the insulin resistance syndrome. Diabetes 2002; ... such as leptin) or anti-inflammatory (such as adiponectin). Our recent cross-sectional analysis has suggested that high serum ... 11 the serum adiponectin concentration does not increase with obesity in the way the serum leptin concentration does. On the ...
LEP leptin [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI
leptin. Names. leptin (murine obesity homolog). leptin (obesity homolog, mouse). obese protein. obese, mouse, homolog of. ... Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystem (from REACTOME) Signaling by Leptin, organism-specific biosystemLeptin (LEP, ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ... GeneRIFs: Gene References Into FunctionsWhats a GeneRIF?. * The serum leptin level does not differ significantly between non- ...
Leptin receptor gene-related protein (O89013) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Researchers find new mutation in the leptin gene | EurekAlert! Science News
... is part of a team that discovered a new mutation in the gene that regulates the key hormone suppressing hunger called leptin. ... have a mutation in the leptin gene on chromosome 7. The sisters leptin levels were so low they were below the detection limit ... The gene mutation caused the Leptin proteins to be "misfolded," rendering them ineffective and destroying their function. ... "By researching what goes wrong when genes dont code correctly for the production of leptin, we are coming closer to answers ...
Leptin gene therapy 'may be better than dieting' for weight loss
Researchers say injecting rats with an appetite-suppressing gene led to long-term weight loss without the side effect of ... Leptin gene therapy may be effective against obesity crisis. The researchers injected the brains of seven adult female rats ... Leptin gene therapy may be better than dieting for weight loss. Written by Honor Whiteman on October 21, 2015 ... Researchers say leptin gene therapy may be more effective than dieting for long-term weight loss.. ...
Assessment of Leptin Gene Polymorphism rs2060713 in Psoriasis Vulgaris
R. M. Abdel Hay and L. A. Rashed, "Association between the leptin gene 2548G/A polymorphism, the plasma leptin and the ... A. A. Çerman, S. Bozkurt, A. Sav, A. Tulunay, M. O. Elbaşi, and T. Ergun, "Serum leptin levels, skin leptin and leptin receptor ... Assessment of Leptin Gene Polymorphism rs2060713 in Psoriasis Vulgaris. Anthony Karpouzis,1 Gregory Tripsianis,2 Elisavet ... M. K. Karvonen, U. Pesonen, P. Heinonen et al., "Identification of new sequence variants in the leptin gene," Journal of ...
LEP - Leptin - Ovis aries (Sheep) - LEP gene & protein
... through the activation of different signaling pathways increases expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation such as ... Belongs to the leptin family.Curated. Family and domain databases. Integrated resource of protein families, domains and ... p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source ... negative regulation of appetite by leptin-mediated signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB. *negative regulation of autophagy ...
Leptin-specific patterns of gene expression in white adipose tissue
ob/ob mice carry leptin mutations and are obese and hyperphagic. Leptin administration to lean and ob/ob mice activates a novel ... Leptin is a hormone that regulates body weight by decreasing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. ... Leptin-specific patterns of gene expression in white adipose tissue Genes Dev. 2000 Apr 15;14(8):963-80. ... One of the clusters was repressed specifically by leptin in both wild-type and ob/ob mice and included several genes known to ...
A nutrient-sensing pathway regulates leptin gene expression in muscle and fat
However, it is still not known how incoming energy is sensed and transduced into increased expression of the ob gene. The ... gene, is synthesized and released in response to increased energy storage in adipose tissue. ... Leptin, the protein encoded by the obese (ob) ... Leptin, the protein encoded by the obese (ob) gene, is ... Plasma leptin levels and leptin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue also increase. Most important, stimulation of leptin ...
A leptin derived 30-amino-acid peptide modified pegylated poly-L-lysine dendrigraft for brain targeted gene delivery. - PubMed...
A leptin derived 30-amino-acid peptide modified pegylated poly-L-lysine dendrigraft for brain targeted gene delivery.. Liu Y1, ... which express leptin receptors. Furthermore, brain parenchyma microglia cells such as BV-2 cells expressing leptin receptors ... Dendrigraft poly-L-lysine (DGL) is used as non-viral gene vector in this study. DGL-PEG-Leptin30 was complexed with plasmid DNA ... A 30-amino-acid peptide (leptin30) derived from an endogenic hormone-leptin is exploited as brain-targeting ligand as it is ...
Positive regulation by GABA(B)R1 subunit of leptin expression through gene transactivation in adipocytes. | Sigma-Aldrich
Positive regulation by GABA(B)R1 subunit of leptin expression through gene transactivation in adipocytes.. [Yukari Nakamura, ... Knockdown by siRNA of GABA(B)R1 subunit led to significant decreases in leptin promoter activity and leptin mRNA levels in 3T3- ... Leptin mRNA expression was significantly and selectively decreased in adipose tissue and embryonic fibroblasts, along with ... Our results indicate that GABA(B)R1 subunit is constitutively expressed by adipocytes to primarily regulate leptin expression ...
Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor and Leptin Induce Distinct Patterns of Immediate Early Gene Expression in the Brain | Diabetes
Gene expression patterns following leptin.. We have previously reported patterns of Fos and SOCS-3 after leptin administration ... A noteworthy site of overlap of leptin- and CNTF-induced gene expression is the arcuate nucleus, through which leptin exerts ... we found that leptin and CNTF induce distinct patterns of gene expression throughout the CNS, suggesting that CNTF and leptin ... Patterns of gene expression following LPS.. CNTF and leptin both act on cytokine receptors; therefore, we compared the patterns ...
Polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 gene is associated with obesity, leptin levels, and insulin...
RESULTS: Four alleles of the TNFR2 gene were identified (A1, A2, A3, and A4). BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly ... CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the A2 allele in the TNFR2 gene may predispose subjects to obesity and higher leptin levels, which ... Polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 gene is associated with obesity, leptin levels, and insulin ... Polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 gene is associated with obesity, leptin levels, and insulin ...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Leptin-a Gene and Associations with Growth Traits in the Orange...
Duplicate leptin genes, leptin-a and leptin-b, were previously detected in the orange-spotted grouper. In this study, we cloned ... Our results demonstrate that several polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene are associated with growth traits and can be used for ... of the leptin-a gene in the orange-spotted grouper, searched for polymorphisms, and performed association analyses between ... Leptin is a multifunctional protein involved in processes such as body weight regulation, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, ...
Leptin Administration Downregulates the Increased Expression Levels of Genes Related to Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in...
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Analysis of Gln223Agr Polymorphism of Leptin Receptor Gene in Type II Diabetic Mellitus Subjects among...
