The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.
A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.
Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.
The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.
Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Seasonal suspension of insect growth development. It can be either induced by environmental cues (e.g., PHOTOPERIOD) or as a facultative part of the life cycle in order to time development with seasonal changes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.
Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.
The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
Sexual activities of animals.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)
Diseases of plants.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.
A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
The processes of diffusion across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER, and the chemical reactions coupled with diffusion that effect the rate of PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE, generally at the alveolar level.
A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
An order of insects comprising three suborders: Anisoptera, Zygoptera, and Anisozygoptera. They consist of dragonflies and damselflies.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.
A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.

Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation. (1/4849)

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (2/4849)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (3/4849)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Why are there so few resistance-associated mutations in insecticide target genes? (4/4849)

The genes encoding the three major targets of conventional insecticides are: Rdl, which encodes a gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit (RDL); para, which encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel (PARA); and Ace, which encodes insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Interestingly, despite the complexity of the encoded receptors or enzymes, very few amino acid residues are replaced in different resistant insects: one within RDL, two within PARA and three or more within AChE. Here we examine the possible reasons underlying this extreme conservation by looking at the aspects of receptor and/or enzyme function that may constrain replacements to such a limited number of residues.  (+info)

The role of gene splicing, gene amplification and regulation in mosquito insecticide resistance. (5/4849)

The primary routes of insecticide resistance in all insects are alterations in the insecticide target sites or changes in the rate at which the insecticide is detoxified. Three enzyme systems, glutathione S-transferases, esterases and monooxygenases, are involved in the detoxification of the four major insecticide classes. These enzymes act by rapidly metabolizing the insecticide to non-toxic products, or by rapidly binding and very slowly turning over the insecticide (sequestration). In Culex mosquitoes, the most common organophosphate insecticide resistance mechanism is caused by co-amplification of two esterases. The amplified esterases are differentially regulated, with three times more Est beta 2(1) being produced than Est alpha 2(1). Cis-acting regulatory sequences associated with these esterases are under investigation. All the amplified esterases in different Culex species act through sequestration. The rates at which they bind with insecticides are more rapid than those for their non-amplified counterparts in the insecticide-susceptible insects. In contrast, esterase-based organophosphate resistance in Anopheles is invariably based on changes in substrate specificities and increased turnover rates of a small subset of insecticides. The up-regulation of both glutathione S-transferases and monooxygenases in resistant mosquitoes is due to the effects of a single major gene in each case. The products of these major genes up-regulate a broad range of enzymes. The diversity of glutathione S-transferases produced by Anopheles mosquitoes is increased by the splicing of different 5' ends of genes, with a single 3' end, within one class of this enzyme family. The trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the up-regulation of both the monooxygenase and glutathione S-transferases still need to be identified, but the recent development of molecular tools for positional cloning in Anopheles gambiae now makes this possible.  (+info)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and insecticide resistance in insects. (6/4849)

Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are involved in many cases of resistance of insects to insecticides. Resistance has long been associated with an increase in monooxygenase activities and with an increase in cytochrome P450 content. However, this increase does not always account for all of the resistance. In Drosophila melanogaster, we have shown that the overproduction of cytochrome P450 can be lost by the fly without a corresponding complete loss of resistance. These results prompted the sequencing of a cytochrome P450 candidate for resistance in resistant and susceptible flies. Several mutations leading to amino-acid substitutions have been detected in the P450 gene CYP6A2 of a resistant strain. The location of these mutations in a model of the 3D structure of the CYP6A2 protein suggested that some of them may be important for enzyme activity of this molecule. This has been verified by heterologous expression of wild-type and mutated cDNA in Escherichia coli. When other resistance mechanisms are considered, relatively few genetic mutations are involved in insecticide resistance, and this has led to an optimistic view of the management of resistance. Our observations compel us to survey in more detail the genetic diversity of cytochrome P450 genes and alleles involved in resistance.  (+info)

An overview of the evolution of overproduced esterases in the mosquito Culex pipiens. (7/4849)

Insecticide resistance genes have developed in a wide variety of insects in response to heavy chemical application. Few of these examples of adaptation in response to rapid environmental change have been studied both at the population level and at the gene level. One of these is the evolution of the overproduced esterases that are involved in resistance to organophosphate insecticides in the mosquito Culex pipiens. At the gene level, two genetic mechanisms are involved in esterase overproduction, namely gene amplification and gene regulation. At the population level, the co-occurrence of the same amplified allele in distinct geographic areas is best explained by the importance of passive transportation at the worldwide scale. The long-term monitoring of a population of mosquitoes in southern France has enabled a detailed study to be made of the evolution of resistance genes on a local scale, and has shown that a resistance gene with a lower cost has replaced a former resistance allele with a higher cost.  (+info)

Predicting insecticide resistance: mutagenesis, selection and response. (8/4849)

Strategies to manage resistance to a particular insecticide have usually been devised after resistance has evolved. If it were possible to predict likely resistance mechanisms to novel insecticides before they evolved in the field, it might be feasible to have programmes that manage susceptibility. With this approach in mind, single-gene variants of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina, resistant to dieldrin, diazinon and malathion, were selected in the laboratory after mutagenesis of susceptible strains. The genetic and molecular bases of resistance in these variants were identical to those that had previously evolved in natural populations. Given this predictive capacity for known resistances, the approach was extended to anticipate possible mechanisms of resistance to cyromazine, an insecticide to which L. cuprina populations remain susceptible after almost 20 years of exposure. Analysis of the laboratory-generated resistant variants provides an explanation for this observation. The variants show low levels of resistance and a selective advantage over susceptibles for only a limited concentration range. These results are discussed in the context of the choice of insecticides for control purposes and of delivery strategies to minimize the evolution of resistance.  (+info)

Edits to by The FAIRsharing Team at 21:16, 12 Dec 2018 (approved): related_databases has been modified: Before: modMine MouseMine @ MGI RatMine WormMine YeastMine ZebrafishMine HumanMine After: FlyBase IntAct molecular interaction database modMine GenomeRNAi Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project EST database ArrayExpress Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites Reactome - a curated knowledgebase of biological pathways Ensembl Homologene Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships: Classification of Genes and Proteins UniProt Knowledgebase miRBase Sequence Database MouseMine @ MGI Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man RatMine WormMine YeastMine ZebrafishMine HumanMine Added: FlyBase IntAct molecular interaction database GenomeRNAi Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project EST database ArrayExpress Integrated resource of protein ...
Colour Pop Flamenco is a moderately cool-toned, medium-dark fuchsia with a natural finish. It is a permanent blush that retails for $8.00 and contains 0.33 oz.
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The goals of the Drosophila Genome Center are to finish the sequence of the euchromatic genome of Drosophila melanogaster to high quality and to generate and maintain biological annotations of this sequence. In addition to genomic sequencing, the BDGP is 1) producing gene disruptions using P element-mediated mutagenesis on a scale unprecedented in metazoans; 2) characterizing the sequence and expression of cDNAs; and 3) developing informatics tools that support the experimental process, identify features of DNA sequence, and allow us to present up-to-date information about the annotated sequence to the research community. [Information of the supplier ...
1.0 1.1 Spradling, AC et al. (1999) The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project gene disruption project: Single P-element insertions mutating 25% of vital Drosophila genes. Genetics 153 135-77 PubMed GONUTS page ...
Domain architectures containing the following SCOP superfamilies _gap_,57625,57424,88713,_gap_ in Drosophila ananassae 1.3. Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of _gap_,57625,57424,88713,_gap_.
A BioProject is a collection of biological data related to a single initiative, originating from a single organization or from a consortium. A BioProject record provides users a single place to find links to the diverse data types generated for that project
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Assembly/Alignment/Annotation of 12 related Drosophila species: »Assembly/Alignment/Annotation, LBNL, USA BDGP Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) Project: »Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP): »BDGP, University of California, Berkeley, USA BDTNP, ChIP/chip in vivo DNA binding data: »Berkeley Drosophila Transcription Network Project, University of California, Berkeley, USA CluSTr protein sequence similarity analysis of Drosophila: »CluSTr proteome analysis, EBI, UK D. pseudoobscura genome project: »Human Genome Sequencing Center, Baylor College of Medicine, USA D. simulans genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D. yakuba genome project: »Genome Sequencing Center, Washington University, USA D.melanogaster UCSC Genome Browser Gateway: »University of California, Santa Cruz, USA DDBJ, the DNA Data Bank of Japan: »DDBJ, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Japan DNase I ...
Background: Drosophila gene expression pattern images document the spatiotemporal dynamics of gene expression during embryogenesis. A comparative analysis of these images could provide a fundamentally important way for studying the regulatory networks governing development. To facilitate pattern comparison and searching, groups of images in the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) high-throughput study were annotated with a variable number of anatomical terms manually using a controlled vocabulary. Considering that the number of available images is rapidly increasing, it is imperative to design computational methods to automate this task. Results: We present a computational method to annotate gene expression pattern images automatically. The proposed method uses the bag-of-words scheme to utilize the existing information on pattern annotation and annotates images using a model that exploits correlations among terms. The proposed method can annotate images individually or in groups (e.g., ...
The Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project (BDGP) is a consortium of the Drosophila Genome Center, whose goals are to finish the sequence of the euchromatic genome of Drosophila melanogaster to high quality and to generate and maintain biological annotations of this sequence. In addition to genomic sequencing, the BDGP is 1) producing gene disruptions using P element-mediated mutagenesis on a scale unprecedented in metazoans; 2) characterizing the sequence and expression of cDNAs; and 3) developing informatics tools that support the experimental process, identify features of DNA sequence, and allow us to present up-to-date information about the annotated sequence to the research community ...
Nov. 17, 2001. Clustering Protein Sequences Structure Prediction by Transitive Homology. Alexander Schliep at In Silico Biology: Bioinformatics after the Human Genome. The Third Georgia Tech-Emory International Conference on Bioinformatics, GA (Invited Talk) Nov. 14, 2001. Automated visualization of graph algorithms. Alexander Schliep at Computer Science Education Seminar, Georgia Institute of Technology, GA (Invited Talk) Nov. 8, 2001. An efficient algorithm for selecting target-specific probes for DNA arrays. Alexander Schliep at Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, University of California at Berkeley & Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, CA (Invited Talk) Nov. 7, 2001. A Bayesian approach to learning Hidden Markov Model topology. Alexander Schliep at Department of Computer Engineering, University of California at Santa Cruz, CA (Invited Talk) Nov. 5, 2001. Outperforming PSI-Blast on the search for remote homologues. Alexander Schliep at Computational Genomics Group, University of ...
Königer, Annabella (2019): The molecular basis of cold tolerance in Drosophila ananassae. Dissertation, LMU München: Faculty of Biology ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Artists at one of Madrids best-known flamenco bars have put on a final outdoor show marking its closure after 140 years due to COVID-19 pandemic restrictions that have shuttered entertainment venues
Probably the most celebrated flamenco guitarist the world has ever seen, has died near the holiday home he owned at Playa del Carmen south of Cancún in Mexico. He is said to have been playing with his children on the beach when he collapsed from a suspected heart attack on Tuesday, February 25th 2014. After being flown home…
Very disappointed. Prior to ordering, I discussed my requirement with a female representative from your company, wherein I asked if you had medium-sized escargots. She said no, but insisted that the next size up, quote large were considered medium. I discussed this at length with her, as I am very familiar with escargots, and know that the larger they are, the less tender they become. She kept insisting, however, that the large were consistent with medium-size. I gave in and accepted, ordering two cans of large escargots. Upon delivery, I immediately noticed that they were labeled very large. I called to voice my dissatisfaction, but this time a gentleman said they didnt even carry large, but instead went from petit to very large. Quite the contradiction from the first representative who insisted you carried large. I caved in and said we would go ahead and try the very large. Well, as I suspected, they were indeed rubbery and not acceptable. Very disappointed. By the way, I dont know ...
Will I need to re-activate my droid after I install Froyo via ROM manager?. I ask because right now I am stuck at the activate screen on my droid. I just installed the 2.1 with root access and did not realize I would need to activate my phone again until it was too late. Activating is a problem since I live in Alaska. Verizon uses ACS networks and towers up here. At one point verizon mailed me a new droid after my screen went goofy. Since the phone was not activated, I had to mail it to a store in Seattle to activate. Any chance I can pay you guys to take my phone to froyo?. If I mail my phone to a friend in the lower 48 they could activate it for me, but they wouldnt have the know how to take it from where it is now to Froyo. And I wouldnt want to have to mail it down again if I need to activate it again after installing Froyo via ROM manager.. Thanks for all the info and everything on the site,. Steve. ...
View Notes - BCHS 3305 from BCHS 3305 at University of Houston. Exam 1 BCHS 3305 Spring 2010 ID Name _ There are 25 multiple choice (p1-5) and 6 short answer (p6-8) questions. Answer all
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Not too long ago, we brought you a root guide for HTCs latest 440 ppi flagship device, the Droid DNA. Now, we are happy to report that there is also an insecure boot kernel for the device.. XDA Recognized Developer dsb9938 has released an insecure boot kernel for the HTC Droid DNA. For those who have never used one, such a kernel allows you to have root access when accessing your phone via ADB. As explained by dsb9938 himself:. ...
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Are you looking for Insect Screen specialists? Find a list of businesses that specialise in supplying and installing fly and insect screens and security doors for all residential and commercial premises.
We propose that the six genes previously classified as Polycomb group genes in which loss-of-function or antimorphic mutations show intergenic noncomplementation with mutations in trithorax group genes and increase the penetrance caused by double heterozygosis of mutations in trithorax group genes belong in a distinct group (Table 6). We propose that this group be called the ETP (Enhancers of trithorax and Polycomb mutations) group. Loss-of-function mutations in this group of genes enhance the dominant phenotype caused by Polycomb mutations like mutations in Polycomb group genes but also enhance the phenotype caused by heterozygosity for double mutations in trithorax group genes such as ash1VF101 trxb11 and brm2 trxe2 like mutations in trithorax group genes. Jürgens (1985) estimated that there were ∼40 genes in the Polycomb group based on the enhancement of the Polycomb mutant phenotype by a sample of deficiencies. We suggest that this number may be an overestimate. Many of the genes in which ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of the Drosophila melanogaster gene χ5 dm encoding a 20S proteasome χ-type subunit. AU - Zaiss, Dietmar. AU - Belote, John M.. N1 - Funding Information: We would like to thank Dr Russ Finley for the pJG4-5 cDNA library and Dr Kerrie-Ann Smyth for providing the salivary gland chromosome squashes for the in situ hybridization experiment, Evan Katz for carrying out the reduced stringency hybridization screen, and Xiaoqing Yuan for mapping Pros29 (a3_dm). We would also like to thank Jing Ma, Mary Miller and Kerrie-Ann Smyth for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. MCB-9506885. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.. PY - 1997/11/12. Y1 - 1997/11/12. N2 - Proteasomes are large, multisubunit particles that act as the ...
