Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains: The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain: Genes and gene segments encoding the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS. Gene segments of the heavy chain genes are symbolized V (variable), D (diversity), J (joining), and C (constant).Genes, Immunoglobulin: Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunoglobulin Variable Region: That region of the immunoglobulin molecule that varies in its amino acid sequence and composition, and comprises the binding site for a specific antigen. It is located at the N-terminus of the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. It includes hypervariable regions (COMPLEMENTARITY DETERMINING REGIONS) and framework regions.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Heavy Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoglobulin mu-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Immunoglobulin Constant Regions: The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin gamma-Chains: Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.Immunoglobulin Light Chains: Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Immunoglobulin alpha-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.Immunoglobulin Joining Region: A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.Plasmacytoma: Any discrete, presumably solitary, mass of neoplastic PLASMA CELLS either in BONE MARROW or various extramedullary sites.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Myeloma Proteins: Abnormal immunoglobulins characteristic of MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Gene Rearrangement: The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains: One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14: A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the IMMUNOGLOBULIN CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Heavy Chain Disease: A disorder of immunoglobulin synthesis in which large quantities of abnormal heavy chains are excreted in the urine. The amino acid sequences of the N-(amino-) terminal regions of these chains are normal, but they have a deletion extending from part of the variable domain through the first domain of the constant region, so that they cannot form cross-links to the light chains. The defect arises through faulty coupling of the variable (V) and constant (C) region genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Immunoglobulin Class Switching: Gene rearrangement of the B-lymphocyte which results in a substitution in the type of heavy-chain constant region that is expressed. This allows the effector response to change while the antigen binding specificity (variable region) remains the same. The majority of class switching occurs by a DNA recombination event but it also can take place at the level of RNA processing.Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Lymphoma, B-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.Immunoglobulins, Intravenous: Immunoglobulin preparations used in intravenous infusion, containing primarily IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. They are used to treat a variety of diseases associated with decreased or abnormal immunoglobulin levels including pediatric AIDS; primary HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA; SCID; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS infections in transplant recipients, LYMPHOCYTIC LEUKEMIA, CHRONIC; Kawasaki syndrome, infection in neonates, and IDIOPATHIC THROMBOCYTOPENIC PURPURA.Immunoglobulin D: An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.Immunoglobulin J-Chains: A 15 kD "joining" peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Immunoglobulin lambda-Chains: One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.Antibody Diversity: The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of ANTIBODIES. It enables the IMMUNE SYSTEM to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of ANTIGENS it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION gene segments during the differentiation of the ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS.Immunoglobulin Fragments: Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin: A programmed mutation process whereby changes are introduced to the nucleotide sequence of immunoglobulin gene DNA during development.Immunoglobulin Switch Region: A site located in the INTRONS at the 5' end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Immunoglobulin delta-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Clathrin Heavy Chains: The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell: A chronic leukemia characterized by abnormal B-lymphocytes and often generalized lymphadenopathy. In patients presenting predominately with blood and bone marrow involvement it is called chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL); in those predominately with enlarged lymph nodes it is called small lymphocytic lymphoma. These terms represent spectrums of the same disease.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Complementarity Determining Regions: Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).Immunoglobulin Gm Allotypes: Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte, Light Chain: Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions coding for the kappa or lambda IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the second stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.Genes, Switch: Genes that cause the epigenotype (i.e., the interrelated developmental pathways through which the adult organism is realized) to switch to an alternate cell lineage-related pathway. Switch complexes control the expression of normal functional development as well as oncogenic transformation.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Chromosomes, Human, 13-15: The medium-sized, acrocentric human chromosomes, called group D in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 13, 14, and 15.