PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 22.214.171.124.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Thiamine: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.Fursultiamin: Compound used for therapy of thiamine deficiency. It has also been suggested for several non-deficiency disorders but has not yet proven useful.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Metabolomics: The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Thiamine Pyrophosphate: The coenzyme form of Vitamin B1 present in many animal tissues. It is a required intermediate in the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX and the KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.PolysaccharidesIgG Deficiency: A dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by a deficiency of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Wireless Technology: Techniques using energy such as radio frequency, infrared light, laser light, visible light, or acoustic energy to transfer information without the use of wires, over both short and long distances.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).AT Rich Sequence: A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of ADENINE and THYMINE bases.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Buchnera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
Chemokine mRNA expression in gastric mucosa is associated with Helicobacter pylori cagA positivity and severity of gastritis. (1/25659)AIM: To investigate the association between the quantity of gastric chemokine mRNA expression, severity of gastritis, and cagA positivity in Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis. METHODS: In 83 dyspeptic patients, antral and corpus biopsies were taken for semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and histological grading of gastritis. Gastritis was evaluated by visual analogue scales. Quantities of chemokine (IL-8, GRO alpha, ENA-78, RANTES, MCP-1) RT-PCR products were compared with G3PDH products. Each sample was also evaluated for the presence of cagA and ureA mRNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: mRNA expression of all five chemokines was significantly greater in H pylori positive than in H pylori negative mucosa. In H pylori positive patients, in the antrum C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive patients than in cagA negative patients, but there were no significant differences in C-C chemokine mRNA expression. In H pylori positive patients, chemokine mRNA expression in the corpus was less than in the antrum. In contrast to the antrum, only GRO alpha mRNA expression was significantly greater in cagA positive infection. Polymorphonuclear cell infiltration was correlated with C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. Significant correlations were also found between bacterial density and C-X-C chemokine mRNA expression. CONCLUSIONS: In H pylori infection, C-X-C chemokines may play a primary role in active gastritis. Infection with cagA positive H pylori induces greater gastric chemokine mRNA expression in the antral mucosa, which may be relevant to the increased mucosal damage associated with cagA positive H pylori infection. (+info)
Evolutionary relationships of pathogenic clones of Vibrio cholerae by sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes. (2/25659)Studies of the Vibrio cholerae population, using molecular typing techniques, have shown the existence of several pathogenic clones, mainly sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones. However, the relationship of the pathogenic clones to environmental V. cholerae isolates remains unclear. A previous study to determine the phylogeny of V. cholerae by sequencing the asd (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene of V. cholerae showed that the sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones had very different asd sequences which fell into separate lineages in the V. cholerae population. As gene trees drawn from a single gene may not reflect the true topology of the population, we sequenced the mdh (malate dehydrogenase) and hlyA (hemolysin A) genes from representatives of environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae and found that the mdh and hlyA sequences from the three pathogenic clones were identical, except for the previously reported 11-bp deletion in hlyA in the sixth-pandemic clone. Identical sequences were obtained, despite average nucleotide differences in the mdh and hlyA genes of 1.52 and 3.25%, respectively, among all the isolates, suggesting that the three pathogenic clones are closely related. To extend these observations, segments of the recA and dnaE genes were sequenced from a selection of the pathogenic isolates, where the sequences were either identical or substantially different between the clones. The results show that the three pathogenic clones are very closely related and that there has been a high level of recombination in their evolution. (+info)
A 55-kilodalton immunodominant antigen of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 has arisen via horizontal gene transfer. (3/25659)A 55-kDa outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 is a significant target of the serum immunoglobulin G antibody response of periodontal disease patients and hence may play an important role in host-bacterium interactions in periodontal disease. The gene encoding the 55-kDa antigen (ragB, for receptor antigen B) was isolated on a 9.5-kb partial Sau3AI fragment of P. gingivalis W50 chromosomal DNA in pUC18 by immunoscreening with a monoclonal antibody to this antigen. The 1.6-kb open reading frame (ORF) encoding RagB was located via subcloning and nested-deletion analysis. Sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of an upstream 3.1-kb ORF (ragA) which is cotranscribed with ragB. A number of genetic characteristics suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by a horizontal gene transfer event. These include a significantly reduced G+C content relative to that of the P. gingivalis chromosome (42 versus 48%) and the presence of mobility elements flanking this locus in P. gingivalis W50. Furthermore, Southern blotting and PCR analyses showed a restricted distribution of this locus in laboratory and clinical isolates of this bacterium. The association of ragAB+ P. gingivalis with clinical status was examined by PCR analysis of subgingival samples. ragAB+ was not detected in P. gingivalis-positive shallow pockets from periodontal disease patients but was present in 36% of the P. gingivalis-positive samples from deep pockets. These data suggest that the ragAB locus was acquired by certain P. gingivalis strains via horizontal gene transfer and that the acquisition of this locus may facilitate the survival of these strains at sites of periodontal destruction. (+info)
Cloning and expression of the dnaK gene of Campylobacter jejuni and antigenicity of heat shock protein 70. (4/25659)Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of infectious diarrhea throughout the world. In addition, there is growing evidence that Guillain-Barre syndrome, an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system, is frequently preceded by C. jejuni infection. In the present study, the hrcA-grpE-dnaK gene cluster of C. jejuni was cloned and sequenced. The dnaK gene consists of an open reading frame of 1,869 bp and encodes a protein with a high degree of homology to other bacterial 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSPs). The overall percentages of identity to the HSP70 proteins of Helicobacter pylori, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Bacillus subtilis were calculated to be 78.1, 60.5, 57.2, and 53. 8%, respectively. Regions similar to the Escherichia coli sigma70 promoter consensus sequence and to a cis-acting regulatory element (CIRCE) are located upstream of the hrcA gene. Following heat shock, a rapid increase of dnaK mRNA was detectable, which reached its maximum after 20 to 30 min. A 6-His-tagged recombinant DnaK protein (rCjDnaK-His) was generated in E. coli, after cloning of the dnaK coding region into pET-22b(+), and purified by affinity and gel filtration chromatography. Antibody responses to rCjDnaK-His were significantly elevated, compared to those of healthy individuals, in about one-third of the serum specimens obtained from C. jejuni enteritis patients. (+info)
Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes. (5/25659)The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved. (+info)
Complete nucleotide sequence of the 27-kilobase virulence related locus (vrl) of Dichelobacter nodosus: evidence for extrachromosomal origin. (6/25659)The vrl locus is preferentially associated with virulent isolates of the ovine footrot pathogen, Dichelobacter nodosus. The complete nucleotide sequence of this 27.1-kb region has now been determined. The data reveal that the locus has a G+C content much higher than the rest of the D. nodosus chromosome and contains 22 open reading frames (ORFs) encoding products including a putative adenine-specific methylase, two potential DEAH ATP-dependent helicases, and two products with sequence similarity to a bacteriophage resistance system. These ORFs are all in the same orientation, and most are either overlapping or separated by only a few nucleotides, suggesting that they comprise an operon and are translationally coupled. Expression vector studies have led to the identification of proteins that correspond to many of these ORFs. These data, in combination with evidence of insertion of vrl into the 3' end of an ssrA gene, are consistent with the hypothesis that the vrl locus was derived from the insertion of a bacteriophage or plasmid into the D. nodosus genome. (+info)
Genetic characterization of a new type IV-A pilus gene cluster found in both classical and El Tor biotypes of Vibrio cholerae. (7/25659)The Vibrio cholerae genome contains a 5.4-kb pil gene cluster that resembles the Aeromonas hydrophila tap gene cluster and other type IV-A pilus assembly operons. The region consists of five complete open reading frames designated pilABCD and yacE, based on the nomenclature of related genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli K-12. This cluster is present in both classical and El Tor biotypes, and the pilA and pilD genes are 100% conserved. The pilA gene encodes a putative type IV pilus subunit. However, deletion of pilA had no effect on either colonization of infant mice or adherence to HEp-2 cells, demonstrating that pilA does not encode the primary subunit of a pilus essential for these processes. The pilD gene product is similar to other type IV prepilin peptidases, proteins that process type IV signal sequences. Mutational analysis of the pilD gene showed that pilD is essential for secretion of cholera toxin and hemagglutinin-protease, mannose-sensitive hemagglutination (MSHA), production of toxin-coregulated pili, and colonization of infant mice. Defects in these functions are likely due to the lack of processing of N termini of four Eps secretion proteins, four proteins of the MSHA cluster, and TcpB, all of which contain type IV-A leader sequences. Some pilD mutants also showed reduced adherence to HEp-2 cells, but this defect could not be complemented in trans, indicating that the defect may not be directly due to a loss of pilD. Taken together, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of the V. cholerae genome project for rapid identification and characterization of potential virulence factors. (+info)
Characterization of Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis lbpB, lbpA, and lactoferrin receptor orf3 isogenic mutants. (8/25659)Pathogenic members of the family Neisseriaceae produce specific receptors to acquire iron from their host's lactoferrin and transferrin. Recently, putative Moraxella catarrhalis lactoferrin receptor genes and a third open reading frame (lbpB, lbpA, and orf3) were cloned and sequenced. We describe the preliminary characterization of isogenic mutants deficient in LbpB, LbpA, or Orf3 protein. (+info)
Resistant bacteria don't just evade drugs - they are fitter too | New Scientist
Plasmid pPSU1 from Dr. Song Tans lab contains the inserts 500 bp EcoRV fragment, 1000 bp EcoRV fragment, 1500 bp EcoRV fragment, 2000 bp EcoRV fragment, 500 bp PstI fragment, 700 bp PstI fragment, 800 bp PstI fragment, 900 bp PstI fragment, 1000 bp PstI fragment, and 2000 bp PstI fragment and is published in Sci Rep. 2017 May 26;7(1):2438. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-02693-1. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
How is this blastresult possible?