The Leptin Receptor (LEPR) gene and its polymorphisms have not been extensively studied in relation to the T2DM and its ... Moreover, it is believed that leptin level deductions might be the cause of obesity and may play an important role in the ... In this study, we have determined the association of Gln223Agr loci of LEPR gene in three ethnic groups of Malaysia, namely: ... Leptin is known as the adipose peptide hormone. It plays an important role in the regulation of body fat and inhibits food ...
Inhibition of Preproinsulin Gene Expression by Leptin Induction of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 in Pancreatic β-Cells |...
Elevated leptin levels in obese subjects are believed to be indicative of resistance to leptin. Leptin has also been shown to ... Seufert J, Kieffer TJ, Habener JF: Leptin inhibits insulin gene transcription and reverses hyperinsulinemia in leptin-deficient ... SOCS3 induced by leptin binds to the leptin receptor-associated kinase JAK2 in a leptin-dependent manner in vitro, antagonizes ... and leptin (16-18). Accumulating evidence suggests that SOCS3 is a leptin-induced negative feedback regulator of leptin ...
PRIME PubMed | Plasma leptin concentrations and OB gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue are not regulated acutely by...
Plasma leptin concentrations and OB gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue are not regulated acutely by physiological ... Adipose TissueAdultAgedBiopsy, NeedleBody CompositionFemaleFoodGene ExpressionHumansHyperinsulinismInsulinLeptinMiddle Aged ... Clinical aspects of leptin.. *The expression of ob gene is not acutely regulated by insulin and fasting in human abdominal ... Plasma leptin concentrations and OB gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue are not regulated acutely by physiological ...
Frontiers | Hypothalamic Leptin Gene Therapy Reduces Bone Marrow Adiposity in ob/ob Mice Fed Regular and High-Fat Diets |...
Hypothalamic leptin gene therapy increased osteoblast perimeter and osteoclast perimeter with minor change in cancellous bone ... Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone known to regulate energy and bone metabolism. Genetic (e.g., leptin deficiency) and high ... Genetic (e.g., leptin deficiency) and high fat diet-induced (e.g., leptin resistance) obesity are associated with increased ... Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice ...
SID.ir | LEPTIN RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISM MAY AFFECT SUBCLINICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH ACROMEGALY
Download Free Full-Text of an article LEPTIN RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISM MAY AFFECT SUBCLINICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH ... Leptin (LEP) and Leptin Receptor (LEPR) gene polymorphisms can increase cardiovascular risks. The aim of this study was to ... LEPTIN RECEPTOR GENE POLYMORPHISM MAY AFFECT SUBCLINICAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN PATIENTS WITH ACROMEGALY. ... Conclusion: It can be said that the LEPR gene polymorphism may affect cIMT in patients.. The reason is that LEPR GG genotype ...
Leptin secretion and hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor gene expression in sheep - Strathprints
Lactation decreased plasma leptin and adipose tissue leptin mRNA concentrations. OB-Rb gene expression, determined by in situ ... Leptin secretion and hypothalamic neuropeptide and receptor gene expression in sheep. American Journal of Physiology - ... Agouti-related peptide gene expression was increased in the ARC, and melanocortin receptor expression was unchanged in both the ... Gene expression was decreased for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the ARC and VMH and for ...
A polymorphism in the leptin gene promoter is associated with anemia in patients with HIV disease
... Vanasse, Gary J.; Jeong, Jee ... Analysis of our candidate genes revealed that the leptin -2548 G/A SNP was associated with anemia in HIV+, but not HIV-, ... Our study provides novel insight into the association between genetic variability in the leptin gene and anemia in HIV+ ... and used a candidate gene approach to identify proinflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with ...
High-fat diet-induced changes in body mass and hypothalamic gene expression in wild-type and leptin-deficient mice
Replacement of leptin to leptin-deficient ob/ob mice decreased hypothalamic leptin receptor expression and did not prevent HFD- ... The protein concentrations of leptin and soluble leptin receptor in follicular fluid were determined and the free leptin index ... Differential gene expression in ERÎ±-positive and ERÎ±-negative breast cancer cells upon leptin stimulation. Binai, Nadine; ... Home » High-fat diet-induced changes in body mass and hypothalamic gene expression in wild-type and leptin-deficient mice ...
Glucocorticoids induce the expression of the leptin gene through a non-classical mechanism of transcriptional activation -...
In addition, our data indicate that the induction of the expression of the leptin gene by dexamethasone is at least in part due ... The expression of the ob gene, encoding leptin, is under multi-hormonal control. We have shown previously that high doses of ... Multiple nuclear factors from 3T3-L1 preadipocytes interact with this promoter region of the human leptin gene and may be ... Deletion mapping of the human leptin promoter shows that cis-elements involved in the glucocorticoid effect are located between ...
PPARGC1α gene DNA methylation variations in human placenta mediate the link between maternal hyperglycemia and leptin levels in...
PPARGC1α gene DNA methylation variations in human placenta mediate the link between maternal hyperglycemia and leptin levels in ... PPARGC1α gene DNA methylation variations in human placenta mediate the link between maternal hyperglycemia and leptin levels in ... PPARGC1α gene DNA methylation variations in human placenta mediate the link between maternal hyperglycemia and leptin levels in ... "PPARGC1α gene DNA methylation variations in human placenta mediate the link between maternal hyperglycemia and leptin levels in ...
Leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in the canine corpus luteum during diestrus, pregnancy and after aglepristone...
Balogh, Orsolya; Kowalewski, Mariusz P; Reichler, Iris M (2012). Leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in the canine ... Download PDF Leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in the canine corpus luteum during diestrus, pregnancy and after ... Leptin and leptin receptor gene expression in the canine corpus luteum during diestrus, pregnancy and after aglepristone- ... Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEP-R) expression was shown to change throughout the luteal phase in several species and may ...
Steroidogenic genes expressions are repressed by high levels of leptin and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in MA-10 Leydig cells...
"Steroidogenic genes expressions are repressed by high levels of leptin and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in MA-10 Leydig cells ... Steroidogenic genes expressions are repressed by high levels of leptin and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in MA-10 Leydig cells ... Steroidogenic genes expressions are repressed by high levels of leptin and the JAK/STAT signaling... Landry, David; Sormany, ... Steroidogenic genes expressions are repressed by high levels of leptin and the JAK/STAT signaling pathway in MA-10 Leydig cells ...
An allelic series for the leptin receptor gene generated by CRE and FLP recombinase, Mammalian Genome | 10.1007/s00335-004-2340...
"An allelic series for the leptin receptor gene generated by CRE and FLP recombinase, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest ... Evidence that the diabetes gene encodes the leptin receptor: identification of a mutation in the leptin receptor gene in db/db ... An allelic series for the leptin receptor gene generated by CRE and FLP recombinase. An allelic series for the leptin receptor ... An allelic series for the leptin receptor gene generated by CRE and FLP recombinase. McMinn, Julie; Liu, Shun-Mei; Dragatsis, ...
