A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
A lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by pleomorphic B-LYMPHOCYTES including PLASMA CELLS, with increased levels of monoclonal serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. There is lymphoplasmacytic cells infiltration into bone marrow and often other tissues, also known as lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Clinical features include ANEMIA; HEMORRHAGES; and hyperviscosity.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.
The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.
Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
The period of recovery following an illness.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.
Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.
Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
Contagious infection with human B19 Parvovirus most commonly seen in school age children and characterized by fever, headache, and rashes of the face, trunk, and extremities. It is often confused with rubella.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A phenomenon manifested by an agent or substance adhering to or being adsorbed on the surface of a red blood cell, as tuberculin can be adsorbed on red blood cells under certain conditions. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).
A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An excess of GAMMA-GLOBULINS in the serum due to chronic infections or PARAPROTEINEMIAS.
Molecules found on the surface of some, but not all, B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which recognize and combine with the Fc (crystallizable) portion of immunoglobulin molecules.
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The type species of ERYTHROVIRUS and the etiological agent of ERYTHEMA INFECTIOSUM, a disease most commonly seen in school-age children.
A mosquito-borne encephalitis caused by the Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE) occurring throughout Eastern Asia and Australia. The majority of infections occur in children and are subclinical or have features limited to transient fever and gastrointestinal symptoms. Inflammation of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges may occur and lead to transient or permanent neurologic deficits (including a POLIOMYELITIS-like presentation); SEIZURES; COMA; and death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p751; Lancet 1998 Apr 11;351(9109):1094-7)
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.
Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
A viral infection of the brain caused by serotypes of California encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, CALIFORNIA) transmitted to humans by the mosquito AEDES triseriatus. The majority of cases are caused by the LA CROSSE VIRUS. This condition is endemic to the midwestern United States and primarily affects children between 5-10 years of age. Clinical manifestations include FEVER; VOMITING; HEADACHE; and abdominal pain followed by SEIZURES, altered mentation, and focal neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13)
The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.
A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiological agent of Japanese encephalitis found in Asia, southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.
Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.
A group of related diseases characterized by an unbalanced or disproportionate proliferation of immunoglobulin-producing cells, usually from a single clone. These cells frequently secrete a structurally homogeneous immunoglobulin (M-component) and/or an abnormal immunoglobulin.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.
Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.
A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.
A common, acute infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN). There is an increase in mononuclear white blood cells and other atypical lymphocytes, generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and occasionally hepatomegaly with hepatitis.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
Atypical gamma immunoglobulins characterized by their irreversible heat denaturation at 56-degrees C. Pyroprecipitation is inhibited at pH below 3 and above 9. The presence of pyroglobulins in the serum is the cause of pyroglobulinemia. They are frequently present in multiple myeloma and the pyroglobulin precipitate binds complement, reacts with rheumatoid factor, produces passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, generalized passive anaphylaxis and passive Arthus-type phenomena.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A group of ALPHAVIRUS INFECTIONS which affect horses and man, transmitted via the bites of mosquitoes. Disorders in this category are endemic to regions of South America and North America. In humans, clinical manifestations vary with the type of infection, and range from a mild influenza-like syndrome to a fulminant encephalitis. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp8-10)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
A subcomponent of complement C1, composed of six copies of three polypeptide chains (A, B, and C), each encoded by a separate gene (C1QA; C1QB; C1QC). This complex is arranged in nine subunits (six disulfide-linked dimers of A and B, and three disulfide-linked homodimers of C). C1q has binding sites for antibodies (the heavy chain of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M). The interaction of C1q and immunoglobulin activates the two proenzymes COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S, thus initiating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION via the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.
Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Abnormal immunoglobulins, especially IGG or IGM, that precipitate spontaneously when SERUM is cooled below 37 degrees Celsius. It is characteristic of CRYOGLOBULINEMIA.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE containing several subgroups and many species. Most are arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes or ticks. The type species is YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.
Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS. Gene segments of the light chain genes are designated as V (variable), J (joining), and C (constant).
The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A gram-negative, rod-shaped to coccoid bacterium. It is the etiologic agent of SCRUB TYPHUS in humans and is transmitted by mites from rodent reservoirs.
A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
An acute infectious disease caused by ORIENTIA TSUTSUGAMUSHI. It is limited to eastern and southeastern Asia, India, northern Australia, and the adjacent islands. Characteristics include the formation of a primary cutaneous lesion at the site of the bite of an infected mite, fever lasting about two weeks, and a maculopapular rash.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Rabbitts, T. H. (1983). "The human immunoglobulin genes. The nineteenth Colworth medal lecture". Biochemical Society ... Melton, D. W. (1990). "The use of gene targeting to develop animal models for human genetic diseases". Biochemical Society ... Flavell, R. A. (1983). "The globin genes of rabbit and man. The eighteenth Colworth medal lecture". Biochemical Society ... Brownlee, G. G. (1979). "The Fourteenth Colworth Medal Lecture Sequencing eukaryotic genes or the anatomy of DNA". Biochemical ...
Papavasiliou, F.Nina; Schatz, David G (April 2002). "Somatic Hypermutation of Immunoglobulin Genes". Cell. 109 (2): S35-S44. ... "Control of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in developing B cells". Current Opinion in Immunology. 9 (2): 233-238. doi: ... "Cell-cycle-regulated DNA double-strand breaks in somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes". Nature. 408 (6809): 216-221. ... gene expression outcomes, and cellular function". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
Rogozin IB, Kolchanov NA (November 1992). "Somatic hypermutagenesis in immunoglobulin genes. II. Influence of neighbouring base ... The product of gene PD-1 ordinarily represses cytotoxic immune responses. Inhibition of this gene allows a greater immune ... found that passenger genes, with chromosomal proximity to tumor suppressor genes, are collaterally deleted in some cancers. ... Epigenetic repression of DDR genes occurs more frequently than gene mutation in many types of cancer (see Cancer epigenetics). ...
Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGLJ3 gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". National ... "Entrez Gene: Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3". Paul E, Iliev AA, Livneh A, Diamond B (December 1992). "The anti-DNA-associated ... Combriato G, Klobeck HG (June 1991). "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light ... "V-region and class specific RT-PCR amplification of human immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes from B-cell lines". ...
... transcriptional coactivator for nuclear hormone receptors gene NCOA2; f) Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene IGH; g) enzyme genes ... "IGH immunoglobulin heavy locus (human )". Entrez Gene. "TTL tubulin tyrosine ligase (human)". Entrez Gene. "CHIC2 cysteine rich ... Thus, the ETV6 gene reportedly forms translocation-induced fusion genes with: a) tyrosine kinase receptor gene FGFR3; b) non- ... The following table lists the more frequently occurring genes to which ETV6 fuses, the function of these genes, these genes' ...
Bentley DL, Rabbits TH (1981). "Human immunoglobulin variable region genes--DNA sequences of two V kappa genes and a pseudogene ... "Evolution of immunoglobulin V genes: evidence indicating that recently duplicated human V kappa sequences have diverged by gene ... Immunoglobulin kappa constant, also known as IGKC, is a human gene that encodes the constant domain of kappa-type light chains ... "Entrez Gene: IGKC immunoglobulin kappa constant". Brady RL, Edwards DJ, Hubbard RE, et al. (1992). "Crystal structure of a ...
Ig heavy chain V-III region VH26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the [email protected] gene. IGHV is the immunoglobulin heavy ... "Entrez Gene: [email protected] immunoglobulin heavy variable group". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Forconi F, Sozzi E, Cencini E ... Matthyssens G, Rabbitts TH (1981). "Structure and multiplicity of genes for the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable ... "CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma consists of germline cases and hypermutated cases in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ...
"Entrez Gene: IGHD immunoglobulin heavy constant delta". Shin SU, Wei CF, Amin AR, et al. (1992). "Structural and functional ... Lee CE, Jackson KJ, Sewell WA, Collins AM (2007). "Use of IGHJ and IGHD gene mutations in analysis of immunoglobulin sequences ... 2006). "Reconsidering the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus: 1. An evaluation of the expressed human IGHD gene repertoire ... Ig delta chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHD gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for ...
"The sequence of a human immunoglobulin epsilon heavy chain constant region gene, and evidence for three non-allelic genes". The ... "Entrez Gene: IGHE immunoglobulin heavy constant epsilon". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Venkitaraman AR, Williams GT ... Max EE, Battey J, Ney R, Kirsch IR, Leder P (Jun 1982). "Duplication and deletion in the human immunoglobulin epsilon genes". ... Ellison J, Buxbaum J, Hood L (1983). "Nucleotide sequence of a human immunoglobulin C gamma 4 gene". DNA. 1 (1): 11-8. doi: ...
Immunoglobulin superfamily member 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGSF8 gene. IGSF8 has also been designated as ... "Entrez Gene: IGSF8 immunoglobulin superfamily, member 8". Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ... 2003). "Identification of novel genes for secreted and membrane-anchored proteins in human keratinocytes". Br. J. Dermatol. 148 ...
Wang X, Stollar BD (1999). "Immunoglobulin VH gene expression in human aging". Clin. Immunol. 93 (2): 132-42. doi:10.1006/clim. ... E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RNF216 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNF216 gene. This gene encodes a cytoplasmic ... 1994). "The addition of 5'-coding information to a 3'-directed cDNA library improves analysis of gene expression". Gene. 146 (2 ... "Entrez Gene: TRIAD3 TRIAD3 protein". CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Chuang, Tsung-Hsien; Ulevitch Richard J (May 2004 ...