It would be best to cast a wide net including all plant, animal and bacterial genes. The hits of a rat protein against a bacterial protein are probably a cause of this, it isnt impossible for a rat to have a sequence similar to a bacterial one. The reason youre getting hits against bacteria is because youve only included bacteria (and a very small number at that) in your database. BLAST is finding the best possible hit for your sequence, which happens to place a rat gene against a bacterial gene.. This is going to very strongly bias your results, just because youre interested in a specific set of species, doesnt mean that you can ignore everything else. A good scientist finds the best possible explanation given all possible explanations, not the best one given what he or she is interested in. This approach is massively inappropriate, as you can see, limiting your species is drastically biasing your results. Contigs from massively distant species could be seen as hits because BLAST is only ...
Identification of a Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene that enhances mycobacterial survival in macrophages - Fingerprint -...
Tourists Pick Up Antibiotic-Resistance Genes in Just Two Days | Bioethics Research Library
Les Amis des Instituts Pasteur à Bruxelles - Publications 1996
091775 - Caracterizaci n microbiol gica de polen comercial. Reporte Preliminar | Veterinaria.org
Escherichia coli genes regulated by cell-to-cell signaling | PNAS
Utilizing the bicistronic reporter transposon mini-Tn5 lacZ-tet/1, we have identified lacZ fusions to four Escherichia coli genes/operons that are strongly activated by the accumulation of self-produced extracellular signals. These fusions were designated cma9, cma48, cma113, and cma114 for conditioned medium activated. Each of the cma fusions was expressed in a growth phase-dependent manner, and the presence of conditioned medium from a stationary phase E. coli culture resulted in the premature activation of these fusions in cells at early to mid-logarithmic phase. The cma48 and cma114 fusions were dependent on RpoS for growth phase expression and response to extracellular factors. The extracellular factors that activated the cma9, cma48, and cma114 fusions were produced in both rich complex and defined minimal media. The cma fusions were shown to be within the cysK (cma9), astD (cma48), tnaB (cma113), and gabT (cma114) genes. These genes function in the uptake, synthesis, or degradation of ...
Database Guide: Search - Virtual Library of Biology (vifabio)
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are a diverse group of mobile genetic elements found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. ICEs are self-transmissible elements that encode a full complement of machinery for conjugation as well as intricate regulatory systems to control excision from the chromosome and onward conjugative transfer [Wozniak and Waldor, 2010; Burrus,2004]. These multi-talented entities can promote their own mobilization and potentially that of other hitch-hiking genetic elements and thus contribute to horizontal transfer of virulence determinants, antibiotic-resistance genes and other bacterial traits [Hastings. et al., 2004]. ICEs are being identified in increasing numbers as sequenced genome databases expand exponentially [Wozniak, et al., 2010; Ryan, et al., 2009; te Poele, et al., 2008; Burrus et al., 2002]. At present only a few have been classified into ICE families, amongst the best characterized of which is the SXT/R391 family of Vibrio cholerae, ...
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Transposon insertion in ykyB increases the activation o | Open-i
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A complete view of the genetic diversity of the Escherichia coli O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A complete view of the genetic diversity of the Escherichia coli O-antigen biosynthesis gene cluster. AU - Iguchi, Atsushi. AU - Iyoda, Sunao. AU - Kikuchi, Taisei. AU - Ogura, Yoshitoshi. AU - Katsura, Keisuke. AU - Ohnishi, Makoto. AU - Hayashi, Tetsuya. AU - Thomson, Nicholas R.. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - The O antigen constitutes the outermost part of the lipopolysaccharide layer in Gram-negative bacteria. The chemical composition and structure of the O antigen show high levels of variation even within a single species revealing itself as serological diversity. Here, we present a complete sequence set for the O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters (O-AGCs) from all 184 recognized Escherichia coli O serogroups. By comparing these sequences, we identified 161 well-defined O-AGCs. Based on the wzx/wzy or wzm/wzt gene sequences, in addition to 145 singletons, 37 serogroups were placed into 16 groups. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of all the E. coli O-serogroup ...
Isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside supplier distributor- CAS 367-93-1
Essential Bacillus subtilis genes. - Semantic Scholar
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from bacteria with small genomes. Unexpectedly, most genes involved in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway are
Versatile low-copy-number plasmids for temperature-inducible overexpression of bacterial genes in Escherichia coli
E. Coli Treatment & Research News | Escherichia Coli Clinical Studies
New Hunt for the Roots of Resistance | Science
As bacteria worldwide acquire resistance to the drugs meant to kill them, public health experts have stepped up surveillance of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. Now a grassroots network of scientists is taking aim at what they see as the root of the problem: resistance genes in harmless bacteria that live in humans, animals, plants, even soil and water. By keeping tabs on when and where specific antibiotic-resistance genes appear, the group hopes to predict-and one day help block-the spread of resistance.. Efforts to track resistance in clinical pathogens have "too narrow a focus," argues Abigail Salyers, a microbiologist at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, who helped organize a meeting in Boston last week to plot the new strategy. She explains that antibiotic resistance can hide undetected in harmless bacteria well before it shows up in patients. "Clinical isolates are the tip of the iceberg compared to whats out there in the environment," agrees microbiologist Stuart ...
Scientists Learn Secrets of Deadly Bacterial Toxin Gun | Caltech
Experts predict that by 2050, antibiotic-resistant bacteria will cause as many deaths as cancer. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have created a 3-D image of a molecular structure that many different bacteria use to pump toxins into human cells and spread antibiotic-resistance genes to other bacteria. Understanding the architecture of this structure is a first step toward combating its effects.. The study was conducted in the laboratory of Grant Jensen, professor of biophysics and biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. A paper describing the work first appeared online in the March 23 issue of EMBO Reports.. The researchers looked specifically at Legionella, the bacteria that causes Legionnaires disease, a severe and often lethal form of pneumonia. When Legionella invades a human cell, it wraps itself in a protective vesicle and opens the molecular structure, known as a type IV secretion system. The molecular "machine" sits in the cell membrane of the bacterium and ...