Leptin induces increased alpha2(I) collagen gene expression in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells. - Semantic Scholar
Further evidence that leptin acts directly on HSCs to alter gene expression in liver wounding is demonstrated by enhanced ... We, and others, have demonstrated that leptin is critical to the development of liver fibrogenesis both in vitro and in the ... Taken together, the current data provide a continued framework that leptin is a profibrogenic cytokine and plays a key role in ... collagen gene based upon ribonuclease protection analysis (RPA). Actinomycin D, but not cyclohexamide, or the pan-neutralizing ...
The role of leptin, melanocortin, and neurotrophin system genes on body weight in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa -...
The role of leptin, melanocortin, and neurotrophin system genes on body weight in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa ... We genotyped 20 markers with known or putative function among genes selected from leptin, melanocortin, and neurotrophin ... The role of leptin, melanocortin, and neurotrophin system genes on body weight in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Journal ... Studies of genes involved in appetite and weight regulation in eating disorders have yielded variable findings, in part due to ...
EJPAU 2010. Rybarczyk A. , Kmie M. , Szaruga R. , Polasik D. , Terman A. , Natalczyk-Szymkowska W. LEPTIN GENE (<I>LEP</I>)...
LEPTIN GENE (LEP) POLYMORPHISM IN PIC HYBRID FATTENERS FREE FROM STRESS SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE (RYR1T). Artur Rybarczyk1, Marek ... LEPTIN GENE (LEP) POLYMORPHISM IN PIC HYBRID FATTENERS FREE FROM STRESS SUSCEPTIBILITY GENE (RYR1T), EJPAU 13(3), #07.. ... The taken up study aimed at determining the T3469C and G2728A polymorphism at the leptin gene (LEP) as well as establishing an ... pigs, LEP and RYR1 gene, carcass and meat quality. Artur Rybarczyk. Department of Evaluation Livestock Products, Westpomeranian ...
ReceptorsAbstractAdiposePlasma leptin levelsHuman leptinRegulatesEffects of leptinSuggest that leptinSerum leptin levelsRole of leptinEffect of leptinFunction of leptinAdipocytesInsulinMutationsHypothalamusPathwayPolymorphismsInducesMutationSecretionMetabolismSignificantlyRegulateIntakeSingle-nucleotide pMammalianProteinsRegulation of leptinPromoterBinds to the leptin receptorProtein called the leptin receptorActivatesMouse LeptinIsoformsChromosomeSignal transductionGeneticResistanceReceptor mRNAHypothalamic leptinPathwaysVariantsHumans
- The cellular uptake characteristic and mechanism were explored in brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) which express leptin receptors. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, brain parenchyma microglia cells such as BV-2 cells expressing leptin receptors could promote ligand-receptor mediated endocytosis leading to enhanced gene transfection ability of DGL-PEG-Leptin30/DNA NPs. (nih.gov)
- CNTF-, leptin-, and LPS-induced cytokines all act on type I cytokine receptors. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Like the leptin receptor, CNTF receptors belong to the class-I cytokine receptor family and are widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS) ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Leptin signal transduction occurs through a distinct receptor of the class 1 cytokine superfamily of receptors ( 9 ), which is intracellularly coupled to the janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Leptin receptors are expressed on human umbilical cord leukocytes ( 10 ), and leptin activates umbilical cord monocytes, polymorphonuclear cells, and lymphocytes ( 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The facts that when leptin receptors are dysfunctional, TG content in nonadipocytes such as islets can increase 100-fold, and that constitutively expressed ectopic hyperleptinemia depletes TG, suggest that leptin controls the homeostatic system for intracellular TG. (pnas.org)
- Human bone cells expressed leptin and leptin receptors (Ob-Ra and Ob-Rb). (medsci.org)
- Leptins and leptin receptors have now been shown to be expressed in a number of organs and tissues in addition to adipose tissue [ 9 , 10 ]. (medsci.org)
- Although regulation of fat stores is deemed to be the primary function of leptin, it also plays a role in other physiological processes, as evidenced by its multiple sites of synthesis other than fat cells, and the multiple cell types beside hypothalamic cells that have leptin receptors. (wikipedia.org)
- The leptin receptor was classified as type I cytokine receptor due to its structural homology with IL-6 receptors and the signaling pathways in which they are both involved. (geneticsmr.com)
- We speculate that this may be due, in part, to a direct effect of leptin on heart rate, conceivably mediated through cardiac leptin receptors. (ahajournals.org)
- Leptin receptors or their mRNA have been detected in blood vessels and in the heart. (ahajournals.org)
- abstract = "Leptin receptor gene expression has been measured in arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei. (elsevier.com)
- abstract = "The leptin gene has received intensive attention and scientific investigation for its importance in energy homeostasis and reproductive regulation in mammals. (elsevier.com)
- Leptin, the 'satiety hormone' made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. (eurekalert.org)
- Leptin is a protein produced by fat cells (also known as adipose tissue). (eurekalert.org)
- Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose cells, or fat cells, that plays a role in regulating energy balance by curbing hunger. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Leptin administration to lean and ob/ob mice activates a novel metabolic program that depletes adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
- Expression monitoring of 6500 genes using oligonucleotide microarrays in wild-type, ob/ob, and transgenic mice expressing low levels of leptin revealed that differences in ambient leptin levels have dramatic effects on the phenotype of white adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
- A novel application of k-means clustering identified 8 clusters of adipose tissue genes whose expression was different between leptin treatment and food restriction in ob/ob mice and 10 such clusters in wild-type experiments. (nih.gov)
- Further studies confirmed that leptin decreases the levels of SREBP-1/ADD1 RNA and transcriptionally active SREBP-1/ADD1 protein in white adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
- Plasma leptin levels and leptin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue also increase. (nih.gov)
- Leptin mRNA expression was significantly and selectively decreased in adipose tissue and embryonic fibroblasts, along with drastically reduced plasma leptin levels, in GABA(B)R1-null mice than in wild-type mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Leptin has also been shown to inhibit insulin secretion and preproinsulin gene expression in pancreatic β-cells ( 3 - 6 ), thereby establishing an adipoinsular feedback loop in concert with stimulatory action of insulin on leptin secretion from the adipose tissue ( 7 , 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- To determine the effects of obesity on fasting plasma leptin levels and assess the effects of feeding on plasma leptin and OB gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue in non-diabetic subjects. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Leptin deficiency and high-fat diet-induced obesity are associated with increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and reduced bone formation. (frontiersin.org)
- Lactation decreased plasma leptin and adipose tissue leptin mRNA concentrations. (strath.ac.uk)
- Leptin is a hormone which is produced in adipose tissue and which plays a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. (epfl.ch)
- Martin, Luc 2017-03-25 00:00:00 The adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ secreting numerous peptide hormones, including leptin. (deepdyve.com)
- Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipose cells (adipocytes) and is being known as a product of the obesity gene. (media.pl)