"NCBI Gene: RBPJ recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region". "HGNC: RBPJ Symbol Report". Hsieh JJ, ... Recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa J region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBPJ gene ... Oka C, Kawaichi M (1995). "V(D)J recombination of immunoglobulin genes". Advances in Biophysics. 31: 163-80. doi:10.1016/0065- ... "A protein binding to the J kappa recombination sequence of immunoglobulin genes contains a sequence related to the integrase ...
Wang X, Stollar BD (1999). "Immunoglobulin VH gene expression in human aging". Clin. Immunol. 93 (2): 132-42. doi:10.1006/clim. ... "Entrez Gene: EPC1 enhancer of polycomb homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Doyon Y, Côté J (2004). "The highly conserved and ... Enhancer of polycomb homolog 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPC1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... 2004). "The Status, Quality, and Expansion of the NIH Full-Length cDNA Project: The Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
"Immunoglobulin gene expression in transformed lymphoid cells". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80: 825-9. doi:10.1073/pnas.80.3. ...
Wang X, Stollar BD (November 1999). "Immunoglobulin VH gene expression in human aging". Clinical Immunology. 93 (2): 132-42. ... The deletion of this gene has been reported associated with Wilms tumor. GWAS show that genetic variations of the CPVL gene are ... Probable serine carboxypeptidase CPVL is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CPVL gene. The "CPVL" gene is expressed ... "Entrez Gene: CPVL carboxypeptidase, vitellogenic-like". Harris J, Schwinn N, Mahoney JA, Lin HH, Shaw M, Howard CJ, da Silva RP ...
Wang X, Stollar BD (November 1999). "Immunoglobulin VH gene expression in human aging". Clinical Immunology. 93 (2): 132-42. ... "Entrez Gene: SKAP2 src kinase associated phosphoprotein 2". Alenghat FJ, Baca QJ, Rubin NT, Pao LI, Matozaki T, Lowell CA, ... Src kinase-associated phosphoprotein 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SKAP2 gene. The protein encoded by this ... Gene. 200 (1-2): 149-56. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(97)00411-3. PMID 9373149. Liu J, Kang H, Raab M, da Silva AJ, Kraeft SK, Rudd ...
"Entrez Gene: IGSF2 immunoglobulin superfamily, member 2". Rivas A, Ruegg CL, Zeitung J, et al. (1995). "V7, a novel leukocyte ... Immunoglobulin superfamily, member 2 (IGSF2) also known as CD101 (Cluster of Differentiation 101), is a human gene. Cluster of ... 2004). "Sequence comparison of human and mouse genes reveals a homologous block structure in the promoter regions". Genome Res ... Molecular cloning and characterization of the V7 gene". J. Immunol. 154 (9): 4434-43. PMID 7722300. Soares LR, Rivas A, ...
During B cell lymphopoiesis, CD19 surface expression starts during immunoglobulin (Ig) gene rearrangement, which coincides ... Schroeder HW, Rich RR (2013). "Chapter 4: Antigen receptor genes, gene products, and co-receptors". Clinical immunology: ... "Entrez Gene: CD19 CD19 molecule". Tedder TF, Isaacs CM (July 1989). "Isolation of cDNAs encoding the CD19 antigen of human and ... Kozmik Z, Wang S, Dörfler P, Adams B, Busslinger M (June 1992). "The promoter of the CD19 gene is a target for the B-cell- ...
"Human immunoglobulin heavy chain genes: evolutionary comparisons of C mu, C delta and C gamma genes and associated switch ... "Entrez Gene: IGHM immunoglobulin heavy constant mu". Kristensen T, Lopez R, Prydz H (1992). "An estimate of the sequencing ... Tsubata T, Reth M (1990). "The products of pre-B cell-specific genes (lambda 5 and VpreB) and the immunoglobulin mu chain form ... Dorai H, Gillies SD (1989). "The complete nucleotide sequence of a human immunoglobulin genomic C mu gene". Nucleic Acids Res. ...
... molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta, also known as CD79B (Cluster of Differentiation 79B), is a human gene. It is ... "Entrez Gene: CD79B CD79b molecule, immunoglobulin-associated beta". Reth M (1992). "Antigen receptors on B lymphocytes". Annu. ... 1993). "Isolation and chromosomal mapping of the human immunoglobulin-associated B29 gene (IGB)". Genomics. 16 (1): 187-92. doi ... This gene encodes the Ig-beta protein of the B-cell antigen component. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding ...
"Entrez Gene: CD79A CD79a molecule, immunoglobulin-associated alpha". Anthony S-Y L, Cooper K, Leong FJ (2003). Manual of ... "Molecular cloning and expression pattern of a human gene homologous to the murine mb-1 gene". Journal of Immunology. 148 (5): ... It is a short gene, 4.3 kb in length, with 5 exons encoding for 2 splice variants resulting in 2 isoforms. CD79A is conserved ... Wang Y, Kanegane H, Sanal O, Tezcan I, Ersoy F, Futatani T, Miyawaki T (Apr 2002). "Novel Igalpha (CD79a) gene mutation in a ...
... of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chain and light chain genes in B cells forms the genetic basis for the presence ... "Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable, Diversity, and Joining Region Gene Rearrangement". National Cancer Institute Thesaurus. ... June 2004). "Gene switching and the stability of odorant receptor gene choice". Cell. 117 (6): 801-15. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Vettermann C, Schlissel MS (September 2010). "Allelic exclusion of immunoglobulin genes: models and mechanisms". Immunological ...
Transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain containing 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMIGD1 gene. TMIGD1 was ... "Entrez Gene: Transmembrane and immunoglobulin domain containing 1". Retrieved 2017-02-20. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ...
"Association of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the immunoglobulin mu-binding protein 2 gene with immunoglobulin A ... "Entrez Gene: IGHMBP2 immunoglobulin mu binding protein 2". Grohmann K, Schuelke M, Diers A, Hoffmann K, Lucke B, Adams C, ... "Mutations in the gene encoding immunoglobulin mu-binding protein 2 cause spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type ... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHMBP2 gene. Mutations in the IGHMBP2 gene cause distal spinal muscular atrophy ...
Poliovirus receptor related immunoglobulin domain containing is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PVRIG gene. GRCh38: ... "Entrez Gene: Poliovirus receptor related immunoglobulin domain containing". Retrieved 2016-03-15. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
Immunoglobulin-binding protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGBP1 gene. The proliferation and ... "Entrez Gene: IGBP1 immunoglobulin (CD79A) binding protein 1". Chen GI, Tisayakorn S, Jorgensen C, D'Ambrosio LM, Goudreault M, ... and a mutation in the Alpha 4 gene at Xq13". American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 123A (1): 37-44. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a. ... "Expression and chromosomal localization of the human alpha 4/IGBP1 gene, the structure of which is closely related to the yeast ...
Dreyer that immunoglobulin (antibody) chains are encoded by two separate genes (a constant and a variable gene). He (and others ... Molecular biologists were able to produce DNA probes and primers for use in DNA sequencing and mapping, gene cloning, and gene ... Additionally, Hood was among the first to study, at the gene level, the MHC (major histocompatibility complex) gene family and ... "Two mRNAs can be produced from a single immunoglobulin ? gene by alternative RNA processing pathways". Cell. 20 (2): 313-319. ...
After a B cell produces a functional immunoglobulin gene during V(D)J recombination, it cannot express any other variable ... The variable region of each immunoglobulin heavy or light chain is encoded in several pieces-known as gene segments (subgenes ... Combining these genes with an array of genes for other domains of the antibody generates a large cavalry of antibodies with a ... Hozumi N, Tonegawa S (October 1976). "Evidence for somatic rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes coding for variable and ...
V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 2 is a protein in humans that is encoded by the VSIG2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... "Entrez Gene: V-set and immunoglobulin domain containing 2". Retrieved 2013-04-18. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) v t e ...
This gene maps to a region of 19q13.4, termed the leukocyte receptor cluster, which contains 29 genes in the immunoglobulin ... Leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAIR2 gene. The protein ... "Entrez Gene: LAIR2 leukocyte-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor 2". Lebbink RJ, van den Berg MC, de Ruiter T, et al. (2008 ... encoded by this gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. It was identified by its similarity to LAIR1, an inhibitory ...
Immunoglobulin genes. [T Honjo; Frederick W Alt; T H Rabbitts;] -- Immunoglobin Genes is the first comprehensive book on the ... structure, function, and expression of the genes encoding antibodies in normal and neoplastic cells. ... immunoglobulin> # Genes, Immunoglobulin a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Genes, Immunoglobulin"@en ;. . ... Immunoglobulin genes a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Immunoglobulin genes"@en ;. . ...
... and what the results of B-cell immunoglobulin gene rearrangement tests might mean ... Describes how B-cell immunoglobulin gene rearrangement tests are used, when they are ordered, ... B-cell immunoglobulin genes are constantly rearranging themselves to produce unique immunoglobulins. These rearrangements are ... also known as immunoglobulins).The immunoglobulin genes consist of numerous, discontinuous coding segments. As B cells develop ...