OpGen Completes Clinical Trials for its Initial FDA 510(k) Submission | P&T Community
The clinical trials tested more than 1,000 clinical isolates at four participating clinical sites: The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health; University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center; and IHMA, Inc. The company has completed the majority of analytical testing activities including reproducibility studies and DNA sequencing of over 1,000 isolates to support the planned 510(k) submission.. "We are pleased to have completed the isolate clinical trials as an important milestone toward submission for FDA clearance of our Acuitas AMR Gene Panel u5.47 product. We are encouraged by the preliminary results, and look forward to continuing the process toward submission, as we seek clearance for use of our technology throughout the U.S." said Evan Jones, CEO, OpGen, Inc.. The Acuitas AMR Gene Panel u5.47 is a new molecular test developed by OpGen designed to detect five key pathogens and 47 antibiotic-resistance genes semi-quantitatively in ...
Get PDF - Cosmid derived map of escherichia coli strain bhb2600 in comparison to the map of strain w3110
Recombinant Saccharopolyspora erythraea Alanine--tRNA ligase(alaS) ,partial - Cusabio
Subject: 'Methylocella' / Subject: Escherichia coli / Text Availability: Citation in PubAg - PubAg Search Results
Methylocella silvestris, an alphaproteobacterium isolated from a forest soil, can grow on trimethylamine N‐oxide (TMAO) as a sole nitrogen source; however, the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underpinning its growth remain unknown. Marker‐exchange mutagenesis enabled the identification of several genes involved in TMAO metabolism, including Msil_3606, a permease of the amino acids‐polyamine ...
ALN_YEAST (P32375 ), PYR1_CAEEL (Q18990 ), PYR1_DICDI (P20054 ), PYR1_DROME (P05990 ), PYR1_HUMAN (P27708 ), PYR1_MESAU (P08955 ), PYR1_MOUSE (B2RQC6 ), PYR1_SQUAC (Q91437 ), PYRC_ACAM1 (B0CF78 ), PYRC_ACIAD (Q6FD29 ), PYRC_ACIB3 (B7GX48 ), PYRC_ACIB5 (B7I9G6 ), PYRC_ACIBC (B2HWF6 ), PYRC_ACIBS (B0VKW9 ), PYRC_ACIBT (A3M3K3 ), PYRC_ACIBY (B0VAC1 ), PYRC_ACISJ (A1WC79 ), PYRC_AGRFC (Q8UI99 ), PYRC_AGRRK (B9J8H5 ), PYRC_AGRVS (B9JQV9 ), PYRC_ALCBS (Q0VNK6 ), PYRC_ALISL (B6ER91 ), PYRC_ALKEH (Q0AB36 ), PYRC_ANAD2 (B8JAE8 ), PYRC_ANADE (Q2IIB0 ), PYRC_ANAPZ (Q2GL89 ), PYRC_ANASK (B4UDQ2 ), PYRC_ANOFW (B7GFA5 ), PYRC_AQUAE (O66990 ), PYRC_ARATH (O04904 ), PYRC_ARCFU (O28034 ), PYRC_AROAE (Q5P6Y5 ), PYRC_AZOSB (A1K3T5 ), PYRC_AZOVD (C1DQV1 ), PYRC_BACAA (C3P658 ), PYRC_BACAC (C3L738 ), PYRC_BACAH (A0RHR0 ), PYRC_BACAN (Q81WF0 ), PYRC_BACC0 (B7JJX5 ), PYRC_BACC1 (Q732I1 ), PYRC_BACC2 (B7IUP8 ), PYRC_BACC3 (C1EPQ2 ), PYRC_BACC4 (B7H6M4 ), PYRC_BACC7 (B7HLM2 ), PYRC_BACCL (P46538 ), PYRC_BACCN (A7GRL3 ), ...
Gentaur Molecular :Nacala \ Agarose for ≧1kbp fragment \ 01145-45
Ref - Romeo & Gong 1993. J.Bacteriol. 175:5740-5741
Bacterial Transduction- Horizontal gene transfer- lytic and lysogenic cycle
தொற்றுநோய் - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
நோய்க்கடத்தலை தடுப்பதற்கு, ஒவ்வொரு நோயையும் உருவாக்கும் உயிரினம் பற்றி, நோயின் இயல்புபற்றி, நோய் கடத்தப்படும் முறைபற்றி அறிந்திருத்தல் அவசியமாகும். அறிந்துகொள்ள வேண்டிய முக்கியமான இயல்புகளாவன, நோய்க்காரணியின் நோய்த்தொற்று வீரியம் (virulence), நோய்ப் பாதிப்புக்கு உட்பட்டிருப்பவர் செல்லும் தூரம், நோய்த் தொற்றின் நிலை என்பனவாகும். உதாரணமாக எய்ட்சு எனப்படும் மனித ...
Filamentous bacterium (Streptomyces rimosus), SEM - Stock Image C032/2096 - Science Photo Library
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Streptomyces rimosus, Gram-positive, aerobic, filamentous, rod prokaryote (bacterium). Streptomyces sp. belongs to the Actinomycetes group and are bacteria that share many characteristics with fungi. They grow usually as filaments (chains of cells) and often branch to form a network of filaments (mycelium) in the soil. These soil bacteria are responsible for the musty odour of soil. Streptomyces rimosus is notably the most characterized industrial streptomycete producer of oxytetracycline and other tetracycline antibiotics. Although resistance to these antibiotics has reduced their clinical use in recent years, tetracyclines have an increasing role in the treatment of emerging infections and non-infective diseases. Magnification: x2,400 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/2096
Streptomyces rimosus otcD1 protein Summary Report | CureHunter
"Gene Deletion by Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis in" by Konrad E. Mueller, Katerina Wolf et al.
Although progress in Chlamydia genetics has been rapid, genomic modification has previously been limited to point mutations and group II intron insertions which truncate protein products. The bacterium has thus far been intractable to gene deletion or more-complex genomic integrations such as allelic exchange. Herein, we present a novel suicide vector dependent on inducible expression of a chlamydial gene that renders Chlamydia trachomatis fully genetically tractable and permits rapid reverse genetics by fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM). We describe the first available system of targeting chlamydial genes for deletion or allelic exchange as well as curing plasmids from C. trachomatis serovar L2. Furthermore, this approach permits the monitoring of mutagenesis by fluorescence microscopy without disturbing bacterial growth, a significant asset when manipulating obligate intracellular organisms. As proof of principle, trpA was successfully deleted and replaced with a sequence
Genetic and physical maps of the Bacillus subtilis chromosome.
