The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Travel by a group of physicians for the purpose of making a special study or undertaking a special project of short-term duration.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Defective bone formation involving individual bones, singly or in combination.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
A synthetic estrogen that has been used as a hormonal antineoplastic agent.
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
DNA constructs that are derived from the DNA of BACTERIOPHAGE P1. They can carry large amounts (about 100-300 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.
The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. Through basic and clinical biomedical research and training, it conducts and supports research with the objective of cancer prevention, early stage identification and elimination. This Institute was established in 1937.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
A TETRACYCLINE analog having a 7-chloro and a 6-methyl. Because it is excreted more slowly than TETRACYCLINE, it maintains effective blood levels for longer periods of time.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The body's defense mechanism against foreign organisms or substances and deviant native cells. It includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response and consists of a complex of interrelated cellular, molecular, and genetic components.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
Process in which a patient is induced into a trance-like state in order to relieve anxiety during a dental procedure.
A clinically diverse group of epilepsy syndromes characterized either by myoclonic seizures or by myoclonus in association with other seizure types. Myoclonic epilepsy syndromes are divided into three subtypes based on etiology: familial, cryptogenic, and symptomatic (i.e., occurring secondary to known disease processes such as infections, hypoxic-ischemic injuries, trauma, etc.).
Persons diagnosed as having significantly lower than average intelligence and considerable problems in adapting to everyday life or lacking independence in regard to activities of daily living.
Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.

Deletion of multiple immediate-early genes from herpes simplex virus reduces cytotoxicity and permits long-term gene expression in neurons. (1/887)

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has many attractive features that suggest its utility for gene transfer to neurons. However, viral cytotoxicity and transient transgene expression limit practical applications even in the absence of viral replication. Mutant viruses deleted for the immediate early (IE) gene, ICP4, an essential transcriptional transactivator, are toxic to many cell types in culture in which only the remaining IE genes are expressed. In order to test directly the toxicity of other IE gene products in neurons and develop a mutant background capable of longterm transgene expression, we generated mutants deleted for multiple IE genes in various combinations and tested their relative cytotoxicity in 9L rat gliosarcoma cells, Vero monkey kidney cells, and primary rat cortical and dorsal root neurons in culture. Viral mutants deleted simultaneously for the IE genes encoding ICP4, ICP22 and ICP27 showed substantially reduced cytotoxicity compared with viruses deleted for ICP4 alone or ICP4 in combination with either ICP22, ICP27 or ICP47. Infection of neurons in culture with these triple IE deletion mutants substantially enhanced cell survival and permitted transgene expression for over 21 days. Such mutants may prove useful for efficient gene transfer and extended transgene expression in neurons in vitro and in vivo.  (+info)

Identification of AUF-1 ligands reveals vast diversity of early response gene mRNAs. (2/887)

Cell activation is associated with diverse and widespread changes in gene expression at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. AUF1 is a recently described cytoplasmic protein which likely participates in the post-transcriptional regulation (PTR) of AU-rich (ARE) mRNAs including those coding for cytokines and proto-oncogenes. Individual mRNAs subject to AUF1-mediated PTR can be predicted if AREs are present or the mRNA in question interacts in vitro or in vivo with AUF1. However, there are few, if any, general approaches for characterizing the overall repertoire of mRNAs subject to PTR by AUF1. In an effort to identify these mRNAs, we incubated total mRNA from mitogen-activated peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs) with AUF1 in vitro. AUF1-mRNA complexes were retarded on membranes, bound mRNAs eluted with high salt, and either used to generate a cDNA library or rebound to AUF1 a second or third time prior to elution and cDNA library construction. We have obtained partial nucleotide sequences from 130 clones which shows that the AUF1 selected libraries are rich in mRNAs containing 3' untranslated region AREs including a large number of early response gene cDNAs. As a test of the validity of this method, we also show that a randomly selected, novel mRNA contained in the library is stabilized upon cell activation.  (+info)

Human herpesviruses in chronic fatigue syndrome. (3/887)

We have conducted a double-blind study to assess the possible involvement of the human herpesviruses (HHVs) HHV6, HHV7, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients compared to age-, race-, and gender-matched controls. The CFS patient population was composed of rigorously screened civilian and Persian Gulf War veterans meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's CFS case definition criteria. Healthy control civilian and veteran populations had no evidence of CFS or any other exclusionary medical or psychiatric condition. Patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by PCR for the presence of these HHVs. Using two-tailed Fisher's exact test analyses, we were unable to ascertain any statistically significant differences between the CFS patient and control populations in terms of the detection of one or more of these viruses. This observation was upheld when the CFS populations were further stratified with regard to the presence or absence of major axis I psychopathology and patient self-reported gradual versus acute onset of disease. In tandem, we performed serological analyses of serum anti-EBV and anti-HHV6 antibody titers and found no significant differences between the CFS and control patients.  (+info)

Pancreatic acinar AR42J cells express functional nerve growth factor receptors. (4/887)

The factors regulating the differentiation of the endocrine cells of the pancreas are still unknown. In previous studies, we have demonstrated that, like neurones, various beta-cell lines express functional neurotrophin receptors. Moreover, Trk-A, the nerve growth factor (NGF) high-affinity receptor, is expressed in vivo in mature rat islets and early during development in the pancreatic ductal network that represents the source of putative stem cells. Rat pancreatic AR42J cells possess both exocrine and neuroendocrine properties. Recent studies have shown that these cells can differentiate either into acinar cells or into insulin-expressing cells. In this study, we demonstrate that AR42J cells, in common with the embryonic ductal cells, do express Trk-A. Moreover, on treatment with NGF, Trk-A is phosphorylated and early responsive genes such as NGFI-A, c-fos and c-jun are induced. These results clearly show that the Trk-A receptor expressed in AR42J is functional. AR42J cells provide a model system with which to study the role of NGF in the development of the pancreatic cells.  (+info)

Murine cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter directs astrocyte-specific expression in transgenic mice. (5/887)

Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), which causes acute, latent, and persistent infection of the natural host, is used as an animal model of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Transcription of MCMV immediate-early (IE) genes is required for expression of the early and late genes and is dependent on host cell transcription factors. Cell-type-specific expression activity of the MCMV IE promoter was analyzed in transgenic mice generated with the major IE (MIE) enhancer/promoter involving nucleotides -1343 to -6 (1338 bp) connected to the reporter gene lacZ. Distinct expression was observed in the brain, kidneys, stomach, and skeletal muscles. Weak expression was observed in a portion of the parenchymal cells of the salivary glands and pancreas, and expression was hardly detected in the lungs, intestine, or immune and hematopoietic organs such as the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. The spectrum of organs positive for expression was narrower than that of the HCMV MIE promoter-lacZ transgenic mice reported previously and showed a greater degree of cell-type specificity. Interestingly, astrocyte-specific expression of the transgene was observed in the brain and primary glial cultures from the transgenic mice by combination of beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) expression and immunostaining for cell markers. However, the transgene was not expressed in neurons, oligodendroglia, microglia, or endothelial cells. Furthermore, the beta-Gal expression in glial cultures was stimulated significantly by MCMV infection or by addition of calcium ionophore. These observations indicated that expression activity of the MCMV IE promoter is strictly cell-type specific, especially astrocyte-specific in the brain. This specific pattern of activity is similar to that of natural HCMV infection in humans.  (+info)

The interleukin-1 type 2 receptor gene displays immediate early gene responsiveness in glucocorticoid-stimulated human epidermal keratinocytes. (6/887)

Human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKs) in primary culture (P2-P4) were used to study glucocorticoid (GC)-mediated transcription of the genes encoding the constitutively expressed interleukin-1 type 1 receptor (IL-1R1) and the inducible interleukin-1 type 2 receptor (IL-1R2). Utilizing Northern dot blot analysis and a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction protocol for IL-1R1 and IL-1R2, dexamethasone and, in particular, the budesonide epimer R were shown to effectively and rapidly induce transcription from the IL-IR2 gene when compared with IL-1R1 or beta-actin RNA message levels in the same sample. Southern blot analysis of newly generated IL-1R2 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction products using end-labeled IL-1R2 intron probes suggested that GC enhancement of IL-1R2 expression was regulated primarily at the level of de novo transcription. GC-induced IL-1R2 gene transcription displayed features characteristic of a classical immediate early gene response, including a signal transduction function, a relatively low basal abundance, a rapid, transient induction, cycloheximide superinduction, actinomycin D suppression, and a rapid decay of IL-1R2 RNA message. Parallel time course kinetic analysis of IL-1R2 RNA message levels with Western immunoblotting revealed tight coupling of de novo IL-IR2 gene transcription with translation of the IL-1R2 RNA message; a newly synthesized ( approximately 46-kDa) IL-1R2 protein was detected in the HEK growth medium as early as 1 h after budesonide epimer R treatment. These data indicate that different GC compounds can variably up-regulate the IL-1R2 response in HEKs through transcription-mediated mechanisms and, for the first time, suggest that a gene encoding a soluble cytokine receptor can respond like an immediate early gene.  (+info)

Immediate-early gene expression in the inferior mesenteric ganglion and colonic myenteric plexus of the guinea pig. (7/887)

Activation of neurons in the inferior mesenteric ganglion (IMG) was assessed using c-fos, JunB, and c-Jun expression in the guinea pig IMG and colonic myenteric plexus during mechanosensory stimulation and acute colitis in normal and capsaicin-treated animals. Intracolonic saline or 2% acetic acid was administered, and mechanosensory stimulation was performed by passage of a small (0.5 cm) balloon either 4 or 24 hr later. Lower doses of capsaicin or vehicle were used to activate primary afferent fibers during balloon passage. c-Jun did not respond to any of the stimuli in the study. c-fos and JunB were absent from the IMG and myenteric plexus of untreated and saline-treated animals. Acetic acid induced acute colitis by 4 hr, which persisted for 24 hr, but c-fos was found only in enteric glia in the myenteric plexus and was absent from the IMG. Balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in only a small subset of IMG neurons and no myenteric neurons. However, balloon passage induced c-fos and JunB in IMG neurons (notably those containing somatostatin) and the myenteric plexus of acetic acid-treated animals. After capsaicin treatment, c-fos and JunB induction by balloon passage was inhibited in the IMG, but there was enhanced c-fos expression in the myenteric plexus. c-fos and JunB induction by balloon stimulation was also mimicked by acute activation of capsaicin-sensitive nerves. These data suggest that colitis enhances reflex activity of the IMG by a mechanism that involves activation of both primary afferent fibers and the myenteric plexus.  (+info)

Kinetics of transcription of human cytomegalovirus chemokine receptor US28 in different cell types. (8/887)

In permissive cells, human cytomegalovirus encodes the protein US28, a functional CC chemokine receptor. US28 polyadenylated mRNA could be detected by RT-PCR as early as 2 h post-infection. US28 mRNA appeared after major IE1 transcripts (UL123), but before transcripts of the early genes pp65 (UL83) and gB (UL55), and the late gene pp150 (UL32). This temporal appearance indicates that US28 is transcribed earlier than previously reported. Furthermore, US28 mRNA could be detected in semi- and non-permissive cells.  (+info)