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Immunoglobulin epsilon-Chains: The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments: Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Burkitt Lymphoma: A form of undifferentiated malignant LYMPHOMA usually found in central Africa, but also reported in other parts of the world. It is commonly manifested as a large osteolytic lesion in the jaw or as an abdominal mass. B-cell antigens are expressed on the immature cells that make up the tumor in virtually all cases of Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN) has been isolated from Burkitt lymphoma cases in Africa and it is implicated as the causative agent in these cases; however, most non-African cases are EBV-negative.Lymphoma, Follicular: Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.V(D)J Recombination: The process by which the V (variable), D (diversity), and J (joining) segments of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES are assembled during the development of LYMPHOID CELLS using NONHOMOLOGOUS DNA END-JOINING.VDJ Exons: Exons that are created in vivo during LYMPHOCYTE maturation from the V, D, and J gene segments of immunoglobulin superfamily genes (e.g., the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES, or the T-CELL RECEPTOR BETA GENES or T-CELL RECEPTOR GAMMA GENES ) by the VDJ RECOMBINASE system.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments: Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Plasma Cells: Specialized forms of antibody-producing B-LYMPHOCYTES. They synthesize and secrete immunoglobulin. They are found only in lymphoid organs and at sites of immune responses and normally do not circulate in the blood or lymph. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989, p169 & Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p20)Pseudolymphoma: A group of disorders having a benign course but exhibiting clinical and histological features suggestive of malignant lymphoma. Pseudolymphoma is characterized by a benign infiltration of lymphoid cells or histiocytes which microscopically resembles a malignant lymphoma. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 26th ed)DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein: A transcription factor that is essential for CELL DIFFERENTIATION of B-LYMPHOCYTES. It functions both as a transcriptional activator and repressor to mediate B-cell commitment.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid: Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.Mice, Inbred BALB CDNA, Neoplasm: DNA present in neoplastic tissue.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18: A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Leukemia, B-Cell: A malignant disease of the B-LYMPHOCYTES in the bone marrow and/or blood.VDJ Recombinases: Recombinases involved in the rearrangement of immunity-related GENES such as IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES and T-CELL RECEPTOR GENES.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: Conditions characterized by the presence of M protein (Monoclonal protein) in serum or urine without clinical manifestations of plasma cell dyscrasia.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Hybrid Cells: Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Immunoglobulin Light Chains, Surrogate: An immunolglobulin light chain-like protein composed of an IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION-like peptide (such as light chain like lambda5 peptide) and an IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION-like peptide (such as Vpreb1 peptide). Surrogate light chains associate with MU IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS in place of a conventional immunoglobulin light chains to form pre-B cell receptors.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Ventricular Myosins: Isoforms of MYOSIN TYPE II, specifically found in the ventricular muscle of the HEART. Defects in the genes encoding ventricular myosins result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.ZAP-70 Protein-Tyrosine Kinase: A protein tyrosine kinase that is required for T-CELL development and T-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTOR function.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin: Specialized Fc receptors (RECEPTORS, FC) for polymeric immunoglobulins, which mediate transcytosis of polymeric IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN M into external secretions. They are found on the surfaces of epithelial cells and hepatocytes. After binding to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, the receptor-ligand complex undergoes endocytosis, transport by vesicle, and secretion into the lumen by exocytosis. Before release, the part of the receptor (SECRETORY COMPONENT) that is bound to IMMUNOGLOBULIN A is proteolytically cleaved from its transmembrane tail. (From Rosen et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone: Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Gene Rearrangement, gamma-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.3' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 3' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Ictaluridae: A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Paraffin Embedding: The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Reed-Sternberg Cells: Large cells, usually multinucleate, whose presence is a common histologic characteristic of classical HODGKIN DISEASE.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Inbred C57BLAbelson murine leukemia virus: A replication-defective strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) capable of transforming lymphoid cells and producing a rapidly progressing lymphoid leukemia after superinfection with FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; MOLONEY MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS; or RAUSCHER VIRUS.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Genes, myc: Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (myc) originally isolated from an avian myelocytomatosis virus. The proto-oncogene myc (c-myc) codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in nucleic acid metabolism and in mediating the cellular response to growth factors. Truncation of the first exon, which appears to regulate c-myc expression, is crucial for tumorigenicity. The human c-myc gene is located at 8q24 on the long arm of chromosome 8.Leukemia, Lymphoid: Leukemia associated with HYPERPLASIA of the lymphoid tissues and increased numbers of circulating malignant LYMPHOCYTES and lymphoblasts.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Genes, T-Cell Receptor gamma: DNA sequences encoding the gamma chain of the T-cell receptor. The human gamma-chain locus is organized similarly to the TcR beta-chain locus.Chromosome Deletion: Actual loss of portion of a chromosome.