- Leptin is highly expressed in adipose tissue and secreted into the bloodstream. (biomedcentral.com)
- Signals from adipose tissue, including but not limited to leptin and TNFα, regulate PRH and might be targets for therapies that support people engaged in CR to reduce obesity. (biologists.org)
- The serum concentration of leptin determines the energy status of the body in adipose tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Leptin is produced in many organs and secreted mainly by adipose tissue. (scielo.br)
- Leptin, secreted from adipose tissue, has diverse effects on bone tissue regulation. (medsci.org)
- As glucocorticoids stimulate leptin synthesis and secretion directly in adipose tissue we hypothesised that dexamethasone (DEX) induced osteoporosis may, in part, be mediated by an osteoblast dependent leptin-leptin receptor pathway. (medsci.org)
- Leptin (from Greek λεπτός leptos, "thin"), "the hormone of energy expenditure", is a hormone predominantly made by adipose cells that helps to regulate energy balance by inhibiting hunger. (wikipedia.org)
- A bolus infusion of 1 microg/rat leptin into the third cerebroventricle increased the expression of mRNA for hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), an indicator of lipolysis, in white adipose tissue (WAT). (biomedsearch.com)
- The adipose tissue-derived hormone leptin regulates body weight homeostasis by decreasing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. (jneurosci.org)
- The purpose of the current study was to investigate the association of usual dietary intakes of fats with leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues in adults. (ac.ir)
- Leptin gene expression in adipose tissues was measured using Real-Time PCR. (ac.ir)
- In addition a direct association was also observed between dietary animal fat and leptin gene expression in subcutaneous (β=0.328, P=0.020) and visceral (β=0.305, P=0.015) adipose tissue. (ac.ir)
- Furthermore, non-hydrogenated oil consumption was inversely associated with leptin gene expression visceral adipose tissue (β=-0.348, P=0.031). (ac.ir)
- Dietary intake of olive oil was inversely and animal fat was directly associated with leptin gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues independent of body mass index and insulin indicating the importance of fat sources on adipose tissue leptin gene expression. (ac.ir)
Plasma leptin levels5
- Second, more than half of the population in the United States is overweight despite higher plasma leptin levels than the nonobese minority ( 7 , 8 )-hardly the credentials of a hormone that prevents obesity. (pnas.org)
- All patients had extreme lack of body fat, low plasma leptin levels, and elevated serum triglycerides, but only two had diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the MnSOD gene Ala16Val polymorphism in obesity in terms of body mass index (BMI), lipid parameters, plasma leptin levels, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and oxidative stress biomarkers. (istanbulc.edu.tr)
- Therefore, we studied the relationship between plasma leptin levels and heart rate in heart transplant recipients. (ahajournals.org)
- 4 In human studies, plasma leptin levels correlate strongly with heart rate, most strikingly during sleep. (ahajournals.org)
- Deletion mapping of the human leptin promoter shows that cis-elements involved in the glucocorticoid effect are located between -55 and +31 relative to the transcription initiation site. (epfl.ch)
- Multiple nuclear factors from 3T3-L1 preadipocytes interact with this promoter region of the human leptin gene and may be potential mediators of the induction by glucocorticoids. (epfl.ch)
- Human Leptin gene Human Leptin gene is a cDNA gene. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- Recently, in a two-center collaborative study ( 3 ), subcutaneous (SC) administration of recombinant human leptin for 4 months was reported to significantly improve glycemic control, insulin resistance, and hypertriglyceridemia in nine patients with lipodystrophies (eight of whom had generalized lipodystrophy). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Human leptin is a 16-kDa protein of 167 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
- Leptin regulates the pro-inflammatory response in human epidermal keratinocytes. (nih.gov)
- Describes a cellular signaling pathway in which CASK, a structural girder of cell junctions, directly enters the nucleus and thereby regulates gene expression. (ebscohost.com)
- However, other transcription factors such as members of the SMAD and NFAT families may be involved and need further investigation to better define how leptin regulates their activities and their relevance for Leydig cells function. (deepdyve.com)
- The present study aims to examine how acute central infusion of leptin regulates peripheral lipid metabolism, as assessed by markers indicative of their mobilization and utilization. (biomedsearch.com)
Effects of leptin6
- Expression of the leptin receptor by PBMCs and CD4 + T lymphocytes has been reported at the mRNA level ( 5 ) and direct effects of leptin have been demonstrated in a number of studies. (jimmunol.org)
- To date, the majority of studies have focused on the effects of leptin on adaptive immunity, particularly T lymphocyte function. (jimmunol.org)
- Effects of leptin receptor gene 3'-untranslated region polymorphism on metabolic profiles in young Japanese men. (elsevier.com)
- We investigated the effects of leptin receptor gene 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) polymorphism on clinical and metabolic parameters in 221 young Japanese men aged 21 to 28 years. (elsevier.com)
- However, pleiotropic effects of leptin have been identified in reproduction and pregnancy. (conicet.gov.ar)
- The effects of leptin on heart rate are presumably mediated by the central effects of leptin as it modulates autonomic neural control of the heart. (ahajournals.org)
Suggest that leptin4
- Short-duration studies suggest that leptin treatment reduces MAT and increases bone formation in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice fed a regular diet. (frontiersin.org)
- These findings suggest that leptin plays an important role in regulating the differentiation of MSCs to adipocytes and osteoblasts, a process that may be dysregulated by high-fat diet. (frontiersin.org)
- These results suggest that leptin is involved in the prenatal development, especially to the CRL, BW and development of CNS. (nii.ac.jp)
- These findings suggest that leptin could potentially be used to treat extreme obesity even when circulating leptin is not absent. (medscape.com)
Serum leptin levels2
- BMI and serum leptin levels were significantly increased in young carriers of the A2 allele. (diabetesjournals.org)
- It has been observed that body mass index (BMI, the quotient of weight (kg) divided by the square of the height (m 2 )) can be correlated with serum leptin levels linearly in both men and women (10). (scielo.br)
Role of leptin2
Effect of leptin5
- The effect of leptin was distinct from, and additive to, that seen after exposure to endotoxin or activation by the mixed lymphocyte reaction. (jimmunol.org)
- The presence of leptin receptor in human PMN was determined both at mRNA and protein levels, and the effect of leptin on PMN activation, as assessed by CD11b expression, was evaluated using flow cytometry. (jimmunol.org)
- Chronic changes in diet composition producing high leptin levels or rLeptin treatment may result in an altered response to cocaine in ethologic tests that measure degrees of anxiety and depression, which could be attributed to an antagonistic effect of leptin. (scielo.br)
- Short Communication: Effect of Leptin Gene Polymorphisms on Breeding Value for Milk Production Traits. (ijabbr.com)
- The observations provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of leptin in the regulation of food intake and for a potential role of duck leptin in the regulation of lipogenesis. (koreascience.or.kr)
Function of leptin5
- It is proposed that an important function of leptin is to confine the storage of triglycerides (TG) to the adipocytes, while limiting TG storage in nonadipocytes, thus protecting them from lipotoxicity. (pnas.org)