Comparative Analysises and Genome Databases= =Sequence Traces of Drosophila Genomes= =Genetic and Protein Interaction Databases= =Sequence Analysis= =Atlases, Images, and Videos= =Other= =Related Projects= :[ GMOD] :[ Gene Ontology (GO)] :[ Reactome] :[ BDGP (Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project)] :[ DGRC (Drosophila Genomics Resource Center)] :[ DIS by issue] :[ FlyExpress] :[ Interactive Fly] :[ modENCODE] :[ Textpresso for Fly] =Stock Collections= ===D. melanogaster Collections=== :[ Bloomington] :[ DrosDel] :[ Exelixis (Harvard)] :[ GDP (Baylor)] ...
The neurogenic genes of Drosophila melanogaster are involved in the decision of ectodermal cells to take on a neural or an epidermal fate. We present evidence in support of the notion that six of the neurogenic genes are functionally related. We studied the phenotype of embryos lacking one of the neurogenic genes in the presence of an increased dosage of the wild-type allele of another neurogenic gene. Our analysis also included the Hairless locus, whose function is related to that of the neurogenic genes, as well as to many other genes. The effects observed were asymmetric in that triploidy for a given gene modified the phenotype of loss of the function of another gene, but triploidy of the latter gene did not modify the phenotype of loss of the function of the former gene. These asymmetries allowed us to establish a polarity of gene interactions, as well as to order the genes according to the assumed ability of some of them to modify the activity of others. In this sequence, almondex is the ...
In Drosophila ananassae, artificial selection was carried out for fast and slow remating speed for 10 generations. Response to selection resulted in rapid divergence in remating time in each of two replicates of both fast and slow lines. There were significant differences in mean remat-ing time in females among fast, slow, and control lines. Regression coefficients for both fast and slow lines are significantly different from zero. The realized heritability over 10 genera-tions of selection is from 0.26 to 0.33 for two replicates of fast line and from 0.23 to 0.27 for two replicates of slow line. These findings suggest that female remating time in D. ananassae is under polygenic control. Remating frequency of females showed a correlated response in both fast and slow lines. At generation 10, correlated response to selection was also investigated. Mating propensity of D. ananassae of fast and slow lines was observed in an Elens-Wattiaux mating chamber. Fifteen pairs per test showed that on the ...
DNA packaging affects a genes availability for transcription. Typically, loosely-packed euchromatic regions are gene rich and exhibit higher levels of gene transcription, while densely-packed heterochromatic regions are gene poor and exhibit less gene transcription. The 4th chromosome, or F Element, of Drosophila is unique, as it contains ~80 genes and is heterochromatic in nature, yet these genes are actively transcribed. Thus, Drosophila species provide an ideal model system for exploring how genes are accessed in heterochromatic regions and how well these mechanisms are conserved over millions of years of evolution. Working alongside the Genomics Education Partnership (GEP), genes of the F Element and the control D Element are being annotated across Drosophila species to identify unique features of genes on the F Element. My work has focused on contig1 of Drosophila ananassae. We have annotated the coding spans (CDS) of contig1, which contains five genes located on the autosomal euchromatic 3L
The Drosophila bithorax complex Abdominal-B (Abd-B) gene specifies parasegmental identity at the posterior end of the fly. The specific pattern of Abd-B expression in each parasegment (PS) determines its identity and, in PS10-13, Abd-B expression is controlled by four parasegment-specific cis-regulatory domains, iab-5 to iab-8, respectively. In order to properly determine parasegmental identity, these four cis-regulatory domains must function autonomously during both the initiation and maintenance phases of BX-C regulation. The studies reported here demonstrate that the (centromere) distal end of iab-7 domain is delimited by the Fab-8 boundary. Initiators that specify PS12 identity are located on the proximal iab-7 side of Fab-8, while initiators that specify PS13 identity are located on the distal side of Fab-8, in iab-8. We use transgene assays to demonstrate that Fab-8 has enhancer blocking activity and that it can insulate reporter constructs from the regulatory action of the iab-7 and iab-8 ...
Nombre en español: Flamenco Americano Nombre en ingles: American Flamingo Nombre científico: Phoenicopterus ruber Familia: Phoenicopteridae Foto: Juan Ochoa Audio: Andrew Spencer (xeno-canto) El flamenco del Caribe o flamenco rojo (Phoenicopterus ruber) es un ave de la familia Phoenicopteridae que vive en áreas tropicales de América, incluyendo las Antillas, la península de Yucatán, el norte de Colombia y Venezuela, en las islas Galápagos y en el norte de Honduras. No se conocen subespecies. Descripción El flamenco…
A tripartite interaction among alleles of Notch, Delta, and Enhancer of split during imaginal development of Drosophila melanogaster.
The dancing illustrates the poems from the book of poetry Federico Garcia Lorca wrote on his prodigious trip to New York. The Spaniards are fiercely proud of, and knowledgeable about, their poet and the manuscript of Poeta has been embroiled for years in litigation as to its ownership. The manuscript was finally sold at Christies in London in the summer. The poems are pre-filmed readings by famous Spanish actresses. Amargo uses film to good effect. One of the most poignant scenes is the silhouette of the elegant actress Marisa Paredes (who has appeared in Almodovar films and so is also well-known outside of Spain) reading the poem Jewish Cemetery against a backdrop of masses of gravestones. Other poems are read against the striking skyline of Manhattan. The use of film is complementary and unobtrusive. Your eye moves comfortably from the dancers to the flamenco singers and guitarists (as with most flamenco, the music is part of the scenery and the musicians are located on stage) and the to ...
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The gene extramachrochaetae (emc) is a Drosophila melanogaster gene that codes for the Emc protein, which has a wide variety of developmental roles. It was named, as is common for Drosophila genes, after the phenotypic change caused by a mutation
JURNAL DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER PDF - geotaxis (Hi5) strains of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) differ in Keywords: gene-pleiotropy; Drosophila; geotaxis; circadian; cry; Pdf; tau. During
Definition of Drosophila melanogaster with photos and pictures, translations, sample usage, and additional links for more information.
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for FBpp0070431 from Drosophila melanogaster FlyBase 5.12. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Drosophila melanogaster genes ebony and tan are responsible for the synthesis and hydrolysis of N-â-alanylderivatives of biogenic amines, such as N-â-alanyldopamine (NBAD) and N-â- alanylhistamine (carcinine). These are ...
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Drosophila melanogaster strain Oregon-R carcass adult 4 days post synchronization at eclosion stage depleted in arthropod fat body, testis, female gonad, head ...
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Leiva Brondo, M. (2019). Drosophila melanogaster: Make a cross. Por favor, use este identificador para citar o enlazar este ítem: ...
This protocol is designed for purification of DNA from 300-700 (300-700 mg) Drosophila melanogaster using the Gentra Puregene Cell Kit ...
Those plucky upstarts in the Rolling Stones have announced a new round of touring and a reissue of their beloved 1971 LP Sticky Fingers. Here are a few facts you should know going into the mania for Mick & Co. on Tuesday morning. 1. There's no L.A. date yet. The last time the Stones dipped through...
This forum is dedicated to an open discussion of all things Rolling Stones. From new fans to hardcore veterans, everyone is welcome. Forum is moderated lightly. The golden rule is in effect. Let the discussions run rampant, as long as personal insults stay at the door! ...
This forum is dedicated to an open discussion of all things Rolling Stones. From new fans to hardcore veterans, everyone is welcome. Forum is moderated lightly. The golden rule is in effect. Let the discussions run rampant, as long as personal insults stay at the door! ...
Дрозофила фруктовая (Drosophila melanogaster) - наиболее важный для научных исследований вид дрозофил. Широко используется в научных целях начиная с работ Томаса Ханта Моргана по генетике пола и хромосомной теории наследственности. Важными характеристиками D. melanogaster как модельного объекта является малое число хромосом (2n = 8), наличие политенных хромосом в ряде органов (например, слюнных железах личинки) и большое разнообразие видимых проявлений мутаций. В настоящее время D. melanogaster - один из наиболее изученных видов живых организмов. Её геном полностью ...
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insect - Insect Structure and Function - Despite their diversity, all adult insects share some basic external and internal anatomical features. Insects are distinguished from other members of the animal kingdom by having six legs; one pair of antennae; a ringed, or segmented, body; and three well-defined body regions. It is from the joined body rings, or segments, that insects derived their name, for the Latin word insecta means
Felhívjuk felhasználóink figyelmét arra, hogy a DEA Egyetemi IP és Könyvtári számítógépek elérési szintű dokumentumai kizárólag oktatási, kutatási, valamint saját tanulási célokra használhatóak fel, azt nem oszthatják meg az interneten és nem terjeszthetik. A dokumentum és a pdf megjelenítő védelmének megkerülése (másolás, nyomtatás, letöltés korlátozása) tilos ...
Berkeley BioWorks, Inc company data, news, contact details and stock information. Berkeley BioWorks is an engineering consultancy that specializes in the following key services.Whatever the scale of the project, Berkeley BioWorks turns ideas ...
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rather than design a clumsy vaccum that looks more like a spaceship, toshiba teamed up with electrolux to design the circular escargot vacuum
National Insect Week encourages people of all ages to learn more about insects.. Every two years, the Royal Entomological Society organises the week, supported by a large number of partner organisations with interests in the science, natural history and conservation of insects.. ...
The chief information officer at Brant Community Healthcare System (BCHS) in Ontario, Canada, is well aware of the importance of securing patient information in a hospital setting.
National Insect Week encourages people of all ages to learn more about insects.. Every two years, the Royal Entomological Society organises the week, supported by a large number of partner organisations with interests in the science, natural history and conservation of insects.. ...
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"Insect Pupal Forms". Retrieved 28 April 2016.. *^ Darby, Gene (1958). What is a Butterfly. Chicago: Benefic Press. p ... Insects that pupate in a cocoon must escape from it, and they do this either by the pupa cutting its way out, or by secreting ... "Pupa and Puparium (Insects)". what-when-how. Retrieved 28 April 2016.. *^ " ... A cocoon is a casing spun of silk by many moths and caterpillars,[16] and numerous other holometabolous insect larvae as a ...
Paul Schmid-Hempel (1998). "Parasites in Social Insects" Princeton University Press. *^ Oliver Manlik; Regula Schmid-Hempel & ... This is beneficial to them because they will share more genes with their own sons (.5) rather than their nephews (.375).[19] ... Roseler, P. F. (1977). "Juvenile hormone control of oogenesis in bumblebee workers, B. terrestris". Journal of Insect ... Leadbeater, E. & L. Chittka (2007). "The dynamics of social learning in an insect model, the bumblebee (Bombus terrestris)". ...
... genes when experimentally isolated and there are three times more immune-related gene families in solitary insects than in the ... "Organisational immunity in social insects". Current Opinion in Insect Science. 5: 1-15. doi:10.1016/j.cois.2014.09.001. ... Social insects have evolved an array of sanitary behaviours to keep their nests clean, thereby reducing the probability of ... Social insect colonies often deposit their waste outside of the nest, or in special compartments, including waste chambers for ...
Gene. 570 (2): 264-71. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2015.06.032. PMID 26079572. Touhara K, Soroker V, Prestwich GD (June 1994). " ... White AF (February 1972). "Metabolism of the juvenile hormone analogue methyl farnesoate 10, 11-epoxide in two insect species ... Juvenile hormone epoxide hydrolase (JHEH) is an enzyme that inactivates insect juvenile hormones. This inactivation is ... Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. 32 (3-4): 527-35. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1520-6327(1996)32:3/4. 3.0.CO;2-D. PMID ...
Visscher, P. Kirk; Vetter, Richard S.; Robinson, Gene E. (January 1995). "Alarm pheromone perception in honey bees is decreased ... Journal of Insect Science. 18 (4): 7. doi:10.1093/jisesa/iey073. PMC 6105110. PMID 30060211.. ... by smoke (Hymenoptera: Apidae)". Journal of Insect Behavior. 8 (1): 11-18. doi:10.1007/BF01990966. S2CID 45575468. Harris, ...
... such as the IL2Rγ gene and the b-globin gene for gene correction and CCR5 gene for mutagenesis and disablement. If the zinc ... Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 40 (10): 759-765. doi:10.1016/j.ibmb.2010.07.012. PMID 20692340. Ekker SC (2008). " ... The success of gene therapy depends on the efficient insertion of therapeutic genes at the appropriate chromosomal target sites ... Carroll D (2008). "Zinc-finger Nucleases as Gene Therapy Agents". Gene Therapy. 15 (22): 1463-1468. doi:10.1038/gt.2008.145. ...
Tellam, Ross; Gene Wijffels & Peter Willadsen (1999). "Peritrophic Matrix Proteins". Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology ... act as strong oxidizers in insects. Although this oxidizing agent is safe in vertebrates, it is very damaging to insects. ... For example, some insects that are resistant to the insecticide DDT shed large amounts of the toxin in the peritrophic matrix. ... However, heme groups ingested in a blood meal bind to proteins on the peritrophic matrix, enabling insects to safely feed on ...
Wanner KW, Willis LG, Theilmann DA, Isman MB, Feng Q, Plettner E. Analysis of the insect os-d-like gene family. J Chem Ecol. ... Agri Gene 2019; 12: 100087. 12. Picimbon JF. Mutations in the insect transcriptome. J Clin Exp Pathol. 2016; 6: 3. 13. Picimbon ... Increased expression of CSP and CYP genes in adult silkworm females exposed to avermectins. Insect Sci. 2015; 22: 203-219. 33. ... Insect immunity; from systemic to chemosensory organs protection. In: Picimbon JF (Ed.), Olfactory Concepts of Insect Control- ...
DeFoliart, Gene R. (2009). "Insects as food". In Vincent H. Resh; Ring T. Cardé (eds.). Encyclopedia of Insects. Academic Press ... Escamoles al mojo de ajo Chahuis - the edible beetles of Mexico Entomophagy - the human consumption of insects as food List of ... The Gourmet Guide to Edible Insects. Inner Traditions - Bear & Company. pp. 105-110. ISBN 978-0-89281-747-4. (Several recipes ...
GenesEdit. *Alpha: ATP1A1ATP1A1, ATP1A2ATP1A2, ATP1A3ATP1A3, ATP1A4ATP1A4. #1 predominates in kidney. #2 is also known as " ... In InsectsEdit. Mutagenesis studies conducted by Susanne Dobler have identified the conserved M3-M4 hairpin and M5-M6 hairpins ... At position 312, insects in the Apocynum species differed from mammalian Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase through the change of glutamic acid to ... Thus, the insects were found to have a higher degree of conservation in the C-terminal of the ouabain binding pocket. Dobler et ...
... express a novel member of the amylase gene family". Insect Molecular Biology. 1 (4): 223-32. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2583.1993. ... Main article: Insect repellent. Insect repellents are applied on skin and give short-term protection against mosquito bites. ... There are also electronic insect repellent devices which produce ultrasounds that were developed to keep away insects (and ... The insect wing is an outgrowth of the exoskeleton. The Anopheles mosquito can fly for up to four hours continuously at 1 to 2 ...
Costa, James T. (2006). The Other Insect Societies. Belknap Press. p. 151. Newbern, E. (26 January 2016). "Mom Genes: This ... The degradation and loss of function of oviparous genes during viviparous evolution suggests that these genes would have to re- ...