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11: A specific pair of GROUP C CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cosmids: Plasmids containing at least one cos (cohesive-end site) of PHAGE LAMBDA. They are used as cloning vehicles.Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Lymphoma, T-Cell: A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors representing malignant transformations of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the antigen receptors.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromosomes, Human, 6-12 and X: The medium-sized, submetacentric human chromosomes, called group C in the human chromosome classification. This group consists of chromosome pairs 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 and the X chromosome.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Germinal Center: The activated center of a lymphoid follicle in secondary lymphoid tissue where B-LYMPHOCYTES are stimulated by antigens and helper T cells (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER) are stimulated to generate memory cells.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Genes, bcl-2: The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Neprilysin: Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Myosin Subfragments: Parts of the myosin molecule resulting from cleavage by proteolytic enzymes (PAPAIN; TRYPSIN; or CHYMOTRYPSIN) at well-localized regions. Study of these isolated fragments helps to delineate the functional roles of different parts of myosin. Two of the most common subfragments are myosin S-1 and myosin S-2. S-1 contains the heads of the heavy chains plus the light chains and S-2 contains part of the double-stranded, alpha-helical, heavy chain tail (myosin rod).Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.beta 2-Microglobulin: An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Lymphoma, Mantle-Cell: A form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma having a usually diffuse pattern with both small and medium lymphocytes and small cleaved cells. It accounts for about 5% of adult non-Hodgkin lymphomas in the United States and Europe. The majority of mantle-cell lymphomas are associated with a t(11;14) translocation resulting in overexpression of the CYCLIN D1 gene (GENES, BCL-1).Gene Rearrangement, beta-Chain T-Cell Antigen Receptor: Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the beta-chain of antigen receptors.Alpha-Globulins: Serum proteins that have the most rapid migration during ELECTROPHORESIS. This subgroup of globulins is divided into faster and slower alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-globulins.Secretory Component: The extracellular moiety of the POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR found alone or complexed with IGA or IGM, in a variety of external secretions (tears, bile, colostrum.) Secretory component is derived by proteolytic cleavage of the receptor during transcytosis. When immunoglobulins IgA and IgM are bound to the receptor, during their transcytosis secretory component becomes covalently attached to them generating SECRETORY IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or secretory IMMUNOGLOBULIN M.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Neoplasm, Residual: Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
... transcriptional coactivator for nuclear hormone receptors gene NCOA2; f) Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene IGH; g) enzyme genes ... Thus, the ETV6 gene reportedly forms translocation-induced fusion genes with: a) tyrosine kinase receptor gene FGFR3; b) non- ... The following table lists the more frequently occurring genes to which ETV6 fuses, the function of these genes, these genes' ... the gene is expressed in virtually all cell types and tissues. Mice depleted of the ETV6 gene by Gene knockout die between day ...
Ig heavy chain V-III region VH26 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the [email protected] gene. IGHV is the immunoglobulin heavy ... Matthyssens G, Rabbitts TH (1981). "Structure and multiplicity of genes for the human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable ... "CD5+ diffuse large B-cell lymphoma consists of germline cases and hypermutated cases in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ... "Physical linkage of a human immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region gene segment to diversity and joining region elements". ...
2006). "Reconsidering the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus: 1. An evaluation of the expressed human IGHD gene repertoire ... "Entrez Gene: IGHD immunoglobulin heavy constant delta". Shin SU, Wei CF, Amin AR, et al. (1992). "Structural and functional ... Ig delta chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHD gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". White MB, Shen AL, ... Word CJ, Tucker PW, Blattner FR (May 1985). "Human immunoglobulin D: genomic sequence of the delta heavy chain". Science. 228 ( ...
Clonal rearrangements of the immunoglobulin genes (heavy and light chains) are frequently seen. The deletion 7q21-32 is seen in ... Dunn-Walters DK, Boursier L, Spencer J, Isaacson PG (June 1998). "Analysis of immunoglobulin genes in splenic marginal zone ... 40% of SMZL patients, and translocations of the CDK6 gene located at 7q21 have also been reported. Less than 1% of all ...
"Organization of the constant-region gene family of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain". Cell. 28 (3): 499-506. doi:10.1016/ ... Ishida, Y; Agata, Y; Shibahara, K; Honjo, T (1992). "Induced expression of PD-1, a novel member of the immunoglobulin gene ... He succeeded in cDNA clonings of IL-4 and IL-5 cytokines involved in class switching and IL-2 receptor alpha chain in 1986, and ... He presented a model explaining antibody gene rearrangement in class switch and, between 1980 and 1982, verified its validity ...
Flanagan JG, Rabbitts TH (Dec 1982). "Arrangement of human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region genes implies ... "Linkage and sequence homology of two human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region genes". Proceedings of the National ... Toraño A, Putnam FW (Feb 1978). "Complete amino acid sequence of the alpha 2 heavy chain of a human IgA2 immunoglobulin of the ... Ig alpha-2 chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHA2 gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: ...