- If prevention of obesity is not the primary function of leptin, what is its physiologic mission? (pnas.org)
- Here, we propose that an important physiologic function of leptin is to regulate in nonadipocytes the intracellular homeostasis of fatty acids (FA) and triglycerides (TG) so as to maintain a sufficient supply of FA for essential cell functions while avoiding TG overload. (pnas.org)
- Taken together these findings give a better understanding of the function of leptin and the regulatory mechanisms of leptin expression in human placental trophoblast and further support the importance of leptin in the biology of reproduction. (conicet.gov.ar)
- Little is known about variation in leptin levels during pregnancy or the level or function of leptin in the growing fetus and infants. (aappublications.org)
- This gene encodes a protein that is secreted by white adipocytes into the circulation and plays a major role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. (nih.gov)
- Finally, incubation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and L6 myocytes with glucosamine rapidly induces ob gene expression. (nih.gov)
- Positive regulation by GABA(B)R1 subunit of leptin expression through gene transactivation in adipocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Our results indicate that GABA(B)R1 subunit is constitutively expressed by adipocytes to primarily regulate leptin expression at the transcriptional level through a mechanism not relevant to the function as a partner of heterodimeric assembly to the functional GABA(B)R. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In cultured rat adipocytes dexamethasone induces leptin mRNA levels, an effect not inhibited by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. (epfl.ch)
- Leptin secreted from white adipocytes is implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure in rodents and humans [ 7 ]. (medsci.org)
- Leptin is an important regulator of appetite, energy metabolism, and reproduction and is mainly synthesized in the adipocytes and then secreted into the bloodstream. (geneticsmr.com)
- Polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 2 gene is associated with obesity, leptin levels, and insulin resistance in young subjects and diet-treated type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate a polymorphism in the 3' untranslated region of the TNFR2 gene on chromosome 1 in relation to BMI, leptin levels, and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In the study sample, carriers of the A2 allele (n = 18) showed significantly increased BMI, fat mass, waist-to-hip ratio, serum total and VLDL triglyceride levels, and leptin levels and had a lower insulin sensitivity index than noncarriers of the A2 variant (n = 15). (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the A2 allele in the TNFR2 gene may predispose subjects to obesity and higher leptin levels, which may in turn predispose them to insulin resistance or vice versa. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Leptin inhibits insulin secretion and preproinsulin gene expression in pancreatic β-cells, but signal transduction pathways and molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly characterized. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Dysregulation of this adipoinsular axis with the establishment of leptin resistance in pancreatic β-cells may lead to hyperinsulinemia, which could contribute to obesity and insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
- However, we previously determined that leptin increases binding of STAT5b to the upstream sequences of the rat preproinsulin 1 promoter ( 6 ) and inhibits insulin biosynthesis via transcriptional repression ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition, there was no association between plasma leptin and the insulin: glucose ratio (an index of insulin sensitivity). (unboundmedicine.com)
- This is of relevance when considering leptin therapy and may partly explain the relationship among leptin, proinflammatory cytokines, insulin resistance, and obesity. (jimmunol.org)
- OBJECTIVE -To investigate whether leptin-induced improvements in glycemic control, hyperlipidemia, and insulin sensitivity in hypoleptinemic patients with generalized lipodystrophies are accompanied by reduction in intrahepatic and intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) accumulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -We examined the effects 8-10 months of subcutaneous leptin replacement therapy on insulin sensitivity, IMCL, and intrahepatic lipid content in two patients with acquired generalized lipodystrophy and one patient with congenital generalized lipodystrophy. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Insulin stimulated glucose uptake during 60-120 min of the euglycemic clamp studies, and the rate of glucose disappearance during the insulin tolerance test nearly doubled with leptin therapy. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CONCLUSIONS -Reduction in IMCL and intrahepatic lipid content may partly explain leptin-induced improvement in insulin sensitivity in patients with generalized lipodystrophy. (diabetesjournals.org)
- These signals are transmitted by hormones-such as leptin, insulin, and ghrelin-and other small molecules. (cdc.gov)
- In obesity, similar to resistance of insulin in type 2 diabetes, a decreased sensitivity to leptin occurs, resulting in an inability to detect satiety despite high energy stores. (wikipedia.org)
- Mutations in this gene and its regulatory regions cause severe obesity and morbid obesity with hypogonadism in human patients. (nih.gov)
- This absence of serum leptin is caused by homozygous frameshift or missense mutations in the ob gene (7q31.3) and is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. (malacards.org)
- which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. (medlineplus.gov)
- Andiran N, Celik N, Andiran F. Homozygosity for two missense mutations in the leptin receptor gene (P316:W646C) in a Turkmenian girl with severe early-onset obesity. (medlineplus.gov)
- Mutations in the leptin gene (LEP) can alter the secretion or interaction of leptin with its receptor, leading to extreme early-onset obesity. (springeropen.com)
- In the mouse study, the research team determined that mutations in the Mrap2 gene led the animals to eat less initially but still gain about twice as much weight as they normally would. (beliefnet.com)
- The majority of the men had low-risk versions of the gene, while 45 of the participants had mutations that have been linked to greater appetite and caloric consumption. (beliefnet.com)
- Leptins have diverse effects on bone tissue regulation with leptin receptor mutations [ 11 ]. (medsci.org)
- In 1995, Jose F. Caro's laboratory provided evidence that the mutations in the mouse ob gene did not occur in humans. (wikipedia.org)
- A human mutant leptin was first described in 1997, and subsequently six additional mutations were described. (wikipedia.org)
- In the second fragment 544 bp, 2 point mutations (transition and Transversion) and 1 Frame shift mutation (deletion) were appeared, in the Leptin gene pro-motor region. (ijabbr.com)
- Leptin acts on specific regions in the hypothalamus to inhibit food intake and raise energy expenditure. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Neuropeptide Y (NPY) was increased by lactation in both the ARC and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), although increased gene expression in the DMH was only apparent at day 18 of lactation. (strath.ac.uk)
- In the hypothalamus, the binding of leptin to its receptor triggers a series of chemical signals that affect hunger and help produce a feeling of fullness (satiety). (medlineplus.gov)
- As proven by colocalization studies with the nuclear 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dilactate stain, intracerebroventricular leptin treatment, but not intracerebroventricular application of pyrogen-free saline, induced a time-dependent nuclear translocation of STAT3 immunoreactivity in hypothalamic nuclei, with strong nuclear STAT3 signals detectable in the arcuate nucleus, the lateral hypothalamus, and the ventromedial and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. (jneurosci.org)