Wootton, Anthony (1998). Insects of the World. Blandford. ISBN 978-0-7137-2366-3. Neary, John (1977). Insects and Spiders. Time ... Buchnera aphidicola gene transcription, although not well understood, is thought to be regulated by a small number of global ... Endosymbiosis with micro-organisms is common in insects, with more than 10% of insect species relying on intracellular bacteria ... the fate of sucrose ingested by a phloem-feeding insect, the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum". Journal of Insect Physiology. 46 ( ...
... the gene responsible for the behavior was identified. The baculovirus gene (egt) ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase ... Because the virus only infects Lymantria dispar, it has proven safe for use with other insects including ants, bees and non- ... The gene responsible for the behavior of infected larvae has been found to be egt (codes ecdysteroid UDP-glucosyltransferase), ... Researchers note that it is an example of a captured host gene that has evolved in a different way from its ancestral host. ' ...
The Insects and Arachnids of Canada. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. pp. 1-121. Brundage, Adrienne. Lecture. ... Trumbo, Stephen T. & Robinson, Gene E. (March 2008). "Social and nonsocial stimuli and juvenile hormone titer in a male burying ... Say, Thomas (1825). "Descriptions of new species of Coleopterous insects inhabiting the United States". Journal of the Academy ... 17 March 2009 Phillips, Michele R. "Other Insects of Forensic Importance". Forensic Entomology Evidence Training. 2007. 17 ...
Page, Robert E., and Gene E. Robinson. "The genetics of division of labour in honey bee colonies." Adv insect physiol 23 (1991 ... Robinson, Gene E.; Page, Robert E. (1988-05-26). "Genetic determination of guarding and undertaking in honey-bee colonies". ... It poses a threat to native insects like Apis mellifera because they compete for the same resources. The most dominant ... "Comb Wax Salvage by the Red Dwarf Honeybee, Apis Florea F." Journal of Insect Behavior 23.2 (2010): 159-64. ProQuest. Web. 28 ...
This allows them to control insect populations. Ascoviridae can have up to 180 genes in its genome. The replication of this ... 2013). "Mimiviridae: clusters of orthologous genes, reconstruction of gene repertoire evolution and proposed expansion of the ... They infect lepidopteran insect larvae and can infect through parasitoid wasps. Once they infect they replicate and cause death ... One feature of this group is a large genome and the presence of many genes involved in DNA repair, DNA replication, ...
Sinkins SP, Gould F (June 2006). "Gene drive systems for insect disease vectors". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 7 (6): 427-35. doi: ... The genes coding for these proteins are then introduced into the symbiont, so that they can be expressed in the vector. The ... These insects include: Ae. aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Densovirus is an example of how the spread is ... The scientists wanted to see if maintaining the microbiome in the insect model's guts would work to keep the bees and the ...
De Foliart, Gene. "3. The Use of Insects as Food in Mexico". The Human Use of Insects as a Food Resource. Archived from the ... DeFoliart, Gene (1992). "Insects as Human Food". Crop Protection. 11 (5): 395-399. doi:10.1016/0261-2194(92)90020-6. Archived ... Bukkens, Sandra G.F. (1997). "The nutritional value of edible insects". Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 36 (2-4): 287-319. doi: ... Both jumiles and chumiles are insects of the order Hemiptera and family Pentatomidae. Pentatomids are commonly called "stink ...
"Nova - Transcripts - Ghost in Your Genes". Retrieved 2009-03-01. "Jaglavak, Prince of Insects". Archived from the original on ...
"Functional analysis of four Gloverin-like genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori". Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology. ... Gloverin is an inducible antibacterial insect protein which inhibits the synthesis of vital outer membrane proteins leading to ...
... gene-based control strategies against these insect pests. Enhancing Drosophila Gene Ontology Annotation: What gene products do ... genes that are highly conserved across species, genes involved in biochemical/signaling pathways, and topical genes shown to be ... BLAST and gene report pages are for a specific gene, protein, or region across the species. When looking for cytology there are ... The Gene Ontology Project is a major bioinformatics initiative with the aim of standardizing the representation of gene and ...
Ardell DH, Andersen SO (September 2001). "Tentative identification of a resilin gene in Drosophila melanogaster". Insect ... The Drosophila melanogaster gene is composed of 4 exons, which encode for 4 functional segments in CG15920: signal peptide and ... However, in live insects, resilin molecular can be produced and replaced constantly, which introduces an error in our ... Play media Resilin is an elastomeric protein found in many insects and other arthropods. It provides soft rubber-elasticity to ...
Rasnitsyn, A.P. (1988). "An outline of evolution of hymenopterous insects (order Vespida)". Oriental Insects. 22: 115-145. doi: ... In many Hymenoptera, sex is actually determined by a single gene locus with many alleles.[17] In these species, haploids are ... Rasnitsyn, A.P.; Quicke, D.L.J. (2002). History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers. pp. 242-254. ISBN 978-1-4020-0026-3. . ... Grimaldi, D.; Engel, M.S. (2005). Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-82149-0. .. ...
The last category includes potential use in gene therapy. Insecticides - the development of selective insect growth regulators ... Genes Evol. 209 (9): 564-71. doi:10.1007/s004270050290. PMID 10502114. Koelle MR, Talbot WS, Segraves WA, Bender MT, Cherbas P ... Insect ecdysone receptors are currently better characterized than those from other arthropods, and mimics of ecdysteroids are ... This in turn leads to the activation of many other genes, as evidenced by puffing of polytene chromosomes at over a hundred ...
PMID 17395794.CS1 maint: ignored DOI errors (link) Steven P. Sinkins; Fred Gould (2006). "Gene drive systems for insect disease ... However, conflict among genes in the same genome may arise both in events related to reproduction (a selfish gene may "cheat" ... The selfish gene theory postulates that natural selection will increase the frequency of those genes whose phenotypic effects ... Thus, males represent dead-ends to these genes. Because of this fact, cytoplasmic genes have evolved a number of mechanisms to ...
Arthropod head problem Insect mouthparts Haas, M. S.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W. (2001). "Pondering the Procephalon: the ... Furthermore, it often appears as a bilobed structure, with a set of muscles, nerves and gene expression in many ways similar to ... In entomology, the labrum amounts to the "upper lip" of an insect mouth, the corresponding "lower lip" being the labium. The ... The labrum is innervated in crustaceans and insects from the tritocerebrum (the back of the brain). However, in development, ...
Wang YP, Lai R (February 2010). "[Insect antimicrobial peptides: structures, properties and gene regulation]". Dong Wu Xue Yan ... Indeed, an insect defensin has been experimentally converted into a toxin by deletion of a small loop that otherwise sterically ... In general, both α- and β-defensins are encoded by two-exon genes, where the first exon encodes for a hydrophobic leader ... The human genome contains theta-defensin genes, but they have a premature stop codon, hampering their expression. An artificial ...
These insects suck the sap out of the plants, reducing growth. Mosaic virus is spread by greenfly, causing yellowing of leaves ... the blue colour requiring two genes derived independently from the two white parents.[9] ...
... encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-strand mRNAs, which are then ... No spread by mosquitos or other insects has been reported.[59] Other possible methods of transmission are being studied.[61] ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes.[46] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... This triggers the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 ...
In general, their actual diet in the wild is about 95% plant-based, with the remaining 5% filled with insects, eggs, and baby ... "Chimps, Humans 96 Percent the Same, Gene Study Finds". Retrieved 23 December 2013 ... Men may have participated in gathering plants, firewood and insects, and women may have procured small game animals for ... and insects, meat, fish, and shellfish.[96][97] However, there is little direct evidence of the relative proportions of plant ...
These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ... Genes[edit]. Acne appears to be strongly inherited; genetics explain 81% of the variation in the population.[15] Studies ... among others.[19] The 308 G/A single nucleotide polymorphism variation in the gene for TNF is associated with an increased risk ... Acne susceptibility is likely due to the influence of multiple genes, as the disease does not follow a classic (Mendelian) ...
In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the theory of natural selection, the concept of its gene complex and the ... In recognition of his analysis of pattern formation during insect segmentation, and of his contribution to understanding how ...
NR2E3 further restricts cells to the rod fate by repressing cone genes. RORbeta is needed for both rod and cone development. ... Invertebrate photoreceptors in organisms such as insects and molluscs are different in both their morphological organization ... CRX further defines the photoreceptor specific panel of genes being expressed. NRL expression leads to the rod fate. ... photoreceptor gene expression; and lastly axonal growth, synapse formation and outer segment growth. ...
... by adding antisense genes to silence the native gene or by adding extra copies of the native gene.[45][46] ... Kurstaki Insect Control Protein". Nature Biotechnology. 7 (12): 1265-1269. doi:10.1038/nbt1289-1265.. ... A genetically modified tomato, or transgenic tomato, is a tomato that has had its genes modified, using genetic engineering. ... A gene from rice (Osmyb4), which codes for a transcription factor, that was shown to increase cold and drought tolerance in ...
According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... how new alternative spliced isoforms of genes arise, how gene scrambling in ciliates evolved, and how pervasive pan-RNA editing ... If this decay results in a situation where all of the genes are now required, the organism has been trapped in a new state ...
Tertiary gene pool: L. lamottei and L. tomentosus. Crosses generally fail between members of different gene pools. However, ... Therefore, it is less vulnerable to frost, wind erosion, or insect attack.[3] ... According to their inter-crossability Lens species can be divided into three gene pools: *Primary gene pool: L. culinaris (and ... Even if crosses are successful, many undesired genes may be introduced as well in addition to the desired ones. This can be ...
The use of old varieties maintains diversity in the horticultural gene pool. It may be more appropriate for amateur gardeners ... During this time, companies introduced six genetically engineered crops for just two traits: herbicide tolerance and insect ...
The popcorn remains free to donate its genes via its own pollen to other types of corn. The effectiveness of this restriction ... Kernel formation in the cob requires pollination of the external corn silk by wind or insects. Usually several grains of pollen ... The moisture of freshly emerged corn silk sometimes attracts insects, which can cause silk clipping, which can interfere with ... thereby preventing the ingression of genes (natural or engineered) from other types of corn. ...
Insect, Apis mellifera aka honey bee 1.77×109 Fish, Tetraodon nigroviridis, type of Puffer fish 3.85×108 Smallest vertebrate ... 1976). "Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature. 260 ... This includes both the genes and the non-coding sequences of the DNA. Professor Hans Winkler coined the term in 1920.[1] ... Insect, Bombyx mori aka silk moth 5.30×108 ... Analysis of genes and genomes. Wiley.. *Saccone C. and Pesole G ...
... s genes in the offspring. 87.5% of D3's genes would come from S, while D4 would receive 93.75% of their genes from S.[54] ... "Insect Incest Produces Healthy Offspring". 8 December 2011.. *^ Gardner A, Ross L (August 2011). "The evolution of ... as the inbreeding first removes many deleterious genes, and permits the expression of genes that allow a population to adapt to ... This overall homozygosity becomes an issue when there are deleterious recessive alleles in the gene pool of the family.[64] By ...
"More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen" (PDF). Molecular ... Insects in art. *Insects in literature. *Insects in medicine. *Insects in music ...
In insects, the olfactory pathway starts at the antennae (though in some insects like Drosophila there are olfactory sensory ... In Drosophila, each olfactory sensory neuron generally expresses a single olfactory receptor gene,[5] and the neurons ... The antennal lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of insects which receives the input from the olfactory sensory neurons on the ... C. Giovanni Galizia & Wolfgang Rössler (2010). "Parallel olfactory systems in insects: anatomy and function". Annual Review of ...
In traditional Chinese medicine, its name is often abbreviated as chong cao (蟲草 "insect plant"), a name that also applies to ... 2007). "A multi-gene phylogeny of Clavicipitaceae (Ascomycota, Fungi): identification of localized incongruence using a ... a fungus that grows on insects) in the family Ophiocordycipitaceae. It is mainly found in the meadows above 3,500 meters ( ... "Host insect species of Ophiocordyceps sinensis: a review". ZooKeys (127): 12743-59. doi:10.3897/zookeys.127.802. PMC 3175130 ...
Use insect repellent when outdoors such as those containing DEET, picaridin, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate (IR3535), or oil ... the enumeration corresponds to the arrangement of the protein coding genes in the genome.[23] Minimal yellow fever virus (YFV) ... In 1848, Josiah C. Nott suggested that yellow fever was spread by insects such as moths or mosquitoes, basing his ideas on the ... Use of EPA-registered insect repellent is recommended when outdoors. Exposure for even a short time is enough for a potential ...
Fabian, Gene L.; O'Donnell, Richard H.; Tom, Joe G.; Malone, Philip G. (1996). Use of Shock-Absorbing Concrete (SACON) as an ... insect proof, and waterproof. It offers significant thermal and acoustic insulation and can be cut, carved, drilled and shaped ...
Some degree of gene flow is normal, and preserves constellations of genes and genotypes.[118][119] An example of this is the ... Introduced birds (e.g. pigeons), rodents and insects (e.g. mosquito, flea, louse and tsetse fly pests) can serve as vectors and ... Diseases may also be vectored by invasive insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid and the bacterial disease citrus greening.[ ... Sparrows, which were brought to control insects upon the introduced grain crops, have displaced native birds as have rainbow ...
Sasaki J, Nakashima N, Saito H, Noda H (1998) An insect picorna-like virus, Plautia stali intestine virus, has genes of capsid ... Picornaviridae and other insect or marine viruses of the order Picornavirales. Its genome is linear, single stranded positive ... Within the order Picornavirales, there are related viral families, such as the plant infecting Secoviridae, and the insect ... Analysis of the complete genome sequence of acute bee paralysis virus shows that it belongs to the novel group of insect- ...
de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin ... the bulk of the yellow-tailed black cockatoo's diet is made up of insects.[61] ... W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (3): 706-721. doi: ...
They will take live vertebrate prey, but mostly feed on insects or even carrion. ... "A multi-gene phylogeny of aquiline eagles (Aves: Accipitriformes) reveals extensive paraphyly at the genus level". Molecular ... "Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals" ...
Sun, Jian-Zhong; Scharf, Michael E. (2010). "Exploring and integrating cellulolytic systems of insects to advance biofuel ... There has also been substantial research into the technology of using the gut microbiomes of wood-feeding insects for the ... Gene therapy. *Head transplant. *Isolated brain. *Life extension *Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence ... technology". Insect Science. 17 (3): 163-165. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7917.2010.01348.x.. ...
Evolutionary history of New and Old World vultures inferred from nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. ... An exceptional number of insects, amounting to 24% of food items by number, were found in the foods of white-tailed eagles in ... Phylogenetic relationships in diurnal raptors based on nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear marker genes. Raptors ... "A mtDNA phylogeny of sea eagles (genus Haliaeetus) based on nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome b gene" (PDF). Biochemical ...
Hogenhout, Saskia; Ammar, El-Desouky; Whitfield, Anna; Redinbaugh, Margaret (2008). "Insect Vector Interaction with ... Virus Genes. 43: 289-295. doi:10.1007/s11262-011-0621-9. Smith, D.; Fritz, C.; Watson, Q.; Willis, D.; German, T.; Phibbs, A.; ...