Pascual, V.; Capra, J. D. (1991). "Human immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region genes: Organization, polymorphism, and ... "Receptor revision of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes in normal human B lymphocytes". The Journal of ... "Somatic hypermutation introduces insertions and deletions into immunoglobulin V genes". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. ... Hurley, C. K.; Shaw, S.; Nadler, L.; Schlossman, S.; Capra, J. D. (1982). "Alpha and beta chains of SB and DR antigens are ...
The first discovery of a eukaryotic enhancer was in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene in 1983. This enhancer, located in the ... "A tissue-specific transcription enhancer element is located in the major intron of a rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ... "A lymphocyte-specific cellular enhancer is located downstream of the joining region in immunoglobulin heavy chain genes". Cell ... "Transcriptional enhancer elements in the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain locus". Science. 221 (4611): 663-5. PMID 6306772. ...
"The sequence of a human immunoglobulin epsilon heavy chain constant region gene, and evidence for three non-allelic genes". The ... "Linkage and sequence homology of two human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region genes". Proceedings of the National ... Ig epsilon chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHE gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: ... "Cloning and sequence determination of the gene for the human immunoglobulin epsilon chain expressed in a myeloma cell line". ...
Krawinkel U, Rabbitts TH (1984). "Comparison of the hinge-coding segments in human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain genes and ... "Linkage and sequence homology of two human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region genes". Proceedings of the National ... Ig gamma-2 chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHG2 gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: ... Milstein C, Frangione B (Jan 1971). "Disulphide bridges of the heavy chain of human immunoglobulin G2". The Biochemical Journal ...
"Linkage and sequence homology of two human immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain constant region genes". Proceedings of the National ... Ig gamma-4 chain C region is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGHG4 gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez Gene: ... Ellison J, Buxbaum J, Hood L (1983). "Nucleotide sequence of a human immunoglobulin C gamma 4 gene". Dna. 1 (1): 11-8. doi: ... IGHG4 immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 4 (G4m marker)". McLean GR, Nakouzi A, Casadevall A, Green NS (Oct 2000). "Human and ...
... binds to the mu-E3 motif of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer and is expressed in many cell types (Henthorn et al., 1991 ... "TFEC can function as a transcriptional activator of the nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain-A gene in transfected cells". ... a transcription factor that binds the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer, maps to Xp11.22". Genomics. 11 (2): 374-8. doi: ... Heimann P, El Housni H, Ogur G, Weterman MA, Petty EM, Vassart G (2001). "Fusion of a novel gene, RCC17, to the TFE3 gene in t( ...
A tissue-specific transcription enhancer element is located in the major intron of a rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain gene ... Comparing the DNA of B cells (a type of white blood cell) in embryonic and adult mice, he observed that genes in the mature B ... Prior to Tonegawa's discovery, one early idea to explain the adaptive immune system suggested that each gene produces one ... Tonegawa's lab pioneered introductory transgenic and gene-knockout technologies in mammalian systems. He was involved in early ...
Recombination between an expressed immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene and a germline variable gene segment in a Ly1+ B-cell ... They can avoid apoptosis by modifying the sequence of light chain V and J genes (components of the antigen receptor) so that it ...
"Overexpression and unique rearrangement of VH2 transcripts in immunoglobulin variable heavy chain genes in ankylosing ... CDC42 binding protein kinase beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CDC42BPB gene. This gene encodes a member of ... Studies of the similar gene in rat suggested that this kinase may act as a downstream effector of Cdc42 in cytoskeletal ... "Entrez Gene: CDC42 binding protein kinase beta". Retrieved 2017-05-31. Choi SH, Czifra G, Kedei N, Lewin NE, Lazar J, Pu Y, ...
"Sequence of a human immunoglobulin gamma 3 heavy chain constant region gene: comparison with the other human C gamma genes". ... "Entrez Gene: IGHG3 immunoglobulin heavy constant gamma 3 (G3m marker)". Michaelsen TE, Frangione B, Franklin EC (1977). " ... "gamma Heavy chain disease in man: cDNA sequence supports partial gene deletion model". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 79 (10): 3260- ... "heavy chain disease" protein ZUC. Structure of the Fc fragment of immunoglobulin G3". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 71 (4): ...
"V-region and class specific RT-PCR amplification of human immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes from B-cell lines". ... "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light chain locus are separated by 14 kb and ... Immunoglobulin lambda joining 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGLJ3 gene. "Human PubMed Reference:". "Entrez ... "The anti-DNA-associated idiotype 8.12 is encoded by the V lambda II gene family and maps to the vicinity of L chain CDR1". ...