IGSF1 immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 [Homo sapiens] IGSF1 immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:3547 ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ... IG_like; Immunoglobulin like. cl11960. Location:1166 → 1252. Ig; Immunoglobulin domain. * NM_001170962.1 → NP_001164433.1 ... IG_like; Immunoglobulin like. cl11960. Location:1152 → 1238. Ig; Immunoglobulin domain. * NM_001170963.1 → NP_001164434.1 ...
immunoglobulin lambda variable 2-23provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:5890 See related. IMGT/GENE-DB:IGLV2-23 Gene ... IGLV2-23 immunoglobulin lambda variable 2-23 [Homo sapiens] IGLV2-23 immunoglobulin lambda variable 2-23 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ... Gene neighbors Overlapping genes and two nearest non-overlapping genes on either side ... IGLV2-23 immunoglobulin lambda variable 2-23 [ Homo sapiens (human) ] Gene ID: 28813, updated on 12-May-2019 ...
Gene View The Gene Browser allows to navigate the human genome and investigate the relationship between PDB entries and genes. ... Number of PDB entities (unique chains) for this gene: 14 View list of all current human gene IDs ... Gene. This track represents the gene-structure on the genome. White boxes represent UTRs (untranslated regions). Orange: ... LILRB1 Gene Structure. Chromosome: chr19 Genbank ID: NM_006669 Orientation: + Length coding sequence : 1950 nucleotides. Region ...
... the controlled gene expression during transcription and translation coupled with the rearrangements of immunoglobulin gene ... Vk gene segments can join with either one of the Jk functional gene segments. The overall rearrangements result in a gene ... During the development of B cells, the immunoglobulin gene undergoes sequences of rearrangements that lead to formation of the ... 1979). "Cloned pairs of variable region genes for immunoglobulin heavy-chains isolated from a clone library of the entire mouse ...
... with V-gene sequences. The pattern of the tumor DNA showed a single component that hybridized with both V-gene and C-gene ... activation of a specific V k gene, and allelic exclusion in immunoglobulin gene loci is discussed. ... Evidence for somatic rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes coding for variable and constant regions. N Hozumi and S Tonegawa ... Immunoglobulin Gene Transcripts Have Distinct VHDJH Recombination Characteristics in Human Epithelial Cancer Cells ...
Chemical compound and disease context of Genes, Immunoglobulin. *METHODS: Transgenic mice with human immunoglobulin genes were ... immunoglobulin gene class switching, and immunoglobulin gene hypermutation [6].. *E2A proteins are required for proper B cell ... Restricted use of fetal VH3 immunoglobulin genes by unselected B cells in the adult. Predominance of 56p1-like VH genes in ... Molecular cloning of a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily homologous to the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor. ...
... gene rearrangement and expression are central to disease resistance and health maintenance in animals. The IG kappa (IGK) locus ... Cohen JB, Givol D (1983) Allelic immunoglobulin VH genes in two mouse strains: possible germline gene recombination. EMBO J 2: ... Immunoglobulin (IG) gene rearrangement and expression are central to disease resistance and health maintenance in animals. The ... Lefranc M-P, Helal AN, De Lange G, Chaabani H, Van Loghem E, Lefranc G (1986) Gene conversion in human immunoglobulin gamma ...
... genes. Recently, considerable progress has been achieved in assembling gene regulatory networks comprised of... ... The hallmark of B-cell development is the ordered recombination of immunoglobulin (Ig) ... Pax5 induces V-to-DJ rearrangements and locus contraction of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene. Genes Dev 2004; 18(4):411-422 ... Impaired immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in mice lacking the IL-7 receptor. Nature 1998; 391(6670):904-907.CrossRefPubMed ...
Immunoglobulin domain, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix. Phylogenomic databases. evolutionary genealogy of genes: Non- ... Gene expression databases. Bgee dataBase for Gene Expression Evolution. More...Bgeei. ENSG00000216588 Expressed in liver and 66 ... based on gene identifiers from Ensembl, EnsemblGenomes and model organism databases.,p>,a href=/help/gene_centric_isoform_ ... Immunoglobulin superfamily member 23Add BLAST. 192. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ...
Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. The variable domains ... Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. In the ... Secreted immunoglobulins mediate the effector phase of humoral immunity, which results in the elimination of bound antigens ( ... trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. ...
Gene Model ID. Feature Type. Coordinates. Select Strains. C57BL/6J MGI_C57BL6J_3705861. gene segment. Chr12:114357759-114358218 ... J:164272 Giudicelli V, et al., IMGT/GENE-DB: a comprehensive database for human and mouse immunoglobulin and T cell receptor ... NCBI Gene Model , MGI Sequence Detail. 300. C57BL/6J. ± kb. polypeptide. A0A0A6YWN3. UniProt , EBI , MGI Sequence Detail. 119. ... GXDs primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. Click on grid cells to view annotations.. *Blue ...
Duplication of an immunoglobulin VH gene(s) results in some haplotypes having identical immunoglobulin VH genes belonging to ... Immunoglobulin class-switching recombination (CSR) occurs in or near the α switch region upstream of the μ gene and any one of ... This marker can be used to examine for any tumor-derived immunoglobulin gene fragments amplified by PCR performed on genomic ... Resolution of the junctional sequences in the rearranged immunoglobulin genes expressed by a tumor can provide a specific tumor ...
Here we demonstrate that SMARD type 1 (SMARD1) results from mutations in the gene encoding immunoglobulin μ-binding protein 2 ( ... Our results show that IGHMBP2 is the second gene found to be defective in spinal muscular atrophy, and indicate that IGHMBP2 ... Grohmann, K., Schuelke, M., Diers, A. et al. Mutations in the gene encoding immunoglobulin μ-binding protein 2 cause spinal ... Mutations in the gene encoding immunoglobulin μ-binding protein 2 cause spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type ...
Arrangement of Immunoglobulin Genes. G. MATTHYSENS. Biochemical Society Transactions Aug 01, 1978, 6 (4) 748; DOI: 10.1042/ ... Arrangement of Immunoglobulin Genes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Biochemical Society ...
Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions. F W ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ...
Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO), MouseCyc ... NCBI Gene Model , MGI Sequence Detail. 49141. C57BL/6J. ± kb. transcript. NM_177152. RefSeq , MGI Sequence Detail. 4050. C57BL/ ... GXDs primary emphasis is on endogenous gene expression during development. Click on grid cells to view annotations.. *Blue ... Mice homozygous for a null allele or severely hypomorphic gene trap allele exhibit fusion of the lateral semicircular canal and ...
Single B cell sorting and cloning of immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy- and light-chain variable regions (V(H) and V(L)) is a powerful ... genes. The utility of these Ig gene expression cassettes was established using synthetic V(H) or V(L) genes from an anti-HIV-1 ... High-throughput isolation of immunoglobulin genes from single human B cells and expression as monoclonal antibodies J Virol ... These Ig gene expression cassettes constitute a highly efficient strategy for rapid expression of Ig genes for high-throughput ...
IMGT® has been built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences, and three- ... IMGT® has been built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences and three- ... IMGT® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH), and ... IMGT® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH), and ...
Genes outside of these major loci are orphons. There are four IG gene types, variable (V), diversity (D) (only for IGH), ... Immunoglobulins: Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies are antigen receptors of the B cells of the adaptive immune response, ... IG are made of two identical heavy (H) chains and two identical light (kappa or lambda) chains, encoded by genes located in ... For further reading, please see: Lefranc M.-P. and Lefranc G. The Immunoglobulin FactsBook, Academic Press, 2001 ...
Developmentally controlled expression of immunoglobulin VH genes RM Perlmutter, JF Kearney, SP Chang, and LE Hood Science 29 ... The results indicated that the V_H repertoire of fetal B-lineage cells is largely restricted to the V_H 7183 gene family and ... A series of early pre-B and B-lymphocyte cell lines were examined to determine whether an ordered rearrangement of gene ... Developmentally Controlled Expression of Immunoglobulin V_H genes. Science, 227 (4694). pp. 1597-1601. ISSN 0036-8075. http:// ...
P. M. Donisi, N. Di Lorenzo, M. Riccardi et al., "Pattern and distribution of immunoglobulin VH gene usage in a cohort of B-CLL ... Interestingly, within IGHV5 family, IGHV5-51 genes appeared to be mostly unmutated (. ). Figure 1 shows IGHV gene segment usage ... Mutation Status and Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangements in Patients from Northwest and Central Region of Spain with Chronic ... M. Hojjat-Farsangi, M. Jeddi-Tehrani, S. M. Razavi et al., "Immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene usage and ...
HCV Proteins and Immunoglobulin Variable Gene (IgV) Subfamilies in HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: A Concurrent ... gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently ... is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin ...
Gene Conversion DT40 Cell Line Fluorescence Activate Cell Sorter Sort DT40 Mutant Immunoglobulin Gene Conversion These keywords ... Buerstedde JM., Arakawa H. (2006) Immunoglobulin gene conversion or hypermutation: thats the question. In: Buerstedde JM., ...
immunoglobulin kappa variable 1-12. IGKV112, L19. 2p11.2. IGKV1-13 immunoglobulin kappa variable 1-13 (gene/pseudogene). 2p11.2 ... immunoglobulin kappa variable 1-37 (non-functional). IGKV137, O14. 2p11.2. IGKV1-39 immunoglobulin kappa variable 1-39 (gene/ ... genes and one IGKC (constant) gene. Most individuals have two clusters of the IGKV genes resulting from a duplication. The ... immunoglobulin kappa variable 1D-37 (non-functional). IGKV1D37, O4. 2p11.2. IGKV1D-39 immunoglobulin kappa variable 1D-39. ...