5.5 Gene expression studies. *6 Insect activity case study *6.1 Open field habitat ... Insect activity case study[edit]. A preliminary investigation of insect colonization and succession on remains in New Zealand ... Different genes on different loci would need to be selected for another fly species. The genes expressions are mapped in a ... Extreme drought does kill many populations of insects, but also drives surviving insects to invade more often. Cold ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus-infected insect cells: implications for glycosylation and CD4 ... it is encoded by the GAA gene.[6] Errors in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease). ... This gene encodes lysosomal alpha-glucosidase, which is essential for the degradation of glycogen to glucose in lysosomes. ...
1980). Genes of the BX-C regulate pattern formation in part of the thorax and in the abdomen, whereas different genes of the ... The protostomes include most invertebrate animals, such as insects, worms and molluscs, while the deuterostomes include the ... Maternal-effect genes - subject to Maternal (cytoplasmic) inheritance *Egg-polarity genes establish the Anteroposterior axis.[ ... The gap genes act at the top of this regulatory hierarchy. Expression of the gap genes occurs in discrete domains along the ...
4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Gene Mayer. Immunology section of Microbiology and Immunology on-line. University of South Carolina ... It is the main immune system found in plants, fungi, insects, and in primitive multicellular organisms.[2][3] The system is not ...
... they can be used to determine the tissue or cell type in which a given gene is required and to determine whether a gene is cell ... "A new behavioral bioassay for an analysis of sexual attraction and pheromones in insects". Journal of Experimental Zoology. 192 ... The FLP gene can then be induced selectively, commonly using either the heat shock promoter or the GAL4/UAS system. The ... The flip recombinase (or FLP) is a gene from the commonly studied yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae which recognizes "flip ...
A gene enabling an insect virus to enter new cells was likely stolen from a host cell and adapted for the virus s use, ... "The first thing was to ask whether the gene was turned on or not, to validate whether it s a bona fide gene." Blissard and Lung ... Unlike retroviruses, baculoviruses don t insert their genes into their hosts genomes. They do steal genes, however, by mixing ... called an f gene, had originally moved from an insect to a virus or the other way around. (Retroviruses, such as HIV, insert ...
Discovery of the genes the insect parasite Wolbachia uses to control its hosts reproduction provides a powerful new tool for ... The other is to insert the CI genes into the insects genome so they can cause CI directly. This would make it possible to use ... The Vanderbilt researchers found that using genetic engineering to insert the Wolbachia CI genes into infected insects can ... They discovered two genes that appeared promising. However, when the researchers inserted each of these genes into the genome ...
... and they serve as one of the best models to dissect and characterize the evolution of insect genomes. ... Insect gene allows reproductive organs to cope with harmful bacteria. Vanderbilt University ... insect-gene-allows-reproductive-organs-to-cope-with-harmful-bacteria/. Related Journal Article. http://dx.. doi.. org/. 10. ... Offspring of insects infected with the bacteria Wolbachia often die or are converted from male to female. Bordensteins team ...
Thus, across plant-eating insect species, there may be a common set of gene expression changes that enable host-use promiscuity ... Gene expression plasticity was pervasive, but the expression of most detoxification and effector genes was insensitive to the ... we investigated host-induced gene expression plasticity in the invasive lobate lac scale insect, Paratachardina pseudolobata ( ... hosts that induced lower expression of genes for detoxification induced higher expression of genes for growth. Our findings are ...
... 30.01.2014. Mainz biologists show in a scientific study how gene ... The fact that queens express more genes known from solitary hymenopterans and other insects fits to the evolution of social ... Gene expression patterns associated with caste and reproductive status in ants: worker-specific genes are more derived than ... "Either these worker genes have undergone major modifications or they are novel genes," explained Feldmeyer. ...
Youve never heard of it because it only infects bugs: millions upon millions of species of insects, spiders, centipedes and ... The other is to insert the CI genes into the insects genome so they can cause CI directly. This would make it possible to use ... The Vanderbilt researchers found that using genetic engineering to insert the Wolbachia CI genes into infected insects can ... They discovered two genes that appeared promising. However, when the researchers inserted each of these genes into the genome ...
Narrow Roads of Gene Land 1. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 2. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 3. Statistical Methods in Molecular ... Narrow Roads of Gene Land 1. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 2. Narrow Roads of Gene Land 3. Statistical Methods in Molecular ... Winged insects and degree of civilization posted by agnostic @ 6/19/2007 10:30:00 PM Winged insects and degree of civilization ... The Math Gene. Explaining Culture. Origin and Evolution of Cultures. Dawn of Human Culture. The Origins of Virtue Prehistory of ...
The use of a site-specific homing-based gene drive for insect pest control has long been discussed, but the easy design of such ... Consequences of resistance evolution in a Cas9-based sex conversion-suppression gene drive for insect pest management. Mohammad ... Consequences of resistance evolution in a Cas9-based sex conversion-suppression gene drive for insect pest management ... Consequences of resistance evolution in a Cas9-based sex conversion-suppression gene drive for insect pest management ...
Identification of the gene encoding bursicon, an insect neuropeptide responsible for cuticle sclerotization and wing spreading. ... we identified the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG13419 as a candidate bursicon gene. CG13419 encodes a peptide with a predicted ... To accommodate growth, insects must periodically replace their exoskeletons. After shedding the old cuticle, the new soft ... Our results indicate that CG13419 encodes bursicon, the last of the classic set of insect developmental hormones. It is the ...
Genes essential to producing the developmental differences displayed by social insects evolve more rapidly than genes governing ... Fast-Evolving Genes Control Developmental Differences in Social Insects. Mon, 09/19/2011 - 11:41am Comments by Georgia Tech ... A new study of the genomes of social insects provides insight into the evolution of the genes involved in this developmental ... These differentially expressed genes exhibited elevated rates of evolution, as predicted. In addition, genes that were ...
Marinotti, O., Nguyen, Q.K., Calvo, E., James, A.A. and Ribeiro, J.M.C. (2005) Microarray analysis of genes showing variable ... Zhou, X., Liao, Z., Jia, Q., Cheng, L. and Li, F. (2007) Identification and characterization of Piwi subfamily in insects. ... Su, J., Zhu, Z., Wang, Y. and Jang, S. (2009) Isolation and characterization of Argonaute 2: a key gene of the RNA interference ... James, A.A. (2005) Gene drive systems in mosquitoes: rules of the road. Trends Parasitol 21: 64-67.. *CrossRef, ...
... including types of insects, insecticides, biological control, and crop protection. ... This journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects, ... Effects of Insect Viruses and Pesticides on Glutathione S-Transferase Activity and Gene Expression in Bombyx mori. ... "Effects of Insect Viruses and Pesticides on Glutathione S-Transferase Activity and Gene Expression in Bombyx mori," Journal of ...
Prevention of apoptosis by a baculovirus gene during infection of insect cells ... Prevention of apoptosis by a baculovirus gene during infection of insect cells ... Prevention of apoptosis by a baculovirus gene during infection of insect cells ... Prevention of apoptosis by a baculovirus gene during infection of insect cells ...
Insect Molecular BiologyVolume 17, Issue 6, Version of Record online: 6 NOV 2008. ...
New crops could kill insects by targeting their genes. by Grant Gerlock, NET News/Harvest Public Media ... Genes are expressed through RNA that are transcribed from DNA. But if you introduce a piece of interfering RNA, a gene can be ... When one gene is silenced by interfering RNA, Lundgren said, sometimes a completely unrelated gene is altered in unpredictable ... He is looking at whether RNAi aimed at one insect could have off-target effects on other insects, like bees or butterflies. ...
"So it looks like metamorphosis evolved in insects by restricting the expression of the broad gene to a short but intense period ... Juvenile hormone disappears in the last nymphal stage and the broad gene is no longer expressed, allowing the insect to make ... "This is the first time that anyone has seen the broad gene appear in the development of insects having incomplete metamorphosis ... The broad gene encodes a protein that attaches itself to a specific region of a DNA chain and controls which other genes will ...
... and the insect Asian rice gall midge (GM) that cause significant yield... ... 2017) display gene-for-gene interaction but with diversity mainly determined by the plant resistance gene and the insect ... Genes Involved in GM/BB Interaction. All the four genes noted earlier to be associated with insect resistance viz. Cytochrome ... Genes Involved in Rice BB Interaction. Two of the genes reported to be involved in rice-BB interaction, PR10a gene and ...
Expression patterns of the rogue Hox genes Hox3/zen and fushi tarazu in the apterygote insect Thermobia domestica.. Hughes CL1 ... To explore the evolutionary transition of these genes, we analyzed their expression in a primitive insect, the firebrat ... Yet even Hox genes can change dramatically in evolution. Two genes in particular--Hox3 and fushi tarazu--lost their ancestral ... Many embryonic patterning genes are remarkably conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and the Hox genes are ...
The segment polarity genes that have been most widely studied in other insects are engrailed (en) and wingless (wg). In ... Structure of the segmentation gene paired and the Drosophila PRD gene set as part of a gene network. Cell 47, 735-746. ... Pair-rule genes were identified and named for their role in segmentation in embryos of the long germ insect Drosophila. Among ... To better understand the role PgIII genes play in the segmentation of short germ insects, we have focused on both flour beetles ...
... Genome Biol Evol. 2016 Feb 9;8(3):579-87. doi ... The diversity of opsin genes is consistent with color vision in diurnal, crepuscular, and nocturnal insects. Tests for positive ... sensitive and the often overlooked Rh7 gene). Several recent opsin gene duplications are also detected. ... Here, we investigated opsin evolution in 27 phylogenetically diverse insect species including several transitions between ...
A Second-Generation Integrated Map of the Silkworm Reveals Synteny and Conserved Gene Order Between Lepidopteran Insects. Yuji ... A Second-Generation Integrated Map of the Silkworm Reveals Synteny and Conserved Gene Order Between Lepidopteran Insects. Yuji ... A Second-Generation Integrated Map of the Silkworm Reveals Synteny and Conserved Gene Order Between Lepidopteran Insects. Yuji ... A Second-Generation Integrated Map of the Silkworm Reveals Synteny and Conserved Gene Order Between Lepidopteran Insects ...
... and they serve as one of the best models to dissect and characterize the evolution of insect genomes. ... Insect gene allows reproductive organs to cope with harmful bacteria. by Heidi Hall May. 17, 2018, 10:00 AM. ... Offspring of insects infected with the bacteria Wolbachia often die or are converted from male to female. Bordensteins team ... Life, Earth and Space Research Arts and Science bacteria biological sciences biology Chancellor Faculty Fellows genome insects ...
Genes used by the insect parasite Wolbachia to control its hosts reproduction can be used to help control the spread of ... The other is to insert the CI genes into the insects genome so they can cause CI directly. This would make it possible to use ... New tool for combating mosquito-borne disease: insect parasite genes. by David Salisbury Feb. 27, 2017, 10:00 AM. ... The Vanderbilt researchers found that using genetic engineering to insert the Wolbachia CI genes into infected insects can ...
... for genetically modified insects to help control these creations when they are set free in the wild. ... Scientists Unveil Genetically Modified Insects with Kill Switch Genes Sometimes reality is stranger than fiction. ... If an insect was let loose in the wild, such as the millions of GM mosquitoes developed by Oxitec to be released in Brazil and ... If the GM insects are developed with the kill-switch, what will happen to the non-GM mosquitoes that have interbred with them ...
In this study, we identified two CHS genes, SlCHS1 and SlCHS2, which encode proteins with 1565 and 1520 amino acid residues, ... CHS has been characterized in various insect species, but the structure and biochemical properties in Spodoptera litura have ... Chitin is one the main components of the insect cuticle, and chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzyme required for chitin ... Insects, EISSN 2075-4450, Published by MDPI AG Disclaimer The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal Insects ...
Morpholinos in insects. Morpholinos in insects. Negri A, Ferrari M, Nodari R, Coppa E, Mastrantonio V, Zanzani S, Porretta D, ... Gene Tools, LLC 1001 Summerton Way Philomath, OR 97370 USA Ph.: (541) 929-7840 , Fax: (541) 929-7841. Contact Us ... Bucher G, Klingler M. Divergent segmentation mechanism in the short germ insect Tribolium revealed by giant expression and ... Insect Mol Biol. 2014 May 28. doi: 10.1111/imb.12103. [Epub ahead of print]. ...
Symbiotic bacteria are potentially valuable as vehicles for the stable introduction of foreign genes into insects with the goal ... and re-isolate genetically altered symbionts from the insects following successive molts. ... of eventually altering the ability of the insect to transmit a pathogenic agent. ... Transformation of an Insect Symbiont and Expression of a Foreign Gene in the Chagas' Disease Vector Rhodnius Prolixus * ...
Gene Action and Cellular Function in Parasitic Protozoa. THE GARP GENE IN INSECT STAGES OF TRYPANOSOMA (NANNOMONAS) SPECIES. K. ... THE GARP GENE IN INSECT STAGES OF TRYPANOSOMA (NANNOMONAS) SPECIES Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... Karla D. Passalacqua, Steven Hrycaj, Najmus Mahfooz and ... To address this gap, we analyzed the protein expression pattern of the hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr) in six hemimetabolous ... Abstract: While the mRNA expression patterns of homeotic genes have been examined in numerous arthropod species, data on their ... Finally, we show that SCR expression in insect T1 legs is highly variable and exhibits divergent patterning even among related ...
... the full-length sequences of two related genes involved in the development of wing veins, fringe (Px-fng) and engrailed (Px-en ... Insects, EISSN 2075-4450, Published by MDPI AG Disclaimer The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal Insects ... Wang Y, Wang J, Xia X, Wu G. Functional Identification of Px-fringe and Px-engrailed Genes under Heat Stress in Chlorpyrifos- ... Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Xia, X.; Wu, G. Functional Identification of Px-fringe and Px-engrailed Genes under Heat Stress in ...