"Human immunoglobulin heavy chain genes: evolutionary comparisons of C mu, C delta and C gamma genes and associated switch ... "Entrez Gene: IGHM immunoglobulin heavy constant mu". Kristensen T, Lopez R, Prydz H (1992). "An estimate of the sequencing ... Tsubata T, Reth M (1990). "The products of pre-B cell-specific genes (lambda 5 and VpreB) and the immunoglobulin mu chain form ... 1973). "Complete amino acid sequence of the Mu heavy chain of a human IgM immunoglobulin". Science. 182 (4109): 287-91. doi: ...
"Imprint of somatic hypermutation differs in human immunoglobulin heavy and lambda chain variable gene segments". Mol. Immunol. ... Each immunoglobulin molecule consists of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. There are two classes of ... Combriato G, Klobeck HG (1991). "V lambda and J lambda-C lambda gene segments of the human immunoglobulin lambda light chain ... Hieter PA, Korsmeyer SJ, Waldmann TA, Leder P (1981). "Human immunoglobulin kappa light-chain genes are deleted or rearranged ...
"Altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene ... altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene ... "control of lg gene rearrangement might be the only mechanism that determines the specificity of heavy chain gene expression ... identified the protein pair that rearranges immunoglobulin genes, the recombination-activating gene RAG-1 and RAG-2. this was a ...
Herrscher RF, Kaplan MH, Lelsz DL, Das C, Scheuermann R, Tucker PW (1995). "The immunoglobulin heavy-chain matrix-associating ... ARID-encoding genes are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell lineage gene ... a regulator of B-cell-specific gene expression), dead ringer (a Drosophila melanogaster gene product required for normal ... and tissue-specific gene expression. Although about a dozen ARID proteins can be identified from database searches, to date, ...
... of Bach2 as a B-cell-specific partner for small maf proteins that negatively regulate the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene 3' ... The Nrf1-sMaf heterodimers regulate genes responsible for proteasomal genes and metabolism genes. The Nrf2-sMaf heterodimers ... HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC)-approved gene names of MAFF, MAFG and MAFK are "v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic ... Motohashi, H (1998). "A core region of the mafK gene IN promoter directs neurone-specific transcription in vivo". Genes Cells. ...
... between Susumu Tonegawa's and Walter Gilbert's laboratories in 1985 as a control element in immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer ... 1994). "E2A proteins are required for proper B cell development and initiation of immunoglobulin gene rearrangements". Cell. 79 ... In 1990, another E-protein, ITF-2A (later renamed E2-2Alt) was discovered that can bind to immunoglobulin light chain enhancers ... As the E-box is connected to several circadian genes, it is possible that the genes and proteins associated with it are " ...
... depending on whether the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes contain somatic mutations. If they do the survival of ...
"Altered repertoire of endogenous immunoglobulin gene expression in transgenic mice containing a rearranged mu heavy chain gene ... The paper, published in the scientific journal Cell, showed unexpected results on how the immune system rearranges its genes to ...
... encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-strand mRNAs, which are then ... In a 2002-2003 survey of 1,030 animals including 679 bats from Gabon and the Republic of the Congo, immunoglobulin G (IgG) ... "This is the first time that all three countries - Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone - have stopped the original chains of ... Heavy bleeding is uncommon; if it occurs, it is usually in the gastrointestinal tract.[35] The incidence of bleeding into the ...
Many human immunoglobulin heavy-chain IGHV gene polymorphisms have been reported in error.. Wang Y1, Jackson KJ, Sewell WA, ... The immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (IGHV) gene repertoire is generally considered to be highly polymorphic. In this report ... The identification of the genes that make up rearranged immunoglobulin genes is critical to many studies. For example, the ... The analysis also highlights the presence of common mismatches, with respect to the germline, in many rearranged heavy-chain ...
Extracted DNA is analyzed for immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements by a polymerase chain reaction method using V ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain (IGH) Gene Rearrangement, PCR. Indication. - Assessment of clonality in suspected B-cell ...
Immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes rearrange independently at early stages of B cell development.. Ehlich A1, Schaal S ... We report the occurrence of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene rearrangement at the stage of large B cell precursors. We ... receptor complex nor any gene rearrangement in the heavy chain locus is required for the induction of kappa light chain gene ... Using this system and employing mutant mice in which the membrane exon of the mu chain, the lambda 5 gene, or the JH locus was ...
Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions. F W ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ... Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions ...
Translocation of the bcl-2 gene to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene is the most common alteration in follicular lymphoma. ... Regulation of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene is controlled in part by four DNase I-hypersensitive regions located 3′ of ... Critical Elements of the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene Enhancers for Deregulated Expression of Bcl-2. Caroline A. Heckman, ... Increased bcl-2 Promoter Activity with the Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene 3′ Enhancers.. The activity of the IgH 3′ enhancers ...
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Gene Usage and (Super)-antigen Drive in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. Andreas Bühler, ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Gene Usage and (Super)-antigen Drive in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Gene Usage and (Super)-antigen Drive in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Gene Usage and (Super)-antigen Drive in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia ...
... comprises nine CH genes and two pseudogenes, all origin ... The structure of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant ... The G4 gene is duplicated in 44% of human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region haplotypes. *Alfredo Brusco1. , ... Brusco, A., Cinque, F., Saviozzi, S. et al. The G4 gene is duplicated in 44% of human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant ... The structure of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region (IGHC), on chromosome 14q32, comprises nine CH genes and ...
Comparison of ZAP-70/Syk mRNA levels with immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene mutation status and disease progression in chronic ... Comparison of ZAP-70/Syk mRNA levels with immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene mutation status and disease progression in chronic ... Comparison of ZAP-70/Syk mRNA levels with immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene mutation status and disease progression in chronic ...
Organization and evalution of the human immuno-globulin heavy-chain V region genes. Research Project ... Publications] Ueda, Y. 他: Tumor‐specific rearrangements of the immunoglobulin heary‐chain gene in B‐cell Non‐Hodgkin′s ... Publications] F.Matsuda and T.Honjo: Organization of the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus Advances in Immunology. 62. 1 ... Publications] F.Matsuda and T.Honjo: Organization of the human immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus Advances in Immunology. 62. 1 ...
A second Xenopus immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region isotype gene. R. N. Haire, M. J. Shamblott, C. T. Amemiya, G. W. ... A second Xenopus immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region isotype gene. Nucleic acids research. 1989 Feb 25;17(4):1776. https ... A second Xenopus immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region isotype gene. / Haire, R. N.; Shamblott, M. J.; Amemiya, C. T.; ... title = "A second Xenopus immunoglobulin heavy chain constant region isotype gene",. author = "Haire, {R. N.} and Shamblott, {M ...
... region belonging to the VHIII subgroup has been used in filter hybridisations to estimate the number of heavy-chain V-genes in ... There seem to be about 10 and 20 VH-genes hybridising to this probe in mouse and human DNA, respectively. Studies of cross- ... hybridisation of the related VK-genes from MOPC21 and MPC11 myelomas indicate that the experiments detect all members of the ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains, Immunoglobulin Variable Region, Immunoglobulin kappa-Chains, Mice, Nucleic Acid Hybridization, ...
Primate immunoglobulin heavy chain constant gamma genes : an hypothesis of their evolution. / Brusco, A.; Carbonara, A. O.; ... Four Immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain isotypes are present in humans; the true phylogenetic relationship between the genes are ... Brusco A, Carbonara AO, Crovella S, Bottaro A. Primate immunoglobulin heavy chain constant gamma genes: an hypothesis of their ... N2 - Four Immunoglobulin gamma heavy chain isotypes are present in humans; the true phylogenetic relationship between the genes ...
The variableregion component of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene is divided into three types of gene segment. V segments, D ... After a successful heavy-chain VDJ has been made, a B cell must express the heavy chain with the surrogate light chain composed ... Rearrangement of immunoglobulin heavy chain variableregion genes. Fri, 04 May 2012 , Haemolytic Anaemia ... The heavy chain gene is located at 14q32.3 and the germline organization of the part of the gene that encodes for the variable ...
The heavy chain rearranges first followed by light chain rearrangement. Initially, the signal inhibiting heavy chain ... the presence of a previously rearranged transgenic g heavy chain inhibits rearrangement of the mouses endogenous heavy chain ... The HUG gene is a chimeric gene leading to the synthesis of a protein antibody of the gamma (g) isotype consisting of a mouse ... This technique allows us to find where the HUG gene had been inserted and how many copy numbers of the transgene are present ...