Hamblin, T.J., Orchard, J.A., Gardiner, A., Oscier, D.G., Davis, Z. and Stevenson, F. K. (2000) Immunoglobulin V genes and CD38 ... Immunoglobulin V genes and CD38 expression in CLL. Immunoglobulin V genes and CD38 expression in CLL ...
Some aspects of the work of our group on the human and mouse immunoglobulin κ genes are reviewed. The human κ locus contains a ... Zachau, Hans G. (2000): The immunoglobulin κ gene families of human and mouse: a cottage industry approach. In: Biological ... in addition to the V κ genes within the loci numerous V κ orphons were localized on different chromosomes. Comparing the κ loci ... V κ genes. The chimpanzee has only the C κ -proximal copy of the locus. The κ locus of the mouse is close to 3.2 Mb in size, of ...
... was used to screen a BALB/c mouse gene library, 25% of the recombinant phage hybridized with it. In situ hybridization ... When a cloned 6 kb Eco RI-Sal I fragement of mouse ribosomal gene nontranscribed spacer DNA (rDNA NTS) ... Mouse rDNA nontranscribed spacer sequences are found flanking immunoglobulin CH genes and elsewhere throughout the genome Cell ... Subsequently, sequences homologous to mouse rDNA NTS were found flanking mouse mu, alpha and gamma 2b immunoglobulin CH genes. ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in somatic recombination of immunoglobulin genes involved in immune response pathways, ... Antibodies for proteins involved in somatic recombination of immunoglobulin genes involved in immune response pathways; ... according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification ... by Gene Ontology › *somatic recombination of immunoglobulin ...
  • The porcine IGK variable locus is 27.9 kb upstream of five IG kappa J genes (IGKJ) which are separated from a single constant gene (IGKC) by 2.8 kb. (springer.com)
  • In addition, many IGKV2 CDR1 are shared between genes but not between alleles, suggesting extensive diversification of this locus through gene conversion. (springer.com)
  • The relationship of variable heavy chain gene usage and the genomic organization of the variable heavy chain locus. (springer.com)
  • Pax5 induces V-to-DJ rearrangements and locus contraction of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene. (springer.com)
  • Each V H gene locus is labeled on the right of each symbol. (asmscience.org)
  • IG are made of two identical heavy (H) chains and two identical light (kappa or lambda) chains, encoded by genes located in three major loci: the IG heavy (IGH) locus at 14q32.33, IG kappa (IGK) locus at 2p11.2 and IG lambda (IGL) locus at 22q11.2. (genenames.org)
  • The human IGK locus is at 2p11.2 and contains IGKV (variable) genes, IGKJ (joining) genes and one IGKC (constant) gene. (genenames.org)
  • The human κ locus contains a large duplication: a 600 kb C κ-proximal copy with 40 V κ genes is found in the close vicinity of a 440 kb C κ-distal copy with 36 very similar, but not identical, V κ genes. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Although these transcription factors play a role in the deregulated bcl-2 expression in t(14;18) lymphoma cells, it is likely that regulatory regions of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus influence bcl-2 expression as well. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nuclear extracts from pre-B and B cell lines contain a nuclear DNA binding protein (kappa locus protein, KLP) that specifically recognizes a DNA sequence in the immunoglobulin kappa light chain joining (J) segment gene region. (caltech.edu)
  • Definition of Immunoglobulin Heavy Locus This region represents the germline organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. (netdoc.com)
  • An 80,000 base-pair region from the gene locus encoding the variable regions of the human immunoglobulins of the kappa type (V kappa genes) was cloned and analysed. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Posttranslational activation of the NF-κB protein suggests this factor may become available to activate the κ gene locus on physiological signaling of the pre-B cell. (elsevier.com)
  • the true phylogenetic relationship between the genes are not known because of the complex concerted evolution of the Ig multigene locus. (elsevier.com)
  • We are studying different HUG strains to see if transgenic antibodies will be expressed at different levels, depending on the copy number and locus of the HUG gene in the murine genome. (oxy.edu)
  • Variegated transcriptional activation of the immunoglobulin kappa locus in pre-b cells contributes to the allelic exclusion of light-chain expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The locus also includes several non-immunoglobulin genes, many of which are pseudogenes or are predicted by automated computational analysis or homology to other species. (genecards.org)
  • IGL (Immunoglobulin Lambda Locus) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Framework genes, which are found at the ends and near the middle of the locus on nearly all haplotypes [ 11 ] are shaded grey. (biomedcentral.com)
  • group B haplotypes (unshaded), comprising at least one motif of type cB01, cB02 or tB01, have variable gene content between framework genes and more than one activating KIR locus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KIR2DL5 was the first KIR gene that was widely recognized as segregating to more than one locus [ 14 , 15 ] and is common in most human populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunoglobin Genes is the first comprehensive book on the structure, function, and expression of the genes encoding antibodies in normal and neoplastic cells. (worldcat.org)
  • The immunoglobin gene complex is responsible for generating an extraordinary wide range of antibodies, each possessing a unique antigen specificity. (worldcat.org)
  • Immunoglobulins, also known as antibodies, are membrane-bound or secreted glycoproteins produced by B lymphocytes. (uniprot.org)
  • IMGT ® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH), and proteins of the IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. (frontiersin.org)
  • The specific antigen receptors comprise the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies of the B cells and plasmocytes ( 2 ) (Figure 1 ), and the T cell receptors (TR) ( 3 ) (Figure 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies are antigen receptors of the B cells of the adaptive immune response, acquired by jawed vertebrates (or gnathostomata) more than 450 million years ago and found in all extant jawed vertebrate species from fishes to humans. (genenames.org)
  • Insertions and deletions of entire codons have recently been discovered as a mechanism by which B cells, in addition to conventional base substitution, evolve the antibodies produced by their immunoglobulin genes. (lu.se)
  • Unique rearrangements in B cells of the V, D, and J segments of this gene produces unique antibodies, but clonal expansion of leukemic B cells results in overrepresentation of a specific rearrangement in the blood. (fredhutch.org)
  • Germline variable region gene segment derivation of human monoclonal anti-Rh(D) antibodies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antibodies produced by B cells are highly specific for antigen as a result of random gene recombination and somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. (meta.org)
  • Clonal expansion of B lymphocytes coupled with somatic mutation and antigen selection allow the mammalian humoral immune system to generate highly specific immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies against invading bacteria, viruses and toxins. (neueve.com)
  • Abstract Human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors are expressed in natural killer cells and subsets of T lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • Recognition of immunoglobulins by Fcgamma receptors. (nih.gov)
  • In the recognition phase of humoral immunity, the membrane-bound immunoglobulins serve as receptors which, upon binding of a specific antigen, trigger the clonal expansion and differentiation of B lymphocytes into immunoglobulins-secreting plasma cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Among the NK cell (and other effector cell) receptors, the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are by far the most polymorphic. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are expressed in a clonally restricted manner by human natural killer (NK) cells and allow detection of aberrant cells with low major histocompatibility complex class I levels. (ebscohost.com)
  • Increasing evidence supports the prognostic relevance of specific immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGHV) genes or stereotyped B-cell receptors (BCR) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors(KIR) interact with Human Leukocyte Antigen(HLA) to modify natural killer- and T-cell function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Concordantly, variation in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) loci, the two most polymorphic regions of the human genome that encode receptors involved in NK and CD8+ T-cell function, is associated with rates of HIV disease progression across several studies [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Their function is governed, at least in part, by the combinatorial array of inhibitory and activating receptors including the KIR, Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR), the C-type lectin receptors-NKG2A-F, and the natural cytotoxic receptors (NCRs) -NKp30, NKp44 and NKp46. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Group A haplotypes consist of nine genes that encode predominantly inhibitory receptors, whereas group B haplotypes represent a more diverse collection of haplotypes based on gene content and contain more activating KIRs compared with haplotype A. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) are essential immuno-surveillance molecules. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based on genomic, cDNA, expression and phylogenetic data, we report a novel lineage of immunoglobulin receptors belonging to the KIR family, which is highly conserved throughout 50 million years of primate evolution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Included in the su- perfamily are the immunoglobulins (q.v.) with up to 12 domains per molecule, the T cell receptors (q.v.), and the MHC receptors (q.v.), each with two do- mains per molecule, and the CD4 and CD8 recep- tors (q.v.) with four domains and a single domain, respectively. (damasgate.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and mutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy variable chain (IGHV) in a cohort of 224 patients from northwest and central region of Spain diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and to correlate it with cytogenetic abnormalities, overall survival (OS) and time to first treatment (TTFT). (hindawi.com)
  • These include immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) mutation status, expression of specific proteins on CLL cells such as CD38 and intracellular zeta-associated protein-70 (ZAP-70), and some cytogenetic abnormalities [ 5 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to better understand the process of codon deletion, we have analyzed the human immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) germline gene repertoire for the presence of trinucleotide repeats. (lu.se)
  • We demonstrate here that IGHV genes specifically carry repetitive trinucleotide motifs in the complementarity-determining regions (CDR) 1 and 2, thus making these parts of the genes that encode highly flexible structures particularly prone to functional deletions. (lu.se)
  • The structure of the BCR is different in CLL clones carrying mutated versus unmutated IGHV genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Ieext generation sequencing studies in Homo sapiens have identified novel immunoglobulin heavy variable (IGHV) genes and alleles necessitating changes in the international ImMunoGeneTics information system (IMGT) GENE-DB and reference directories of IMGT/V-QUEST. (diva-portal.org)