ASMscience | Plasmids as Genetic Tool
This chapter provides a broad overview of many applications of plasmids for genetic analysis, primarily in bacteria. Ever since DNA sequencing became accessible to most research laboratories, reverse genetic analysis has become a standard experimental approach to study bacterial gene function. Similar suicide vectors have also been used for nontargeted insertional mutagenesis by cloning random chromosomal DNA fragments into the plasmid. The use of suicide vectors also allows for easy identification of the insertion mutations. Plasmids that utilize different combinations of double-counter selective markers have been used for diverse applications, including the search for extremely rare suppressor mutations of essential Escherichia coli genes, and to improve the efficiency of allelic exchange on bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). Although temperature-sensitive vectors represent the majority of conditionally replicating plasmids, other plasmids that exhibit conditional replication have been described
OPUS Würzburg | Search
We have cloned the chromosomal hemolysin determinants from Escherichia coli strains belonging to the four O-serotypes 04, 06, 018, and 075, The hemolysin-producing clones were isolated from gene banks of these strains which were constructed by inserting partial Sau3A fragments of chromosomal DNA into the cosmid pJC74. The hemolytic cosmid clones were relatively stable. The inserts were further sub cloned either as Sail fragments in pACYC184 or as BamHI-SaLI fragments in a recombinant plasmid (pANN202) containing cistron C (hlye) of the plasmid-encoded hemolysin determinant. Detailed restriction maps of each of these determinants were constructed, and it was found that, despite sharing overall homology, the determinants exhibited minor specific differences in their structure, These appeared to be restricted to cistron A (hlyA), which is the structural gene for hemolysin. In the gene banks of two of these hemolytic strains, we could also identify clones which carried the genetic determinants for ...
Study of virulence factors of Staphylococcus aureus - Enlighten: Theses
In vivo expression technology (IVET) is a promoter-trap strategy deigned to identify genes whose expression in induced in a specific environment, typically that encountered in a host. Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) uses comparative hybridisation to isolate mutants unable to survive specified environmental conditions and has been used to identify genes critical for survival in the host. Both methods have been used to identify virulence genes in S. aureus. The main aim of this project was to find any probable new genes of S. aureus that are essential for biofilm formation and infection mouse model by STM. A library of tagged insertion mutants of S. aureus and a series of selected tags in plasmids of S. aureus strain RN6390 were used. Most of the experiments with both the library and selected tags had problems with cross-hybridisation. All the selected tags were therefore sequenced and 33 tags with less than 50% identity were chosen for future experiments. A library of 825 mutants was made with ...
blaNDM-1 (Escherichia coli) | Gene Target - PubChem
Decreasing the hyphal branching rate of Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338 leads to increased resistance to breakage and...
Example of Real‐Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR (Q‐RT‐PCR) Analysis of Bacterial Gene Expression during Mammalian...
"Insertion mutations in the dam gene of Escherichia coli K-12" by Martin G. Marinus, Margaretha Carraway et al.
SAUSA300 0162 - AureoWiki
Estimating variation within the genes and inferring the phylogeny of 186 sequenced diverse Escherichia coli genomes
The results of comparing a large and diverse E. coli dataset support the theory that reliable and good resolution phylogenies can be inferred from the core-genome. The results further suggest that the resolution at the isolate level may, subsequently be improved by targeting more variable genes. The …
Impact of mutations in individual protease genes/operon | Open-i
"POLAR EFFECTS ON THE RATES OF FORMATION AND DIMERIZATION OF FREE RADIC" by JAMES PAUL MORAN
Gentaur Molecular :ListBio \ Ultra Pure LPS from Escherichia coli O111 B4 \ 105
Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 - Illnesses & conditions | NHS inform
Pneumococcal Metabolic Adaptation and Colonization Are Regulated by the Two-Component Regulatory System 08 | mSphere
Citation Gómez-Mejia A, Gámez G, Hirschmann S, Kluger V, Rath H, Böhm S, Voss F, Kakar N, Petruschka L, Völker U, Brückner R, Mäder U, Hammerschmidt S. 2018. Pneumococcal metabolic adaptation and colonization are regulated by the two-component regulatory system 08. mSphere 3:e00165-18. https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00165-18. ...
Structural characterization of <em>Salmonella typhimurium</em> YeaZ, an M22 O-sialoglycoprotein endopeptidase homolog - ePrints...
LB Medium Preparation
GenePage for the iap gene of Escherichia coli K-12 | EcoGene 3.0
Escherichia coli (strain UMEA 3162-1)
Model-Driven Minimization of the B. Subtilis Genome | AIChE
New Study Helps Scientists Understand How E. Coli Clone Has Become Globally Distributed
Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. F8092B
PoultryWorld - Discovery: blocking E. coli receptor averts infection
two-component regulatory system - oi
What are the strain properties of NEB 5-alpha Competent E. coli (Subcloning Efficiency)? | NEB
Pimar 00100 : CDS information --- DoBISCUIT
putative ABC transporter ATP-binding/permease protein [PimA protein] GTGCTGCTATGTCTTCTGCGAATCCATCTGCGGCCGCACCGGCGCTCCGTCGCCCTGCTG GGGCTTTTGCAACTGGTGCAGATCCTGGCCACTTTGGCCCTGCCGACACTGGGCGCCGCG GTCATCGACAACGGCGTGGTCAGGGCCGACAGCGGCTACATCACCCGGACCGGCCTGGCC ATGCTGGCCGTGGCGCTCGTGCAGATCGCGGCGTCCGTGGCCGCGGTGGCGCTGGGCGCC CGTACGGCCATGGCGATGGGCCGCGACCTGCGCTCGGCCGTCTTCCGCCGGGTGCTGGAC TTCTCGGCCCGCGAGGTCGGGCGGTTCGGCACTCCGTCGCTGATGACGCGGACCGTCAAC GATGTGCAGCAGGTGCAGGTGCTGGCCCTGTCCGCGTTCGGCGTCGTCGTGTCGGCGCCC CTGATGTGTCTGGGCAGCATCGCGCTCGCACTCCAGCAGGACGTCCCGCTCTCCCTGCTC CTGGTGGCGCTGATGGTGGCCGTCGGAATGTCCTTCGGCCTCATTCTCGGCCGCACCGAT CCGTTCTACGCCCGTATGCAGAAACAGCTGGACCGCATCAACGGGCTGCTGCGCGAACGC ATTACCGGAGTCCGCGTCGTACGGGCTTTTGTGCGCGACGCCCACGAAGGCGCGAGATTC GGCCGCACCAATTCCGAATTGCGTGACATCTCGCTGCGCGTCGGCCGGCTGCTGGCCACG GTCATCCCCCTGGTGCTGCTGGTCCTCAACGCCTTCATGGCAGCCGTGGTGTGGTTCGGC GCCCACCGCATCGACGCCGGGGCGATGCGGTTCGGTGCGCTCAGCGCGTTTCTGAGCTAC CTGACGCTGATCACGATGTCGGTGGTGATGGTGACCTTCGTGTGCCTGCCGATGCCGCGG ...
NovEgg Expression System
Clavam 625 : Side effects, Use and Dosage Related Info
Why is E. Coli so Dangerous? (with pictures)
What links here - 2008.igem.org
Cosmid.net Mechelle Someones Knocking (Jul 15, 2014)
Cosmid.net Sonny Twister Time With Sonny (Jul 25, 2014)
Site | MCIC
come-up, holding and cooling. We hypothesize that slow heating rate during come-up stage, as practiced ... objectives of this study are to understand how different heating rates during come-up stage could affect (1) ... heat-stress-response and virulence genes. Compared to fast heating rate, slow rate caused higher expression of heat .... ...
Effect of baseline serum albumin concentration on outcome of resuscitation with albumin or saline in patients in intensive care...
Our study does not provide evidence that the effect of resuscitation with albumin compared with saline in the intensive care unit is different in patients with different baseline serum albumin concentrations. Nor does it provide evidence to support the suggestion that albumin increases the risk of mortality in patients with hypoalbuminaemia. When the odds ratios for death was compared in patients with a baseline serum albumin concentration of 25 g/l or less or of more than 25 g/l we found only limited evidence that treatment effects were different and this only after correction for other baseline risk factors. When we considered the effect of baseline serum albumin concentration as a continuous variable across the spectrum of albumin concentrations, baseline concentration had no impact on the treatment effect even after correction for other baseline risk factors. Taken together these results suggest that albumin and saline produce similar treatment effects across the range of albumin ...
tRNA genes. Organisms vary in the number of tRNA genes in their genome. For example, the nematode worm C. elegans, a ... "Tertiary structure of bacterial selenocysteine tRNA". Nucleic Acids Research. 41 (13): 6729-38. doi:10.1093/nar/gkt321. PMC ... These genes are found on all chromosomes, except the 22 and Y chromosome. High clustering on 6p is observed (140 tRNA genes), ... As with all eukaryotes, there are 22 mitochondrial tRNA genes in humans. Mutations in some of these genes have been ...