We have recently developed a novel Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement (IgH-R) assay that combines polymerase chain ... Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement, Lightcycler, Polymerase chain reaction",. author = "Dongsheng Xu and Juan Du and ... "We have recently developed a novel Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement (IgH-R) assay that combines polymerase chain ... We have recently developed a novel Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement (IgH-R) assay that combines polymerase chain ...
... enhancer elements have been identified in the intron between the JH and C mu segments of the heavy-chain immunoglobulin gene in ... The nature of the effect exerted by the immunoglobulin loci on the translocated c-myc gene is controversial: whereas some ... We report here the identification of an enhancer element adjacent to the human C mu gene on normal chromosome 14, but this ... specific chromosomal rearrangements involving the region proximal to the c-myc gene and one of the three human immunoglobulin ...
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region (IgHv) Gene Status. A marker that can distinguish between CLL subtypes (unmutated ... Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Variable Region (IgHv) Gene Status. A marker that can distinguish between CLL subtypes (unmutated ... IgHv and mutated IgHv). People with CLL with unmutated IgHv gene status may have a more progressive form of the disease. ... IgHv and mutated IgHv). People with CLL with unmutated IgHv gene status may have a more progressive form of the disease. ...
Recombination between an expressed immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene and a germline variable gene segment in a Ly 1+ B-cell ... Polymerase chain reaction. To identify the rearranged segments of the variable heavy chain genes, a nested polymerase chain ... Receptor revision of immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region genes in normal human B lymphocytes. J Exp Med2000;191:1881-94. ... Immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement involving V-V region recombination. Nucleic Acids Res1990;18:1652. ...
Immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangement analysis. Genomic DNA was extracted from 4000 double-sorted CD19+IgM+ cells ... D) Both PU.1Δ/Δ and PU.1F/F CLP-derived B cells rearranged their IgH gene. (E) RT-PCR analyses of B-cell-related genes in PU.1F ... Multilineage gene expression precedes commitment in the hemopoietic system. Gene Dev. 1997;11: 774-785. ... In some experiments, PU.1F/F mice were bred to CD19-Cre mice in order to specifically delete the PU.1 gene in early B cells. PU ...
Localized DNA Demethylation at Recombination Intermediates during Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene Assembly Roza Selimyan, ...
Crossing over between genes in the immunoglobulin heavy chain linkage group of the mouse. ... Lieberman, R and Potter, M, "Crossing over between genes in the immunoglobulin heavy chain linkage group of the mouse." (1969 ...
Single-cell based high-throughput sequencing of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes ... Single-cell based high-throughput sequencing of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes Busse, C. E., Czogiel, I ... based high-throughput sequencing of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. European Journal of Immunology, 44( ... Abstract: Single-cell PCR and sequencing of full-length Ig heavy (Igh) and Igk and Igl light chain genes is a powerful tool to ...
Single-cell based high-throughput sequencing of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes ... Single-cell based high-throughput sequencing of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes ... based high-throughput sequencing of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. European Journal of Immunology, 44( ... Single-cell PCR and sequencing of full-length Ig heavy (Igh) and Igk and Igl light chain genes is a powerful tool to measure ...
In the current study, we extended the previous study by examining immunoglobulin heavy chain and light chain gene expression in ... Characterization of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain gene expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related disorders. ... We have previously shown that chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Japan rarely expresses the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable ... IGHV1-69 gene expression was again quite low in our cohort, found in only two patients: one with chronic lymphocytic leukemia ...
Lieberman, R and Potter, M, "Polymorphism of heavy-chain genes in immunoglobulins of wild mice." (1966). Subject Strain ... Hereditary Factors:, Organs:, Serology:, Genes: Asa - Allotypic specificity-a, Strains: A/HE, AKR, AL(AL/N), BALB/C, BDP, BL, ...