  • In chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), the somatic hypermutation (SHM) status of the clonotypic rearranged IGHV gene is strongly associated with patient outcome. (diva-portal.org)
  • Correct determination of this parameter strictly depends on the comparison of the nucleotide sequence of the clonotypic rearranged IGHV gene with that of the closest germline counterpart. (diva-portal.org)
  • To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted high-throughput sequencing of IGH gene rearrangements to document IGH variable (IGHV), joining (IGHJ) and diversity (IGHD) genes in four inbred wild-derived mouse strains (CAST/EiJ, LEWES/EiJ, MSM/MsJ and PWD/PhJ) and a single disease model strain (NOD/ShiLtJ), collectively representing genetic backgrounds of several major mouse subspecies. (garvan.org.au)
  • By contrast, 83/84 inferred NOD IGHV genes had previously been observed in C57BL/6 mice. (garvan.org.au)
  • Very few IGHV sequences of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were shared with strains representing major subspecies, suggesting that their IGH loci may be complex mosaics of genes of disparate origins. (garvan.org.au)
  • One of the most interesting features discovered during this search is the fact that the leukemia cells express immunoglobulin (IG) that may or may not have incurred somatic hypermutations of the IG heavy variable (IGHV) genes. (springerhealthcare.it)
  • The outcome of CLL patients with leukemia cells using an unmutated IGHV gene is inferior to those patients with leukemia cells that carry a mutated one. (springerhealthcare.it)
  • The book results from a very fruitful cooperation of an international group of researchers that has worked together during recent years within the European Research Initiative on CLL (ERIC), also with the aim of standardizing the methodology for a reliable and reproducible assessment of the mutational status of IGHV genes in CLL. (springerhealthcare.it)
  • The program processes sequences that have been partitioned using iHMMune-align, and uses pairwise comparisons of CDR3 sequences and similarity in IGHV and IGHJ germline gene assignments to construct a distance matrix. (neueve.com)
  • Relevance of these findings with respect to models for V-C gene joining, activation of a specific V k gene, and allelic exclusion in immunoglobulin gene loci is discussed. (pnas.org)
  • Recombination of antigen-receptor loci is regulated both by the developmentally controlled expression of the Rag1 and Rag2 genes and the accessibility of particular loci and their gene segments to recombination. (springer.com)
  • Subnuclear compartmentalization of immunoglobulin loci during lymphocyte development. (springer.com)
  • Duplication of an immunoglobulin V H gene(s) results in some haplotypes' having identical immunoglobulin V H genes belonging to distinct loci, each possibly differing from their respective alleles by one or more nucleotide base substitutions. (asmscience.org)
  • Black squares represent V H gene loci that are known to be functional. (asmscience.org)
  • The white boxes denote loci that apparently are functional V H genes but that rarely, if at all, are expressed into protein. (asmscience.org)
  • Genes outside of these major loci are orphons. (genenames.org)
  • In parallel to the elucidation of the structure of the κ loci, the mechanisms of the V-J rearrangement, somatic hypermutation and κ gene expression were studied. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • in addition to the V κ genes within the loci numerous V κ orphons were localized on different chromosomes. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We show that this species has three loci encoding IgL kappa-like chains with a translocon-type gene organization and a single VJC cluster, encoding homogeneous lambda-like light chain. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mammalian B-cell lymphoid malignancies frequently display aberrant translocations involving the c-myc proto-oncogene and one of the immunoglobulin loci. (asm.org)
  • We recently posited that genetic diversity in the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene loci of C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice reflects differences in subspecies origin. (garvan.org.au)
  • By contrast, unexpected variation was found in the IGHD gene loci, with four previously unreported IGHD gene sequences being documented. (garvan.org.au)
  • All individuals were typed positive for the four framework loci KIR3DL3, 2DL4, 3DL2 and KIR3DP1, while activating genes (KIR2DS1, 2DS2, 2DS3, 2DS5 and KIR3DS1) indicated some variation in this population. (elsevier.com)
  • We investigated the organization of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) and the T cell receptor beta chain (Tβ) gene loci in 20 ocular adnexal and four extraocular lymphoid neoplasms obtained from 18 patients presenting with an ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasm. (elsevier.com)
  • Antibody (or immunoglobulin) structure is made up of two heavy-chains and two light-chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The kappa and lambda light chains undergo rearrangements of the V and J gene segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, The rearrangements of heavy-chains are different from the light chains because DNA undergoes rearrangements of V-D-J gene segments in the heavy chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA fragments carrying gene sequences coding for the variable or constant region of k chains were detected by hybridization with purified, 125I-labeled, whole MOPC 321 K MRNA and with its 3'-end half. (pnas.org)
  • Constant region of immunoglobulin heavy chains. (uniprot.org)
  • A series of early pre-B and B-lymphocyte cell lines were examined to determine whether an ordered rearrangement of gene families of the variable region of immunoglobulin heavy chains (V_H) may be the basis for the programmed development of the antibody response. (caltech.edu)
  • The amount of presumptive immunoglobulin mRNA bound indicated that spleen cells contain about 6 to 14 × 10 3 sequences per haploid genome for immunoglobulins of the size of the variable region of immunoglobulin polypeptide chains. (jimmunol.org)
  • A typical immunoglobulin (antibody, Ig) in jawed vertebrates is composed of two identical heavy chains (IGH) and two identical light chains (IGL) and provides defense against all extracellular and some intracellular pathogens ( Klein and Hořejší 1997 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, immunoglobulin possessing disulfide-bonded heavy and light chains and domain-type organization has been described only in representatives of the jawed vertebrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Of the options given above, the only genes that are present on one chromosome are for the C (constant) regions of the heavy chains. (usmle-forums.com)
  • The majority of the antigen binding site in the initial IgM repertoire is actually germline encoded because CDRs 1 and 2 of the H and L chains are entirely contained within the V gene segments and are thus unaffected by VDJ recombination. (jscimedcentral.com)
  • Despite the already acknowledged evidence for a selectable distribution of mutations within the clonal immunoglobulin variable heavy chain genes, very little is known about the contribution of light chains in the process of antigen selection. (ovid.com)
  • Within each immunoglobulin molecule, the two L chains are identical and the two H chains are identical. (damasgate.com)
  • immunoglobulin chains the components of the heteropolymeric immunoglobulin molecules. (damasgate.com)
  • There are five groups of heavy chains, each characteristic of a specific class of immunoglobulin: gamma (IgG), mu (IgM), epsilon (IgE), alpha (IgA), and delta (IgD). (damasgate.com)
  • The genes encoding all the heavy immuno- globulin chains are located on human chromosome 14. (damasgate.com)
  • There are two groups of light chains: kappa chains, encoded by gene segments on human chromosome 2, and lambda chains, encoded by gene segments on chro- mosome 22. (damasgate.com)
  • immunoglobulin genes genes encoding the light and heavy chains of the immunoglobulins. (damasgate.com)
  • Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. (genecards.org)
  • This test detects characteristic changes (rearrangements) in specific genes in B-cells. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Rearrangements in certain parts of their DNA called immunoglobulin genes are a normal part of their development. (labtestsonline.org)
  • That is, the controlled gene expression during transcription and translation coupled with the rearrangements of immunoglobulin gene segments result in the generation of antibody repertoire during development and maturation of B cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the development of B cells, the immunoglobulin gene undergoes sequences of rearrangements that lead to formation of the antibody repertoire. (wikipedia.org)
  • Random rearrangements and recombinations of the gene segments at DNA level to form one kappa or lambda light chain occurs in an orderly fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall rearrangements result in a gene segment order from 5 prime to 3 prime end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Geier JK, Schlissel MS. Pre-BCR signals and the control of Ig gene rearrangements. (springer.com)
  • Extracted DNA is analyzed for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements by a polymerase chain reaction method using V primers derived from framework 1, framework 2 and framework 3 regions in combination with a mixture of fluorescently labeled J primers. (mdanderson.org)
  • Aims: We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of routine use of PCR amplification of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements in bone marrow (BM) staging in patients with follicular lymphoma (FL). (uib.no)
  • Methods: Clonal rearrangements were assessed by immunoglobulin heavy and light-chain gene rearrangement analysis in BM aspirates from 96 patients diagnosed with FL and related to morphological detection of BM involvement in biopsies. (uib.no)
  • The position of KLP-DNA binding and its tissue-specific expression suggest that it may be involved in the regulation of lymphoid gene DNA rearrangements by targeting recombinase to the kappa-chain gene region. (caltech.edu)
  • Five IGKV and five IGLV genes accounted for the majority of in-frame, transcribed IGKV-J or IGLV-J rearrangements. (haematologica.org)
  • Examples : Integration of bacteriophage DNA into host bacterial chromosome Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor genes DNA rearrangements via Transposition involves the movement of sequences throughout the genome and has no requirement for sequence homology. (coursehero.com)
  • We report the occurrence of T cell receptor (TCR) beta and/or gamma gene rearrangements in two precursor B-ALL patients who had normally rearranged Ig genes. (cnrs.fr)
  • Such an oligoclonal ALL is interesting since only rare biclonal TCR beta or gamma gene rearrangements have been described. (cnrs.fr)
  • T-Cell Receptor and Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangements in Diagnosing Skin Disease. (jamanetwork.com)
  • Each one of these 19 lymphoid neoplasms exhibited clonal IgH gene rearrangements upon hybridization of EcoRI- or HindIII-digested DNA to a heavy-chain joining region (J(H))-specific DNA probe. (elsevier.com)
  • The bilateral ocular adnexal monoclonal B cell neoplasms occurring simultaneously in two individuals exhibited identical clonal IgH gene rearrangements, which indicated their derivation from an identical B cell clone. (elsevier.com)