- The predominant effect of leptins on bone metabolism appears to be through the hypothalamus by activation of the sympathetic nervous system [ 12 ]. (medsci.org)
- Subsequent studies in 1995 confirmed that the db gene encodes the leptin receptor, and that it is expressed in the hypothalamus, a region of the brain known to regulate the sensation of hunger and body weight. (wikipedia.org)
- The weight-reducing action of leptin is thought to be mediated primarily by signal transduction through the leptin receptor (LR) in the hypothalamus. (jneurosci.org)
- Leptin promotes pulmonary fibrosis development by inhibiting autophagy via PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. (nih.gov)
- Acts as a growth factor on certain tissues, through the activation of different signaling pathways increases expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation such as CCND1, via JAK2-STAT3 pathway, or VEGFA, via MAPK1/3 and PI3K-AKT1 pathways (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
- The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway is a cellular 'sensor' of energy availability and mediates the effects of glucose on the expression of several gene products. (nih.gov)
- In conclusion, although SOCS3 is believed to be a negative feedback regulator of JAK-STAT signaling, our findings suggest involvement of SOCS3 in a direct gene regulatory pathway downstream of leptin-activated JAK-STAT signaling in pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Plumbagin Inhibits Leptin-Induced Proliferation of Hepatic Stellate Cells via JAK2-STAT3 Pathway to Protect against Hepatic Fibrosis. (ebscohost.com)
- Here, we report our analysis of alternative transcripts in the leptin signaling pathway which is responsible for the systemic regulation of macronutrient storage and energy balance. (biomedcentral.com)
- To illustrate the concept of oscillation within a biological pathway we have chosen the leptin pathway as an example. (biomedcentral.com)
- This leptin signal transduction pathway is well studied and can be found in a number of private and public databases. (biomedcentral.com)
- We have extracted the description along with the cartoon illustrating the leptin pathway from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG)[ 8 ], We have scaled, smoothed, and assigned to most likely phase class the data sets with microarray expression profiles from the previously published studies (see Methods). (biomedcentral.com)
- This leptin-induced STAT3 translocation pattern proved to be distinct from that induced by interleukin-6, another cytokine using STAT3 in its signaling pathway. (jneurosci.org)
- Leptin also exerts an antiapoptotic action in placenta and this effect is mediated by the MAPK pathway. (conicet.gov.ar)
- We suggest that this additional surfactant requirement is met by the leptin pulmonary surfactant production pathway which normally appears only to function in the mammalian foetus. (abertay.ac.uk)
- Leptin-induced protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involves the activation of the reperfusion injury salvage kinase pathway, incorporating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt/protein kinase B and p44/42 MAPK, and the inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). (physiology.org)
- As described for other cardioprotective treatments ( 14 ), leptin-induced protection was found to involve the activation of the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway, through phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-cellular Akt/protein kinase B (Akt) and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the suppression of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening ( 24 ), mechanisms regarded as prerequisites for cardioprotection ( 14 ). (physiology.org)
- The Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway plays a vital role in modulating the expression of stress-responsive genes by transducing signals received at the cell surface to the nucleus ( 7 , 17 ). (physiology.org)
- Given that it has been proposed that the JAK/STAT pathway may play a vital role in cardioprotection (3-5, 26 ), we investigated whether the cardioprotective actions of leptin, when administered at reperfusion, may also involve JAK/STAT signaling. (physiology.org)
- In addition, in the light of a recent report that STAT3 is present in mitochondria and is required for optimal function of the electron transport chain and, hence, mitochondrial respiration ( 32 ), we considered the possibility that leptin-induced protection mediated via the JAK/STAT pathway is linked to MPTP function. (physiology.org)
- Leptin can regulate bone mass through a central, neuroendocrine signaling pathway. (jax.org)
- In this study, we cloned the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of the leptin-a gene in the orange-spotted grouper, searched for polymorphisms, and performed association analyses between these polymorphisms and seven growth traits. (mdpi.com)
- Our results demonstrate that several polymorphisms in the leptin-a gene are associated with growth traits and can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in orange-spotted grouper populations. (mdpi.com)
- To study factors associated with anemia and its effect on survival in HIV-infected persons treated with modern combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), we characterized the prevalence of anemia in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) and used a candidate gene approach to identify proinflammatory gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with anemia in HIV disease. (epfl.ch)
- Cannabinoid type 1 receptor gene polymorphisms are not associated with olanzapine-induced weight gain. (semanticscholar.org)
- Detection of polymorphisms in the bovine leptin (LEP) gene: association of single nucleotide polymorphism with breeding value of milk traits in Iranian Holstein Cattle. (ijabbr.com)
- Associations between leptin gene polymorphisms and production, live weight, energy balance, feed intake, and fertility in Holstein heifers. (ijabbr.com)
- Genotype x nutrient association of common polymorphisms in obesity-related genes with food preferences and time structure of energy intake. (qxmd.com)
- Potential association of leptin [LEP] gene polymorphisms has been suggested in the processes leading to breast cancer initiation and progression. (bvsalud.org)
- Leptin induces increased alpha2(I) collagen gene expression in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells. (semanticscholar.org)
- At high doses, leptin induces proinflammatory cytokine production by resting human PBMCs and augments the release of these cytokines from activated PBMCs in a pattern compatible with the induction of Th1 cytokines. (jimmunol.org)
- A mutation in this gene has also been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus development. (nih.gov)
- What scientists found is that these two women - now in their 20s - have a mutation in the leptin gene on chromosome 7. (eurekalert.org)
- The gene mutation caused the Leptin proteins to be "misfolded," rendering them ineffective and destroying their function. (eurekalert.org)
- But actually, it's different gene mutation, okay? (coursera.org)
- Leptin was discovered by positional cloning of a single gene mutation in the ob/ob mouse ( 1 ), a well-characterized model of obesity and diabetes with endocrine and immunologic abnormalities ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- were the first to describe two subjects with a homozygous mutation in the leptin gene. (springeropen.com)
- A newly identified mutation in the leptin gene causes early-onset extreme obesity by rendering the protein biologically inactive rather than absent. (medscape.com)
- Sequencing ruled out a mutation in the gene encoding the leptin receptor but identified a novel homozygous transversion in the gene encoding leptin. (medscape.com)
- Cite this: Rare Mutation Renders Leptin Present but Inactive - Medscape - Dec 31, 2014. (medscape.com)