"Large variations in bacterial ribosomal RNA genes". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29 (10): 2937-48. doi:10.1093/molbev/ ... Gene content and protein synthesis. The chloroplast genome most commonly includes around 100 genes that code for a ... 4.4 Gene content and protein synthesis *4.4.1 Chloroplast genome reduction and gene transfer ... Chloroplasts may contain 60-100 genes whereas cyanobacteria often have more than 1500 genes in their genome. Recently, a ...
Bacterial genes may be retained within the plant. The hairy roots are grown in vitro in bioreactors to study their soil ... Under such conditions, certain bacterial genes are turned on leading to the transfer of its tDNA from its root-inducing plasmid ... Intrieri, M. C. & Buiatti, M. (July 2001). "The horizontal transfer of Agrobacterium rhizogenes genes and the evolution of the ... "Agrobacterium rhizogenes T-DNA genes capable of inducing hairy root phenotype". Molecular and General Genetics 209(3):475-480. ...
"Systematic chromosomal deletion of bacterial ribosomal protein genes". J. Mol. Biol. 413 (4): 751-61. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2011.09 ... an Updated Database of Essential Genes". Gene Essentiality. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1279. pp. 219-33. doi:10.1007/978-1- ... Taken together with previous results, 22 of the 54 E. coli ribosomal protein genes can be individually deleted from the genome. ... Gao, F; Luo, H; Zhang, C. T.; Zhang, R (2015). "Gene Essentiality Analysis Based on DEG 10, ...
To clone a gene fragment into a vector, both plasmid DNA and gene insert are typically cut with the same restriction enzymes, ... Smith HO, Nathans D (Dec 1973). "Letter: A suggested nomenclature for bacterial host modification and restriction systems and ... Wayengera M (2003). "HIV and Gene Therapy: The proposed [R-M enzymatic] model for a gene therapy against HIV". Makerere Med J. ... They are used to assist insertion of genes into plasmid vectors during gene cloning and protein production experiments. For ...
Gene Cassettes. Main article: Gene cassette. Additionally, an integron will usually contain one or more gene cassettes ... Mazel, D. "Integrons: agents of bacterial evolution". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4 (8): 608-620. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1462.. ... The gene cassettes may encode genes for antibiotic resistance, although most genes in integrons are uncharacterized. An attC ... Hall, RM; Collis, CM (1995). "Mobile gene cassettes and integrons: Capture and spread of genes by site-specific recombination ...
Kuehn MJ, Kesty NC (November 2005). "Bacterial outer membrane vesicles and the host-pathogen interaction". Genes & Development ... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... The Type VI secretion system gene clusters contain from 15 to more than 20 genes, two of which, Hcp and VgrG, have been shown ... 2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42 ...
Genetically modified crops
It contained three bacterial genes, two CP4 EPSPS genes, and a gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli as ... This CP4 EPSPS gene was cloned and transfected into soybeans.. The plasmid used to move the gene into soybeans was PV-GMGTO4. ... Introducing new genes into plants requires a promoter specific to the area where the gene is to be expressed. For instance, to ... "Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80 (15): 4803-07. Bibcode:1983PNAS...80.4803 ...
Kuehn, M. J.; Kesty, N. C. (2005). "Bacterial outer membrane vesicles and the host-pathogen interaction". Genes & Development. ... Schematic drawing of bacterial conjugation. 1- Donor cell produces pilus. 2- Pilus attaches to recipient cell, bringing the two ... Salyers, A. A. & Whitt, D. D. (2002). Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN ... Transferred genes enter the plant cell nucleus and effectively transform the plant cells into factories for the production of ...
Over-expression of the Ras2 gene increases lifespan in yeast by 30%. A yeast mutant lacking the genes SCH9 and RAS1 has ... Some evidence is provided by oxygen-deprived bacterial cultures.. *The theory would explain why the autosomal dominant ... Such a genetic effect is called the antagonistic pleiotropy effect when referring to a gene (pleiotropy signifying the gene has ... methylation of gene promoter regions or alterations of the DNA scaffolding which regulate gene expression), can cause abnormal ...
Genetically modified organism
"Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 80 (15): 4803-4807. Bibcode:1983PNAS...80.4803 ... Human gene therapy. Gene therapy, uses genetically modified viruses to deliver genes that can cure disease in humans. ... firing small particles from a gene gun.. Other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of ... Inserted genes usually come from a different species in a form of horizontal gene-transfer. In nature this can occur when ...
... viable daughter cells to be produced would require an extra replication of the intact RNA gene homologous to any RNA gene that ... Nudler E, Mironov AS (Jan 2004). "The riboswitch control of bacterial metabolism". Trends in Biochemical Sciences. 29 (1): 11-7 ... If at least one damage-free copy of each RNA gene is present in the transient diploid, viable progeny can be formed. For two, ... Tucker BJ, Breaker RR (Jun 2005). "Riboswitches as versatile gene control elements". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 15 ...
"Epigenetic gene regulation in the bacterial world". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 70 (3): 830-56. PMC 1594586 . PMID 16959970. doi ... Morris KL (2008). "Epigenetic Regulation of Gene Expression". RNA and the Regulation of Gene Expression: A Hidden Layer of ... They control gene expression including virulence genes in pathogens and are viewed as new targets in the fight against drug- ... There are several layers of regulation of gene expression. One way that genes are regulated is through the remodeling of ...
Young, JM (2001). "Implications of alternative classifications and horizontal gene transfer for bacterial taxonomy". Int. J. ... Analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences suggests that they are a deeply branching lineage that does not belong to the main ... Hansmann, S; Martin W (2000). "Phylogeny of 33 ribosomal and six other proteins encoded in an ancient gene cluster that is ... Euzeby, JP (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int. J. Syst. ...
Nitric oxide synthase
... gene. Recently, NOS activity has been demonstrated in several bacterial species, including notorious pathogens Bacillus ... The gene coding for eNOS is located on Chromosome 7. A constitutive Ca2+ dependent NOS provides a basal release of NO. eNOS is ... The gene coding for nNOS is located on Chromosome 12. Neuronal NOS also performs a role in cell communication and is associated ... The gene coding for iNOS is located on Chromosome 17. While evidence for 'baseline' iNOS expression has been elusive, IRF1 and ...
Such genes include mei-41, mei-9, hdm, spnA, and brca2. This large group of conserved genes between processes supports the ... Links to bacterial transformation. The process of bacterial transformation also shares many similarities with chromosomal ... The linked frequency of crossing over between two gene loci (markers) is the crossing-over value . For fixed set of genetic and ... Bacterial transformation itself has been linked to DNA repair many times. The second theory comes from the idea that meiosis ...
History of genetic engineering
"Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America ... By removing the genes in the plasmid that caused the tumor and adding in novel genes researchers were able to infect plants ... The ability to partially reduce gene function has allowed the study of genes that are lethal when completely knocked out. Other ... With the introduction of the gene gun in 1987 it became possible to integrate foreign genes into a chloroplast. Genetic ...
Nucleic acid sequence
The human genome is believed to contain around 20,000 - 25,000 genes. In addition to studying chromosomes to the level of ... Shine J, Dalgarno L (1975). "Determinant of cistron specificity in bacterial ribosomes". Nature. 254 (5495): 34-8. doi:10.1038/ ... Gene structure Quaternary numeral system Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Nomenclature for Incompletely Specified Bases in ... Normally, every person carries two variations of every gene, one inherited from their mother, the other inherited from their ...
Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria
Bacterial leaf spot affects all above ground parts of the plant: Pepper fruit do not frequently show symptoms, largely due to ... Vesicatoria allowing fishing for virulence genes. Journal of Biotechnology. 106 (2003) 203-214 Agrios, G. N. (2005). Plant ... Bacterial spot of pepper and tomato can spread extremely quickly with infected plants showing symptoms 3-5 days after exposure ... Management of tomato bacterial spot in the field by foliar applications of bacteriophages and SAR inducers. Plant Disease 88: ...
in 1953 for B-DNA X-ray diffraction and scattering patterns of hydrated, bacterial-oriented DNA fibers and trout sperm heads in ... Molecular and cellular biology portal Comparison of nucleic acid simulation software Gene structure List of RNA structure ... Shine, J.; Dalgarno, L. (1975). "Determinant of cistron specificity in bacterial ribosomes". Nature. 254 (5495): 34-38. Bibcode ... Genes Dev. 11 (7): 941-956. doi:10.1101/gad.11.7.941. PMID 9106664. ...
The ribosomes in chloroplasts are similar to bacterial ribosomes. Because so many chloroplast genes have been moved to the ... Lim, K; Furuta, Y; Kobayashi, I (October 2012). "Large variations in bacterial ribosomal RNA genes". Molecular Biology and ... Genes from a chloroplast and nuclear genes indicating the presence of a chloroplast have been found in Helicosporidium even if ... From genomes that probably originally contained over 3000 genes only about 130 genes remain in the chloroplasts of contemporary ...
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
"Genes & Development. 11 (15): 1912-24. doi:10.1101/gad.11.15.1912. PMC 316416. PMID 9271115.. ... Other NAD-dependent enzymes include bacterial DNA ligases, which join two DNA ends by using NAD+ as a substrate to donate an ... Wilkinson A, Day J, Bowater R (2001). "Bacterial DNA ligases". Mol. Microbiol. 40 (6): 1241-8. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001. ... An example of a NAD-binding bacterial enzyme involved in amino acid metabolism that does not have Rossmann fold: . ...
Introduction to genetics
Gene. A segment of DNA. Genes are like sentences made of the "letters" of the nucleotide alphabet, between them genes direct ... Genetic engineering: Bacterial arsenal to combat chewing insects GMO Safety, Jul 2010 ... Genes are copied. Main article: DNA replication. Genes are copied each time a cell divides into two new cells. The ... Genes make proteins. Main article: Genetic code. The function of genes is to provide the information needed to make ...
"Genetics of Bacterial Alginate: Alginate Genes Distribution, Organization and Biosynthesis in Bacteria". Current Genomics. 8 ... This chromosome is a circular DNA molecule which contains 5,342,073 nucleotide pairs and 5,043 genes, of which 4,988 encode ... Synthesis of nitrogenase is controlled by the nif genes. Nitrogen fixation is regulated by the enhancer protein NifA and ... "Azotobacter vinelandii NIFL is a flavoprotein that modulates transcriptional activation of nitrogen-fixation genes via a redox- ...
"Toxin Gene Expression by Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli: The Role of Antibiotics and the Bacterial SOS Response" ... although it may be used against any susceptible aerobic bacterial species. It may also be used to treat and prevent ... Trimethoprim's affinity for bacterial dihydrofolate reductase is several thousand times greater than its affinity for human ... THF is an essential precursor in the thymidine synthesis pathway and interference with this pathway inhibits bacterial DNA ...
Delcher, Arthur; Bratke, Kirsten A.; Powers, Edwin C.; Salzberg, Steven L. (2007). "Identifying bacterial genes and ... The GLIMMER (Gene Locator and Interpolated Markov ModelER) software was an early gene-finding program used for the ... or multiple genes (or even no gene at all) is present. GENSCAN was shown to exactly predict exon location with 90% accuracy ... locations compared to confirmed genes in prokaryotes. The GENSCAN webserver is a gene locator capable of analyzing eukaryotic ...
To clone a gene fragment into a vector, both plasmid DNA and gene insert are typically cut with the same restriction enzymes, ... Each enzyme is named after the bacterium from which it was isolated, using a naming system based on bacterial genus, species ... Wayengera M (2003). "HIV and Gene Therapy: The proposed [R-M enzymatic] model for a gene therapy against HIV". Makerere Med J. ... Manjunath N, Yi G, Dang Y, Shankar P (Nov 2013). "Newer gene editing technologies toward HIV gene therapy". Viruses. 5 (11): ...
"Systematic chromosomal deletion of bacterial ribosomal protein genes". J. Mol. Biol. 413 (4): 751-61. doi:10.1016/j.jmb.2011.09 ... an Updated Database of Essential Genes". Gene Essentiality. Methods in Molecular Biology. 1279. pp. 219-33. doi:10.1007/978-1- ... Typically 22 proteins are found in bacterial 30S subunits and 32 in yeast, human and most likely most other eukaryotic species ... Taken together with previous results, 22 of the 54 E. coli ribosomal protein genes can be individually deleted from the genome ...
Delcher, A. L.; Bratke, K. A.; Powers, E. C.; Salzberg, S. L. (2007). "Identifying bacterial genes and endosymbiont DNA with ... Genes in the session gene cart can be saved to the permanent gene cart which is only available to registered users after ... The first one is the Tree Browser, which draws a species tree or a gene tree for the selected gene and its gene neighbourhood. ... The locus information can be viewed through the "view genes" option, and this gene can be added to the session gene cart, or ...
It has a core set of 1553 genes, plus 154 genes in its virulome, which contribute to virulence and 176 genes that maintain a ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... For instance, the Xisco gene was recently described as a biomarker for PCR-based detection of S. pneumoniae and differentiation ... In S. pneumoniae, at least 23 genes are required for transformation. For a bacterium to bind, take up, and recombine exogenous ...
... encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive-strand mRNAs, which are then ... balance as well as treating any bacterial infections that may develop. Dialysis may be needed for kidney failure, and ... Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes. Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR- ... This triggers the expression of interferon-stimulated genes, which code for proteins with antiviral properties. EBOV's V24 ...
Organulo, ang malayang ensiklopedya
... compact genomes and genes of bacterial origin". BMC Genomics. 16 (1): 204. doi:10.1186/s12864-015-1418-3. PMC 4487195. PMID ... Gene content and protein synthesisEdit. The chloroplast genome most commonly includes around 100 genes which code for a ... 3 Gene content and protein synthesis *3.1 Chloroplast genome reduction and gene transfer ... Chloroplasts may contain 60-100 genes whereas cyanobacteria often have more than 1500 genes in their genome. Contrarily, ...
These gene candidates include certain variations in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1 alpha, and CYP1A1 genes, ... The anaerobic bacterial species Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) contributes to the development of acne, ... Genes. Acne appears to be strongly inherited; genetics explain 81% of the variation in the population. Studies ... These reinforced the idea amongst dermatologists that bacterial growth on the skin plays an important role in causing acne.[179 ...
The bacterial cell's control system has a hierarchical organization. The signaling and the control subsystem interfaces ... The Caulobacter CB15 genome has 4,016,942 base pairs in a single circular chromosome encoding 3,767 genes. The genome ... Generally, the bacterial species that divides fastest will be most effective at exploiting resources and effectively occupying ... Ausmees, Nora; Kuhn, Jeffrey R.; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine (December 2003). "The bacterial cytoskeleton: an intermediate ...
Genetically modified tomato
In 2000, the concentration of pro-vitamin A was increased by adding a bacterial gene encoding phytoene desaturase, although the ... by adding antisense genes to silence the native gene or by adding extra copies of the native gene. ... "Expression of a synthesized gene encoding cationic peptide cecropin B in transgenic tomato plants protects against bacterial ... has been introduced into tomato plants and in vivo studies show significant resistance to bacterial wilt and bacterial spot.[27 ...