  • f seems to be developmentally regulated, like a lot of Drosophila genes," says Blissard. (
  • To evaluate the molecular details of such a sex conversion-based suppression gene drive experimentally, we implemented this strategy in Drosophila melanogaster to serve as a safe model organism. (
  • Using partial sequences obtained from purified cockroach bursicon, we identified the Drosophila melanogaster gene CG13419 as a candidate bursicon gene. (
  • Two genes in particular--Hox3 and fushi tarazu--lost their ancestral roles as homeotic genes and play very different developmental roles in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • Pair-rule genes were identified and named for their role in segmentation in embryos of the long germ insect Drosophila . (
  • Understanding the details of this variation should shed light on the evolution of the genetic hierarchy responsible for segmentation in Drosophila and other insects. (
  • We have investigated the expression of homologs of the Drosophila Pax group III genes paired, gooseberry and gooseberry-neuro in short germ flour beetles and grasshoppers. (
  • During Drosophila embryogenesis, paired acts as one of several pair-rule genes that define the boundaries of future parasegments and segments, via the regulation of segment polarity genes such as gooseberry, which in turn regulates gooseberry-neuro, a gene expressed later in the developing nervous system. (
  • Using a crossreactive antibody, we show that the embryonic expression of Pax group III genes in both the flour beetle Tribolium and the grasshopper Schistocerca is remarkably similar to the pattern in Drosophila . (
  • This early expression of pairberry1 is reminiscent of Drosophila paired and represents the first evidence for pair-rule patterning in short germ grasshoppers or any hemimetabolous insect. (
  • In phylogenetically derived long germ insects such as Drosophila, this genetic hierarchy functions to define and pattern all segments almost simultaneously within the blastoderm. (
  • Thus, crucial questions arise as to which components of the Drosophila segmentation hierarchy are shared by different short germ insects and how they might function in the short germ context. (
  • Segment polarity genes were originally defined by their loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila, which reveal patterning defects within each segment of the embryonic cuticle ( Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus, 1980 ). (
  • Consistent with their phenotypes, most of these genes are expressed in Drosophila just before and throughout the morphologically segmented germ band stage in a segmentally reiterated pattern. (
  • Pair-rule genes were also originally defined by their loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila , in which regions of the embryonic cuticle are deleted with a two-segment periodicity ( Nüsslein-Volhard and Wieschaus, 1980 ). (
  • In Drosophila , all three of these genes are expressed in stripes of a two-segment periodicity before the onset of gastrulation. (
  • However, basic genome research on this insect is still far behind compared with other model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster , and assignment of fundamental information such as genome sequences, ESTs, BAC contigs, mutant phenotypes, and chromosomal locations on detailed linkage maps is an urgent priority. (
  • Despite being well studied in model organisms, such as Drosophila, the distribution of core RNAi pathway genes and their evolution in insects is not well understood. (
  • In the central clock residing in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster , the CYCLE (CYC)/CLOCK (CLK) heterodimer acts as a positive regulator of the transcription of period ( per ), timeless ( tim ) and other output genes, whereas the PER/TIM heterodimer acts as a negative regulator of CYC/CLK activity. (
  • Although muscle development has been widely studied in Drosophila melanogaster there are still many gaps in our knowledge, and it is not known to which extent this knowledge can be transferred to other insects. (
  • Apart from many genes known from Drosophila as regulators of muscle development, a collection of genes previously unconnected to muscle development yielded phenotypes in larval body wall and leg muscles as well as in indirect flight muscles. (
  • Further, we discuss why distinct though overlapping sets of genes are revealed by the Drosophila and Tribolium screening approaches. (
  • Muscle development in insects has been studied primarily in the dipteran Drosophila melanogaster , whereas much less is known about the regulatory mechanisms guiding muscle development in other insect orders. (
  • The genes mediating these osmoregulatory functions have been identified and validated empirically in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum: sucrase 1 (SUC1), a sucrase in glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13), and aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a member of the Drosophila integral protein (DRIP) family of aquaporins. (
  • However, Drosophila , the leading insect model organism, does not show a robust systemic RNAi response, necessitating another model system to study the molecular mechanism of systemic RNAi in insects. (
  • Both phylogenetic and functional analyses suggest that Tribolium has a somewhat larger inventory of core component genes than Drosophila , perhaps allowing a more sensitive response to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (
  • Eight A. aegypti CREs that promote gene expression in antennal olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) were identified in a Drosophila melanogaster transgenic reporter screen. (
  • Unfortunately, analysis of the neurogenetic basis for insect behavior has largely been restricted to Drosophila melanogaster , a genetically-tractable dipteran insect and genetic model organism [ 2 ]. (
  • Identification of ecdysone response elements by analysis of the Drosophila Eip28/29 gene. (
  • In insect species that undergo long germ segmentation, such as Drosophila , all segments are specified simultaneously at the early blastoderm stage. (
  • In a study of longevity in the adult fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we found that five independent P-element insertional mutations in a single gene resulted in a near doubling of the average adult life-span without a decline in fertility or physical activity. (
  • Scott et al, 2004), and very few transgenic lines ofnon-Drosophila insects have been made, using heterologous promoters. (
  • The best known of these are from the Drosophila ActinSC (ActSC) and ubi-p(53E (Pub) genes. (
  • Phylogenetic analyses show at least 2 rounds of gene duplication at the base of the metazoan radiation, as well as several losses, gave rise to 2 cryptochrome (cry) gene families in insects, a Drosophila-like cry1 gene family and a vertebrate-like cry2 family. (
  • By the microinjection of the vector into fertilized eggs, we obtained transgenic Drosophila with a single copy of pB-GT1, which was inserted into the first intron of the ovo gene. (
  • In insects, serpins have been identified in several species, but most studies of insect serpins are from the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta . (
  • It still is a matter of discussion what the specific role of DNA methylation in insects is, as some insects such as Drosophila melanogaster just have traces of DNA methylation in their genome and in general insect genomes are much less methylated compared to mammalian genomes (0.034% vs. 7.6% in Mus musculus). (
  • He is looking at whether RNAi aimed at one insect could have off-target effects on other insects, like bees or butterflies. (
  • Negri A, Ferrari M, Nodari R, Coppa E, Mastrantonio V, Zanzani S, Porretta D, Bandi C, Urbanelli S, Epis S. Gene silencing through RNAi and antisense Vivo-Morpholino increases the efficacy of pyrethroids on larvae of Anopheles stephensi . (
  • Based on RNAi experiments, significant inhibitions on expressions of Px-fng and Px-en in both Sm-DBM and Rc-DBM were found when the pupae were infected by dsFng or dsEn. (
  • RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the set of molecular processes found in eukaryotic organisms in which small RNA molecules mediate the silencing or down-regulation of target genes. (
  • In insects, RNAi serves a number of functions, including regulation of endogenous genes, anti-viral defense, and defense against transposable elements. (
  • Here we present the most comprehensive overview of the distribution and diversity of core RNAi pathway genes across 100 insect species, encompassing all currently recognized insect orders. (
  • We inferred the phylogenetic origin of insect-specific RNAi pathway genes and also identified several hitherto unrecorded gene expansions using whole-body transcriptome data from the international 1KITE (1000 Insect Transcriptome Evolution) project as well as other resources such as i5K (5000 Insect Genome Project). (
  • Our study offers new reference points for future experimental research on RNAi-related pathway genes in insects. (
  • RNAi directed against the circadian clock genes of period and cycle , which are negative and positive regulators in the circadian clock, respectively, disrupted the cuticle deposition rhythm and distinct cuticle layers were produced by these RNAi. (
  • Simultaneously, period RNAi caused the insect to avert diapause under a diapause-inducing photoperiod whereas cycle RNAi induced diapause under a diapause-averting photoperiod. (
  • The expression patterns of juvenile hormone-regulated genes and the application of juvenile hormone analogue suggested that neither ovarian development itself nor a downstream cascade of juvenile hormone secretion, were disturbed by period and cycle RNAi. (
  • These RNAi also had opposite effects on juvenile hormone-regulated gene expression. (
  • Perkin, Lindsey C.;Gerken, Alison R.;Oppert, Brenda 2017-04-10 00:00:00 RNA interference (RNAi) is a functional genomics tool to correlate genotype and phenotype by delivering tar- geted, gene-specific, and complementary dsRNA into a host via injection, feeding, or other means in order to re- duce gene expression. (
  • Key words: Tribolium castaneum, RNAi, ADC, RNA-Seq, gene expression RNA interference (RNAi) is a popular tool in functional genomics dsRNA fragments was sufficient to elicit a response at concentra- and, in pest insects like Tribolium castaneum, a potential strategy tions ranging from 0.0001 to 0.001 lg/ll(Miller et al. (
  • RNA-Seq can monitor target gene knockdown RNAi has been used successfully to increase insect mortality or and off-target effects, and provides results similar to qPCR (Morris developmental abnormalities via microinjection or feeding in vitro et al. (
  • Some insects also exhibit a systemic RNAi response. (
  • We have identified the core RNAi genes, as well as genes potentially involved in systemic RNAi, from the Tribolium genome. (
  • We analyzed tag-130 mutants, and found that this gene does not have a function in systemic RNAi in C. elegans . (
  • Likewise, the Tribolium sid- like genes do not seem to be required for systemic RNAi. (
  • Moreover, Tribolium lacks homologs of several genes important for RNAi in C. elegans . (
  • Thus, insects may use an alternative mechanism for the systemic RNAi response. (
  • Understanding this process would assist with rendering other insects amenable to systemic RNAi, and may influence pest control approaches. (
  • RNAi is triggered by either endogenous or exogenous dsRNA, and silences endogenous genes carrying homologous sequences at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. (
  • In the RNAi pathway, small RNAs are called short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and are loaded into RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISC) for post-transcriptional silencing, or RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing (RITS) complexes for transcriptional silencing. (
  • used RNAi to explore the relationship between heat and cold tolerance and heat shock protein (Hsp) genes. (
  • Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology in Jena, Germany, are now using a procedure which brings forward ecological research on insects: They study gene functions in moth larvae by manipulating genes using the RNA interference technology (RNAi). (
  • Ian Baldwin and his team identified the DNA sequences of CYP genes in Manduca sexta and were able to switch off these genes using RNAi technology, but expressed in the plant. (
  • have been performed, and our knowledge of silkworm genes and genome sequence has dramatically increased. (
  • We showed that codominant and conserved markers could be established by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis of PCR products amplified from single-copy genes and unique genome sequences differing at the nucleotide level without the need for additional manipulation ( Y asukochi 1999 ). (
  • Matan Shelomi and colleagues at the Max Planck Institute found pectinase genes in the stick insect genome. (
  • Use CSIRO's collection resources in combination with DNA barcodes, Whole Genome Shotgun sequences and 600 recently sequenced transcriptomes to build the tree of life for selected Australian insect groups, exploring genomes for functional genes within this evolutionary context. (
  • Millions of years ago, aphid-like insects called whiteflies incorporated a portion of DNA from plants into their genome. (
  • We think a virus within the plant may have taken up this BtPMaT1 gene and, after ingestion by a whitefly, the virus then must have done something inside the insect whereby that gene was integrated into the whiteflies genome," says Turlings. (
  • Moreover, the genome is predicted to include 17 extrachromosomal genetic elements, which carry many genes predicted to be important at the microbe-host interface, derived from a diverse assemblage of insect-associated gammaproteobacteria. (
  • Herein we describe the results of the first-pass screens with pupal and larval injections, which covered ∼8,500 and ∼5,000 genes, respectively, of a total of ∼16,500 genes of the Tribolium genome. (
  • A single candidate GH13-SUC gene and DRIP-AQP gene were identified in the genome/transcriptome of most insects tested by the criteria of sequence motif and gene expression in the gut. (
  • Formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements followed by sequencing (FAIRE-seq) recently facilitated genome-wide discovery of putative A. aegypti cis-regulatory elements (CREs), many of which could be used to manipulate gene expression in mosquito neurons and other tissues. (
  • Lep-Caspase-2 is absent from the silkworm genome and appears to be noctuid-specific, and to have arisen from a tandem duplication of the Caspase-1 gene. (
  • The gene PrKar1a codes for a protein used in the sperm mid-section, and is also found in the human genome. (
  • Understanding evolutionary processes that drive genome reduction requires determining the tempo (rate) and the mode (size and types of deletions) of gene losses. (
  • In this study, we analysed five endosymbiotic genome sequences of the gamma-proteobacteria (three different Buchnera aphidicola strains, Wigglesworthia glossinidia , Blochmannia floridanus ) to test if gene loss could be driven by the selective importance of genes. (
  • We used a parsimony method to reconstruct a minimal ancestral genome of insect endosymbionts and quantified gene loss along the branches of the phylogenetic tree. (
  • Moreover, it provides the opportunity for assessing the generality of the process of genome size reduction in three kinds of symbiotic lineages that have different gene content shaped by specific nutritional needs of their insect hosts. (
  • ROCKVILLE, Md.--Human Genome Sciences here and French biotechnology company Transgene announced in early March a 10-year agreement to accelerate the development of novel gene therapy drugs. (
  • The predicted SRPN9 and 15 in the initial genome annotation were determined to be a single gene ( SRPN9 ). (
  • The D. melanogaster genome contains at least 29 serpin genes ( Reichhart, 2005 ). (
  • In a comparison of different insect species and their respective methylation levels, there was a clear relationship between cell turn over and DNA methylation, but not between genome size or the number of repetitive sequences and DNA methylation. (
  • At some point, perhaps after retroviruses had sprinkled host genomes with multiple copies of the f gene, a baculovirus picked it up through recombination. (
  • Unlike retroviruses, baculoviruses don t insert their genes into their hosts genomes. (
  • Bordenstein's team studied Nasonia parasitic wasps that are only about the size of a sesame seed, and they serve as one of the best models to dissect and characterize the evolution of insect genomes. (
  • The team also found that, in distant relatives of the wasp, the genetic signatures in this gene are different, and it becomes difficult to detect the presence of this gene in their genomes. (
  • A new study of the genomes of social insects provides insight into the evolution of the genes involved in this developmental plasticity. (
  • They found that the genes were rapidly evolving in the genomes of both species, even though only one produced a caste system. (
  • Are shifts in insect biology correlated with major changes in genomes, e.g., changes from host specialists to generalists with the expansion of gene families? (
  • Based on this tree, you will have the opportunity to explore transcriptomes and genomes for major changes in functional genes. (
  • We studied data mined from 119 insect genomes, including 6 beetle models, and from 19 additional beetle transcriptomes. (
  • The trend toward large scale gene loss could reflect the inefficiency of natural selection at maintaining genes in the genomes of these cytoplasmically inherited bacteria. (
  • APSE-2 genomes were consistently abundant in infected pea aphids, and related phages were found in all tested isolates of H. defensa, from numerous insect species. (
  • This bacterium exhibits a complex life cycle, including one symbiotic stage characterized by colonization of the upper nematode gut, and a pathogenic stage, characterized by release from the nematode into the hemocoel of insect larvae, resulting in rapid insect death caused by bacterial toxins. (
  • By cloning each of the predicted promoters upstream of the reporter gene, induction was verified for 27 promoters in vitro , and for 24 promoters in viable G. mellonella larvae. (
  • ANOVA of control, mock-injected, and ADC-dsRNA injected larvae indicated that target gene expression was significantly (P ¼ 0.002) reduced 4-fold, and the black phenotype was achieved in all adults injected with ADC- dsRNA as larvae. (