- In view of intense hyperphagia followed by rapid weight gain, early age of onset, family history of EOO and low level of circulating leptin , a diagnosis of monogenic obesity due to LEP gene mutation was considered. (thefreedictionary.com)
- These data, viewed in toto, support a hypothesis that phocid leptin divergence is unlikely to have arisen by random mutation. (abertay.ac.uk)
- A new mutation in the coding region of the bovine leptin gene associated with feed intake. (ijabbr.com)
- Incubation of resting PBMCs with high-dose leptin (250 ng/ml, 3-5 days) induced proliferation of resting cultured PBMCs and their secretion of TNF-α (5-fold), IL-6 (19-fold), and IFN-γ (2.5-fold), but had no effect on IL-4 secretion. (jimmunol.org)
- In fact, the fat content of a meal and habitual dietary fat content, but not carbohydrate or protein intake, are important factors that can modify leptin secretion (11-13). (scielo.br)
- This relation was not seen in depressed patients, suggesting a disturbed regulation of leptin secretion in mood disorders (10). (scielo.br)
- In fact, these patients present more intense leptin secretion during the night when compared to normal subjects, despite a reported weight loss by the majority of patients (10). (scielo.br)
- Identification of new sequence variants in the leptin gene," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 83, no. 9, pp. 3239-3242, 1998. (hindawi.com)
- Leptin is a multifunctional protein involved in processes such as body weight regulation, energy expenditure, fat metabolism, food intake, and appetite regulation. (mdpi.com)
- Leptin has multiple biological actions on feeding, metabolism, and the neuro-endocrine axis, and more recently leptin has been demonstrated to modulate the immune system toward the Th1 immune response ( 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Best supplements for leptin support and metabolism. (wellnessresources.com)
- Leptin is a 16000 MW protein originally described as an adipocyte-derived signaling molecule for the central control of metabolism. (conicet.gov.ar)
- ANN ARBOR, Mich. - Researchers at Michigan Medicine have found the livers of patients with a rare disease that affects metabolism have responded positively to leptin therapy. (healthcanal.com)
- Endocrine regulation of energy metabolism: review of pathobiochemical and clinical chemical aspects of leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin. (ijabbr.com)
- Leptin, as an adipokine, plays a role in the regulation of metabolism and could be affected by dietary intake. (ac.ir)
- Are genes associated with energy metabolism important in asthma and BMI? (qxmd.com)
- Myocardial leptin expression was significantly increased in acquired ( P = .035) and decreased in congenital CD ( P = .016) in comparison to controls. (wiley.com)
- We previously reported that the leptin genes of the grey and harbour seals (phocids) have significantly diverged from other mammals. (abertay.ac.uk)
- Interest in identifying the candidate genes or highly polymorphic tandemly repeated loci that contribute significantly to human obesity and essential hypertension is on the rise both in terms of designing of pharmacological intervention strategies and genetic association studies. (beds.ac.uk)
- Despite the decrease of food intake, leptin significantly induced body weight and fatty deposition. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Thiobarbituric acidreactive substances, markers of oxidative stress, were higher inserum and gastrocnemius of control ob-ob than in wild typemice and were significantly decreased by leptin treatment. (duhnnae.com)
- Circulating leptin is thought to regulate body weight, food intake, and energy expenditure by engaging these hypothalamic nuclei ( 1 , 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- In addition to leptin, other cytokines may also regulate body weight, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are not well understood. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Phosphorylated STATs dimerize and translocate to the nucleus to regulate gene transcription ( 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- HFD was associated with altered hypothalamic expression of genes whose products regulate the activity or nuclear translocation of STAT3, an important mediator of leptin actions. (ebscohost.com)
- These results indicate that, even in a single bolus, leptin may regulate the mobilization and/or utilization of energy substrates such as fatty acids by affecting lipolytic activity in WAT and by increasing the expression of UCPs in BAT, WAT, and muscle. (biomedsearch.com)
- Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and leptin decrease food intake and body weight. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CNTF and leptin are being assessed as potential therapeutic antiobesity agents, and both potently reduce food intake. (diabetesjournals.org)
- CNTF and leptin both inhibit food intake and decrease body weight, but the CNS pathways engaged by these cytokines have not been systematically compared. (diabetesjournals.org)
- We have shown previously that high doses of glucocorticoids are positive regulators of leptin expression in rats and that they concomitantly reduce food intake and body mass gain in these animals. (epfl.ch)
- Leptin therapy caused an average 3.6-kg weight loss, and self-reported daily energy intake, measured in seven patients, decreased by an average of 1,080 kcal/day. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Twice daily leptin administration for 7 days profoundly affected food intake, reduced leptin receptor mRNA in the arcuate nucleus, and had a similar effect on neuropeptide Y gene expression. (elsevier.com)
- Leptin is involved in the hypothalamic control of food intake and body weight. (jneurosci.org)
- Leptin is one of the molecules that signals the brain to modulate food intake. (bio-medicine.org)
- Chronic administration of leptin has been shown to reduce adiposity through energy intake and expenditure. (biomedsearch.com)
- Continuous administration of recombinant duck leptin inhibited food intake. (koreascience.or.kr)
- 2004. Peripheral leptin effect on food intake in young chickens is influenced by age and strain. (koreascience.or.kr)
- 2000. Leptin-induced decrease in food intake in chickens. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Only recently, with the availability of the Pigeon genome with a well annotated leptin gene has it become evident that birds have a novel gene that has sequence similarity to the mammalian leptin. (blogspot.com)
- It has been previously reported that most mammalian genes display a circadian oscillation in their baseline expression. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the present work, we report the identification of novel leptin genes in 4 species of Cetacea, and a comparison with 55 publicly available leptin sequences from mammalian genome assemblies and previous studies. (elsevier.com)
- To test whether leptin and its receptor evolved in a coordinated manner, we analyzed 24 leptin receptor gene (LPR) sequences from available mammalian genome assemblies and other published data. (elsevier.com)
- Our study provides interesting insights into current understanding of the evolution of mammalian leptin genes in response to selective pressures from life in an aquatic environment, and leads to a hypothesis that new tissue specificity or novel physiologic functions of leptin genes may have arisen in both odontocetes and phocids. (elsevier.com)
- Predictions of the surface electrostatic potential indicate that phocid seal leptin is notably different to other mammalian leptins, including the otariids. (abertay.ac.uk)
- Leptin research was mainly focused on mammalian species, but understanding of leptin and its function in poultry is very poor. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Studying these "epigenetic" effects involves measuring chemical modifications of DNA, RNA, or associated proteins that influence gene expression. (cdc.gov)
- Acute central infusion of leptin modulates fatty acid mobilization by affecting lipolysis and mRNA expression for uncoupling proteins. (biomedsearch.com)
Regulation of leptin3
- In the present report we analyse the molecular mechanism of this glucocorticoid regulation of leptin expression. (epfl.ch)