Evolution of biological complexity
According to this model, new genes are created by non-adaptive processes, such as by random gene duplication. These novel ... "Being Pathogenic, Plastic, and Sexual while Living with a Nearly Minimal Bacterial Genome". PLoS Genet. 3 (5): e75. doi ... All changes in the gene frequencies of populations--and quite often in the traits those genes influence--are by definition ... how new alternative spliced isoforms of genes arise, how gene scrambling in ciliates evolved, and how pervasive pan-RNA editing ...
Fluorescence in situ hybridization
RNA probes can be designed for any gene or any sequence within a gene for visualization of mRNA, lncRNA and ... Bacterial FISH probes are often primers for the 16s rRNA region. FISH is widely used in the field of microbial ecology, to ... The technology has potential applications in cancer diagnosis, neuroscience, gene expression analysis, and companion ... MA-FISH is applied for detecting the HER2 gene in breast cancer tissues. ...
Abel-Santos, E (editor) (2012). Bacterial Spores: Current Research and Applications. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-908230- ... These studies have contributed much to our understanding of the regulation of gene expression, transcription factors, and the ... Further information: Bacterial morphological plasticity. Under conditions of starvation, especially the lack of carbon and ... While the rest of a bacterial cell may stain, the endospore is left colourless. To combat this, a special stain technique ...
RNA polymerase - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Non-coding RNA or "RNA genes". These are a broad class of genes that encode RNA which is not translated into protein. The most ... All are similar and related to each other and to bacterial RNAP:. *RNA polymerase I synthesizes a pre-rRNA which will form the ... However, since the late 1990s, many new RNA genes have been found, and thus RNA genes may play a much more significant role ... Genes, factors and transcriptional specificity". Eur J Biochem. 212 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1993.tb17626.x. PMID ...
There are indications that benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide specifically targets the protective p53 gene. This gene is a ... Therefore, macrophage membranes become susceptibile to bacterial infections. Reproductive system. In experiments with ... in DNA located upstream of certain genes. This process increases transcription of certain genes, notably CYP1A1, followed by ... pyrene confers enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infection". Environ Research. 146: 173-84. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2015.12.027 ...
Some degree of gene flow is normal, and preserves constellations of genes and genotypes. An example of this is the ... Diseases may also be vectored by invasive insects such as the Asian citrus psyllid and the bacterial disease citrus greening.[ ... Citrus greening is a bacterial disease vectored by the invasive Asian citrus psyllid (ACP). Because of the impacts of this ... Hybrids resulting from invasive species interbreeding with native species can incorporate their genotypes into the gene pool ...
... is a eukaryotic gene. The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the RAD51 protein family which assists in repair of ... RAD51 family members are homologous to the bacterial RecA, Archaeal RadA and yeast Rad51. The protein is highly conserved ... Many cancers have epigenetic deficiencies in various DNA repair genes (see Frequencies of epimutations in DNA repair genes in ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • nucleotide binding. • DNA binding. • DNA-dependent ATPase activity. • recombinase activity ...
Integral membrane protein
Mcintosh, M (19 October 2004). "Curdlan and other bacterial (1→3)-β-D-glucans". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 68 (2 ... The process leading to β-1,6 linkages is poorly understood: although genes important in the process have been identified, not ... This fermentation impacts the expression of many genes within the large intestine, which further affects digestive function ...
Mutation in the CACNA1C gene, the single-nucleotide polymorphism located in the third intron of the Cav1.2 gene, are ... "Entrez Gene: voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit".. *^ Narayanan D, Xi Q, Pfeffer LM, Jaggar JH (Sep 2010). " ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • calcium channel activity. • metal ion binding. • voltage-gated ion channel activity. • ion ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective Wikipedia articles. [§ 1] ...
Ng SY; Chaban B; Jarrell KF (2006). "Archaeal flagella, bacterial flagella and type IV pili: a comparison of genes and ... Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Asexual reproduction, horizontal gene transfer. Sexual and asexual reproduction ... since most archaeal genes lack introns, although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes, and ... "Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 38 (6): 566- ...
de Kloet, RS; de Kloet SR (2005). "The evolution of the spindlin gene in birds: Sequence analysis of an intron of the spindlin ... "Colourful parrot feathers resist bacterial degradation". Biology Letters. 7 (2): 214-216. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2010.0716. PMC ... W and Z gene reveals four major divisions of the Psittaciformes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 36 (3): 706-721. doi: ...
"Gene. 389 (1): 52-65. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2006.09.029. PMC 1955227. PMID 17123746.. ... bacterial RNA polymerase: rpoB. *eukaryotic RNA polymerase: RNA polymerase II. Termination. (bacterial,. eukaryotic). * ... and viral genes. The TATA box was found in protein coding genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. ... of genes have promoter regions containing the TATA box. Genes containing the TATA-box tend to be involved in stress- ...
顆粒白血球 - 維基百科，自由的百科全
Mayer, Gene. Immunology - Chapter One: Innate (non-specific) Immunity. Microbiology and Immunology On-Line Textbook. USC School ... Ernst J. D. and Stendahl O., (editors), Phagocytosis of Bacteria and Bacterial Pathogenicity, Cambridge University Press, 2006 ... Soehnlein O, Kenne E, Rotzius P, Eriksson EE, Lindbom L. Neutrophil secretion products regulate anti-bacterial activity in ... Neutrophil primary granule proteins HBP and HNP1-3 boost bacterial phagocytosis by human and murine macrophages. J. Clin. ...
Gene ontology. Molecular function. • amyloid-beta binding. • signal transducer activity. • Wnt-protein binding. • protein ... cellular response to molecule of bacterial origin. • positive regulation of interferon-gamma production. • embryonic axis ... Frizzled-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FZD5 gene. ... Saitoh T, Hirai M, Katoh M (Jun 2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of human Frizzled-5 gene on chromosome 2q33.3- ...
Bacteria - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Reproduction and gene transfer[change , change source]. A bacterium reproduces (creates more bacteria) by dividing in half and ... Bacterial evolution. Microbiological reviews 51 (2): 221-71. . *↑ Holland L. (1990). "Woese, Carl in the forefront of ... Bacterial cells do not have a nucleus, and most have no organelles with membranes around them. Most have a cell wall. They do ... The complete DNA sequence is known for many bacterial strains.. Shape[change , change source]. Bacteria vary widely in size and ...
The bacterial and fungal cultures found in the fermenting piles were found to vary widely from factory to factory throughout ... It is apparent that this species does not have the gene sequence for coding ochratoxin and thus pu'er tea should be considered ... Tian, Jianqing; Zhu, Zixiang; Wu, Bing; Wang, Lin; Liu, Xingzhong (2013-08-19). "Bacterial and fungal communities in Pu'er tea ... bacterial, or autooxidation influences. Pu'er flavors can change dramatically over the course of the aging process, resulting ...
ARNr 16S, a enciclopedia libre
"The variability of the 16S rRNA gene in bacterial genomes and its consequences for bacterial community analyses". PLoS One 8 (2 ... James, Greg (15 May 2018). "Universal Bacterial Identification by PCR and DNA Sequencing of 16S rRNA Gene". PCR for Clinical ... Kolbert CP, Persing DH (June 1999). "Ribosomal DNA sequencing as a tool for identification of bacterial pathogens". Current ... "Intragenomic heterogeneity between multiple 16S ribosomal RNA operons in sequenced bacterial genomes". FEMS Microbiology ...