Cells respond to diverse stimuli, which include physiological agents such as growth factors (reviewed in Bravo, 1990; Marshall, 1994) and cytokines (Freshney et al., 1994; Sluss et al., 1994), pharmacological compounds such as anisomycin (Edwards and Mahadevan, 1992; Hazzalin et al., 1998, and references therein), phorbol esters and okadaic acid (reviewed in Cohen, 1990; Cano et al., 1995) and stresses such as UV radiation (Hibi et al., 1993; Kyriakis et al., 1994), hyperosmotic (Han et al., 1994; Rosette and Karin, 1996) and heavy metal stress (Rouse et al., 1994, and references therein) by initiating intracellular signalling mechanisms that rapidly elicit transcription of a subset of genes in the nucleus (reviewed in Karin, 1994; Cano and Mahadevan, 1995; Treisman, 1996; Hazzalin et al., 1998). These genes, called immediate‐early (IE) genes, are activated directly and require no new transcription or translation for their induction (Greenberg et al., 1986; Almendral et al., 1988; reviewed in ...
The function of striatopallidal neurons is regulated by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and dopamine D2 receptors. Previous studies show that immediate early gene induction by D2 receptor blockade is suppressed by NMDA receptor antagonists. Because the pharmacology of NMDA receptors depends on the incorporation of different NR2 subunits and NR2 subunits show regional and cellular differences in their expression in striatum, our study examined whether different NMDA receptor antagonists would have differential effects on eticlopride-induced immediate early gene expression in striatum. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with vehicle, CGS 19755, MK-801 or ifenprodil. Rats then received injections of eticlopride and were killed 40 min later. In situ hybridization histochemistry was used to determine the expression of c-fos andzif268 in the striatum. Eticlopride increased immediate early gene expression in striatum, with the increase generally being greater in lateral than in medial striatum. ...
Excessive extracellular glutamate triggers delayed neuronal death by promoting the influx of calcium into cells by activating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or non-NMDA glutamate receptors. [4] Glutamate receptor activation, in turn, stimulates expression of rapidly induced transcriptional activators known as the immediate-early genes. These genes initiate a complex cascade of events that transduct extracellular signals into alterations of cellular functions by regulating target gene expression (late-response genes). [5-7] The immediate-early gene c-fos is rapidly and transiently induced in neurons within the hippocampal formation of the brain after seizures, hypoxia, and global ischemia through glutamate-mediated NMDA and non-NMDA receptor activation. [8-10] The protein product of c-fos mRNA, FOS, modulates transcription of several late-response genes, such as p53, heat-shock protein, bcl-x, tyrosine hydroxylase, and opioid peptides. [10-12] Some of the late-response genes expressed after c-fos ...
BACKGROUND: Extracellular signaling through receptors for neurotrophins mediates diverse neuronal functions, including survival, migration and differentiation in the central nervous system, but the transcriptional targets and regulators that mediate these diverse neurotrophin functions are not well understood. RESULTS: We have identified the immediate-early (IE) genes Fos, Egr1 and Egr2 as transcriptional targets of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/TrkB signaling in primary cortical neurons, and show that the Fos serum response element area responds to BDNF/TrkB in a manner dependent on a combined C/EBP-Ebox element. The Egr1 and Egr2 promoters contain homologous regulatory elements. We found that C/EBPalpha/beta and NeuroD formed complexes in vitro and in vivo, and were recruited to all three homologous promoter regions. C/EBPalpha and NeuroD co-operatively activated the Fos promoter in transfection assays. Genetic depletion of Trk receptors led to impaired recruitment of C/EBPs and NeuroD in
Immediate-early genes have important roles in processes such as brain development, learning, and responses to drug abuse. Further, immediate-early genes play an essential role in cellular responses that contribute to long-term neuronal plasticity. Neuronal plasticity is a characteristic of the nervo …
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Research in our laboratory is focused on providing a more complete understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in cognition and memory storage in the mammalian brain. Specifically, we are interested in the role that immediate-early genes (IEGs) induced by neural activated associated with learning play in stabilizing neural networks to ultimately encode long-term memories. These studies require a multidisciplinary approach, using methods from molecular biology, biochemistry, and systems- and behavioral neuroscience. Our work can be divided broadly into 3 main areas: 1) Determining the molecular and systems interactions regulating IEG expression following learning, 2) Identifying the role of different IEGs to neuroplastic processes, and 3) Using advanced IEG imaging methods to define neuronal population interactions involved in learning and memory. This research will increase understanding of the neurobiological bases of memory, and may provide the basis for future advances in ...
Cellular stimulation causes the rapid appearance of proteins in the nucleus which function as signal-regulated transcription factors converting membrane events into long-term changes in gene...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the MAP kinase family. MAP kinases act as an integration point for multiple biochemical signals, and are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, transcription regulation and development. This kinase targets specific transcription factors, and thus mediates immediate-early gene expression in response to various cell stimuli. It is most closely related to MAPK8, both of which are involved in UV radiation induced apoptosis, thought to be related to the cytochrome c-mediated cell death pathway. This gene and MAPK8 are also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinases. This kinase blocks the ubiquitination of tumor suppressor p53, and thus it increases the stability of p53 in nonstressed cells. Studies of this genes mouse counterpart suggest a key role in T-cell differentiation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported ...
OG-L002 is a potent selective LSD1 inhibitor, it also inhibits inhibitor MAO-A and MAO-B. OG-L002 inhibits the HSV IE gene expression in vitro and in vivo.
The repression of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early (IE) lytic gene expression is crucial for the maintenance of the latent viral state. By using conditionally permissive cell lines, which provide a good model for the differentiation state-dependent repression of IE gene expression, we have identified several cellular factors that bind to the major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) and whose expression is down-regulated after differentiation to a permissive phenotype. Here we show that the cellular protein Ets-2 Repressor Factor (ERF) physically interacts with the MIEP and represses MIEP activity in undifferentiated non-permissive T2 embryonal carcinoma cells. This factor binds to the dyad element and the 21 bp repeats within the MIEP - regions known to be important for the negative regulation of MIEP activity. Finally, we show that following differentiation to a permissive phenotype ERF's repressive effects are severely abrogated.
We previously demonstrated that APP epigenetically regulates Egr1 expression both in cultured neurons and in vivo. Since Egr1 is an immediate early gene involved in memory formation, we wondered whether other early genes involved in memory were regulated by APP and we studied molecular mechanisms involved. By comparing prefrontal (PF) cortex from wild type (APP+/+) and APP knockout mice (APP-/-), we observed that APP down regulates expression of four immediate early genes, Egr1, c-Fos, Bdnf and Arc. Down regulation of Egr1, c-Fos and Bdnf transcription resulted from a decreased enrichment of acetylated histone H4 on the corresponding gene promoter. Further characterization of H4 acetylation at Egr1 and c-Fos promoters revealed increased acetylation of H4K5 and H4K12 residues in APP-/- mice. Whereas APP affected Egr1 promoter activity by reducing access of the CREB transcription factor, its effect on c-Fos appeared to depend on increased recruitment of HDAC2 histone deacetylase to the gene ...
Therapeutic irradiation can induce cognitive impairments without necessarily causing the gross histologic disruption classically associated with exposure to high radiation doses ( 1). Given that postmitotic neurons are generally considered to be relatively radioresistant, new approaches/techniques have been used to identify other targets that may ultimately contribute to the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive injury. Data now exist regarding neurogenesis ( 14, 15), specific genetic factors ( 33) or receptor expression ( 34), and show that changes in these end points can be associated with subsequent cognitive impairments. Still, there is considerable uncertainty regarding how molecular and cellular events within specific neuronal populations are translated into changes that affect behavioral performance. Understanding such changes will be critical to the development of strategies or approaches necessary to prevent or treat the cognitive changes induced by therapeutic irradiation of ...
1. MocarskiES. ShenkT. PassRF. 2007 Cytomegaloviruses. KnipeDM. HowleyPM. GriffinDE. LambRA. MartinMA. RoizmanB. StrausSE. Fields virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA 2701 2772. 2. MeierJL. StinskiMF. 2006 Major immediate-early enhancer and its gene products. In Cytomegaloviruses: Molecular Biology and Immunology ed. ReddehaseM. Norfolk Caister Academic Press 151 166. 3. BegoM. MaciejewskiJ. KhaiboullinaS. PariG. St JeorS. 2005 Characterization of an antisense transcript spanning the UL81-82 locus of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 79 11022 11034. 4. KondoK. XuJ. MocarskiES. 1996 Human cytomegalovirus latent gene expression in granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in culture and in seropositive individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93 11137 11142. 5. PetrucelliA. RakM. GraingerL. GoodrumF. 2009 Characterization of a novel Golgi apparatus-localized latency determinant encoded by human cytomegalovirus. J Virol 83 5615 5629. 6. JenkinsC. AbendrothA. SlobedmanB. 2004 A novel ...
Shop Immediate-early protein ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Immediate-early protein Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
DNA-binding protein that seems to act as a transcription factor (By similarity). Involved in the regulation of neuronal differentiation, acts upon JNK-signaling pathway activation and plays a role in neurite outgrowth in hippocampal cells (PubMed:17156131). May mediate with FIBP FGF-signaling in the establishment of laterality in the embryo (By similarity). Promotes cell motility, seems to stimulate tumor metastasis (By similarity).
The honeybee is a social insect that exhibits various social behaviors. To elucidate the neural basis of honeybee behavior, we detected neural activity in freely-moving honeybee workers using an immediate early gene (IEG) that is expressed in a neural activity-dependent manner. In European honeybees (Apis mellifera), we identified a novel nuclear non-coding RNA, termed kakusei, as the first insect IEG, and revealed the neural activity pattern in foragers. In addition, we isolated a homologue of kakusei, termed Acks, from the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana), and detected active neurons in workers fighting with the giant hornet.
Contains the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer/promoter region for strong, constitutive expression of cloned DNA inserts in a variety of mammalian cell types.
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
Das Immediate-Early Protein 2 (IE2) des humanen Zytomegalievirus ist ein essentieller Regulationsfaktor des lytischen Infektionszyklus. Es aktiviert verschiedene early Promotoren, autoreprimiert seine eigene Expression und besitzt darüber hinaus auch zellzyklusregulatorische Aktivitäten. Um einzelne Funktionen des IE2 Proteins gezielt analysieren zu können, ist eine genaue Kenntnis seiner regulatorischen Domänen unabdingbar. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde daher eine Struktur-Funktionsanalyse des IE2 Proteins durchgeführt mit dem Ziel, seine funktionellen Domänen genauer zu charakterisieren. Hierfür wurden verschiedene IE2-Mutanten hergestellt und ihre Aktivität im Hinblick auf Transaktivierung, Autorepression und DNA-Bindung sowie Zellzylusarrestinduktion bestimmt. Die Untersuchungen ergaben, dass innerhalb einer Core-Region im C-Terminus des Proteins (AS 450-544) die regulatorischen Domänen der untersuchten Funktionen überlappen und hier schon kleinere Mutationen zu einem ...
The pCI Vector contains the CMV immediate-early enhancer/promoter region and is designed to promote constitutive expression of cloned DNA inserts in mammalian cells.
CYR61 is a growth factor-inducible, immediate-early gene that has multifaceted activities in various cancers.CYR61 is a secreted, cysteine-rich, heparin-binding protein.
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Leucémie Lymphoide Chronique et Macroglobulinémie de Waldenström Delmer, Alain;Feugier, Pierre John Libbey Eurotext Limited 2018 3e édition.
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A set of immediate-early genes that are rapidly activated by serum or purified platelet-derived growth factor in mouse 3T3 fibroblasts has been previously identified. Among these genes, several are related to known or putative transcription factors and growth factors, supporting the notion that some of these genes encode regulatory molecules important to cell growth. We show here that a member of this set of genes, cyr61 (originally identified by its cDNA 3CH61), encodes a 379-amino-acid polypeptide rich in cysteine residues. cyr61 can be induced through protein kinase C-dependent and -independent pathways. Unlike many immediate-early genes that are transiently expressed, the cyr61 mRNA is accumulated from the G0/G1 transition through mid-G1. This expression pattern is due to persistent transcription, while the mRNA is rapidly turned over during the G0/G1 transition and in mid-G1 at the same rate. In logarithmically growing cells, the cyr61 mRNA level is constant throughout the cell cycle.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a frequent cause of major disease following primary infection or reactivation from latency in immunocompromised patients. Infection of non-permissive mononuclear cells is used for analyses of HCMV latency in vitro. Using this approach, it is shown here that repression of lytic gene expression following experimental infection of CD34+ cells, a site of HCMV latency in vivo, correlates with recruitment of repressive chromatin around the major immediate-early promoter (MIEP). Furthermore, long-term culture of CD34+ cells results in carriage of viral genomes in which the MIEP remains associated with transcriptionally repressive chromatin. Finally, specific differentiation of long-term cultures of infected CD34+ cells to mature dendritic cells results in acetylation of histones bound to the MIEP, concomitant loss of heterochromatin protein 1 and the reactivation of HCMV. These data are consistent with ex vivo analyses of latency and may provide a model for further analyses of