  • The ocular adnexal and the extraocular monoclonal B cell neoplasms occurring in two of three patients also exhibited identical clonal IgH gene rearrangements, which suggested that they too were derived from an identical B cell clone. (elsevier.com)
  • Three of these five ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasm exhibited clonal IgH gene rearrangements, which suggested the presence of monoclonal B cell populations that escaped detection by morphological and immunophenotypic examination. (elsevier.com)
  • None of the 24 pathological samples exhibited clonal Tβ gene rearrangements upon hybridization of EcoRI- or BamHI-digested DNA to a Tβ gene DNA probe. (elsevier.com)
  • The results of these studies demonstrate the value of Southern blot hybridization analysis for clonal IgH and Tβ gene rearrangements in the diagnosis, classification, and investigation of extranodal lymphoid neoplasms originating and/or presenting in the ocular adnexa. (elsevier.com)
  • A plant homeodomain in RAG-2 that binds Hypermethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 is necessary for efficient antigen-receptor-gene rearrangement. (springer.com)
  • Thus, each immunoglobulin has two antigen binding sites with remarkable affinity for a particular antigen. (uniprot.org)
  • Resolution of immunoglobulin structure has revealed how Immunoglobulin molecules can have such great diversity in antigen-binding activities while maintaining conserved effector functions, such as complement activation. (asmscience.org)
  • In addition to EBV, several host susceptibility factors have been shown to be associated with NPC development, including polymorphisms in human leukocyte antigen ( HLA ) genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The under-representation of the IGHV4-34 gene provides an explanation for the paucity of autoimmune phenomena in MM. Somatic mutation patterns indicate the complementary role of MM IGH/IGK/IGL sequences in antigen recognition. (haematologica.org)
  • At first glance, immunoglobulin (Ig), the B cell receptor for antigen (BCR), appears to be an exception to the rule of natural selection because its ligand (antigen) binding site is designed to vary in sequence and structure. (jscimedcentral.com)
  • Under the selective pressure of antigen, mutational events in immunoglobulin genes will fine tune survival of B-cell clones bearing immunoglobulin with high affinity for antigen. (ovid.com)
  • In myeloma, hypermutation of variable light chain genes, with a distribution suggestive of antigen selection, was frequently observed. (ovid.com)
  • Additionally, abortive κ light chain variable region genes in λ-expressing myelomas carried a significant number of somatic mutations indicating that the cell of origin is open to the hyper-mutation machinery at that particular developmental stage irrespective of antigen selection. (ovid.com)
  • Analysis of somatic mutations in the variable (V) region of the Ig heavy (H)-chain gene segment suggests that EMZL development in other locations is dependent on antigen stimulation. (arvojournals.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the presence of somatic hypermutations in clonally rearranged Ig H-chain V genes of this lymphoma entity in the ocular adnexa and to estimate whether the mutation pattern is compatible with antigen selection. (arvojournals.org)
  • In Aim 3, we will search in gnotobiotic CD4-/- mice for GALT-like B cells that proliferate in an antigen and T-cell independent manner and undergo somatic diversification of the Ig genes. (grantome.com)
  • The accumulation of mutations during clonal expansion improves antigen binding affinity and results in the formation of clonally-related immunoglobulin gene sets, each derived from a single germline rearrangement. (neueve.com)
  • A biased immunoglobulin gene repertoire is seen as evidence for selection of CLL progenitor cells by antigen. (mjhid.org)
  • The primary structure of a monoclonal human lambda-type immunoglobulin L-chain of subgroup II (Bence-Jones protein NEI). (nih.gov)
  • First nucleotide sequence of a human immunoglobulin variable lambda gene belonging to subgroup II. (nih.gov)
  • In mammals, IGL genes generally exist in two distinct isotypes called kappa (κ) and lambda (λ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • By using the S. sanguis iga gene as hybridization probe, the corresponding gene from a clinical isolate of S. pneumoniae was isolated in an Escherichia coli lambda phage library. (asm.org)
  • Choice D: The V gene for the lambda light chain gene is on chromosome 22. (usmle-forums.com)
  • The lambda gene also contains about 300 L-V segments, but each of the six J segments has its own adjacent C segment. (damasgate.com)
  • As a result, "a functional variable region gene of a light chain contains two coding segments that are separated by a non-coding DNA sequence in unrearranged germ-line DNA" (Barbara et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • These reorganizations of gene segments produce gene sequence from 5 prime to 3 prime ends such as a short leader exon, an intron, a joined VDJ segment, a second intron and several gene segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ekman A, Niku M, Liljavirta J, Iivanainen A (2009) Bos taurus genome sequence reveals the assortment of immunoglobulin and surrogate light chain genes in domestic cattle. (springer.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • it is suggested that this added sequence is a product of the activity of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase at the D/JH (and probably the VH/D) joints and that it represents a new element of heavy chain gene structure, the N region. (pnas.org)
  • With the breadth of limited knowledge regarding avian IGL genes and their genomic organization, the recently available draft genomic sequence of zebra finch ( Taeniopygia guttata ) provides an opportunity to study the IGL genes in another avian model species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These events frequently seem to involve repetitive sequence motifs in the antibody-encoding genes, and it has been suggested that they occur through polymerase slippage. (lu.se)
  • The 3' boundary was approximately 1 kb from the V(D)J gene and was not associated with a DNA sequence motif. (rupress.org)
  • Eleven distinct VH gene families and additional patterns of sequence variation suggest a high degree of immunoglobulin gene complexity in a lower vertebrate, Xenopus laevis. (rupress.org)
  • The complete sequence of the S. pneumoniae iga gene was determined. (asm.org)
  • A serum heterodimer from hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) exhibits structural similarity and partial sequence identity with immunoglobulin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence determination, VH-DJH junctions formed upon rearrangement of the substrate were found to resemble closely similar junctions in functional H chain genes. (rupress.org)
  • The constant region of each heavy chain makes up about three-fourths of the molecule, and the gene segments encoding the constant regions are ar- ranged in the sequence mu, delta, gamma, epsilon, and alpha in both humans and mice. (damasgate.com)
  • In the kappa gene, there are six J segments, each with a different base sequence, and one C seg- ment. (damasgate.com)
  • The protein shows sequence similarity to the variable regions of some immunoglobulin supergene family member proteins. (wikiversity.org)
  • The identification of groups of rearranged immunoglobulin gene sequences descended from the same rearrangement (clonally-related sets) in very large sets of sequences is facilitated by the availability of immunoglobulin gene sequence alignment and partitioning software that can accurately predict component germline gene, but has required painstaking visual inspection and analysis of sequences. (neueve.com)
  • We have developed and implemented an algorithm for identifying sets of clonally-related sequences in large human immunoglobulin heavy chain gene variable region sequence sets. (neueve.com)
  • 1 In this manuscript, the authors describe the observation that immunoglobulin variable (V) region heavy and light chain transcripts from anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) IgG-expressing B cells in patients with rheumatic arthritis (RA) contain N-glycosylation sites (Nglycs) acquired by somatic hypermutation, whereas these acquired Nglycs (ac-Nglycs) were absent in tetanus toxoid (TT) specific B cells of healthy individuals. (bmj.com)
  • The human immunoglobulin repertoire is a hugely diverse set of sequences that are formed by processes of gene rearrangement, heavy and light chain gene assortment, class switching and somatic hypermutation. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Additional diversity is introduced by N nucleotide addition (the process of adding non-germline-encoded nucleotides at the time of gene rearrangement) and, during clonal selection, by the introduction of point mutations through the process of somatic hypermutation. (neueve.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the immunoglobulin-like domain-containing superfamily. (nih.gov)
  • Usually, patients with deletion of chromosome 13q14 as a single alteration have a better outcome, although a high number of losses in 13q14 or large deletions including RB1 gene could be associated with a worse outcome [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The structure of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region (IGHC), on chromosome 14q32, comprises nine CH genes and two pseudogenes, all originating from multiple duplication events. (springer.com)
  • Which of the following genes involved in the synthesis of immunoglobulins are linked on a single chromosome? (usmle-forums.com)
  • The correct answer is A. The genes for the synthesis of the entire heavy chain are present on human chromosome 14. (usmle-forums.com)
  • Choice B: The C gene for the gamma heavy chain is on chromosome 14 and the C gene for the kappa light chain gene is on chromosome 2. (usmle-forums.com)
  • The C gene for the epsilon heavy chain is on chromosome 14. (usmle-forums.com)
  • The C gene for the kappa light chain gene is on chromosome 2. (usmle-forums.com)
  • One reason why KIR3DL0 may have escaped discovery for so long is that, in human, it maps in between two related leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor clusters outside the known KIR gene cluster on Chromosome 19. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The diagram shows the genomic context on chromosome 19, location: 19q13.4, of the gene A1BG as of May 2010. (wikiversity.org)
  • Proteins in this superfamily contain varying numbers of immunoglobulin-like domains and are thought to participate in the regulation of interactions between cells. (nih.gov)
  • The rearrangement and organization of these gene segments during the maturation of B cells produce functional proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 150 kDa oxygen-regulated protein (ORP150) is one of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident stress proteins we have cloned and sequenced the entire human ORP150 gene covering over 15-kb. (ebscohost.com)
  • Immunoglobulin (IG or antibody) and the T-cell receptor (TR) are pivotal proteins in the immune system of higher organisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genes that encode these proteins are assumed to have evolved from a common ances- tral gene over a period of hundreds of millions of years. (damasgate.com)
  • immunoglobulin domain superfamily a group of glycoproteins that are embedded in the surface of the membranes of certain cells and which have one or more immunoglobulin domains. (damasgate.com)
  • The Gene Browser allows to navigate the human genome and investigate the relationship between PDB entries and genes. (rcsb.org)