  • Mice depleted of the ETV6 gene by Gene knockout die between day 10.5 and 11.5 of embryonic life with defective yolk sac angiogenesis and extensive losses in mesenchymal and neural cells due to apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other genetic manipulation studies in mice indicate that the gene is required for the development and maintenance of bone marrow-based blood cell formation and the vascular network. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scangos and Bieberich, Gene transfer into mice, Advances in Genetics 24: 285-322 (1987). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • B cells coexpressing V H 12 and one of the other V H genes are readily detected in the double IgH insertion mice, and are of the B-2 phenotype. (rupress.org)
  • In mice coexpressing V H 12, V H B1-8 and a transgenic κ chain able to pair with both H chains, double H chain-expressing B-2 cells, and B-1 cells that have lost V H B1-8 are generated, whereas V H B1-8 single producers are undetectable. (rupress.org)
  • Here, we generated IgH double (V H 12 and V H B1-8 or V H 12 and V H glD42) insertion mice to test whether the expression of a second H chain in V H 12-expressing B cells may act in a dominant negative manner to perturb the generation of B-1 cells. (rupress.org)
  • Rearrangement and expression of immunoglobulin light chain genes can precede heavy chain expression during normal B cell development in mice. (nih.gov)
  • In agreement with these earlier results, we show by a molecular single cell analysis that 4-7% of CD43(+) B cell progenitors in wild-type mice rearrange immunoglobulin (Ig)kappa genes before the assembly of a productive VHDHJH joint. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, approximately 15% of the total CD43(+) B cell progenitor population carry Igkappa gene rearrangements in wild-type mice. (nih.gov)
  • In this report, we describe a bioinformatic analysis of germline and rearranged immunoglobulin gene sequences which casts doubt on the existence of a substantial proportion of reported germline polymorphisms. (nih.gov)
  • The analysis also highlights the presence of common mismatches, with respect to the germline, in many rearranged heavy-chain sequences, suggesting the existence of twelve previously unreported alleles. (nih.gov)
  • The IGLV3-21 gene in the majority of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases was associated with homologous complementarity determining region 3 sequences. (cdc.gov)
  • Specific PCR primers sequences for IgH gene variable region 3, including fluorescence labeled IgH primers were used and results were compared with HRM. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resolution of the junctional sequences in the rearranged immunoglobulin genes expressed by a tumor can provide a specific tumor marker. (asmscience.org)
  • The antigen-binding repertoire of the surface immunoglobulin is already unique for each clone, as a result of selective usage in each cell of different variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) region sequences, accompanied by the generation of random-linking N sequences (via the action of terminal transferase). (bloodjournal.org)
  • 1 ) hints at a role of up-regulated miR-15a and miR-16-1 and down-regulated tumor suppressor genes detected by gene expression profiling in a potential superantigen-driven pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 1995) "Liposome-mediated in vivo Gene Transfer of Antisense K-ras Construct Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Dissemination in the Murine Peritoneal Cavity. (patentgenius.com)
  • Here, we report that the HS1234 enhancer-LCR mediates a widespread increase in histone acetylation along linked c-myc genes in Raji BL cells. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Histone hyperacetylation of control c-myc genes, which was induced by the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, mimics the effect of the HS1234 enhancer on expression from the c-myc P2 promoter, but not that from the P1 promoter. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • the partner gene is overexpressed as a result of its close proximity to the IGH enhancer. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • We report a five-level classification system for IGHV genes, which indicates the likelihood that the genes have been reported accurately. (nih.gov)
  • Sequencing of IGHV genes from six individuals in this study confirmed the existence of three of these alleles, which we designate IGHV3-49*04, IGHV3-49*05 and IGHV4-39*07. (nih.gov)
  • The structure of the BCR is different in CLL clones carrying mutated versus unmutated IGHV genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • People with CLL with unmutated IgHv gene status may have a more progressive form of the disease. (lls.org)
  • We have previously shown that chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Japan rarely expresses the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable region (IGHV) 1-69 gene (1 out of 43 patients, 2.3%), which is a gene most commonly expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases from western countries. (cdc.gov)
  • In higher vertebrates, the NF-κB/Rel family encompasses five different genes: those encoding NF-κB1 (p105/p50), NF-κB2 (p100/p52), RelA (p65), and RelB, and the proto-oncogene encoding c-Rel. (asm.org)
  • Significant changes in the distribution of different genes could be observed: 4-34 and 1-69 decreased to a proportion that would be expected in healthy individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The classification scheme also reflects the likelihood that germline genes could be incorrectly identified in mutated VDJ rearrangements, because of similarities to other alleles. (nih.gov)
  • In conclusion, the detection IgH gene rearrangement by HRM in the LightCycler System showed potential for distinguishing monoclonality from polyclonality in B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene is found to be frequently translocated and hypermutated in diffuse large-cell lymphoma (DLCL), and may be involved in the pathogenesis of DLCL. (cancerindex.org)
  • Activation of c-myc in Burkitt's lymphoma: We are examining the transcriptional deregulation of the translocated c-myc gene and the silencing of the normal c-myc gene in Burkitt's lymphoma. (stanford.edu)