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) was first isolated 50 years ago, when the new technology of cell culture became available. The pathogenesis of HCMV disease is complex, involving contributions from the host as well as from the virus. Increasing knowledge about the genetic composition of the virus can help to illuminate this complex series of relationships and provide a rational basis for therapeutic intervention and prevention of disease. The major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) enhancer contains multiple recognition sites for the transcription factors. Additionally, the MIEP is specifically transactivated by the tegument protein pp71, which is released as soon as incoming virions are uncoated. Thus, HCMV employs multiple methods independent of de novo viral gene expression to induce an intracellular milieu favorable to the initiation of immediate-early (IE) gene transcription. Humoral immunity could reduce the level of HCMV replication and reduce disease without being able to eliminate infection entirely.
and 20 disease-causing mutations responsible for ID. Our most important scientific accomplishments include (i) the identification of neurotrypsin as the first non-syndromic autosomal recessive ID gene, linking impaired brain plasticity and defects in extracellular proteolytic activity at the synapse; (ii) the identification of the TUSC3 gene, emphasizing the crucial role of N-glycosylation in higher brain function; (iii) the identification of the MED23 gene, highlighting the key role of the Mediator in brain development and functioning and suggesting that altered IEG expression might be a molecular hallmark of cognitive deficit; (iv) the demonstration that members of the Drosophila Behaviour Human Splicing (DBHS) protein family play a key role in inhibitory synapse biology.. 2. Evaluate the role of epigenomic variations in the etiology of ASD ...
The immediate-early response mediates cell fate in response to a variety of extracellular stimuli and is dysregulated in many cancers.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the herpesvirus group, is species specific and can establish both persistent and latent infections. The virus appears to be able to infect a number of cell...
Many other examples can be found in this review by Jack Keene. I dont think Ive seen an example of this yet, but given the slight wobble in microRNA specificity, one could imagine a single microRNA regulating a whole set of genes. Also, most interesting for my neuro-tastes is the recent report from the Moore lab showing that the immediate-early gene implicated in neuronal homeostasis, Arc, may be part of a regulon defined by introns in the 3UTR. The mechanism is just too clever but requires an explication on the pioneer round of translation. Basically the cell tricks itself into thinking it made a funky RNA and destroys it after one round of synthesis. The other RNAs regulated in this path in neurons must have opposing effects to Arc though because knocking down this negative regulation pathway led to increased excitability (increased Arc reduces neuronal excitability). This raises a more general question. The idea of RNA regulons is nice, but how much can you predict knowing that your gene ...
The immediate-early gene of herpesvirus saimiri has homology with murine superantigens. removed. The deletion mutants of stress C488 14 and 14-4.6 which absence a lot of the coding series were generated in independent tests to be able to minimize any bias from spontaneous mutations elsewhere in the herpesvirus genome (3 5 11 After acceptance with the Institutional Pet Treatment and Use Committee (Biomedical Analysis Centre Rijswijk HOLLAND) wild-type C488 and mutants 14-3.11 and 14-4.6 GSK 525762A (107 PFU in 1 ml of cell-free lifestyle supernatant in Dulbecco modified Eagle moderate) had been individually injected into two naive purpose-bred monkeys. Rabbit Polyclonal to UBAP2L. An intravenous infections at a higher dose was completed to be able to exclude artifacts because of limiting circumstances of infections. The pets were older (400 to 500 g) and in great physical health. Pets R207 and R217 received wild-type pathogen B222 and B240 got mutant 14-3.11 and B225 and R222 got mutant 14-4.6. ...
IEG the Thank You Note 8.11 v2 - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free.
Kryoglobuline sind Immunglobuline, die bei Temperaturen unter 37°C präzipitieren. Klinisch manifestiert sich eine Kryoglobulinämie mit sehr unterschiedlichen Symptomen an diversen Organen. Die klinisc
Aufgrund zahlreicher Charakteristika ist die Behandlung des älteren Patienten eine Herausforderung. Zunächst muss die Definition des älteren
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Elastyczna formuła tuszu pozwala wielokrotnie zmieniać pożądany efekt, aby uzyskać dokładnie taką objętość, jakiej szukasz. Formuła jest wodoodporna - możesz mieć pewność, że Twój tusz pozostanie na rzęsach przez cały dzień.
Cell. 1993 Nov 5;75(3):487-93. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Research Support, U.S. Govt, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Govt, P.H.S.
The human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) major immediate-early 1 protein (IE1) is best known for activating transcription to facilitate viral replication. Here we present transcriptome data indicating that IE1 is as significant a repressor as it is an activator of host gene expression. Human cells induced to express IE1 exhibit global repression of IL6- and oncostatin M-responsive STAT3 target genes. This repression is followed by STAT1 phosphorylation and activation of STAT1 target genes normally induced by IFNγ. The observed repression and subsequent activation are both mediated through the same region (amino acids 410 to 445) in the C-terminal domain of IE1, and this region serves as a binding site for STAT3. Depletion of STAT3 phenocopies the STAT1-dependent IFNγ-like response to IE1. In contrast, depletion of the IL6 receptor (IL6ST) or the STAT kinase JAK1 prevents this response. Accordingly, treatment with IL6 leads to prolonged STAT1 instead of STAT3 activation in wild-type IE1 expressing ...
Wright, Edward, Bain, Mark, Teague, Linda, Murphy, Jane and Sinclair, John (2005) Ets-2 repressor factor recruits histone deacetylase to silence human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene expression in non-permissive cells. Journal of General Virology, 86 (3). pp. 535-544. ISSN 0022-1317 ...
The novelty of these results is twofold. One, increasingly, data that make the beneficial effects of C-peptide replenishment in type 1 diabetes irrefutable are accumulating (36). C-peptide exerts a beneficial effect on impaired nerve fiber regeneration in type 1 diabetes by normalizing early gene responses and expression of neurotrophic factors (33,37). It normalizes early metabolic abnormalities such as neural Na+/K+-ATPase activity and endoneurial endothelial nitric oxide synthase and corrects endoneurial blood flow (38-41), which underlie the early reversible metabolic nerve conduction defect (7). However, it does not affect oxidative stress in peripheral nerve (39). Two, here we demonstrate for the first time that the progressive nodal and paranodal structural changes, characteristic of both human and murine type 1 DPN (4,6,7), correlate with progressive decreases in the expression of the principal nodal and paranodal molecules and that these are correctable by C-peptide. The progressive ...
In the articles Central and Medial Amygdaloid Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Plays a Critical Role in Alcohol-Drinking and Anxiety-Like Behaviors by Subhash C. Pandey, Huaibo Zhang, Adip Roy, and Kaushik Misra, which appeared on pages 8320-8331 of the August 9, 2006 issue, and Effector Immediate-Early Gene Arc in the Amygdala Plays a Critical Role in Alcoholism by Subhash C. Pandey, Huaibo Zhang, Rajesh Ugale, Anand Prakash, Tiejun Xu, and Kaushik Misra, which appeared on pages 2589-2600 of the March 5, 2008 issue, errors were made in figures. In Figure 5A of Pandey et al. (2006), the same photomicrograph was presented to document the placement of cannulae in aCSF- and BDNF antisense-treated subjects. In Figure 5B of Pandey et al. (2008), offset versions of the same photomicrograph were presented to document pCREB immunolabeling for the C+aCSF and C+BDNF treatments. In Figure 6B of Pandey et al. (2008), the same photomicrograph was presented to document Arc mRNA-positive cells ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether spatial hippocampus-dependent learning is affected by the serotonergic system and stress. Therefore, 5-HTT knockout (-/-), heterozygous (+/-) and wildtype (+/+) mice were subjected to the Barnes maze (BM) and the Morris water maze (WM), the latter being discussed as more aversive. Additionally, immediate early gene (IEG) expression, hippocampal adult neurogenesis (aN), and blood plasma corticosterone were analyzed. While the performance of 5-HTT-/- mice in the BM was undistinguishable from both other genotypes, they performed worse in the WM. However, in the course of the repeated WM trials 5-HTT-/- mice advanced to wildtype level. The experience of a single trial of either the WM or the BM resulted in increased plasma corticosterone levels in all genotypes. After several trials 5-HTT-/- mice exhibited higher corticosterone concentrations compared with both other genotypes in both tests. Corticosterone levels were highest in 5-HTT-/- mice tested ...
1. J.M. Schober, N. Chen, T.M. Greszkiewicz, I. Jovanovic, E.E. Emeson, T.P. Ugarova, R.D. Ye, L.F. Lau, S.C.-T. Lam. Identification of Integrin aMb2 as an Adhesion Receptor on Peripheral Blood Monocytes for Cyr61 (CCN1) and Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CCN2): Immediate-early Gene Products Expressed in Atherosclerotic Lesions. Blood. 2002;99:4457-4465. Pubmed ...
Alfonso-Dunn R, Turner A-MW, Beltran PMJean, Arbuckle JH, Budayeva HG, Cristea IM, et al. Transcriptional Elongation of HSV Immediate Early Genes by the Super Elongation Complex Drives Lytic Infection and Reactivation from Latency. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 ;21(4):507-517.e5. ...
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In immunocompromised patients, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection can lead to severe, life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonitis, hepatitis, gastrointestinal tract disease, and retinitis. We previously reported that a 70% ethanol extract of Elaeocarpus sylvestris leaves (ESE) inhibits human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication in vitro. In the present study, we determined the solvent fraction of ESE that inhibits HCMV replication using activity-guided fractionation. Activity-guided fractionation of ESE was performed to determine the solvent fraction that inhibits HCMV replication. Effects of solvent fractions on HCMV lytic gene expression and major immediate-early (MIE) enhancer/promoter activity were further investigated. Among the solvent fractions tested, the EtOAc fraction of ESE markedly reduced HCMV lytic gene expression and viral replication in vitro without exerting significant cytotoxic effects against human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF). Furthermore, the EtOAc fraction negatively affected
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a replication-incompetent pseudorabies virus mutant lacking the sole immediate early gene IE180. AU - Wu, Brendan W.. AU - Engel, Esteban A.. AU - Enquist, Lynn W.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2014 Wu et al. PY - 2014/9/25. Y1 - 2014/9/25. N2 - The alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) encodes a single immediate early gene called IE180. The IE180 protein is a potent transcriptional activator of viral genes involved in DNA replication and RNA transcription. A PRV mutant with both copies of IE180 deleted was constructed 20 years ago (S. Yamada and M. Shimizu, Virology 199:366-375, 1994, doi:10.1006/ viro.1994.1134), but propagation of the mutant depended on complementing cell lines that expressed the toxic IE180 protein constitutively. Recently, Oyibo et al. constructed a novel set of PRV IE180 mutants and a stable cell line with inducible IE180 expression (H. Oyibo, P. Znamenskiy, H. V. Oviedo, L. W. Enquist, A. Zador, Front. Neuroanat. 8:86, 2014, ...
OBJECTIVE To compare the mechanotransduction caused by cyclic and static mechanical strains in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs) cultured under identical conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS hPDLFs, originating from the same donors, were exposed either to cyclic or to static tensile strain using specially designed devices and under identical culture conditions. Activation of all members of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) was monitored by western immunoblot analysis. Expression levels of immediate/early genes c-fos and c-jun were assessed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Time course experiments revealed that both types of stresses activate the three members of MAPK, that is ERK, p38, and JNK, with cyclic stress exhibiting a slightly more extended activation. Further downstream, both stresses upregulate the immediate/early genes c-fos and c-jun, encoding components of the activator protein-1 (AP-1), a key transcription factor in osteoblastic ...
The scientists found that knocking out the A2A receptor from astrocytes improved memory in young and old mice. Deleting A2A elevated expression of the immediate-early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus and cortex. The Arc protein facilitates long-term memory. The conditional A2A knockout also improved memory in 16-month-old transgenic mice expressing the human amyloid precursor protein. Conversely, stimulating Gs-coupled signaling in astrocytes of the hippocampus in 2-month-old mice blocked spatial memories formed in the Morris water maze. How does the A2A receptor modulate memory? The researchers propose it might be involved in the process of actively forgetting. They suggest astrocytic A2A receptors could be therapeutic targets in AD.-Gwyneth Dickey Zakaib. ...
Although many signalling molecules appear relevant to the production of complex behaviours, those that are important to the physiological regulation of behaviour, and so those that characterise individual styles of behaviour, are unknown. Vasopressin is the strongest candidate regulator of social behaviour. Experiments were carried out in consideration that vasopressin may directly regulate aggressive behaviour in lactating rats. Patterns of immediate early gene expression during/subsequent to aggressive behaviour suggested specific neural circuits may have significant direct regulatory influence over particular behaviours, and that activation of the V1b vasopressin receptor, in these circuits, may contribute to this putative regulatory signalling. In situ hybridisation studies indicated that patterns of vasopressin release, rather than receptor expression, might be important for any peripartum changes in behaviour driven by vasopressin. Although their relative importance is unknown, central ...