  • This track represents the gene-structure on the genome. (rcsb.org)
  • A large number of individual V gene segments are encoded within the genome. (europeanmedical.info)
  • Transcription factor Pax5 (BSAP) transactivates the RAG-mediated V(H)-to-DJ(H) rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes. (springer.com)
  • Phylogenetic diversification of immunoglobulin genes and the antibody repertoire. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A chromosomal segment with a unique structure around the immunoglobulin heavy chain joining region (JH) has been molecularly cloned from an Abelson murine leukemia virus-transformed cell line. (pnas.org)
  • To investigate why somatic mutations are spatially restricted to a region around the rearranged V(D)J immunoglobulin gene, we compared the distribution of mutations flanking murine V gene segments that had rearranged next to either proximal or distal J gene segments. (rupress.org)
  • The high frequency of mutations in the 3' flanking region and the uniqueness of each mutation argues against templated gene conversion as a mechanism for generating somatic diversity in murine V(D)J genes. (rupress.org)
  • This database is designed as a platform to explore public human and murine IG/TR genes sequenced in cancer studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Two distinct immunoglobulin heavy chain isotypes in a primitive, cartilaginous fish, Raja erinacea. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 2007). Heavy chain contains similar gene segments such as VH, JH and CH, but also has another gene segment called D (diversity). (wikipedia.org)
  • For the first time, immunoglobulin (IG) or antibody and T cell receptor (TR) variable (V), diversity (D), joining (J), and constant (C) genes were officially recognized as "genes" as well as the conventional genes ( 2 - 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • There are four IG gene types, variable (V), diversity (D) (only for IGH), joining (J) and constant (C) genes which contribute to the IG chain synthesis. (genenames.org)
  • Although antibody diversity arises mainly from apparently random combinatorial and somatic mutational mechanisms acting upon a limited number of germline antibody genes, the antibody repertoire develops in an ordered fashion during mammalian ontogeny. (caltech.edu)
  • The presence of a single functional variable region gene followed by multiple variable pseudogenes in zebra finch suggest that this species may be generating antibody diversity by a gene conversion-like mechanism like the chicken. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The aim of this study was to fill important gaps in the evolutionary history of immunoglobulins by examining the structure and diversity of IgL genes in non-teleost ray-finned fish. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, variations in complementarity determining region sequences among members of the same gene family and high degrees of DH and JH region complexity are described, suggesting that in at least this lower vertebrate species, the diversity of expressed Ig VH genes is not restricted. (rupress.org)
  • Diversity in KIR gene content, polymorphism and structural variation within the 14 KIR genes, and variation in expression confer additional variation in the ability of NK cells to identify and respond to virus-infected cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First in inverse order of importance, the rearrangement of the variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) gene segments permits VDJ rearrangement to create a ten to twenty-fold increase in combinatorial V domain diversity in the heavy chain. (jscimedcentral.com)
  • Contribution of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region genes to antibody diversity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Both haplotype structural variations [ 6 ] and KIR gene copy number variations (CNVs) [ 7 , 8 ] contribute to the diversity of the KIR system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • IMGT/GENE-DB: a comprehensive database for human and mouse immunoglobulin and T cell receptor genes. (jax.org)
  • Using high-resolution genotyping, we evaluated the variation of HLA class I alleles and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) alleles. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Publications] Kanari Yosuyoshi: 'Vaviable gene segment-specitic N-insertions at the signal joint of F cell receptor Vβ-Dβ reconbinations' Immunology Letters. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kanari, Y., Nakagawa, R., Arakawa, H.and Yamagishi, H.: 'Variable gene segment-specitic N-insertions at the signal joint of F cell receptor Ubeta-Dbeta recombinations. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kanari Yasuyoshi: 'Variable gene Sagment-specific N-insertims at the signal joint of T cell receptor VB-DB recombinations' Immunology Letters. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Immunoglobulin genes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: is the B cell receptor the key to understanding pathogenesis and progression? (springerhealthcare.it)
  • Knowles, D. M. / Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor β chain gene rearrangement analysis of ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasms : Clinical and biologic implications . (elsevier.com)
  • The Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) gene complex has considerable biomedical importance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The final rearrangement of the light chain gene generates immature B cell and mIgM. (wikipedia.org)
  • The light chain gene has three gene segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Novel linear Ig heavy- and light-chain gene expression cassettes were designed to express Ig V(H) and V(L) genes isolated from sorted single B cells as IgG1 antibody without a cloning step. (nih.gov)
  • There are about 300 L-V segments per light chain gene, and each of the V segments has a different base se- quence. (damasgate.com)
  • Immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene rearrangement happens during the early differentiation of the B cell precursors. (neueve.com)
  • The most striking allelic differences are present in IGKV2 genes, which contain as many as 16 amino acid changes between alleles, the majority of which are in complementarity determining region (CDR) 1. (springer.com)
  • Nonequivalent nuclear location of immunoglobulin alleles in B-lymphocytes. (springer.com)
  • Blue squares indicate phenotypes directly attributed to mutations/alleles of this gene. (jax.org)
  • Gemin3: a novel DEAD box protein that interacts with SMN, the spinal muscular atrophy gene product, and is a component of gems. (nature.com)
  • In addition, sterlet possesses sigma-like VL and J-CL genes, which are transcribed separately and both encode protein products with cleavable leader peptides. (frontiersin.org)
  • Immunoglobulin C1-set domain containing protein. (h-invitational.jp)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a decapping enzyme. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a plasma glycoprotein of unknown function. (wikiversity.org)
  • The HUG gene is a chimeric gene leading to the synthesis of a protein antibody of the gamma (g) isotype consisting of a mouse variable region and a human g1 constant region. (oxy.edu)
  • 1) p53 gene mutation was detected by PCR-SSCP in 2 of 10 brain lymphomas. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 1) RT-PCR analysis showed V4-34 gene usage in 3 of 6 brain lymphomas. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Endo, S.: 'Analysis of immunoglobulin gene in the brain lymphomas. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Immunoglobulin VH gene expression among extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the ocular adnexa. (arvojournals.org)
  • The results were interpreted to mean that the Vk and Ck genes, which are some distance away from each other in the embryo cells, are joined to form a contiguous polynucleotide stretch during differentiation of lymphocytes. (pnas.org)
  • Selective expression of a VHIV subfamily of immunoglobulin genes in human CD5+ B lymphocytes from cord blood. (rupress.org)
  • However, this type of organization may limit the number of factors lymphocytes would require if each lymphoid- specific gene were activated by a unique factor. (elsevier.com)
  • These genes are remarkable in that they are made up of segments that are shuffled as the B lymphocytes ma- ture. (damasgate.com)
  • 124 nucleotide substitutions, nine deletions, and two insertions were identified in 32,481 bp of DNA flanking the coding regions from 17 heavy and kappa light chain genes. (rupress.org)
  • The phenotypic similarities include a shift from HR-mediated diversification to single-nucleotide substitutions in the immunoglobulin variable gene segment and the partial reversion of this shift by overexpression of Rad51. (asm.org)
  • Nucleotide sequences of immunoglobulin epsilon genes of chimpa. (mysciencework.com)
  • Nucleotide sequences of immunoglobulin epsilon genes of chimpanzee and orangutan: DNA molecular clock and hominoid evolution. (mysciencework.com)
  • To determine the phylogenetic relationships among hominoids and the dates of their divergence, the complete nucleotide sequences of the constant region of the immunoglobulin epsilon-chain (C epsilon 1) genes from chimpanzee and orangutan have been determined. (mysciencework.com)
  • From the comparison of nucleotide sequences of alpha1-antitrypsin and beta- and delta-globin genes between humans and Old World monkeys, the silent molecular clock was calibrated: the mean evolutionary rate of silent substitution was determined to be 1.56 X 10(-9) substitutions per site per year. (mysciencework.com)
  • 140 V κ genes and pseudogenes were localized and sequenced. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Furthermore, we show that both chicken and zebra finch contain a single set of functional variable, joining, and constant region genes and multiple variable region pseudogenes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Das S, Nikolaidis N, Nei M (2009) Genomic organization and evolution of immunoglobulin kappa gene enhancers and kappa deleting element in mammals. (springer.com)
  • The pattern of embryo DNA showed two components, one of which (molecular weight=6.0 million) hybridized with C-gene sequences and the other (molecular weight=3.9 million) with V-gene sequences. (pnas.org)
  • The pattern of the tumor DNA showed a single component that hybridized with both V-gene and C-gene sequences and that is smaller (molecular weight=2.4 million) than either of the components in embryo DNA. (pnas.org)
  • Here we provide molecular and genetic evidence that the G4 gene is duplicated in 44% of IGHC haplotypes in the Italian population. (springer.com)
  • This new molecular test utilizes high-throughput sequencing of complementary-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene, IGH . (fredhutch.org)
  • IMGT ® has been built on the IMGT-ONTOLOGY axioms and concepts, which bridged the gap between genes, sequences, and three-dimensional (3D) structures. (frontiersin.org)
  • The nine functional IGKV genes are phylogenetically related to either the human IGKV1 or IGKV2 subgroups. (springer.com)
  • Bentley DL, Rabbitts TH (1983) Evolution of V genes: evidence indicating that recently duplicated human VK sequences have diverged by gene conversion. (springer.com)
  • Some aspects of the work of our group on the human and mouse immunoglobulin κ genes are reviewed. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Nuclear factor κB binding sites were shown to be primarily responsible for the positive activity contributed by the HS1,2 and HS4 regions, and we observed the in vivo interaction of these factors with the human immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer regions in t(14;18) cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bacterial immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases constitute a very heterogenous group of extracellular endopeptidases which specifically cleave human IgA1 in the hinge region. (asm.org)