  • 0.05) differential expression of other genes in ADC-in- jected larvae suggested connections between gene pathways. (
  • A gut-specific chitinase gene essential for regulation of chitin content of peritrophic matrix and growth of Ostrinia nubilalis larvae. (
  • Endophytic colonization of maize plants by M. robertsii promoted plant growth and altered defense gene expression in maize, and suppressed growth rate of black cutworm larvae. (
  • Experiments in which an antisense prosystemin gene was used to block wound signaling ( 10 ) and prevent accumulation of proteinase inhibitors resulted in reduced resistance of the plants toward tobacco hornworm larvae ( Manduca sexta ). (
  • For comparing the effect of feeding on gene expression in the antennae of female larvae it was impossible to select only one NF and both best ranked gene associations were included in the table. (
  • pb17 conferred low insect-resistant stability, showing mortality rates that varied from 28.2 to 99.27% in C. anachoreta and H. cunea larvae. (
  • the expression of some of these genes is increased as soon as the insect larvae are exposed to nicotine in their food. (
  • If larvae feed on these plant, the RNA is released in the insect gut. (
  • In the experiments, the dsRNA harbored the sequence of the insect gene, CYP6B46, a special cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase specific for Manduca sexta larvae. (
  • Scientists had shown that some other viral genes were probably copied from host cells, but the origin of so-called fusion proteins, like F, has remained a mystery. (
  • Blissard and Lung found messenger RNA (mRNA) copies of the gene in fruit fly cells, as well as F proteins--both products unlikely to arise if f were a piece of "junk DNA" left over from a long-departed retrovirus. (
  • Indeed, they found that the f gene stays quiet until the third and final stage of a maggot s development, then begins to produce F proteins, which persist into adulthood. (
  • In this study, we identified two CHS genes, SlCHS1 and SlCHS2 , which encode proteins with 1565 and 1520 amino acid residues, respectively. (
  • Specifically, we traced the origin of the double stranded RNA binding protein R2D2 to the last common ancestor of winged insects (Pterygota), the loss of Sid-1/Tag-130 orthologs in Antliophora (fleas, flies and relatives, and scorpionflies in a broad sense), and confirm previous evidence for the splitting of the Argonaute proteins Aubergine and Piwi in Brachyceran flies (Diptera, Brachycera). (
  • For the subset of physically and/or genetically interacting proteins, we also analyzed how their network structure may condition the mode of gene evolution. (
  • This review will mainly focus on the presence and regulation of CREB proteins in insects. (
  • Domain organization and phylogenetic analysis of the chitinase-like family of proteins in three species of insects. (
  • Expression or transient expression of cell cycle arresting genes is described for "metabolic engineering", i.e. regulating expression of desirable proteins, and it is mentioned that a transcriptional "squelching" effect by the VP16 transactivator domain may be lethal for the host cell, even at moderate expression levels (Berger et al. (
  • Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are small globular proteins, secreted by the support cells, and which constitute the main chemosensory protein family present in the sensillum lymph 6 , with 35 and 36 genes identified as expressed in the antennae of male and female Ae . (
  • Through the use of several different genetic and fluorescent microscopy tools, one gene from among the many thousands was found to suppress Wolbachia and its transfer to the developing egg. (
  • The genetic signatures in this gene can be used to infer evolution that happened in the past. (
  • Gradients of maternal information act at the top of a genetic hierarchy that involves the sequential activation of the zygotic gap, pair-rule, and segment polarity genes. (
  • The team, led by Youjun Zhang from the Institute of Vegetables and Flowers at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, used a combination of genetic and phylogenetic analyses, to reveal that roughly 35 million years ago, whiteflies stole this defense gene, granting the insect the ability to detoxify these compounds for themselves. (
  • Once the whiteflies fed on the tomatoes and ingested the plant-produced RNA, their BtPMaT1 gene was silenced, causing 100% mortality of the insect, but the genetic manipulation had no impact on the survival of other insects that were tested. (
  • Sophisticated tools for manipulation of gene expression in select neurons, including neurons that regulate sexually dimorphic behaviors, are increasingly available for analysis of genetic model organisms. (
  • While hundreds of neuron-specific GAL4 driver lines enable sophisticated perturbation of the fruit fly nervous system [ 3 , 4 ], we lack comparable genetic tools for analysis of the neurophysiological basis of behaviors in most insects, including mosquitoes. (
  • Advancements in the methodology for studying mosquito neurogenetics would help to elucidate the genes that regulate mosquito sexual dimorphism, including the development and function of neural circuitries that promote host-seeking, blood meal acquisition and feeding behavior, mating and oviposition, all of which may represent genetic targets for vector control [ 2 ]. (
  • United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: advances in the molecular genetic analysis of insects and their application to pest management. (
  • These results indicate that the mutant will be a good genetic model for testing the practical effectiveness of candidate defense genes. (
  • We submit that global gene coexpression is a rich, largely untapped resource for discovering the genetic basis and architecture of plant natural products. (
  • In addition, although the stronger defences of yellow frogs should suggest that they will out-compete white frogs in time, genetic analysis revealed virtually no migration or gene flow between the two populations. (
  • To understand the genetic and expression stability of transgenic insect-resistant poplar 741, this study compared the experimental plantations of transgenic insect-resistant poplar 741 lines (pb1, pb6, pb11, pb17, and pb29) with non-transgenic poplar 741, P. tomentosa Carr.f.yixianensis (poplar 84 K) and transgenic hybrid progeny lines cultured from immature embryos. (
  • At the root of this idea is overwhelming recent evidence for horizontal gene transfer - in which organisms acquire genetic material "horizontally" from other organisms around them, rather than vertically from their parents or ancestors. (
  • The study also revealed that a single gene plays a big role in monarchs' signature orange-and-black coloration, and a flip of this genetic switch is responsible for the unusual white monarch butterflies of Oahu. (
  • A damaging bacteria with an uncanny ability to pass itself from insect mothers to eggs meets its genomic match in a tiny variety of parasitic wasp, a recent discovery by Associate Professor of Biological Sciences Seth Bordenstein and his team has shown. (
  • Offspring of insects infected with the bacteria Wolbachia often die or are converted from male to female. (
  • Symbiotic bacteria are potentially valuable as vehicles for the stable introduction of foreign genes into insects with the goal of eventually altering the ability of the insect to transmit a pathogenic agent. (
  • Upon entering an insect host, the nematodes release the bacteria by regurgitation directly into the insect's hemocoel. (
  • Once inside the hemocoel, the bacteria replicate rapidly and cause lethal sepsis in the host by producing different toxins that kill the insect within 48-72 hours. (
  • Many investigators thought that gene transfer between bacteria and insects was quite rare, but new genomic techniques are challenging this idea. (
  • Thing is, researchers didn't think that stick insects could make their own pectinase - they thought gut bacteria made it for them. (
  • Interestingly, the sequences of these genes are very similar to pectinase genes from gamma-proteobacteria - these bacteria are highly abundant in the stick insect's gut. (
  • IMPORTANCE The biology of many bacteria is critically dependent on genes carried on plasmid and phage mobile elements. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between distantly related bacteria contributes significantly to the emergence of new pathogens but HGT is usually thought to play a minor role in eukaryotes. (
  • To evaluate the selective or functional importance of genes, we used a parameter that measures the level of adaptive codon bias in E. coli (i.e. codon adaptive index, or CAI), and also estimates of evolutionary rates (Ka) between pairs of orthologs either in free-living bacteria or in pairs of symbionts. (
  • Identification of the function of this gene will allow further definition of the molecular pathways involved in the regulation of programmed cell death and may identify the role of apoptosis in invertebrate viral defense systems. (
  • We conclude that signals for the regulation of those genes or operons induced in P. luminescens upon insect infection may represent a wide variety of compounds that make up the insect host. (
  • Using a cDNA microarray technique, we analyzed the timing, dynamics, and regulation of the expression of 150 genes in mechanically wounded leaves of Arabidopsis. (
  • Water stress was found to contribute to the regulation of an unexpectedly large fraction of these genes. (
  • Activation or inhibition of this pathway will ultimately affect the transcriptional regulation of various genes through distinct responsive sites. (
  • In addition, the regulation of CREB appears to show some important differences between insects and vertebrates. (
  • Results suggest that although stepwise negative regulation by gap and PcG genes is present in anterior members of the Hox cluster, it does not account for regulation of two posterior Hox genes, abdominal-A ( abd-A ) and Abdominal-B ( Abd-B ). Instead, abd-A and Abd-B are predominantly regulated by PcG genes, which is the mode present in vertebrates. (
  • The ancestral bilaterian state may have resembled the current vertebrate mode of regulation, where PcG-mediated silencing of Hox genes occurs before their expression is initiated and is responsible for the establishment of individual expression domains. (
  • During growth in culture containing caterpillar cuticle ( Manduca sexta ), M. anisopliae upregulated 273 genes, representing a broad spectrum of biological functions, including cuticle-degradation (e.g. proteases), amino acid/peptide transport and transcription regulation. (
  • The subtilisins provided an example of a large gene family in which differences in regulation could potentially allow virulence determinants to target different hosts and stages of infection. (
  • Comparisons between M. anisopliae and published data on Trichoderma reesei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae identified differences in the regulation of glycolysis-related genes and citric acid cycle/oxidative phosphorylation functions. (
  • In the RNA-seq analysis, gene ontology (GO) term enrichment indicated a significant down-regulation of muscle-related genes, which might contribute to the impairment in climbing ability of bees. (
  • Plants produce diverse specialized metabolites (SMs), but the genes responsible for their production and regulation remain largely unknown, hindering efforts to tap plant pharmacopeia. (
  • RNA is a molecule essential for the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. (
  • Expression patterns of the rogue Hox genes Hox3/zen and fushi tarazu in the apterygote insect Thermobia domestica. (
  • Hox3 appears to have evolved directly into zen within the insects, whereas ftz seems to have adopted the expression patterns of a segmentation and neurogenesis gene earlier in the mandibulate arthropods. (
  • Among short germ insects these genes exhibit variable expression patterns during segmentation and thus are likely to play divergent roles in this process. (
  • While the mRNA expression patterns of homeotic genes have been examined in numerous arthropod species, data on their protein accumulation is extremely limited. (
  • The CREs drove transgene expression in A. aegypti that corresponded to endogenous gene expression patterns of the orco , Or1 , Or8 and fru genes in the mosquito antenna. (
  • Stanford scientists have devised a way to predict the severity of dengue cases using a set of 20 genes and specific expression patterns. (
  • Insect Molecular Biology, 23: 579-586. (
  • The work appears to present the first molecular evidence that the nymphal stage in lower insects is equivalent to the pupal, or chrysalis, stage of advanced insects such as butterflies. (
  • To investigate the molecular mechanism of the damage to the veins between Rc- and Sm-DBM, the full-length sequences of two related genes involved in the development of wing veins, f ringe ( Px - fng ) and engrailed ( Px - en ) of DBM were cloned, and the mRNA expressions of both Px-fng and Px-en were studied. (
  • The Px-fng and Px-en cDNA contained 1038 bp and 1152 bp of open reading frames (ORFs), respectively, which encoded a putative protein comprising 345 and 383 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 39.59 kDa and 42.69 kDa. (
  • However, as reasonable as this sounds, there remains no conclusive evidence of such a molecular machinery in insects. (
  • Here, we describe molecular analysis of GH13 and AQP genes in phloem-feeding representatives of the four phloem-feeding groups: aphids (Myzus persicae), coccids (Planococcus citri), psyllids (Diaphorina citri, Bactericera cockerelli) and whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED). (
  • To explore the molecular basis of this process, its gene expression responses to diverse insect cuticles were surveyed, using cDNA microarrays constructed from an expressed sequence tag (EST) clone collection of 837 genes. (
  • Our findings provide a starting point to facilitate functional research of these chemosensory genes in B. odoriphaga at the molecular level. (
  • Our molecular biology experts can bundle gene synthesis with cloning into your choice of vector, or you can outsource DNA cloning projects from templates you already have. (
  • If you need custom cloning for DNA templates you already have (and do not require new gene synthesis), we offer a Custom PCR Cloning Service (SC1622) to allow you to outsource your molecular cloning projects , starting at $295 and 14 business day turnaround time. (
  • Evolutionary biologists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) came to this conclusion in a recent gene expression study. (
  • This study of the differences in gene expression among ant castes is characteristic of the enormous advances that are currently being made in the field of biology," explained Professor Susanne Foitzik, head of the Evolutionary Biology work group at Mainz University. (
  • The authors do not note, however, an important evolutionary reason for why the geography of tropical regions causes them to be more plagued by insect-transmitted disease. (
  • To explore the evolutionary transition of these genes, we analyzed their expression in a primitive insect, the firebrat Thermobia domestica. (
  • However, these dynamics are poorly understood at large evolutionary scales due to the paucity of studies that have assessed orthology and functional homology for sex-biased genes and the pleiotropic e ects possibly constraining their evolutionary potential. (
  • Here, we explore the correlation of sex-biased expression with macroevolutionary processes that are associated with sex-biased genes, including duplications and accelerated evolutionary rates. (
  • We studied these genes in the broad evolutionary framework of the Insecta, with a particular focus on beetles (order Coleoptera). (
  • The collection of genes was highly heterogeneous in duplication status, evolutionary rates, and rate stability, but there was statistical evidence for sex bias correlated with faster evolutionary rates, consistent with theoretical predictions. (
  • Statistical associations (higher rates for central nodes) or lack thereof (centrality of duplicated genes) were in contrast to some current evolutionary hypotheses, highlighting the need for more research on these topics. (
  • In order to simulate this evolutionary event, the sterol carrier gene was transformed into an endophytic insect-pathogenic fungus (Beauveria bassiana) that lacks an endogenous Mr-NPC2a homolog. (
  • The evolutionary transition of a fungus from an endophyte to an insect pathogen provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. (
  • The results suggest that (a) the trace element selenium has shaped the gene content of acetogenic spirochetes in gut communities over evolutionary time scales, (b) acetogenic spirochete populations have undergone extinctions and radiations associated with an evolutionary bottleneck, convergent evolutions, and possibly even invasion during termite evolution, and (c) termite gut acetogenesis is largely mediated by only a few spirochete species, which represent a small portion of total acetogenic spirochete diversity. (
  • These data provide an evolutionary context for proposing novel circadian clock mechanisms in insects. (
  • The consequence of this lack of evolutionary and functional conservation is that traditional sequence homology metrics for inferring gene function (e.g. (
  • These results also extend to more recent events of gene losses (i.e. among Buchnera strains) that still tend to concentrate on genes with low adaptive bias in E. coli and high evolutionary rates both in free-living and in symbiotic lineages. (
  • This allows the reconstruction of gene loss events at different evolutionary steps of symbiosis. (
  • According to Woese and Goldenfeld, they are profound, and horizontal gene transfer alters the evolutionary process itself. (
  • I tend to see an insect as an autonomous system that consumes milliwatts of power, and that in the case of the bee, they can go miles and come back, they essentially know their way in and their way back, they can solve problems, and they can learn tasks that they haven't been exposed to, even from an evolutionary standpoint," Yanguas-Gil said. (
  • The study of monarch genes also suggests that the butterflies began their evolutionary history as a migratory species that spread worldwide before a few groups settled down and eventually became separate homebody species. (
  • Abstract: Gene expression profiles can change dramatically between sexes and sex bias may contribute specific macroevolutionary dynamics for sex-biased genes. (
  • abstract = "A new piggyBac-based gene-trap vector, pB-GT1, was constructed. (