Davison, A.J., Marsden, H.S. and Wilkie, N.M. (1981) One functional copy of the long terminal repeat gene specifying the immediate-early polypeptide IE 110 suffices for a productive infection of human foetal lung cells by herpes simplex virus. Journal of General Virology, 55(1), pp. 179-191. (doi:10.1099/0022-1317-55-1-179) ...
Dati ir iegūti no reģistrācijas dokumentācijas, kas ir iesniegta ECHA līdz datumam, kas norādīts kā pēdējais atjauninājums. Kopējās tonnāžas diapazons ir iegūts no visas dokumentācijas, ar diviem izņēmumiem; jebkādu tonnāžu, uz kuru attiecas pieteikums par konfidencialitāti, un jebkāds apjoms, kas tiek izmantots kā starpprodukts citas ķīmiskās vielas ražošanā. Publicētais kopējās tonnāžas diapazons ne vienmēr atspoguļo reģistrētās tonnāžas diapazonu (-us). Ņemiet vērā, ka daļa informācijas par reģistrētajām vielām var piederēt trešām personām. Tādēļ šādas informācijas izmantošanai var būt nepieciešama īpašnieku, kas ir trešās personas, iepriekšēja piekrišana. Lai iegūtu plašāku informāciju, iepazīstieties ar Juridisko paziņojumu.. ...
Dati ir iegūti no reģistrācijas dokumentācijas, kas ir iesniegta ECHA līdz datumam, kas norādīts kā pēdējais atjauninājums. Kopējās tonnāžas diapazons ir iegūts no visas dokumentācijas, ar diviem izņēmumiem; jebkādu tonnāžu, uz kuru attiecas pieteikums par konfidencialitāti, un jebkāds apjoms, kas tiek izmantots kā starpprodukts citas ķīmiskās vielas ražošanā. Publicētais kopējās tonnāžas diapazons ne vienmēr atspoguļo reģistrētās tonnāžas diapazonu (-us). Ņemiet vērā, ka daļa informācijas par reģistrētajām vielām var piederēt trešām personām. Tādēļ šādas informācijas izmantošanai var būt nepieciešama īpašnieku, kas ir trešās personas, iepriekšēja piekrišana. Lai iegūtu plašāku informāciju, iepazīstieties ar Juridisko paziņojumu.. ...
The theory of self-reproductive molecular systems involves the consequence that translation must have started from a selected distribution of RNA molecules, that comprised GC-rich sequences of a lengt
5 Early evolution. *6 Gene therapy. *7 Cancer. *8 Classification *8.1 Exogenous *8.1.1 Group VI viruses ... Gene therapy[edit]. Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors for gene therapy have been developed that mediate stable genetic ... For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of the capsid protein, the pol gene is translated into molecules of ... Rous sarcoma virus contains the src gene that triggers tumor formation. Later it was found that a similar gene in cells is ...
"Id genes are essential for early heart formation". Genes & Development. 31 (13): 1325-1338. doi:10.1101/gad.300400.117. PMC ... DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ID1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is ... "Id gene expression during development and molecular cloning of the human Id-1 gene". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 30 (2): 312-26 ... "Entrez Gene: ID1 inhibitor of DNA binding 1, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein". Garkavtsev I, Kozin SV, Chernova O, ...
2017). "Id genes are essential for early heart formation". Genes & Development. 31 (13): 1325-1338. doi:10.1101/gad.300400.117 ... The ID4 gene is part of the ID gene family. This family is also known as inhibitors of DNA binding protein family and are ... The gene spans 3.3kb on the plus strand. It is composed of 3 exons and during transcription its mRNA is 2343 bp. The encoded ... The ID4 gene is also known as DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-4, Id-4, IDb4, IDB4, Inhibitor of DNA binding 4, Inhibitor of ...
Martin GR (June 1998). "The roles of FGFs in the early development of vertebrate limbs". Genes Dev. 12 (11): 1571-86. doi: ... genes (HOXC9, HOXC10, HOXC11) are expressed only in the posterior limbs (legs). The intermediate genes (HOXC6, HOXC8) are ... or the finger/toes are formed too early (for a late-->early transplantation). AER formation relies on dorsal-ventral boundary ... or the finger/toes are formed too early (for a late → early transplantation). Gilbert, Scott F. "Developmental Biology". 9th ed ...
The human ERBB3 gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 12 (12q13). It is encoded by 23,651 base pairs and translates ... Davies AM (1998). "Neuronal survival: early dependence on Schwann cells". Curr. Biol. 8 (1): R15-8. doi:10.1016/s0960-9822(98) ... "ERBB3 Gene - GeneCards , ERBB3 Protein". Coussens L, Yang-Feng TL, Liao YC, Chen E, Gray A, McGrath J, Seeburg PH, Libermann TA ... Katoh M, Yazaki Y, Sugimura T, Terada M (1993). "c-erbB3 gene encodes secreted as well as transmembrane receptor tyrosine ...
... on early endosomes". Genes Cells. 11 (6): 593-606. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.00963.x. PMID 16716190. S2CID 30077507. Reyes- ... "Entrez Gene: STAMBPL1 STAM binding protein-like 1". Nagase T, Kikuno R, Ishikawa KI, et al. (2000). "Prediction of the coding ... AMSH-like protease is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the STAMBPL1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000138134 - ... 2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)". Genome ...
Whitman M (August 1998). "Smads and early developmental signaling by the TGFbeta superfamily". Genes Dev. 12 (16): 2445-62. doi ... The SKI proto-oncogene is located at a region close to the p73 tumor suppressor gene at the locus 1p36.3 locus of a gene, ... Nagase T, Nomura N, Ishii S (1993). "Complex formation between proteins encoded by the ski gene family". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (18 ... SKI has been shown to interfere with normal cellular functioning by both directly impeding expression of certain genes inside ...
Genes Dev. 13 (12): 1540-52. doi:10.1101/gad.13.12.1540. PMC 316795. PMID 10385623. "BRCA1 breast cancer 1, early onset [ Homo ... processes for a group of genes useful under a specific conditions (for example, DNA repair genes or heat shock genes). ... An expressed gene is preferentially located outside of its chromosome territory, but a closely linked, inactive gene is located ... Estimates show that erythroid cells express at least 4,000 genes, so many genes are obliged to seek out and share the same ...
Martin JF, Bradley A, Olson EN (1995). "MHox is required for early events of skeletogenesis in multiple lineages". Genes Dev. 9 ... Another good candidate for bat bone reduction is Hox-d13, a gene belonging to the Hox gene family. In situ hybridization ... and spatial gene expression of some orthologous genes have changed. Since mice are also mammals, it is convenient to compare ... In mice, one gene known to regulate limb growth is prx1, which encodes a transcription factor. The expression patterns of prx1 ...
July 2017). "Id genes are essential for early heart formation". Genes & Development. 31 (13): 1325-1338. doi:10.1101/gad. ... The ID homologue gene in Drosophila is called extramacrochaetae (EMC) and encodes a transcription factor of the helix-loop- ... Brody T B (1998). "The interactive fly: Extra macrochaetae". Fong S, Debs RJ, Desprez PY (August 2004). "Id genes and proteins ... Perk, Iavarone, and Benezra, (2005), reviewed fifteen studies and compiled a list of the phenotypic effects of each ID gene ...
"Requirement for Foxd3 in maintaining pluripotent cells of the early mouse embryo". Genes Dev. 16 (20): 2650-61. doi:10.1101/gad ... Forkhead box D3 also known as FOXD3 is a forkhead protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXD3 gene. This gene belongs to the ... Mutations in this gene cause vitiligo. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000187140 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release ... Groucho-related gene-4). Multiple studies have suggested Foxd3 involvement in the transition from naive to primed pluripotent ...
"A core transcriptional network for early mesoderm development in Drosophila melanogaster". Genes Dev. 21: 436-49. doi:10.1101/ ... CRMs activating gene expression are often referred to as transcriptional enhancers, whereas those repressing gene expression ... which involves the highly regulated transcription of thousands of genes. This gene regulation is in large part controlled, in a ... "Genomics, gene expression and DNA arrays". Nature. 405: 827-36. doi:10.1038/35015701. PMID 10866209. Bulyk ML (2003). " ...
Martínez A, Mas A, de las Heras V, Arroyo R, Fernández-Arquero M, de la Concha EG, Urcelay E (2005). "Early B-cell Factor gene ... Transcription factor COE1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EBF1 gene. EBF1 stands for Early B-Cell Factor 1. EBF1 ... "Entrez Gene: EBF1 early B-cell factor 1". Treiber, Thomas; Mandel, Elizabeth M.; Pott, Sebastian; Györy, Ildiko; Firner, Sonja ... Gisler R, Jacobsen SE, Sigvardsson M (2000). "Cloning of human early B-cell factor and identification of target genes suggest a ...
Thus activating the zygotic genes. Smaug is expected to play a role in expression of three miRNAs - miR-3, miR-6, miR-309 and ... Edgar, B. A.; Datar, S. A. (1996-08-01). "Zygotic degradation of two maternal Cdc25 mRNAs terminates Drosophila's early cell ... "Smaug recruits the CCR4/POP2/NOT deadenylase complex to trigger maternal transcript localization in the early Drosophila embryo ... cycle program". Genes & Development. 10 (15): 1966-1977. doi:10.1101/gad.10.15.1966. ISSN 0890-9369. PMID 8756353. Tadros, Wael ...
... is a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene with germline mutations found in a small percentage of early-onset ... GT198 also controls gene regulation, including steroid hormone-mediated gene activation as a steroid hormone receptor ... It is currently unknown if genetic instability of each gene could affect neighboring cancer genes. GT198 is found to have ... "Inactivating Mutations in GT198 in Familial and Early-Onset Breast and Ovarian Cancers". Genes & Cancer. 4 (1-2): 15-25. doi: ...
... on early endosomes". Genes to Cells. 11 (6): 593-606. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.00963.x. PMID 16716190. Tsang HT, Connell JW ... Mutations in this gene have been associated to cases of microcephaly (doi:10.1038/ng.2602) STAMBP has been shown to interact ... "Entrez Gene: STAMBP STAM binding protein". Li H, Seth A (March 2004). "An RNF11: Smurf2 complex mediates ubiquitination of the ... The protein encoded by this gene binds to the SH3 domain of the signal-transducing adaptor molecule, and plays a critical role ...
"The Genetic History of Horses". Genes to Genomes. November 7, 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2017. Outram, Alan K.; Stear, Natalie A ... Sablin, Mikhail V.; Khlopachev, Gennady A. (2002). "The Earliest Ice Age Dogs: Evidence from Eliseevichi 11". Current ... Zeder, Melinda A. (2008). "Domestication and early agriculture in the Mediterranean Basin: Origins, diffusion, and impact". ... Peters, J. (1997). "The dromedary: Ancestry, history of domestication and medical treatment in early historic times". ...
"Bub3 gene disruption in mice reveals essential mitotic spindle checkpoint function during early embryogenesis". Genes & ... Mitotic checkpoint protein BUB3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BUB3 gene. Bub3 is a protein involved with the ... "Entrez Gene: BUB3 BUB3 budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 homolog (yeast)". Morgan, David O (2007). The cell cycle: ... Human BUB3 genome location and BUB3 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser.. ...
The earliest pottery in Japan was made at or before the start of the Incipient Jōmon period. Small fragments, dated to 14 500 ... A 2015 study found specific gene alleles, related to facial structure and features among some Ainu individuals, which largely ... The earliest vessels were mostly smallish round-bottomed bowls 10-50 cm high that are assumed to have been used for boiling ... Other early pottery vessels include those excavated from the Yuchanyan Cave in southern China, dated from 16 000 BCE, and at ...
In early October 1274, the Battle of Bun'ei began with a combined force of Mongols and Koreans. They arrived on ships and ... Genes & Genetic Systems. 90 (3): 147-152. doi:10.1266/ggs.90.147. PMID 26510569. Robbeets, Martine (2015), Diachrony of Verb ... This caused enormous change in Japan's political and social structure from the late Edo Period to the early Meiji Period. Japan ... He was one of the main architects of the military and political foundations of early modern Japan. Yamagata Aritomo is regarded ...
Helix-turn-helix Two α helices joined by a short strand of amino acids and found in many proteins that regulate gene expression ... Milner-White, E. James (September 26, 2011). "Functional Capabilities of the Earliest Peptides and the Emergence of Life". ... Milner-White, E. James (September 26, 2011). "Functional Capabilities of the Earliest Peptides and the Emergence of Life". ... Genes. 2 (4): 678. doi:10.3390/genes2040671. PMC 3927598. PMID 24710286. PROSITE Database of protein families and domains SCOP ...
ISBN 978-0-521-10957-4. Bellwood, Peter (2001). "Early Agriculturalist Population Diasporas? Farming, Languages, and Genes". ... early Bronze Age, in Italian) Beaker culture (3rd to 2nd millennia, early Bronze Age) Stonehenge, Skara Brae Some Neolithic ... Early Indo-European languages are usually assumed to have reached Danubian (and maybe Central) Europe in the Chalcolithic or ... There are early loanwords from unidentified non-IE languages in other Uralic languages of Europe as well. Mesolithic Lepenski ...
Gene. 441 (1-2): 28-35. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2008.06.011. PMID 18598742. Schulte, J. A.; Valladares, J. P.; Larson, A. (September ... Given that the deepest phylogenetic split in a group is likely to have occurred early in its history, identification of the ... doi:10.1111/j.0307-6970.2004.00262.x. Van Rheede, Teun (2005). "The Platypus Is in Its Place: Nuclear Genes and Indels Confirm ... Crisp, M. D.; Cook, L. G. (March 2005). "Do early branching lineages signify ancestral traits?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution ...
ISBN 0-03-025982-7. Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Jacobs, David K.; Hartenstein, Volker (2008). "Early development, pattern ... and reorganization of the planula nervous system in Aurelia (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa)". Development Genes and Evolution. 218 (10): ...
"Structure and function of the DNA ligases encoded by the mammalian LIG3 gene". Gene. 531 (2): 150-157. doi:10.1016/j.gene. ... Baldy MW (February 1970). "The UV sensitivity of some early-function temperature-sensitive mutants of phage T4". Virology. 40 ( ... Mutations in the ATM gene cause ataxia-telangiectasia. The ATM gene provides instructions for making a protein that helps ... The E. coli DNA ligase is encoded by the lig gene. DNA ligase in E. coli, as well as most prokaryotes, uses energy gained by ...
"It's the Genes, Stupid". New York Times. May 27, 2008. Shishkin, Philip (January 27, 2009). "Genes and the Friends You Make". ... Christakis NA, Fowler JH (2010). "Social Network Sensors for Early Detection of Contagious Outbreaks". PLOS ONE. 5 (9): e12948 ... Genes and Politics Fowler, J. H.; Schreiber, D (7 November 2008). "Biology, Politics, and the Emerging Science of Human Nature ... Genes and Social Networks Fowler, J.H.; Settle, J. E.; Christakis, N. A. (1 February 2011). "Correlated Genotypes in Friendship ...