- To functionally map all leptin target neurons, regardless of whether leptin-mediated neuronal activation or inhibition occurs, we immunohistochemically investigated the leptin-induced nuclear translocation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription molecule STAT3, which represents a crucial step in the regulation of leptin-dependent gene expression. (jneurosci.org)
- 1999. Hormonal regulation of leptin expression in broiler chickens. (koreascience.or.kr)
- Transcriptional activation of the rat SOCS3 promoter by leptin was observed with concomitant leptin-induced STAT3 and STAT5b DNA binding to specific promoter regions. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Unexpectedly, SOCS3 inhibited both basal and STAT3/5b-dependent rat preproinsulin 1 gene promoter activity in INS-1 cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- After ensuring the accuracy of the duplicated sequences on 1% agarose gel, sequencing was performed and the Leptin gene promoter components pointed out in Najdi Cattle. (ijabbr.com)
- Genomic Structure and Promoter Analysis of the Bovine Leptin Gene. (ijabbr.com)
- Leptin G-2548A promoter polymorphism is associated with increased plasma leptin and BMI in Brazilian women. (qxmd.com)
Binds to the leptin receptor2
Protein called the leptin receptor2
- Binding of leptin to ObRb activates the receptor-associated kinase JAK2 via transphosphorylation and phosphorylates tyrosine residues on ObRb. (diabetesjournals.org)
- NFE2L1 activates erythroid-specific, globin gene expression. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- In conclusion, although leptin activates PMN, it does so indirectly via TNF-α release from monocytes. (jimmunol.org)
- The leptin receptor is a member of the class-I cytokine receptor family, and several isoforms have been identified ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Several leptin receptor (ObR) isoforms are known, but the majority of physiological effects appear to be mediated via the longest form (ObRb) ( 11 , 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- 1998. Distributions of leptin receptor mRNA isoforms in the rat brain. (koreascience.or.kr)
- In this study, we analyzed leptin-mediated signal transduction and preproinsulin gene regulation at the molecular level in pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
- AbstractÂ Â We tested whether diet-induced obesity results from increased energy consumption, is associated with changes in expression of genes involved in leptin signal transduction, and is altered by hyperleptinemia. (ebscohost.com)
- In male rodents, activation of the leptin receptor modulates a cascade of intracellular signal transduction pathways which may lead to regulation of transcription factors having influences on steroidogenesis in Leydig cells. (deepdyve.com)
- 17b-estradiol upregulates leptin expression in placental cells through genomic and non-genomic actions, probably via crosstalk between estrogen receptor-a and the MAPK and PI3K signal transduction pathways. (conicet.gov.ar)
- Our study provides novel insight into the association between genetic variability in the leptin gene and anemia in HIV+ individuals. (epfl.ch)
- DISCUSSION: To our knowledge, this is the first study to address the issue of clinical heterogeneity in eating disorder genetic research and to explore the role of known or putatively functional markers in genes regulating appetite and weight in individuals with AN and BN. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Rodents with genetic abnormalities in leptin and leptin receptor expression have deficits in macrophage phagocytosis and endotoxin-mediated induction of TNF-α and IL-6 ( 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
- New Genes IDd in Obesity: How Much of Weight is Genetic? (beliefnet.com)
- Objective: Identity the genetic aspects and major gene influence on energy balance, milk production, fertility, food safety and consumer are the recent interests of genetic and breeding researchers. (ijabbr.com)
- The present study revealed that allelic association at ApoB, LPL, Leptin loci and loss of telomere length may have strong genetic association with hypertensive individuals. (beds.ac.uk)
- We investigated whether genetic variations in the LEP -2548G/ A gene are associated with risk of breast cancer . (bvsalud.org)
- Elevated triglycerides are a key cardiovascular risk and a sign of leptin resistance, as too many triglycerides in your blood block normal leptin entry into your brain (causing you to have. (wellnessresources.com)
- We didn't know how a high-fat diet or overeating leads to leptin resistance," Fukuda said. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Furthermore, since ob gene expression was increased, not decreased, in human obesity, it suggested resistance to leptin to be a possibility. (wikipedia.org)
- Our results suggest that the Mangalitsa population exhibits leptin resistance, which might be correlated with atypical morpho-productive characteristics for this breed, such as below-average prolificacy and a strong tendency to accumulate fat. (geneticsmr.com)
- To compare the CNS pathways engaged by these cytokines, we examined the expression of several immediate early genes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- The melanocortin system is one of the major downstream leptin signaling pathways in the brain. (ebscohost.com)
- Study of the major signaling pathways known to be triggered by leptin receptor has revealed that leptin stimulates JAK/STAT, MAPK and PI3K pathways in placental cells. (conicet.gov.ar)
- Moreover, leptin stimulates protein synthesis by activating the translational machinery via both PI3K and MAPK pathways. (conicet.gov.ar)
- Moreover, the cyclic nucleotide cAMP, which has profound actions upon human trophoblast function, also stimulates leptin expression and this effect seems to be mediated by crosstalk between the PKA and MAPK signaling pathways. (conicet.gov.ar)
- Adverse effects of DEX on the skeleton may be modified by targeting leptin signaling pathways. (medsci.org)
- In this article, we report the cloning, expression, and identification of the giant panda leptin (gLeptin) gene and its variants. (antibody-antibodies.com)
- So far, rare variants in at least nine genes have been implicated in single-gene (monogenic) obesity. (cdc.gov)
- Several of these genes also have variants that are associated with monogenic obesity, a phenomenon that has been observed in many other common conditions. (cdc.gov)
- Some genes with variants that have been associated with obesity are listed in the Table . (cdc.gov)
- We searched for listed leptin variants and identified 36 missense, 1 in-frame deletion, and 3 loss-of-function variants. (springeropen.com)
- We furthermore tried to assess the functionality of ExAC-listed leptin variants by applying a knowledge-driven approach. (springeropen.com)
- Using exome sequencing data from ExAC, in silico prediction tools and by applying a knowledge-driven approach, we identified 27 probably damaging variants in the leptin gene of 58 heterozygous subjects. (springeropen.com)
- The exact prevalence of variants in the gene-encoding leptin (LEP) is not known. (springeropen.com)
- Though further research is warranted to determine whether leptin gene therapy would be safe and effective for humans, the team believes their findings suggest it may be a promising strategy against obesity - one that does not have negative implications for bone health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A similar phenotype is observed in the case of leptin-deficient humans. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, leptin administration to leptin-sufficient humans at usual body weight has little or no effect on weight unless given in doses 10-20 times what would be considered to be in the normal physiological range. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Leptin expert Dr Elif A Oral (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor) told Medscape Medical News , "As far as I know, this is the first report of biologically inactive leptin seen in humans per se, but there have been reports of most of the other peptide hormones having inactive mutants. (medscape.com)