  • abstract = "Armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are among the most invasive insects in the world. (
  • In contrast to segment polarity genes, pair-rule homologues tend to exhibit more divergent patterns. (
  • Patterns and Constraints in the Evolution of Sperm Individualization Genes in Insects, with an Emphasis on Beetles. (
  • Forschung › Publikationen › ZFMK-Publikationsverzeichnis › Patterns and Constraints in the Evolution of Sperm Individualization Genes in Insects, with an Emphasis on Beetles. (
  • Faster rates were also correlated with clocklike (insect amino acids) and non-clocklike (beetle nucleotides) substitution patterns in these genes. (
  • US researchers have discovered that a single gene controls the complex wing patterns in female swallowtail butterflies. (
  • The brains of Polistes paper wasps express different genes when identifying faces than when distinguishing between simple patterns, a study finds. (
  • I think the chip takes advantage of the tools that evolution has given the insects and an idea is that insects do have an internal context and in a much more primitive way they also think about the world and their nervous system reflects some of the type of patterns that you see in the real world," Yanguas-Gil said. (
  • right) increase the number of incompatibility genes in parasite which allows it to spread more rapidly through local mosquito population, replacing the mosquitoes spreading human viral diseases like dengue and Zika with infected mosquitoes that do not transmit these diseases. (
  • If an insect was let loose in the wild, such as the millions of GM mosquitoes developed by Oxitec to be released in Brazil and Florida which are meant to control dengue fever (you can see a Youtube about the GM mosquitoes near the bottom of this article), humans could simply develop a 'kill switch' that would stop the GM mosquitoes from propagating. (
  • If the GM insects are developed with the 'kill-switch,' what will happen to the non-GM mosquitoes that have interbred with them? (
  • A new scientific paper reports that genes from Oxitec's GM mosquitoes, released in experiments in Brazil, have spread into the wild population of mosquitoes. (
  • Could a gene drive eradicate mosquitoes? (
  • He and Pennington thought the students whose undergraduate thesis research involves three insects of economic significance would benefit from learning about Berkeley Lab's study of the role of the gut microbiome in mosquitoes through its Microbes to Biomes project. (
  • Perhaps not surprisingly, DNA from domestic pets was very common, as were traces from different types of mite and common insects such as bees, flies and mosquitoes. (
  • The two universities have applied for a patent on the potential use of these genes to genetically engineer either the bacterial parasite or the insects themselves to produce more effective methods for controlling the spread of insect-borne diseases like dengue and Zika and for reducing the ravages of agricultural pests. (
  • Though expression of some genes was noted to be inhibited under combined pest challenge, such effects did not result in compromise in resistance against any of the target pests. (
  • While R genes generally tended to respond to specific pest challenge, several of the downstream defense genes responded to multiple pest challenge either single, sequential or simultaneous, without any distinct antagonism in expression of resistance to the target pests in two of the pyramided lines RPNF05 and RPNF08. (
  • While breeding for host plant resistance against the biotic stresses as the most desirable approach of their management is well recognized, recent progress in tagging, mapping and cloning of several of the resistance (R) genes against these pests has made this goal a lot more precise and easy. (
  • Fungi in the genus Metarhizium (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) are entomopathogens that can establish as endophytes and benefit their host plant through growth promotion and suppression of insect pests. (
  • The discovery is described in the Current Biology paper, "The maternal effect gene Wds controls Wolbachia titer in Nasonia. (
  • This was a totally unexpected finding because most theory suggested that genes involved in producing diverse forms of an organism would evolve rapidly specifically because they generated developmental differences," said Michael Goodisman, an associate professor in the School of Biology at Georgia Tech. "Instead, this study suggests that fast-evolving genes are actually predisposed to generating new developmental forms. (
  • It is therefore critical that we identify new tools to both study mosquito biology and combat these insect vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. (
  • Network biology offers a promising alternative for identifying SM pathways and their constituent genes. (
  • Bonny was from the various metamorphosis postembryonic reprogramming of gene expression in amphibian and insect cells cell biology 1996, correlated to gain based a last seriousness in Colonial America. (
  • This metamorphosis postembryonic reprogramming of gene expression in amphibian and insect cells cell biology well concluded therapy to Asian informations mappings shaped with Personal microenvironment. (
  • Yu H-Z, Li N-Y, Xie Y-X, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Lu Z-J. Identification and Functional Analysis of Two Chitin Synthase Genes in the Common Cutworm, Spodoptera litura . (
  • Wang Y, Wang J, Xia X, Wu G. Functional Identification of Px-fringe and Px-engrailed Genes under Heat Stress in Chlorpyrifos-Resistant and -Susceptible Plutela xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). (
  • This seems to be the first recorded example of the horizontal gene transfer of a functional gene from a plant into an insect," says co-author Ted Turlings, a chemical ecologist and entomologist at the University of Neuchâtel, in Switzerland. (
  • Biotic interaction cause extensive changes in plant gene expression profile and the data produced by functional genomics studies need validation, usually done by quantitative PCR. (
  • By mapping the functional data onto a cryptochrome/6-4 photolyase gene tree, we find that the transcriptional repressive function of insect CRY2 descended from a light-sensitive photolyase-like ancestral gene, probably lacking the ability to repress CLOCK:CYCLE-mediated transcription. (
  • Future functional characterisation of the identified differentially abundant genes may provide targets for the development of novel control strategies against vector borne diseases. (
  • The fact that UAS-EGFP reporter expression was detected in ovo pB-GT1 germ cells in a pattern similar to that reported for wild-type ovo indicates that functional Gal4 is expressed via pB-GT1, recapitulating the endogenous expression pattern of the trapped gene. (
  • Functional CpG methylation system in a social insect. (
  • By investigating the evolution of genes associated with castes, sexes and developmental stages of the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta , the researchers explored how social insects produce such a diversity of form and function from genetically similar individuals. (
  • With rootworms building resistance to genetically modified corn that makes its own pesticide, seed companies are working on new crops that target the insects' genes. (
  • Biotechnologists at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) have developed a 'kill-switch' for genetically modified insects. (
  • We have been able to transform R. rhodnii with this plasmid, infect aposymbiotic R. prolixus with the transformed symbiont, select with the antibiotic thiostrepton, and re-isolate genetically altered symbionts from the insects following successive molts. (
  • With focused efforts to produce genetically modified crops that are able to silence the whitefly gene, this could function as a targeted strategy for pest control to combat agricultural devastation caused by whitefly populations. (
  • Apoptosis, a morphologically and biochemically defined type of programmed cell death commonly seen in vertebrates, was found to be initiated during baculovirus replication in insect cells. (
  • Headquartered in Meridian, CT, Protein Sciences is exploiting its insect cell-based baculovirus expression vector system ( BEVS) protein expression technology to develop recombinant protein vaccines and to offer research antigen and recombinant protein vaccine and therapeutics development and manufacturing services. (
  • The BEVS platform is based on an engineered baculovirus and proprietary expresSF+ ® Spodoptera frugiperda insect cell line. (
  • Our popular Express Cloning service offers cloning into your choice of over 150 free vectors for use in mammalian, bacterial, yeast, or baculovirus/insect expression systems - for an unbeatable price of only $49 and 2-day turnaround added to your gene synthesis order. (
  • Fusing nucleotde sequences of signal peptides of the arrowhead proeinase inhibitor of plant origin and gp67 of baculoirus origin with the arrowhead proteinase inhibitor (API) gene and colning them into insect baculovirus transfer vector pBacPAK8 respectively, then integrating each into insect virus expression vector Bm - BacPAK6, we harvested recombinant virus of CrBK - API4 and CrBK - gpAPI2. (
  • We found significant synteny and conserved gene order between B. mori and a nymphalid butterfly, Heliconius melpomene , in four linkage groups (LGs), strongly suggesting that using B. mori as a reference for comparative genomics in Lepidotera is highly feasible. (
  • pB-GT1 is thus useful in insect genomics for the efficient assignment of functions of individual genes. (
  • HGS will combine its genomics database with Transgene's broad technology platform of gene delivery systems, the companies said. (
  • Virologists have long thought of baculoviruses, a group of viruses that can liquefy their insect hosts in a matter of days but don t induce so much as a sneeze in mammals, as potential pesticides. (
  • But the viruses would require tweaking to be effective since they kill insects more slowly than chemical insecticides. (
  • In viruses, an f gene codes for a fusion (F) protein, which enables the virus to penetrate the host cell s membrane and infect it. (
  • No matter how the original f gene moved from the fruit fly into viruses, it had to change a lot to win its current starring role in infectivity, Blissard says. (
  • These viruses actually generate two types of infectious particles, Blissard explains: one type specialized to infect gut cells, and another that spreads infection in other parts of the insect. (
  • Of course, this is an extremely unlikely event, but if you think about millions of years and billions of individual insects, viruses, and plants across time, once in a while this could happen, and if the acquired gene is a benefit to the insects, then it will be evolutionarily favored and may spread. (
  • Perhaps less expected, RNA from viruses associated with such insects were also detected. (
  • You've never heard of it because it only infects bugs: millions upon millions of species of insects, spiders, centipedes and other arthropods all around the globe. (
  • Entomologist Gale Ridge in her lab at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station in New Haven, Conn. The Madagascar hissing cockroaches on her sleeve are one of the species of insects she keeps there. (
  • Seed companies are preparing a new solution - RNA-interference, sometimes called gene silencing. (
  • Among the validated promoters are some known to regulate the expression of toxin genes, including tccC1 (encoding an insecticidal toxin complex), and others encoding putative toxins. (
  • We propose that, in these mutualistic symbionts, phage-borne toxin genes provide defense to the aphid host and are a basis for the observed protection against eukaryotic parasites. (
  • Thus, it is unknown whether more distantly-related insects, such as beetles, utilize largely the same processes and mechanisms to make muscles, or whether they differ in important aspects. (
  • CYP314A1 ) were obtained from the endocrinological model insect, the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta . (
  • A differential fluorescence induction (DFI) approach was applied to identify genes that are up-regulated in the bacterium after infection of the insect host Galleria mellonella . (
  • Among the different protective measures triggered by the insect immune system to thwart pathogen infection, host cell suicide through apoptosis can significantly reduce viral replication, dissemination and infectivity [ 10 ]. (
  • Future expression studies using nematode infection and caterpilar infestation in soybean plant may utilize the reference gene sets reported here. (
  • Here we examined gene responses of rice to RGSV infection to gain insight into the gene responses which might be associated with the disease symptoms. (
  • These results suggest that these gene responses to RGSV infection account for the excess tillering specific to RGSV infection as well as other symptoms by RGSV, such as stunting and leaf chlorosis. (
  • These results indicate that similarity in disease symptoms may not result from the similarity in gene responses to virus infection, and that the gene responses associated with particular symptoms may depend on the virus species. (
  • The results suggested that symptoms such as stunting and leaf chlorosis caused by RGSV infection were associated with the suppression of genes related to cell wall, hormone synthesis and chlorophyll synthesis while excess tillering specific to RGSV infection is associated with the suppression of strigolactone signaling and GA metabolism. (
  • Using the bumblebee Bombus terrestris / trypanosome Crithidia bombi model system, we have carried out a transcriptome-wide analysis of gene expression and alternative splicing in bees during C. bombi infection. (
  • Rice, a major food crop of the world, endures many major biotic stresses like bacterial blight (BB), fungal blast (BL) and the insect Asian rice gall midge (GM) that cause significant yield losses. (
  • However, researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology report that stick insects acquired a bacterial gene (by horizontal transfer) from one of their gut microbes. (
  • Temperate phages commonly carry genes that encode phenotypes of benefit to bacterial survival, including key determinants of the ability to thrive in association with hosts ( 2 - 4 ). (
  • We used fragments of four different gene regions: the nuclear protein-coding gene Elongation Factor 1α (EF1α), the large ribosomal subunit (28S) rDNA, a mitochondrial region spanning parts of cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and cytochrome oxidase II (COII), and the small ribosomal subunit (16S) rDNA from the primary bacterial endosymbiont Uzinura diaspidicola. (
  • Therefore, PCR-based markers that can be widely utilized for a variety of strains and are based on identified genes or sequences have been critically needed. (
  • Here, we expand upon recent phylogenetic work (Morse and Normark, 2006) by analyzing armored scale and endosymbiont DNA sequences from 125 species of armored scale insect, represented by 253 samples and eight outgroup species. (
  • When the insects are able to produce their own pectinase, they don't have to rely on symbiotic microbes to do it for them. (
  • Insects have evolved an efficient innate immune system to combat microbes. (
  • Lacing insect food with microbes encoding double-stranded RNAs can suppress insect gene expression. (
  • if you need a single synthetic gene cloned into multiple expression vectors, or if you need subcloning of genes previously synthesized by GenScript, please contact us by phone or email . (
  • Our new VectorArk ® Cloning service offers free, secure storage of your custom plasmid vectors or commercial vectors, and $49 cloning into any archived vectors bundled with future gene synthesis orders. (
  • Research on insect innate immune mechanisms is essential for understanding interactions between insect disease vectors and the pathogens they transmit. (
  • In long germ insects, all segments are specified simultaneously at the early blastoderm stage. (
  • Italian researchers report in the 15 November issue of Nature that school children from Burkino Faso carrying the haemoglobin C gene are much less likely to develop malaria than those with the typical version of haemoglobin. (
  • Another version of haemoglobin, haemoglobin S, also protects against malaria, but it has a steep cost: People carrying two copies of the haemoglobin S gene develop severe sickle cell anaemia. (
  • In this study, we characterized the serpin ( SRPN ) gene family in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae , the major malaria vector in Sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • It would be valuable to know what mechanisms allowed Hox3 and ftz to abandon their ancestral roles as homeotic genes and take on new roles. (
  • Promoters active in insects can be enhanced by positive feedback mechanisms and associated with repressible lethal effects. (
  • For now, the researchers are starting to pursue the mechanisms behind these 20 genes, trying to understand why they seem to foretell the fate of dengue patients. (
  • Epigenetic mechanisms are regulatory mechanisms, which change expression levels of genes. (
  • 2016 ). Resistance against BL is reported to be conferred by over 100 genes including three recessive and 22 cloned genes (Sharma et al. (
  • 2016 ). However, only 8 genes ( Bph14 , Bph26 , Bph3 , bph29 , Bph32 , Bph18 , Bph9 and Bph6 ) have been isolated by map-based cloning (Du et al. (
  • © Trinity Burak 1994-2016 Some hours almost undergone metamorphosis postembryonic reprogramming of gene expression in amphibian and insect cells cell in supporting out roller and Squeezed groups for their place in Attractive rationales as understanding and list. (
  • The signaling pathways that allow plants to mount defenses against chewing insects are known to be complex. (
  • To investigate the role of jasmonate in wound signaling in Arabidopsis and to test whether parallel or redundant pathways exist for insect defense, we have studied a mutant ( fad3-2 fad7-2 fad8 ) that is deficient in the jasmonate precursor linolenic acid. (
  • When chewing insects begin feeding on leaves or other tissues, plant signaling pathways are activated that lead, ultimately, to the synthesis of many different secondary metabolites and specialized chemicals ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Given that genes comprising SM pathways exhibit environmentally dependent coregulation, we hypothesized that genes within a SM pathway would form tight associations (modules) with each other in coexpression networks, facilitating their identification. (