Genes activated by Dpp signaling include optomotor blind (omb) and spalt, and activity of these genes are often used as ... At the early blastoderm stage, Dpp signaling is uniform and low along the dorsal side. A sharp signaling profile emerges at the ... The most studied tissues in which Dpp is found are the early embryo and the imaginal wing discs, which later form the wings of ... Activated Mad is able to bind to DNA and act as a transcription factor to affect the expression of different genes in response ...
Early attempts to screen up to 400 candidate genes for association with late-onset sporadic AD (LOAD) resulted in a low yield. ... Early onset familial AD can be attributed to mutations in one of three genes: those encoding amyloid-beta precursor protein ( ... More recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have found 19 areas in genes that appear to affect the risk. These genes ... who have an extra gene copy almost universally exhibit at least the earliest symptoms of AD by 40 years of age. Also, a ...
ISBN 3-8253-1449-9. Bellwood, Peter (2001). "Early Agriculturalist Population Diasporas? Farming, Languages, and Genes". Annual ... assumed to be the descendants of the earlier Old European cultures: the Pelasgians, Minoans, Leleges, Iberians, Nuragic people ...
McGue, Matt; Bacon, Steve; Lykken, David (1993). "Personality stability and change in early adulthood: A behavioral genetic ... Bouchard, Thomas J., Jr.; Loehlin, J.C. (2001). "Genes, evolution, and personality". Behavior Genetics. 31 (3): 243-273. doi: ...
The early historical roots of the field can be traced to the work of people such as Louis Lapicque, Hodgkin & Huxley, Hubel & ... aims to construct a biophysically detailed simulation of a cortical column on the Blue Gene supercomputer. ... Earlier models of memory are primarily based on the postulates of Hebbian learning. Biologically relevant models such as ... Early models of sensory processing understood within a theoretical framework are credited to Horace Barlow. Somewhat similar to ...
See Gene Quinn, SCOTUS Blog founder asks Supreme Court to reconsider Mayo ruling in Sequenom v. Ariosa , IP Watchdog (Mar. 21, ... According to the patent, fetal DNA is from 0.39% of the sample (the lowest concentration measured in early pregnancy), to as ...
His Early Days Were Fun, Philadelphia Daily News, July 2, 1991. "I et interview fra 1985, fortalte Landon, at han spiste ... Gene Orman. 1990. Where Pigeons Go to Die. Hugh som voksen. Tv-film ...
... in FGFR genes) and mutations that lead to loss of function (in TWIST genes).[38][39] Craniosynostosis is therefore likely the ... Surgery is not performed in early childhood in every country; in some countries surgical intervention can take place in the ... Gene Loeys-Dietz syndrome wide-set eyes • split uvula or cleft palate • arterial tortuosity • aortic root dilatation • ... In terms of syndromic craniosynostosis not only do FGFR3 and TWIST genes feature, but also FGFR1 and in particular FGFR2, which ...
Early lifeEdit. ChildhoodEdit. Benedict was born Ruth Fulton in New York City on June 5, 1887, to Beatrice and Frederick Fulton ... Gene Weltfish. This pamphlet was intended for American troops and set forth, in simple language with cartoon illustrations, the ... Benedict is known not only for her earlier Patterns of Culture but also for her later book The Chrysanthemum and the Sword, the ... Education and early careerEdit. In her search for a career, she decided to attend some lectures at the New School for Social ...
"Mean" Gene Kelton, singer-songwriter, blues musician, and band leader of Mean Gene Kelton & The Die Hards ... and East Baytown in the early 1920s, developed as early boomtowns.[8] The "East" in East Baytown was later dropped because it ... Other early settlers of Baytown included William Scott, one of Stephen F. Austin's Old Three Hundred, and Ashbel Smith, who ... White settlers first arrived in the now-Baytown area in 1822.[8] One of its earliest settlers was Nathaniel Lynch, who set up a ...
In the early stages of insulin resistance, the mass of beta cells expands, increasing the output of insulin to compensate for ... There are a number of rare cases of diabetes that arise due to an abnormality in a single gene (known as monogenic forms of ... Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor to an increased probability of becoming a type 2 ... All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total heritable component of the disease.[41] The TCF7L2 allele, ...
遗传学:150330 鼠基因:96794 同源基因:41321 ChEMBL(英语:ChEMBL): 1293235 GeneCards: LMNA Gene. ... Early in mitosis, MPF phosphorylates specific serine residues in all three nuclear lamins, causing depolymerization of the ... Entrez Gene: LMNA lamin A/C.. *^ Capell BC, Collins FS. Human laminopathies: nuclei gone genetically awry. Nat. Rev. Genet. ... Lamin A/C gene and a related sequence map to human chromosomes 1q12.1-q23 and 10. Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. March 1993, 19 (2): ...
As a result, structural proteins, resulting from polypeptide products of gag and gag-pol genes, that are necessary for the HIV ... kickstarted their studies by basing their project off of earlier research on the protease enzyme, renin.[5] They were the ones ...
By early spring the recently erupted tusks reach approximately 50% of their final length. As the tusks develop, the root ... "New phylogenetic perspectives on the Cervidae (Artiodactyla) are provided by the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene". Proceedings ... However, if the conflict is not resolved at the early stage, the bucks will fight. Each would try to wound the other on the ...
This is often an early step in identifying and sequencing the actual genes that cause the trait variation. ... Several genes factor into determining a person's natural skin color, so modifying only one of those genes can change skin color ... The DNA sequence of any genes in this region can then be compared to a database of DNA for genes whose function is already ... It may indicate that plant height is controlled by many genes of small effect, or by a few genes of large effect. ...
The earliest evidence of the style is from the Tassili n'Ajjer mountain range in Algeria. There, rock art depicting women ... The style also appeared in early Greek art, particularly iconic kouros statues, on Celtic warriors and lasses, and as part of ... It was also depicted in art from early Greek and Sung dynasty periods.[4] ...
" ("farm rabbits") in as early as 1881[1] and were kept mainly for their meat and pelts. As a result of this, health, ... Registered rabbits are maintained in an official gene bank registry.[3] 4 week old Gotland rabbits ...
"Ingenuity Systems Unveils Early Access to Revolutionary New iReport" (Press release). Ingenuity Systems. September 29, 2011. ... "Sigma-Aldrich Launches Your Favorite Gene Powered by Ingenuity, Sigma-Aldrich Co" (Press release). Sigma-Aldrich Co., Inc. ... IPA also lets researchers search for information on genes, proteins, chemicals, drugs, and reagents. Resulting information can ... Sigma-Aldrich leverages Ingenuity technology in their Your Favorite Gene application, and BD Biosciences leverages Ingenuity ...
Primitive Early Eocene bat from Wyoming and the evolution of flight and echolocation (ang.). W: Nature [on-line]. 2008-02-14. [ ... Stanhope MJ, Czelusniak J, Si JS, Nickerson J, Goodman M. A molecular perspective on mammalian evolution from the gene encoding ...
Early years[edit]. He was born on a farm in Kosse, Limestone County, Texas[6] to Emma Lee Foley and John Tompkins Wills.[7] His ... Wills recalled the early days of what became known as Western swing music in a 1949 interview.[24] "Here's the way I figure it ... He did, however, recover sufficiently to appear in a wheelchair at various Wills tributes held in the early 70's. A revival of ... He continued to tour and record through the 1950s into the early 1960s, despite the fact that Western swing's popularity, even ...
The works have raised some concerns about ethical issues in this field including a possibility that a child may have genes from ... Barnes-Jewish Hospital and Integris Baptist Medical Center in Oklahoma City four weeks earlier. Graduate Medical Education at ...
It was used by Punnett in early studies of genetic linkage.[8] Complementary factor inheritance was also elucidated in sweet ... peas, from the cross of two pure-breeding white strains which gave rise to a blue hybrid, the blue colour requiring two genes ... Because of this, growers are encouraged to plant sweet peas away from fruit trees among other plants prone to early dieback or ... The sweet pea is thus a model organism being used in early experimentations in genetics, particularly by the pioneer geneticist ...
... encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-strand mRNAs, which are then ... Early symptoms of EVD may be similar to those of other diseases common in Africa, including malaria and dengue fever.[25] The ... This enables the virus to evade the immune system by inhibiting early steps of neutrophil activation.[medical citation needed] ... Chan M (September 2014). "Ebola virus disease in West Africa - no early end to the outbreak". N Engl J Med. 371 (13): 1183-85. ...
Gamma-interferon transcriptionally regulates an early-response gene containing homology to platelet proteins". Nature. 315: 672 ...
... and includes old varieties Early Benaras and Early Patna.. VarietiesEdit. There are hundreds of historic and current commercial ... "Toward Identification of the Candidate Gene Controlling Anthocyanin Accumulation in Purple Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. ... Used in Europe for winter and early spring harvest, this was developed in France in the 19th century, and includes the old ... Both have been commercially available in the U.S. and Europe since the early 1990s. Green-headed varieties include 'Alverda', ' ...
The wild mallard is the ancestor of most domestic ducks, and its naturally evolved wild gene pool gets genetically polluted by ... as it appeared on an earlier page in the text.[4] The scientific name comes from Latin Anas, "duck" and Ancient Greek ... Due to the variability of the mallard's genetic code, which gives it its vast interbreeding capability, mutations in the genes ... Complete hybridisation of various species of wild duck gene pools could result in the extinction of many indigenous waterfowl. ...
Presumably, early humans used wooden spears as early as 5 million years ago to hunt small animals, much as their relatives, ... "Chimps, Humans 96 Percent the Same, Gene Study Finds". Retrieved 23 December 2013 ... hominins Homo erectus and Homo ergaster as early as 300,000 to 1.5 million years ago and possibly even earlier by the early ... Early hominins may have begun to cook their food as early as the Lower Paleolithic (c. 1.9 million years ago) or at the latest ...
Gene content and protein synthesisEdit. The chloroplast genome most commonly includes around 100 genes[7][10] which code for a ... In addition to the early microscopy experiments, this model is also supported by the amounts of deamination seen in cpDNA.[17] ... 3 Gene content and protein synthesis *3.1 Chloroplast genome reduction and gene transfer ... Chloroplasts may contain 60-100 genes whereas cyanobacteria often have more than 1500 genes in their genome.[27] Contrarily, ...
In the early 1980s, Branch planned to spend three years writing about America during the civil rights era, focusing on Martin ... The Race Beat by Gene Roberts and Hank Klibanoff (2007). *What Hath God Wrought by Daniel Walker Howe (2008) ...
These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ... acnes and the immune system have shown promise for improving acne in early clinical trials.[91] Another avenue of early-stage ... Genes[edit]. Acne appears to be strongly inherited; genetics explain 81% of the variation in the population.[15] Studies ... The earliest pathologic change is the formation of a plug (a microcomedone), which is driven primarily by excessive growth, ...
Biography and the early years[edit]. Tilton was born in McKinney, Texas, on June 7, 1946. He attended Cooke County Junior ... Some of Tilton's fundraising letters were written by Gene Ewing, who heads a multimillion-dollar marketing empire writing ... In the early 2000s, the Trinity Foundation put together a number of news broadcasts, including the initial Primetime Live piece ... He had been a longtime high-dollar donor and gave up his last $5,000 as a "vow of faith" just weeks earlier. Guetzlaff's ...
Gene ontology. Molecular function. • acrosin binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • carbohydrate binding. • identical protein ... The zona pellucida (ZP) is a specialized extracellular matrix that surrounds the oocyte and early embryo. It is composed of ... "Entrez Gene: zona pellucida glycoprotein 3 (sperm receptor)".. *^ "EggNOG Database , Orthology predictions and functional ... Orthologs of these genes are found throughout Vertebrata. The western clawed frog appears to have two orthologs, and the sea ...
The HLA genes fall in two categories (Type I and Type II). In general, mismatches of the Type-I genes (i.e. HLA-A, HLA-B, or ... This leads to a state of mixed chimerism early after transplant where both recipient and donor HSC coexist in the bone marrow ... as members of the same ethnic group are more likely to have matching genes, including the genes for HLA.[24] ... A mismatch of an HLA Type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR, or HLA-DQB1) increases the risk of graft-versus-host disease. In addition, a ...
It is good-humored ("My genes are in mice, and not in the banal way / that Man's old genes are in the Beasts"), appealingly sly ... The life in which an early poem is also a poem, and a first book is also a book.[19] ...
Scientists have identified mutations in a gene responsible for some cases of early puberty, an issue of growing concern to ... doctors, as children begin developing earlier and earlier. ... Mutations in one gene accounted for one-third of cases of early ... Scientists find gene mutation that spurs early puberty. Scientists have identified mutations in a gene responsible for some ... Scientists find gene mutation that spurs early puberty. Liz Szabo, USA TODAY Published 6:15 p.m. ET June 5, 2013 , Updated 7:57 ...
A worm or yeast gene was defined as an "ancestor" of a human/fish gene if several human genes found the worm or yeast gene as ... We considered both genes that were 1:1 orthologues and genes for which a single yeast or worm gene is an "ancestor" of two or ... Evolutionary conservation of essential zebrafish genes. Horizonal lines on the Left represent 315 different genes. The genes ... these genes should be representative of the entire set of protein-coding genes that are genetically essential for early ...
A study in Cell using a novel technique for detecting Neanderthal genes in the genomes of modern humans reveals early gene flow ... "back-migration and gene flow events led to the introgression of Neanderthal genes into the genome of early Africans" ... and gene flow events led to the introgression of Neanderthal genes into the genome of early Africans and that Neanderthal genes ... There and back again - ancient genes reveal early migrations. *Joseph Willson. 1. ...