  • Publications] Zhang,S-J.: 'Rare-type mutations of MMAC1 tumor suppressor gene in human glioma cell lines and their tumors of origin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There are many instances in human biology where positive and negative selection forces can act to shape the immunoglobulin repertoire and therefore repertoire analysis can provide useful information on infection control, vaccination efficacy, autoimmune diseases and cancer. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Structural correspondences between mouse and human immunoglobulin VH genes. (cnrs.fr)
  • Since few KIR remain orthologous between species, with only one of them, KIR2DL4 , shown to be common to human, apes and monkeys, the evolution of the KIR gene family in primates remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A high frequency of VH gene use from the relatively small VHIV gene family has previously been demonstrated in human fetal liver B cells. (rupress.org)
  • Organization and evolution of a gene cluster for human immunoglobulin variable regions of the kappa type. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A mouse cloned cDNA probe containing a variable (V) region belonging to the VHIII subgroup has been used in filter hybridisations to estimate the number of heavy-chain V-genes in this subgroup of mouse and human DNA. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There seem to be about 10 and 20 VH-genes hybridising to this probe in mouse and human DNA, respectively. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Other flanking sequences of immunoglobulin gene fragments do not bind to KLP. (caltech.edu)
  • Some Xenopus Ig gene families encode alternative amino acids at positions that are otherwise invariant or very rarely substituted in known Igs. (rupress.org)
  • The V gene segments are longer than J or D segments and encode much of the framework of the variable-region domain, together with the first and second hypervariable regions (known as the complementarity-determining regions - CDR1 and CDR2). (europeanmedical.info)
  • Mice homozygous for a null allele or severely hypomorphic gene trap allele exhibit fusion of the lateral semicircular canal and circling behavior. (jax.org)
  • Microsomes prepared from the mouse myeloma MOPC 104E and from spleens of mice hyperimmunized with Salmonella typhi were used as a source of RNA rich in immunoglobulin mRNA. (jimmunol.org)
  • Nucleic acid hybridization has been used in an attempt to determine the fraction of spleen DNA which is homologous to immunoglobulin messenger RNA (mRNA). (jimmunol.org)
  • It was assumed that liver RNA should compete for the binding of most or all microsomal RNA species other than immunoglobulin mRNA. (jimmunol.org)
  • MicroRNA (miRNA)-guided mRNA repression, mediated by the miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC), is an important component of post-transcriptional gene silencing. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Resolution of the junctional sequences in the rearranged immunoglobulin genes expressed by a tumor can provide a specific tumor marker. (asmscience.org)
  • This marker can be used to examine for any tumor-derived immunoglobulin gene fragments amplified by PCR performed on genomic DNA of lymphoid tissue. (asmscience.org)
  • 1 ) hints at a role of up-regulated miR-15a and miR-16-1 and down-regulated tumor suppressor genes detected by gene expression profiling in a potential superantigen-driven pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • BRCA2 is a tumor suppressor gene that is linked to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. (asm.org)
  • Primary brain lymphoma : Analysis of tumor suppressor genes and immunoglobulin genes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Rearrangement of exogenous immunoglobulin VH and DJH gene segments after retroviral transduction into immature lymphoid cell lines. (rupress.org)
  • Second, these binding sites and associated factors are involved in the regulation of many genes, not only the immunoglobulin genes, and in fact not only lymphoid-specific genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Previous work in rabbits has demonstrated that the intestinal commensal microbiota is required for expansion of B cells and somatic diversification of Ig genes during development of the preimmune antibody repertoire, both of which occur in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). (grantome.com)
  • They are referred to as gene segments and are separated by non-coding regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire process of rearrangement and organization of these gene segments is the vital source where our body immune system gets its capabilities to recognize and respond to variety of antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include: the light chain variable region (V), joining region (J), and constant region (C) gene segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the light chain multigene family, VDJ gene segments code for the variable region of the heavy chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Usually, the assortment of these gene segments occurs at B cell maturation. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hands, Vk gene segments can join with either one of the Jk functional gene segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • The arrows indicate the direction of transcription of the gene segments. (asmscience.org)
  • The sturgeon IgL gene organization is also of the translocon type, with several variable (V)segments followed by some joining (J) segments and the constant (C) exon indicate that theformation of IgL multicluster organisations in teleosts and elasmobranchs are two separateevolutionary events. (diva-portal.org)
  • withmultiple V gene segments preceeding several D segments, a number of J segments followed by theCµ region. (diva-portal.org)
  • Stereotyped BCRs are strikingly similar BCRs, often arising from the use of common H and L chain V region gene segments that share CDR3 structural features (length, amino acid composition, and unique amino acid residues at recombination junctions). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Most of the mutations occurred within a 2-kb region centered around the V(D)J gene, regardless of which J gene segment was used, suggesting that the structural information for mutation is located in sequences around and within the V(D)J gene, and not in sequences downstream of the J gene segments. (rupress.org)
  • A model substrate for the joining of Ig VH and DJH elements has been constructed in a retroviral vector carrying a selectable marker whose expression is independent of the arrangement of the resident Ig gene segments. (rupress.org)
  • Joining of the exogenous gene segments was observed in cell lines representative of three distinct stages in early B cell differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • Our results suggest that Ig H and L chain gene segments are joined by a common mechanism that is more active in B cell precursors than in mature B cells. (rupress.org)
  • These observations provide further evidence that the rearrangement of Ig gene segments occurs by a nonreciprocal recombinational mechanism. (rupress.org)
  • There are fewer D and J gene segments. (europeanmedical.info)
  • The association of segments appears to occur at random and the theoretical number of different variable region genes that might be generated in this way is the product of the number of functional V, D and J segments, i.e. ~8262. (europeanmedical.info)
  • In practice, D to J and V to D-J joining is not exact and additional random nucleotides may be added at the point where the gene segments join. (europeanmedical.info)
  • The genomic organization of immunoglobulin VH genes in Xenopus laevis shows evidence for interspersion of families. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hybrid VH genes and the preimmune repertoire revisited. (springer.com)
  • Butler JE, Wertz N, Sun J, Wang H, Lemke C, Chardon P, Piumi F, Wells K (2005) The pre-immune variable kappa repertoire of swine is selectively generated from certain subfamilies of Vκ2 and one Jκ gene. (springer.com)
  • The results indicated that the V_H repertoire of fetal B-lineage cells is largely restricted to the V_H 7183 gene family and that subsequent recruitment of additional V_H gene families occurs during neonatal development. (caltech.edu)
  • The repertoire of IgVH gene expression is highly restricted during fetal life but diversifies progressively after birth. (rupress.org)
  • These complexes are then delivered to FDCs which provide stimulatory signals for B cell activation and upregulation of AID expression;within a few weeks after birth, essentially all Ig genes are somatically diversified, thereby providing the rabbits with a diverse antibody repertoire. (grantome.com)
  • In a B-cell lymphoma, the lymphoma cells are virtually identical and their gene rearrangement profiles are likewise identical. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Translocation of the bcl-2 gene to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene is the most common alteration in follicular lymphoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 5) From these findings, p16, p15 and p14 genes were suggested to be closely related with carcinogenesis of brain lymphoma (in preparation). (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Endo,S.: 'Primary brain lymphoma : Analysis of the immunoglobulin gene rearrangement by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Recently, considerable progress has been achieved in assembling gene regulatory networks comprised of signaling components and transcription factors that regulate B-cell development. (springer.com)
  • In this chapter we synthesize experimental evidence to explain how such signaling pathways and transcription factors can orchestrate the ordered recombination of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that the interactions of the nuclear factor κB and Sp1 transcription factors with the immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer region are important for bcl-2 deregulation in t(14;18) cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Two promoters mediate initiation of bcl-2 gene transcription. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The multiple functions transcription factors such as NF-κB and OTF-2 play in the transcriptional regulation of multiple genes seems complex in contrast to a one factor, one gene regulation model. (elsevier.com)
  • Investigation of the key factors controlling these genes suggests an ordered cascade of transcription factors becomes available in the cell during B cell differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Transcription of eukaryotic genes is believed to be reasonably well understood. (wikiversity.org)
  • The reason for low levels of HUG expression would be explained if the gene had been incorporated in an area where no promoter was present or if the copy number was high, which might hinder transcription. (oxy.edu)
  • Cohen JB, Givol D (1983) Allelic immunoglobulin VH genes in two mouse strains: possible germline gene recombination. (springer.com)
  • Genetically controlled intraspecific differences between immunoglobulins (allotypes) provide valuable markers for the study of the quantitative expression of allelic and nonallelic alternative forms of immunoglobulins (Igs) during the normal development of rabbits. (meta.org)
  • The proportions of cells that differentiate to produce allelic forms of immunoglobulins during normal development depend on the particular heterozygous genotype. (meta.org)