  • Moreover, modules recovered many experimentally validated SM pathways, including all six known to form biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). (
  • We found a large number of genes differentially regulated related to numerous canonical immune pathways. (
  • These genes include receptors, signaling pathways and effectors. (
  • Genes regulate how an organism grows and changes physically as it develops. (
  • It is a further aim to regulate the activity of insect promoters, especially in a life stage- and/or sex-specific manner. (
  • Serpins (serine protease inhibitors) regulate some innate immune responses of insects by inhibiting endogenous proteases. (
  • The function of the DNA methylation in honey bees is to regulate gene alternative splicing DNA methylation plays a major role in honeybee caste and subcaste development. (
  • In short germ insects, however, only segments of the head are defined in the initial blastoderm, while the remaining segments of the thorax and abdomen form progressively from a posterior growth zone ( Sander, 1976 ). (
  • To better understand segmentation in short germ insects, we have chosen here to focus on homologs of the pair-rule and segment polarity class of segmentation genes in flour beetles and grasshoppers. (
  • Then, during insect evolution, the repression by transcription factors may have been acquired in anterior Hox genes of short germ insects, while PcG silencing was maintained in posterior Hox genes. (
  • In contrast, in short or intermediate germ (hereafter collectively called short germ) insects, only the anterior regions are specified at the blastoderm stage. (
  • In short germ insects, on the other hand, the middle Hox genes, Sex combs reduced ( Scr ), Antennapedia ( Antp ), and Ultrabithorax ( Ubx ), are expressed in the anterior regions preceding initiation of posterior elongation. (
  • The 287 down-regulated genes were also distinctive, and included a large set of ribosomal protein genes. (
  • Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on targeting muscle and ribosomal protein related genes in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (
  • The enriched GO terms were attributed to the up-regulated ribosomal protein genes. (
  • Transcriptome analysis of PPV- and ToRSV-infected plants showed the suppression of genes functioning in chloroplasts, however, the genes encoding ribosomal protein functioning in chloroplasts were suppressed only in ToRSV-infected plants ( Dardick, 2007 ). (
  • Bucher G, Klingler M. Divergent segmentation mechanism in the short germ insect Tribolium revealed by giant expression and function. (
  • However, detailed sequence analysis has revealed that these Tribolium homologs share more identity with another C. elegans gene, tag-130 . (
  • Here, we extended the transcriptional repressive function of insect CRY2 to 2 orders--Hymenoptera (the honeybee Apis mellifera and the bumblebee Bombus impatiens) and Coleoptera (the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum). (
  • Here, we investigated opsin evolution in 27 phylogenetically diverse insect species including several transitions between photic niches (nocturnal, diurnal, and crepuscular). (
  • This study indicates that phylogenetically related SUC and AQP genes may generally mediate osmoregulatory functions in these diverse phloem-feeding insects, and provides candidate genes for empirical validation and development as targets for osmotic disruption of pest species. (
  • In this study, we phylogenetically predict that the endophytic fungus Metarhizium robertsii acquired a sterol carrier gene from insects through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). (
  • The researchers have identified a single pair of Wolbachia genes that produce this effect only when working together. (
  • A gene enabling an insect virus to enter new cells was likely stolen from a host cell and adapted for the virus s use, researchers at Boyce Thompson Institute (BTI) at Cornell University report. (
  • In the study, reported in the July 1 issue of the Journal of Virology, BTI researchers Gary Blissard and Oliver Lung investigated whether a fruit fly gene, called an f gene, had originally moved from an insect to a virus or the other way around. (
  • The researchers then looked for evidence that the fruit fly regulates the f gene, switching it on and off as needed. (
  • The study, which was conducted by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, showed that genes involved in creating different sexes, life stages and castes of fire ants and honeybees evolved more rapidly than genes not involved in these developmental processes. (
  • The researchers also found that these fast-evolving genes exhibited elevated rates of evolution even before they were recruited to produce diverse forms of an organism. (
  • To examine when the genes with elevated rates of evolution began to evolve rapidly, the researchers compared the rate of evolution of genes associated with the production of castes in the fire ant with the same genes in a wasp that does not have a caste system. (
  • Researchers using the technology introduce a strand of RNA that essentially stops an organism that ingests the molecule from expressing a certain gene. (
  • To understand how metamorphosis evolved in insects, the UW researchers examined how the broad gene functions in direct-developing insects, which don't have a pupal stage. (
  • A substance called juvenile hormone is present at each step of nymph development in insects that do not experience complete metamorphosis, and the researchers found that juvenile hormone correlates with the expression of the broad gene during the nymphal stage. (
  • Under that agreement, researchers at Gene Logic and Pfizer said they would design the array and Affymetrix would build it. (
  • The Guardian writes that researchers are looking at gene editing chickens to help prevent future pandemics. (
  • A group of insects that mimic each other in an effective golden sheen to fight predators has been discovered as the largest in Australia, a collaboration between Masaryk University and Macquarie University researchers has found. (
  • The range of that journey has stretched farther and farther north since the end of the last ice age, thanks to a gene that makes butterfly muscles more efficient, researchers suggest in a study published in the journal Nature . (
  • There are definitely still some hurdles this method needs to get over, most notably the skepticism about using transgenic plants," he says "But in the future, I do see this as a very clear way of controlling whiteflies because now we know exactly the mechanism behind it, and we are equipped to deal with possible changes in the whitefly gene that may arise. (
  • Four CREs identified in the screen were cloned upstream of GAL4 in a transgenic construct that is compatible with transformation of a variety of insect species. (
  • Advanced generations of different transgenic lines of indica basmati rice (Basmati-370) expressing two unrelated Bt genes, cry1Ac and cry2A were evaluated for resistance to Yellow Stem Borer (YSB) and Rice Leaf Folder (RLF) under field conditions compared to control lines over three years (2003-2005). (
  • After artificial infestation of target insects, the transgenic plants showed significant resistance. (
  • The transgenic lines had no significant effect on non-target insects (insects belonging to orders other than Lepidoptera and Diptera) in field or under storage conditions. (
  • The female flies of this transgenic line are sterile, indicating that the insertion inactivated the ovo gene, generating a new allele of this locus, ovo pB-GT1 . (
  • The insect resistance and growth stability of transgenic poplar 741 were investigated by detecting exogenous genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), measuring the diameter at breast height (DBH) and volume growth, and performing insect-resistance tests against Clostera anachoreta and Hyphantria cunea. (
  • The inheritance and expression of the exogenous gene was also examined in transgenic hybrid progeny lines. (
  • The results revealed that the exogenous gene was stable, remaining stable in 8-10-year-old transgenic poplar 741 trees. (
  • The transgenic hybrid progeny that contained Cry1Ac gene exhibited the same insect resistance as the parent plants. (
  • So it looks like metamorphosis evolved in insects by restricting the expression of the broad gene to a short but intense period of change at the transition from larva to pupa. (
  • [4] The pupa may enter dormancy or diapause until the appropriate season to emerge as an adult insect. (
  • Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations [17] , [18] . (
  • The phage, called APSE-2, is a close relative of the previously sequenced APSE-1 but contains intact homologs of the gene encoding cytolethal distending toxin (cdtB), which interrupts the eukaryotic cell cycle and which is known from a variety of mammalian pathogens. (
  • Resistance evolution caused by CRISPR/Cas9 gene-drive systems has a major impact on both the future scientific design of such gene-drive systems and on the politics of regulating experimentation and use of such systems. (
  • Progress in tagging, mapping and cloning of several resistance (R) genes against aforesaid stresses has led to marker assisted multigene introgression into elite cultivars for multiple and durable resistance. (
  • Furthermore, enhanced activity of promoters controlling the expression of genes encoding enzymes linked to antibiotic production and/or resistance was observed. (
  • Homozygous lines were selected and analyzed for insect resistance, morphological, physiochemical properties and risk assessment studies. (
  • insect resistance. (
  • Identification and fine mapping of Bph33, a new brown planthopper resistance gene in rice ( Oryza sativa L. (
  • As single-gene resistance is easily lost due to the evolution of new BPH biotypes, it is urgent to explore and identify new BPH resistance genes. (
  • The gene exhibited continuous and stable resistance from seedling stage to tillering stage, showing both antixenosis and antibiosis effects on BPH. (
  • To date, more than 30 BPH-resistance genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been identified from ssp. (
  • Since 1970s, many BPH resistance genes have been utilized in rice breeding and a series of cultivars with improved resistance (e.g. (
  • Moreover, only a few resistance genes ( Bph3 , Bph6 , Bph9 and Bph31 ) show high resistance to more than one BPH biotypes/populations. (
  • Therefore, it is urgent to discover new broad-spectrum BPH resistance genes and integrate them into rice cultivars. (
  • Two Sri Lankan indica rice cultivars, KOLAYAL and POLIYAL, were previously found to be highly resistant to the most dominated BPH strain in Wuhan (seedling resistance score RS = 1.3 and 2.2 in two tests) and that in Fuzhou (RS = 1.5 and 1.6 in two tests), China, suggesting that they could be useful donors of BPH resistance genes in rice breeding. (
  • genes that encode nicotine-catabolizing enzymes may be responsible for its resistance. (
  • Genes essential to producing the developmental differences displayed by social insects evolve more rapidly than genes governing other aspects of organismal function, a new study has found. (
  • In addition, genes that were differentially expressed in multiple contexts -- castes, sexes or developmental stages -- tended to evolve more rapidly than genes that were differentially expressed in only a single context. (
  • This is one the most comprehensive studies of the evolution of genes involved in producing developmental differences," Goodisman noted. (
  • Our results indicate that CG13419 encodes bursicon, the last of the classic set of insect developmental hormones. (
  • The developmental events occurring during moulting and metamorphosis of insects are controlled by precisely timed changes in levels of ecdysteroids, the moulting hormones. (
  • Though all insects possess highly conserved adult body plans, there are two different ways developmental patterning can be accomplished. (
  • The expression stability of nine classical reference genes ( GmCYP2 , GmELF1A , GmELF1B , GmACT11 , GmTUB , GmTUA5 , GmG6PD , GmUBC2 and GmUBC4 ) was evaluated using twenty-four experimental samples including different organs, developmental stages, roots infected with M. incognita and leaves attacked by A. gemmatalis . (
  • Considering the developmental stages, GmELF1A and GmELF1B genes are the most stable. (
  • Dearden and Akam, 2001 ), suggesting that segment polarity genes constitute part of the ancestral insect segmentation system. (
  • The diversity of opsin genes is consistent with color vision in diurnal, crepuscular, and nocturnal insects. (
  • Insects have adapted to almost every terrestrial habitat on the planet, which is reflected by their vast morphological diversity. (
  • How did the great diversity of insects evolve in Australia? (
  • The basic repertoire of five major types of caspases shared among Lepidoptera seems to be smaller than for most other groups studied to date, but gene duplication still plays a role in lineage-specific increases in diversity, just as in Diptera and mammals. (
  • I. Formate Dehydrogenase Gene Diversity in Lignocellulose-Feeding Insect Gut Microbial Communities. (
  • Here, I use the gene sequence for hydrogenase-linked formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme utilized in sugar fermentation and the acetogenic metabolism of the spirochete isolate Treponema primitia, to investigate the diversity, evolution, and activity of uncultured acetogenic spirochetes in lignocellulose-feeding insect guts. (
  • A total of 523 BAC contigs, including 342 independent genes registered in public databases and 85 expressed sequence tags (ESTs), were placed onto the linkage map. (
  • Sequence analysis revealed that the product of this gene, named Indy (for I'm not dead yet), is most closely related to a mammalian sodium dicarboxylate cotransporter-a membrane protein that transports Krebs cycle intermediates. (
  • As used herein, the term "gene" refers to any DNA sequence that may transcribed or translated into a product, at least one such having activity or function in vivo. (
  • Based on sequence and expression analyses, a Leucine Rich Repeat (LRR) family gene (LOC_Os04g02520) was identified as the most possible candidate of Bph33 . (
  • We completed sequencing of cDNAs for the A. gambiae serpins to obtain complete coding sequence information and to verify or improve gene predictions. (
  • New University of Washington research shows that a regulatory gene named broad, known to be necessary for development of insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, also is key for the maturation of insects that have incomplete metamorphosis. (
  • Normally an insect like the grasshopper that does not undergo complete metamorphosis goes through subtle physical changes during each of its nymphal stages as it progresses to adulthood. (
  • Development of holometabolous insects is characterized by a complete metamorphosis between the wingless larval stage, mostly dedicated to nutrient acquisition and growth, and the winged adult form, dedicated to reproduction. (
  • The pupal stage follows the larval stage and precedes adulthood ( imago ) in insects with complete metamorphosis. (
  • At both ancient and recent stages of symbiosis evolution, gene loss was at least partially influenced by selection, highly conserved genes being retained more readily than lowly conserved genes: although losses might result from drift due to the bottlenecking of endosymbiontic populations, we demonstrated that purifying selection also acted by retaining genes of greater selective importance. (
  • The largest increase in transcript abundance was identified for select chemosensory genes in the antennae of young adult Ae . (
  • The sex- and tissue-specific expression profiles of 54 putative chemosensory genes among different tissues were investigated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). (
  • The importance of apoptotic events during development of holometabolous insects and more specifically in Lepidoptera has been shown as early as the 1960's. (
  • These differentially expressed genes exhibited elevated rates of evolution, as predicted. (
  • A gene encoding a critical virulence factor was transferred from one species of fungal pathogen to another, leading to the emergence of a new damaging disease of wheat [9] . (
  • Identification of the gene encoding bursicon, an insect neuropeptide responsible for cuticle sclerotization and wing spreading. (
  • Insect transformation is a low-efficiency system requiring the identification of rare transformants, in a background of larger numbers of non-transformed individuals. (
  • Most of these studies have focused on the identification of gene function with regard to insect development (reviewed in Lü, 2008 ). (
  • Then the extracted DNA was used to amplify genes for the identification of the microbial populations in the samples. (
  • The use of a site-specific homing-based gene drive for insect pest control has long been discussed, but the easy design of such systems has become possible only with the recent establishment of CRISPR/Cas9 technology. (
  • Many embryonic patterning genes are remarkably conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and the Hox genes are paradigmatic examples of this conservation. (
  • Expression profiles of urbilaterian genes uniquely shared between honey bee and vertebrates. (
  • Moreover, given that the CREs drive comparable olfactory neural expression in both A. aegypti and D. melanogaster , it is likely that they may function similarly in multiple dipteran insects, including other disease vector mosquito species. (
  • This study revealed that the circadian clock genes are crucial not only for daily rhythms but also for photoperiodic diapause. (
  • It is still possible that the circadian clock genes pleiotropically affect ovarian development but, based on these results, we suggest that the circadian clock operated by the circadian clock genes, period and cycle , governs seasonal timing as well as the daily rhythms. (
  • Studies on alpha-proteobacteria, closely related species of the free-living ancestor of mitochondria, revealed the presence of genes similar to caspases, suggesting that ancestor of eukaryotic caspases derived from mitochondrial endosymbionts [ 11 ]. (
  • Scientists at the Energy Department's Argonne National Laboratory have pioneered a cutting-edge neuromorphic computer chip-modeled off the brains of bees, fruit flies and other insects-that can rapidly learn, adapt and use substantially less power than its conventional computer chip counterparts. (
  • These results help reveal a feeding strategy of P. rapae that may minimize the activation of a subset of water stress-inducible, defense-related genes. (