... Nov. 7, 2019 -- For the first time in the United States, the gene editing tool ... "Its very early, but Im incredibly encouraged by this," Dr. Aaron Gerds, a Cleveland Clinic cancer specialist, told the AP. ... "This is proof that we can safely do gene editing of these cells." ...
... has identified a single gene (TLE6) which, when mutated, is responsible for human embryonic lethality at an earlier stage of ... Using gene sequencing to study the embryos conceived by these women, the researchers found that a mutation in a single gene ( ... this is the first study to pinpoint a gene which works in the earliest stages of embryonic development at the pre-implantation ... A new study, published in the open access journal Genome Biology, has identified a single gene (TLE6) which, when mutated, is ...
Opsin genes found in aquatic relatives of corals, jellyfish, sea anemones. Opsin genes (pictured in blue) offer the first ... We show very clearly that these changes in a particular duplicated gene, opsin, allowed the new genes to interact with ... Because we dont find opsins in earlier branching animals like sponges, we can put a date on the evolution of light sensitivity ... These results are significant to advancing our understanding of the early evolution of sight in animals, and show how simple ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Gene therapy achieves early success against her... Gene therapy achieves early success against hereditary bleeding disorder. 10 ... A similar response was reported in earlier gene therapy trials conducted by other investigators using a different vector. ... The gene is carried on the X chromosome. As a result, haemophilia B is almost exclusively a disease of men. About 1 in 30,000 ... Haemophila B gene therapy breakthrough by UCL Sound Image: Trial participant Sebastian Misztal (Credit: UCLH/UCL NIHR ...
The gene expression signature of early Lyme disease could be distinguished from other infectious causes, which would be ... The gene expression signature of early Lyme disease could be distinguished from other infectious causes, which would be ... Aucott also shared perspective on another new assay in early development, just reported at the AAAS meeting, with me. The ... Aucott also shared perspective on another new assay in early development, just reported at the AAAS meeting, with me. The ...
Gene Type Molecular Function Biological Process Cellular Component Phenotype Disease Filtered by: No filters selected. 0 result ... Mouse Genome Database (MGD), Gene Expression Database (GXD), Mouse Models of Human Cancer database (MMHCdb) (formerly Mouse ... Tumor Biology (MTB), Gene Ontology (GO) Citing These Resources Funding Information Warranty Disclaimer & Copyright Notice Send ...
Early Bird or Night Owl? It May Be in Your Genes. By Knvul Sheikh 05 February 2016. ... someone who enjoys waking up early and going to bed early - rather than being an "evening person," who tends to stay up late at ... If no amount of coffee seems to help you feel fresh and alert in the morning, you may be able to blame your genes. ... Women were more likely to be early risers (48.4 percent, compared with 39.7 percent of men). And people over 60 said they ...
Changes in key genes may be linked to deteriorating mental function as early as age 40. ...
A trial using gene therapy appears to have boosted patients cardiac function. ... The therapy involves "gene transfer" -- a process whereby a harmless virus is used to transport a gene into heart cells. Once ... The new study enlisted cutting-edge gene therapy to try to reverse cardiac damage. Led by Dr. H. Kirk Hammond of the VA San ... "AC6 gene transfer safely increased LV function beyond optimal heart failure therapy through a single administration," Hammonds ...
New research shows that the schizophrenia risk gene ZNF804A influences brain structure and function during the early ... Schizophrenia risk gene plays key role in early brain development. Published Wednesday 27 September 2017 Published Wed 27 Sep ... Cognitive ability genes identified Unlocking the genes responsible for cognitive ability has proven challenging. Breaking ... Influential impact on other genes. The team found that ZNF804A interacts with and alters the expression of several other genes ...
New Gene Chip May Be Early Cancer Diagnosis Tool. by Sam Savage ... The mtDNA chips are a promising research tool for early ... A pilot study at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in support of the National Cancer Institutes Early ... Their work suggested that particular changes in mtDNA might serve as early indicators for several types of solid cancer. ... Additional results suggest that a relatively simple diagnostic test using a DNA microarray "chip" could enable early detection ...
People with a high-risk gene for Alzheimers disease can begin to have brain changes as early as childhood, according to a new ... home/alzheimers center/ alzheimers a-z list/ alzheimers gene tied to early age brain changes article ... 6, 2013 (HealthDay News) -- People with a high-risk gene for Alzheimers disease can begin to have brain changes as early as ... The SORL1 gene is one of several associated with an increased risk of late-onset Alzheimers, the most common form of the ...
New research shows that the schizophrenia risk gene ZNF804A influences brain structure and function during the early ... Schizophrenia risk gene plays key role in early brain development. Published Wednesday 27 September 2017 Published Wed 27 Sep ... Influential impact on other genes. The team found that ZNF804A interacts with and alters the expression of several other genes ... How an autism gene mutation alters brain development Using mouse models, researchers have shed light on how mutations in the ...
Same genes linked to early- and late-onset Alzheimers. 02.02.2012. The same gene mutations linked to inherited, early-onset ... They sequenced the APP (amyloid precursor protein) gene, and the PSEN1 and PSEN2 (presenilin) genes. Mutations in those genes ... Both Goate and Cruchaga agree that one result of their discovery that the same genes can be connected with both early- and late ... Goate, who in 1991 was the first scientist to identify a mutation in the APP gene linked to inherited, early-onset Alzheimers ...
Genes, Immediate-Early: Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term ... It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular ... was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus ...
On Wednesday, a rival gene therapy by BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc was found to reduce bleeding episodes by over 90% in patients ... All five patients in an early-stage trial given the one-time treatment, giroctocogene fitelparvovec, did not have spontaneous ... Pfizers hemophilia gene therapy shows sustained effect in early-stage study. Read full article. *. ... Earlier this month, the founder Richard Branson officially made it to space, announcing regular space tourism trips to start in ...
Gene therapy might restore immunity in children and young adults with a rare inherited immune system disorder called X-linked ... This early study was designed to test the safety and effectiveness of the procedure. Much more work is needed before the ... home/healthy kids center/ healthy kids a-z list/ gene therapy potential for rare immune disorder article ... Stem cells were removed from the patients bone marrow, given a normal IL2RG gene, and then placed back in the patients after a ...
Immediate-early genes function to regulate viral and cellular gene expression during the course of virus replication. The major ... The human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early gene.. Stenberg RM1.. Author information. 1. Department of Microbiology and ... immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus plays a key role in affecting activation and repression of viral and ... Herein, we will discuss the current understanding of this complex gene region. ...
... 11.03.2015. Treatment may help prevent poor brain development in some ... Certain types of early-onset epilepsy are caused by previously unknown mutations of a potassium channel gene, KCNA2. The ... The types of early-childhood-onset epilepsy caused by potassium ion channel mutations comprise a field of study all their own ... For this reason, it is important to identify the genetic defects as early as possible in the brain - so as to prevent ...
Expression of the T-box family genes, Tbx1-Tbx5, during early mouse development.. Chapman DL1, Garvey N, Hancock S, Alexiou M, ... Tbx3 is expressed earliest, in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst. Four of the genes are expressed in different components ... The region of homology has been named the T-box, and the new mouse genes that contain the T-box domain have been named T-box 1- ... A novel family of genes, characterized by the presence of a region of homology to the DNA-binding domain of the Brachyury (T) ...
... tens of thousands of years earlier than previous scientific estimates. ... Research also found that a demographic model that estimates gene flow from these early modern humans into the ancestors of the ... Altai Neanderthal shows gene flow from early modern humans. Chinese Academy of Sciences Headquarters ... This introgression is much earlier than previously reported gene flow from Neanderthals into modern humans outside Africa ( ...
Further, immediate-early genes play an essential role in cellular responses that contribute to long-term neuronal plasticity. ... Immediate-early genes have important roles in processes such as brain development, learning, and responses to drug abuse. ... Activation and function of immediate-early genes in the nervous system Biochem Cell Biol. 2011 Feb;89(1):61-73. doi: 10.1139/ ... Immediate-early genes have important roles in processes such as brain development, learning, and responses to drug abuse. ...
... a new gene therapy treatment for Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) is reversing disease symptoms in two adults. ... Early Clinical Trial Data Show Gene Therapy Reversing Sickle Cell Anemia. Treatment Uses Reduced-Intensity Preconditioning to ... Aruvants lead candidate is RVT-1801, the gene therapy used to treat both patients in Maliks ASH presentation of early ... The new gene therapy approach designed by Malik and team places a fetal hemoglobin gene in the bone marrow cells that cannot ...
Immediate early genes (IEGs) are genes which are activated transiently and rapidly in response to a wide variety of cellular ... of Immediate Early Genes by Drugs of Abuse a monograph published by the National Institute on Drug Abuse Immediate-Early+Genes ... The earliest known and best characterized include c-fos, c-myc and c-jun, genes that were found to be homologous to retroviral ... Thus IEGs are distinct from "late response" genes, which can only be activated later, following the synthesis of early response ...
... partial results from a historic gene editing study give encouraging signs that the treatment may be safe and having at least ... Gene editing is intended as a more precise way to do gene therapy, to knock out a bad gene or supply a good one thats missing ... Early results boost hopes for historic gene editing attempt. Brian Madeux interacts with research nurse Chrishauna Lacy at his ... PHOENIX ,, Early, partial results from a historic gene editing study give encouraging signs that the treatment may be safe and ...
... we identified a novel gene that may be associated with preterm birth, FSHR. We anticipate other human accelerated genes will ... Gene Expression. This blog is about evolution, genetics, genomics and their interstices. Please beware that comments are ... In this cohort, the most significant association was in FSHR, and 8 of the 10 most significant SNPs were in this gene. Further ... After obtaining a set of genes in HARs, they then narrowed that list to those which are known to be functionally significant in ...
  • James Eugene "Gene" Harris, 90, of Red Bank, went home to be with his Lord and Savior on February 4, 2021. (
  • Learn about gene changes called mutations, how inherited mutations can lead to cancer, what types of cancer may be hereditary and how parents can pass gene mutations to their children. (
  • Read about different genes that are linked to hereditary cancer and the risks associated with inherited mutations in these genes. (
  • LGMD2A is caused by mutations in the CAPN-3 gene and is the most common type of LGMD, accounting for almost a third of cases, Sarepta said. (
  • Knowing that early detection is difficult, researchers have focused on ways to pinpoint ovarian cancer risk by identifying the genetic mutations that can increase that risk. (
  • Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are well known to put women at risk for breast and ovarian cancer. (
  • But researchers have identified many other gene mutations also associated with ovarian cancer. (
  • Recent research has shown that about 25 percent of women have at least one of the gene mutations known to be associated with ovarian cancer risk. (
  • In the earlier work on the genetics of height, Pritchard and his colleagues were surprised to find that essentially the entire genome influenced height. (
  • It is important to note that besides genetics, interplay between genes & your lifestyle also impact your body's ability to metabolise caffeine. (
  • Animator Gene Deitch (August 8, 1924 - April 16, 2020) passed away Thursday of natural causes (unrelated to the current corona virus pandemic). (
  • In 2020 Mammoth raised a $45 million Series B round and counts Apple CEO Tim Cook among its early investors. (
  • Germ layer formation is among the earliest differentiation events in metazoan embryos. (
  • Trying it in adults to treat diseases is not controversial and the DNA changes do not pass to future generations, unlike the recent case of a Chinese scientist who claims to have edited twin girls' genes when they were embryos. (
  • She believes that work on CRISPR-Cas9 should continue full speed ahead, but that attempts to alter genes in human eggs, sperm or embryos should be halted until scientists, doctors and the public know fully the implications of a change that will affect not only that one person, but all descendants of that person, in perpetuity. (
  • A new study from neurobiologists at Yale University examines the evolutionary changes surrounding the NOS1 gene and suggests that the same evolutionary mechanisms that may have gifted our species with amazing cognitive abilities may have also made us more susceptible to disorders such as autism. (
  • A recently evolved pattern of gene activity in the language and decision-making centers of the human brain is missing in a disorder associated with autism and learning disabilities, a new study by Yale University researchers shows. (
  • Fragile X syndrome, the leading inherited form of intellectual disability, is also the most common single-gene cause of autism. (
  • The study also provides insights into how genetic deficits in early development, a time when brain circuits are formed, can lead to disorders such as autism, in which symptoms appear after birth. (
  • WEDNESDAY, May 14, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- There may be a simple way to help spot signs of autism early on in siblings of children with the disorder, new research suggests. (
  • The study, which included 184 children at high risk of autism, found that those who developed the disorder typically started showing some "red flags" as early as 12 months of age. (
  • The precise causes of autism are not clear, but genes are involved. (
  • In general, Wolff noted, the earlier that speech and behavioral therapies for autism can be started, the better children do in the long run. (
  • Until recently, said Pritchard, he thought of genetically complex traits as conforming to a polygenic model, in which each gene has a direct effect on a trait, whether that trait is something like height or a disease, such as autism. (
  • The researchers analysed DNA in the sperm of 44 fathers of children with early signs of an autism spectrum disorder. (
  • Four of the 10 sites most strongly linked to autism were located near genes associated with Prader-Willi syndrome, a genetic disorder that causes some of the same behavioural symptoms as autism, the study authors said. (
  • Mice lacking the protein retGC1, which is deficient in humans suffering Leber congenital amaurosis-1 (LCA1), a disorder that causes severe visual impairment beginning in infancy, received gene therapy to replace retGC1 and showed fully restored visual function that persisted for at least 6 months. (
  • Purpose: We investigated whether infertility could be reversed in cryptorchid mice (with disrupted expression of the homeobox gene Hoxa 11) by orchiopexy and mating such animals with females of proven fertility. (
  • The 13 methylated genes include those that make metalloproteinase enzymes, which have already been implicated in obesity through studies on mice. (
  • This study led to a 2018 paper which showed that, in mice, a DEC2 gene mutation is responsible for longer waking periods. (
  • Our study is the first to assess genetic parent-of-origin effects in rats, and confirm earlier findings in mice that such effects influence coping and impulsive behavior, and suggest these effects might be significant in other mammals, including humans. (
  • Gene Editing Technique Halts Premature Aging In Mice, Could It Help Children With Rare Disease? (
  • Working with mice models, they have shown that dysfunction of this gene during adolescence has behavioral consequences which carry into adulthood. (
  • Doudna, a biochemist, won a Nobel prize in December for her work in CRISPR gene editing, which allows the genomes of living organisms to be modified. (
  • It now looks like chemical changes that happen to genes over a person's lifetime may influence how fat they become, without altering their inherited DNA sequences. (
  • Researchers said on Tuesday an analysis of DNA from more than 6,300 people from five Latin American countries enabled them to pinpoint a gene that affects a person's likelihood of getting gray hair. (
  • These "epigenetic" changes influence whether genes are on or off, but do not change the DNA sequence. (
  • The latest findings relate to epigenetic changes which involve methylation, the process by which the addition of chemicals called methyl groups to DNA can turn genes on or off, or moderate a gene's activity by changing the way it is read. (
  • The focus was not on genes themselves, but on "epigenetic tags" that help regulate genes' activity. (
  • As an important step towards remedial measures, a team from the Oxford University has discovered 2 gene variants that are presumably linked to increased susceptibility to acute dengue. (
  • Instead, he recommends switching to deep sequencing the core genes to hunt down rare variants that might have bigger effects. (
  • People who have gene variants that drive low caffeine metabolism will consume less coffee compared to those who have gene variants that promote increased caffeine metabolism. (
  • Variants of this gene influence your reaction to caffeine. (
  • This interview, conducted in Gene Colan's Vermont home on February 18, 2001, focuses strictly on the artist's career at Marvel in the 1970s. (
  • NTLA-2001 is probably several years away from approval, but a successful early stage trial is a heartening result. (
  • Intellia Therapeutics - a gene-editing company co-founded by CRISPR pioneer and Nobel prize winner Jennifer Doudna - indicated that NTLA-2001, its experimental treatment for transthyretin amyloidosis provided very promising results in an early state trial. (
  • In 2001, scientists created CopyCat , or Cc, the first cat clone that also defied early genetic principles by eschewing the presumed dominant genes for fur color. (
  • Artist representation of early developmental brain cells that when disrupted cause Fragile X syndrome. (
  • More research is needed before repetitive behavior can be used as part of an early screening tool, according to Dr. Andrew Adesman, chief of developmental and behavioral pediatrics at Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, in New Hyde Park, N.Y. (
  • The identities of these genes and the parental origin of the silenced allele depend on the species, tissue and developmental stage, with a core set of imprinted genes common to most species. (
  • Researchers found out that overexpressing one of those genes in leaves caused growth and developmental problems in the plants. (
  • A gene called IFI27 that becomes activated early in COVID-19, even when symptoms are absent, might help identify people most likely to have contracted the virus after coming in contact with an infected person, researchers said. (
  • The researchers caution that it is not yet possible to say whether the methylation changes are a result of environment influence, perhaps in the diet, or whether they are ultimately genetic because they are orchestrated by other genes. (
  • People with a certain version of the gene are predisposed to hair graying, according to University College London human geneticist Andres Ruiz-Linares, one of the researchers in the study published in the journal Nature Communications. (
  • The researchers said identifying this gene could offer a path forward for developing a treatment that could prevent or reverse graying. (
  • But until now, researchers haven't looked at whether repetitive behavior can serve as an early red flag. (
  • Researchers wanted to know how many babies were being fed solid foods (including cereal and baby food) sooner than recommended, whether breast-feeding or formula feeding made a difference and why solids were being introduced early. (
  • Researchers believe based on this study, they may actually be underestimating how many moms introduce solids early because the study was more likely to have older, more educated and higher income moms participating. (
  • Researchers found formula-fed infants were about twice as likely to be introduced to solids early, compared to only breast-fed babies. (
  • In a provocative new perspective piece, Stanford researchers say that disease genes are spread uniformly across the genome, not clustered in specific molecular pathways, as has been thought. (
  • The gene activity of cells is so broadly networked that virtually any gene can influence disease, the researchers found. (
  • The researchers call their provocative new understanding of disease genes an "omnigenic model" to indicate that almost any gene can influence diseases and other complex traits. (
  • The polygenic model leads researchers to focus on the short list of core genes that function in molecular pathways known to impact diseases. (
  • Currently, gene editing with CRISPR is encumbered by enormous amounts of data that researchers have struggled to comb through. (
  • A group of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory has identified the key genes involved in oil production and accumulation in plant leaves and vegetative plant tissues. (
  • Researchers wanted to find a way to reprogram plants cells to store oil in leaves and vegetative plants tissues, so they needed to identify the genes involved in this process. (
  • Researchers at the Douglas Institute Research Centre, affiliated with McGill University, have isolated a gene, DCC, which is responsible for dopamine connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex during adolescence. (
  • Researchers have found that early-life adversity can have long-term effects on people's memory and thinking in later life. (
  • Researchers, including Dr. Pejovic, have focused on finding new ways to detect ovarian cancer earlier. (
  • Crispr Therapeutics is a pioneer of the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing platform. (
  • Among gene editing stocks, Intellia is one of the few pure-play CRISPR/Cas9 picks. (
  • Inari is leveraging the gene-editing technology CRISPR to build the world's first Seed Foundry™ to address the challenge of feeding the population as well as climate change. (
  • The reason that Neanderthal genes are concentrated among Europeans is that that is where they lived - in Europe and the Middle East, so that is where interbreeding occurred with modern-type humans, with whom they coexisted for thousands of years. (
  • It was thought that only two species of early humans had existed modern man and Neanderthals. (
  • The domestic cat has genes that are about the same size as humans, as well as a genome that, like humans, is very organized and conserved. (
  • As we discover that perhaps animals have more similar spacing between genes and the genes are in the same order, maybe that will help us to decipher what's going on with humans," Lyons said. (
  • The findings add to the mounting evidence that it's not only genes that dictate important bodily traits - environmental cues and conditions may also affect such traits by altering gene activity. (
  • They then screened the same people in 2002 to distinguish which methylation patterns had not changed over the 11 years, reasoning that the variation in these patterns must have occurred early in life, then become fixed, having a persistent effect on traits such as body weight or intelligence. (
  • The study also identified genes related to other hair traits including curliness, beard thickness, eyebrow thickness and predisposition for eyebrows that join together, known as unibrow or monobrow. (
  • But because those thousands of genes outnumber the core genes by orders of magnitude, most of the genetic variation related to diseases and other traits comes from the thousands of peripheral genes. (
  • Scientist/Senior Scientist, Gene Editing Platform. (
  • Process Engineer/Scientist II - Early. (
  • The research team tested the effects of overexpressing or disabling genes that normally code for enzymes involved in oil production. (
  • grandparents, nurses, friends) who may have started their babies on solids at an earlier age,' suggests Shu. (
  • Research suggests that early-life experiences play an important role in mental health conditions like depression and anxiety, with exposure to early life adversity linked to a range of aspects of our lifestyle. (
  • Our preclinical work suggests that a gene therapy approach has the potential to help those living with LGMD2A and we look forward to collaborating with Sarepta to advance this program in the clinic. (
  • Still, it's a scientific milestone toward one day doctoring DNA to treat many diseases caused by faulty genes. (
  • Both parents must be carriers to pass on the faulty HGD gene, and a child of two carrier parents only has a 25 per cent chance of inheriting AKU. (
  • by Gene Lyons Ever since journalists started working from home in large numbers, they've begun adopting pets and, inevitably, writing about them. (
  • Early life stress (ELS) is highly associated with development of psychopathology and mood disorders in adulthood. (
  • Certain psychiatric disorders can be related to alterations in the function of the prefrontal cortex and to changes in the activity of the brain chemical dopamine,' says Cecilia Flores, senior author on the study and professor at McGill's Department of Psychiatry, 'Prefrontal cortex wiring continues to develop into early adulthood, although the mechanisms were, until now, entirely unknown. (
  • The psychiatric consensus is that early therapy and support in adolescence, as soon as a mental health issue first manifests itself, has dramatically greater potential for a successful outcome - and for a healthy adulthood. (
  • LGMD2A is the most common form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy and its relentless progression causes patients to lose the ability to walk in early adulthood," Sahenk said in a statement. (
  • Gene Autry with his magnificent horse, Champion, rode into the Houston Rodeo arena and into the hearts of Houstonians when he appeared as the Show's first big name star entertainer in 1942. (
  • Answer: Autry was an American actor, singer, and entrepreneur who was one of Hollywood's premier singing cowboys and the best-selling country and western recording artist of the 1930s and early '40s. (
  • Lawton Williams was the son of a fiddle player and was influenced by Roy Acuff (Tuesday 15 September 1903 - Monday 23 November 1992) and movie cowboy Gene Autry (Sunday 29 September 1907 - Friday 2 October 1998). (
  • Gene Watson Fan Site includes an 'Induct Gene Watson into The Country Music Hall of Fame' Petition - please add your signature and help us to achieve our objective. (
  • All of Gene Watson's Peers, who were contacted by The Gene Watson Fan Site, during 2006 , were most gracious with their time and words. (
  • It is here, within this special part of The Gene Watson Fan Site, that you have an opportunity to read a quote from Radney Foster , which he submitted to this site on Tuesday 14 November 2006 . (
  • Thank God for Gene Watson! (
  • Thank you, Radney Foster , for your support of Gene Watson. (
  • Thank you, Gene Watson! (
  • That's what San Francisco-based Scribe Therapeutics hopes to do with its next-generation platform for gene editing. (
  • Cambridge, Mass.-based Sarepta Therapeutics snagged an exclusive option for a gene therapy candidate to treat Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A). (
  • The addition of CAPN-3 bolsters Sarepta's other gene therapy programs aimed at Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy that it acquired earlier this year when it bought Myonexus Therapeutics for $165 million. (
  • How did early scientists study these periodical emergences? (
  • They may not have settled the enduring debate over whether gray hair makes a person look distinguished or just plain old, but scientists have identified for the first time a gene behind graying hair. (
  • On Thursday, Feb. 7, 2019, scientists gave an update on the first effort to edit genes, or permanently change the DNA, of about a dozen adults, including Madeux, with metabolic diseases. (
  • Scientists think they have achieved the first gene editing inside the body, altering DNA in adults to try to treat a disease, although it's too soon to know if this will help. (
  • Once scientists identified problematic gene sequences, they began searching for a way to selectively delete or change certain parts of them. (
  • AVROBIO has released a brochure providing detail on investigational gene therapies for lysosomal storage disorders. (
  • We continue to fuel our gene therapy development engine aimed at building an enduring model that delivers potentially transformative therapies to treat genetically based diseases," Ingram said in a statement. (
  • Shu says she was surprised by the findings, but notes that some doctors and nurses may have been trained at a time when babies were fed solids earlier and says it's hard to change behaviors when medical information changes so quickly. (
  • It is as if such behaviors are written into cultural genes. (
  • This study identifies genes that potentially increase our risk of depression. (
  • Vets could sequence the genes and potentially more quickly find the cause of what's going on and then develop a treatment that is more appropriate than just treating the symptoms. (
  • In any cell, there might be 50 to 100 core genes with direct effects on a given trait, as well as easily another 10,000 peripheral genes that are expressed in the same cell with indirect effects on that trait, said Pritchard, who is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. (
  • FILE - In this Monday, Nov. 13, 2017 file photo, Brian Madeux, starts to receive the first human gene editing therapy for Hunter syndrome, as his girlfriend, Marcie Humphrey, left, applauds at the UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital in Oakland, Calif. At right is nurse practitioner Jacqueline Madden. (
  • They report the study design, results, and their conclusions in the article " Gene Therapy Fully Restores Vision to the All-Cone Nrl−/−Gucy2e−/− Mouse Model of Leber Congenital Amaurosis-1 . (
  • I was at the Museum of Modern Art, probably in the mid-1990s, upstairs in the film programming offices (I think this must be around 1995, it might have been earlier). (
  • If you were living in the Tri-State Area (or maybe even anywhere along the east coast) in the 1980s and early 1990s, there's a decent chance you've heard of the infamous Action Park. (
  • Lodsys, a company devoted to acquiring patents and then threatening entrepreneurs who allegedly may infringe those patents (usually unknowingly), sent letters to many app developers accusing them of infringing patents dating back to the early 1990s. (
  • The TNFRSF6 gene is not implicated in familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease. (
  • The first is essentially a memoir, describing Borchard's early-onset depression and the multiple diagnoses she received. (
  • When Sophia Hajnorouzi was just 11 months old she was diagnosed with alkaptonuria (AKU), or black bone disease, which causes brittle bones and cartilage, early onset osteoarthritis, and heart and renal issues. (
  • It can affect heart valves, blacken cartilage, bring on early onset osteoarthritis as all that time the acid remains in the body. (
  • There's one man who stands out in this story: Eugene "Gene" Mulvihill, the founder and designer of many of the park's attractions. (
  • Variation in Dopamine receptor gene DRD2 may also impact your caffeine consumption. (
  • This new idea, which takes advantage of sophisticated DNA sequencing technology to find all needles in the haystack, by identifying not just one cancer-causing mutation in a breast or brain tumour, but all of them, as well as approaches that allow us to switch on and off particular genes and follow the effect of this in both the primary cancer and the secondary growths. (
  • Fu and Jones then identified a gene mutation associated with a "short sleep phenotype. (
  • this information is listed by gene mutation and by cancer type. (
  • Read about cancer treatment options listed by gene mutation, type of cancer and type of treatment. (
  • Preliminary results suggest that two men with a rare disorder now have a corrective gene at very low levels, which may not be enough to make the therapy a success. (
  • Shortly before that, and as sort of a trial run before opening up the floodgates, 23andMe was able to test for a genetic carrier disease called Bloom Syndrome, a rare recessive gene disorder characterized by shorter height and a predisposition to develop cancer. (
  • If signs are missed or overlooked, the disorder could go unnoticed until the 20s to early 30s when other symptoms start to emerge. (
  • Your genes play a big part in determining your body shape, but that role may not have been set in stone when your parents' egg and sperm got together. (
  • Experts believe that MICB contributes to the body's immune mechanism and therefore a variant of this gene could influence particular kinds of immune cells that play a vital role in resisting viral attacks. (
  • In the Cell paper, Kenneth Kwan, the lead author, and other members of the Sestan laboratory identified the evolutionary changes that led the NOS1 gene to become active specifically in the parts of the developing human brain that form the adult centers for speech and language and decision-making. (
  • A completely different set of genes are said to impact brain activity & reward centers as well as anxiety, insomnia & stomach upset. (
  • Dr. Ruby Tsang from the University of Oxford showed that experiencing family financial hardship in early life, and poorer childhood health predicts greater memory and thinking decline in later life. (
  • In frogs (Xenopus), where early germ layer formation has been studied extensively, the process of endoderm specification involves the interplay of dozens of transcription factors. (
  • TGF-β Inducible Early Gene-1 (TIEG1) is a Krüppel-like transcription factor (KLF10) that was originally cloned from human osteoblasts as an early response gene to TGF-β treatment. (
  • Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry is not exactly a writer you'd expect to have been super-friendly to the police, let alone worked for them -- but he was a cop for seven years. (
  • For more on Colan's early years and his beginnings at Marvel in the 1960s, please refer to the highly informative and entertaining interview conducted by Roy Thomas in Alter Ego #6 . (
  • GR was free in the early years, subscriptions came later. (
  • Of the 227 methylated sites, 119 were found to be the same in 2002 as they had been 11 years earlier. (
  • Gene felt some kind of kinship with me and stayed in touch regularly, especially over the last ten years. (
  • Radner had already been a successful comedian in her own right as a Saturday Night Live cast member during the show's early years. (
  • I had been a fan of Gene Wilder's for many years, but the first time I saw him in person, my heart fluttered - I was hooked. (
  • Viking raids in Ireland are first recorded in historical sources during the last years of the 8th century - some of the earliest known for Europe. (
  • He also worked behind the scenes, producing the Houston Rodeo for many of its early years. (
  • The discussion in Napa early this year included Nobel Laureate David Baltimore, who was involved in a similar discussion 40 years ago about the dangers of the then-new recombinant DNA technology, which spawned the genetic engineering revolution. (
  • My contribution is 'The Motherless One,' a tale from the early years of the Monkey King. (
  • Gene had been an active member of White Oak United Methodist Church for 60+ years and the Highlander Sunday School Class. (
  • The success of this approach strongly support clinical testing of a gene therapy targeted to the retinas of LCA1 patients, conclude the authors of the study published in Human Gene Therapy . (
  • This study shows the tremendous potential of recombinant (rAAV) gene therapy for the effective treatment of genetic causes of vision loss," says Editor-in-Chief Terence R. Flotte, MD, Celia and Isaac Haidak Professor of Medical Education and Dean, Provost, and Executive Deputy Chancellor, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA. (
  • Our expert, Dr. Gene Kritsky, has devoted a great deal of his professional life to the study of cicadas. (
  • He agreed, though, on the need for early screening tools, and said this study points to one potential way. (
  • At least 40% of moms are feeding their infants solid foods far too early, according a new study published in the medical journal Pediatrics , and that may lead to problems for their children later in life. (
  • Mothers of lower socioeconomic status are at a higher risk of early solid food introduction,' the study says. (
  • A core assumption in the study of disease-causing genes has been that they are clustered in molecular pathways directly connected to the disease. (
  • To anyone who may not yet have heard the news, Gene passed away early Saturday morning, and the family is devastated. (
  • Genetic studies have identified variation in the gene calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1C (CACNA1C) to increase risk for several psychiatric disorders. (
  • Sangamo's studies involve men with Hunter or Hurler syndrome, diseases caused by a missing gene that makes an enzyme to break down certain sugar compounds. (
  • If you knock out (disable) the gene for an enzyme known as phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (PDAT), it doesn't affect oil synthesis in seeds or cause any problems to plants, but it dramatically decreases oil production and accumulation in leaves. (
  • In contrast, overexpressing the gene for PDAT - that is, getting cells to make more of this enzyme - resulted in a 60-fold increase in leaf oil production", said Xu. (
  • Jonathan Pritchard (center) and his colleagues, Yang Li (left) and Evan Boyle, discuss their recent work positing that almost any gene can influence disease. (
  • We develop theory, based on earlier work, to partition heritability into a component due to a combination of parent of origin, maternal, paternal and shared environment, and another component that estimates classical additive genetic variance. (
  • Jeans for Genes Day, an annual fundraising campaign encouraging people to wear jeans to school or work and donate money towards Genetic Disorders UK, has urged everyone to get involved and help people like Sophia. (
  • This work was part of the Global Gene Expression Atlas of Craniofacial Development project being carried out by the Facebase Consortium . (
  • All depends upon your metabolism- how your body deals with caffeine floating around in the system- two genes handle most of the work. (
  • They found 13 methylated genes that were more likely to be present in the participants who were overweight or obese. (
  • They found 539 moms, or 40% of moms, gave their babies solid food early. (
  • After you get the first 100 hits," said Pritchard, "you've probably found most of the core genes you're going to get through genomewide association studies. (
  • And at a time (the 1960s, 70s & 80s) when the industry itself was dying off, Gene was a steadfast supporter and advocate for the craft. (
  • Answer: Hall of Fame goaltender Gump Worsely played for National Hockey League's New York Rangers for 10 seasons in the 1950s and early 1960s. (
  • This variant could be a reason why people have insomnia after having a sip early in the day or suffer from anxiety with consumption of as low as 150 mm of caffeine. (
  • Ulker says the increasing momentum in deal flow echoes the 'explosive growth' in the cell and gene therapy sector. (
  • The article is available free on the Human Gene Therapy website until September 30, 2015. (
  • Gene editing is intended as a more precise way to do gene therapy, to disable a bad gene or supply a good one that's missing. (
  • This already gives us hope, because therapy, including social support, is itself a type of experience which might modify the function of the DCC gene during this critical time and perhaps reduce vulnerability to an illness. (
  • The company, which specializes in genetic treatments for rare diseases, signed an agreement with the Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital for the gene therapy candidate, calpain 3 (CAPN-3), the company announced this morning. (
  • Doug Ingram, Sarepta's president and chief executive officer, said with the six LGMD gene therapy programs in the company's pipeline, its "investment in research for this group of neuromuscular diseases is unparalleled. (
  • He and the company are working together on a gene therapy candidate to treat Charcot-Marie-Tooth. (
  • Results on him and seven other Hunter patients, plus three with Hurler syndrome, suggest the treatment is safe, which was the main goal of these early experiments. (
  • Furthermore, plants that already have an elevated rate of fatty acid synthesis showed even more oil production in experiments with increased level of genes for oleosin and PDAT. (
  • Psychiatric Risk Gene Cacna1c and Early Life Stress: Potential Gene-Environment interactions? (
  • But if specific methylated genes linked with obesity can be identified, they may provide new ways to screen people for risk of becoming overweight or obese. (
  • For clinical use, Pritchard said, there's still a rationale for genomewide association studies: to predict the peripheral gene-based risk factors in individual patients in order to personalize medicine. (
  • Understanding their risk can motivate women to monitor any symptoms with their doctor, making early detection and intervention more likely. (
  • A specialized gene editing technique that allows very small and precise changes to be made to the genetic code can halt a disease that causes premature aging in a mouse model and double the lifespan of the treated animals. (
  • In 41 workers diagnosed with COVID-19, IFI27 genes were "switched on" at the time of their first positive PCR test, even in asymptomatic individuals, according to a report in The Lancet Microbe. (
  • This is the first time that prolonged chemical changes to genes during life have been implicated in obesity and body weight. (
  • If you are not able to donate, don't forget you can still leave messages and comments for Charlene and the kids to read, hearing memories and thoughts about Gene will no doubt bring them great comfort during this very difficult time. (
  • Please arrive on time or 5-10 minutes early to land. (
  • There was a sliver of time, 1982 to 1986 to be specific, when a new Gene Wilder flick meant Gilda Radner would be the co-star. (
  • Increased expression of these genes resulted in increased oil content in leaves - plant's most abundant source of biomass. (
  • Increasing the expression of the genes that normally boost oil production in seeds had no effect on oil production in leaves. (
  • Microarry data was subjected to RMA normalization and individual gene expression levels per probeset per sample were expressed as a ratio relative to the level of that probeset's expression using whole Postnatal day 1 mouse RNA as a universal reference. (
  • Colored blocks extend over the length of the corresponding gene and depict expression in the craniofacial sample relative to that in the reference RNA sample. (
  • Hybridization and processing by Sean Smith and Hung-Chi Liang in the Cincinnati Children's Hospital gene expression analysis core. (
  • Expression of Adenosine receptor is regulated by gene-ADORA2A. (
  • Learn about symptoms and options for managing early menopause caused by cancer treatment or preventive surgery. (
  • A team led by Andrew Feinberg of Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, and Daniele Fallin of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, also in Baltimore, mapped methylation in the DNA of 74 adults with a range of body types, looking for patterns that seemed likely to have been prolonged and set early in life, or even in the womb. (