This article on a gene on human chromosome 17 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... it is encoded by the GAA gene. Errors in this gene cause glycogen storage disease type II (Pompe disease). ... This gene encodes lysosomal alpha-glucosidase, which is essential for the degradation of glycogen to glucose in lysosomes. ... Gene ontology. Molecular function. • hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds. • hydrolase activity, acting on ...
Visualization of bacterial genes in action. - PubMed - NCBI
Identifying bacterial genes and endosymbiont DNA with Glimmer. - PubMed - NCBI
Identifying bacterial genes and endosymbiont DNA with Glimmer.. Delcher AL1, Bratke KA, Powers EC, Salzberg SL. ... The Glimmer gene-finding software has been successfully used for finding genes in bacteria, archaea and viruses representing ... This ORF contains the fructose bis-P aldolase gene in Escherichia coli (EG14062) and the current Ecogene verified start site is ... as measured by comparisons to known and well-curated genes. We show that our interpolated Markov model (IMM) DNA discriminator ...
Evolutionary relationships of bacterial and archaeal glutamine synthetase genes | SpringerLink
Genes for GSI have been found only in bacteria... ... GSIII genes have been found in only a few bacterial species. ... We suspect that the similarity of GSI-α genes from Euryarchaeota and several bacterial species does not reflect a common ... Genes for GSI have been found only in bacteria (eubacteria) and archaea (archaebacteria), while GSII genes only occur in ... Cyanobacterial genes lack adenylylation regulation of GS and may have secondarily lost it. The GSI gene of Sulfolobus ...
Bacterial genes boost current in human cells | EurekAlert! Science News
Researchers have harvested genes from bacteria that, with a few tweaks, can create and enhance electrical signaling in cultured ... Bacterial genes boost current in human cells Borrowing and tweaking bacterial genes to Enhance electrical activity might treat ... The researchers then delivered three genes to the electrically inactive cells: one bacterial gene for a sodium ion channel and ... Bacterial genes boost current in human cells. Duke University. Journal. Nature Communications. Funder. American Heart ...
Reservoir of Bacterial Exotoxin Genes in the Environment
This is the first report of an environmental reservoir of a bacterial exotoxin gene in an atypical host. Screening bacterial ... gene is present in an alternative bacterial host, providing the first evidence for an environmental pool of exotoxin genes in ... When a phage transfers virulence genes to an avirulent bacterium, the bacterium can acquire the ability to cause disease. It is ... enterotoxin A gene (,i,sea,/i,). 16S DNA sequence comparisons and growth studies identified the environmental isolate as a ...
Inferring Bacterial Genome Flux While Considering Truncated Genes | Genetics
Gene truncation or gene pseudogenization also plays an important role in shaping bacterial genome content. Truncated genes ... Hao, W., and G. B. Golding, 2008a High rates of lateral gene transfer are not due to false diagnosis of gene absence. Gene 421: ... In addition to the two states, "p" for gene presence and "a" for gene absence, a new state "f" for fragment (truncated genes) ... Since the rates of gene insertions are high (Hao and Golding 2006) and genes with high duplicability are more prone to gene ...
Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression | SpringerLink
The bacterium Escherichia colicarries approximately 3000 genes, but this total repertoire... ... Reznikoff W.S. (1989) Regulation of Bacterial Gene Expression. In: Poindexter J.S., Leadbetter E.R. (eds) Bacteria in Nature. ... Belfort, M., 1980, The cll-independent expression of the phage λ intgene in RNase III-defective E. coli, Gene 11: 149 - 155. ... It presents the cell with the signals that ultimately lead to gene regulation-the turning on or off of gene expression. ...
Bacterial genes boost current in human cells
... 19.10.2016. Borrowing and tweaking bacterial genes to Enhance electrical activity ... Further reports about: , bacterial genes , cardiac , electrical signals , gene therapy , human cells , sodium , sodium channels ... bacterial genes »cardiac »electrical signals »gene therapy »human cells »sodium »sodium channels ... The researchers then delivered three genes to the electrically inactive cells: one bacterial gene for a sodium ion channel and ...
Genes for the cytoskeletal protein tubulin in the bacterial genus Prosthecobacter | PNAS
First, the genes arose via a horizontal gene transfer from a eukaryote, and second, that the bacterial tubulins are ancestral ... Here we report the presence of two tubulin-like genes [bacterial tubulin a (btuba) and bacterial tubulin b (btubb)] in bacteria ... The second hypothesis, that the bacterial tubulin genes are ancestral to eukaryotic tubulin genes, could be explained in terms ... Gene Expression and Organization.. The organization and expression of the P. dejongeii tubulin genes was investigated via gene ...
Replacement and amplification of bacterial genes with sequences altered in vitro | PNAS
Replacement and amplification of bacterial genes with sequences altered in vitro. N I Gutterson and D E Koshland Jr ... Replacement and amplification of bacterial genes with sequences altered in vitro Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Using the method, we have constructed two chromosomal deletions in the chemotaxis gene region of S. typhimurium. In addition, ... the two most widely studied bacterial species. ... Replacement and amplification of bacterial genes with sequences ...
Bacterial 'gene swapping' sparks disease outbreaks | EurekAlert! Science News
Bacterial gene swapping sparks disease outbreaks. University of Liverpool. Journal. Nature Communications. Keywords. * ... bacterial-gene-swapping-shown-to-spark-disease-outbreaks/. Related Journal Article. http://dx.. doi.. org/. 10.. 1038/. s41467- ... Bird genes are multitaskers, say scientists University of Sheffield * Cocaine addiction: Impact of genetic mutations elucidated ... Known as horizontal gene transfer, this phenomenon is understood to have played a role in developing the global antimicrobial ...
Gene behavior distinguishes viral from bacterial infections | Science News
Gene behavior distinguishes viral from bacterial infections. New approach could gauge response to flu vaccine. ... CASING A CULPRIT Certain gene behavior changes in people can reveal whether an infection is caused by a virus, such as the H1N1 ... An infection changes the behavior of the afflicted persons genes, and that host response differs depending on whether bacteria ... A recount of human genes ups the number to at least 46,831 ... A recount of human genes ups the number to at least 46,831 ...
Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression | Nature
... mRNA-effector complex adopts a distinct structure that sequesters the ribosome-binding site and leads to a reduction in gene ... Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. *Wade Winkler1. , ... Winkler, W., Nahvi, A. & Breaker, R. Thiamine derivatives bind messenger RNAs directly to regulate bacterial gene expression. ... A conserved RNA structure element involved in the regulation of bacterial riboflavin synthesis genes. Trends Genet. 15, 439-442 ...
Bacterial genes tell the tale of an outbreak's evolution
Bacterial genes tell the tale of an outbreaks evolution. 14.11.2011. Researchers at Harvard Medical School and Childrens ... "Parallel bacterial evolution within multiple patients identifies candidate pathogenicity genes," by Lieberman et al Harvard ... bacterial pathogens »genetic changes »health services »human body »immune system »specific gene »test tube ... bacterial pathogens , genetic changes , health services , human body , immune system , specific gene , test tube ...
Key Gene for Bacterial Infection Discovered
An important gene in bacterial infection has been discovered by researchers at Osaka University use molecular-level analyses of ... The team used molecular evolutionary analysis of gene sequences to identify a gene that has been largely prevented from ... reflecting how tolerant to mutation each gene is," Shigetada Kawabata says. "We found that, in the gene cbpJ, over 13% of ... Quiz on Bacterial Infections. Bacteria the tiny single-celled organisms are responsible for a range of infections. Bacteria can ...
Bacterial Polysaccharide Gene Database
Tracking bacterial gene expression with firefly luciferase | Mar 2008 | BioPhotonics
Because gene expression within a cell population fluctuates randomly, investigators must monitor individual cells if they want ... Tracking bacterial gene expression with firefly luciferase. BioPhotonics. Mar 2008 Hank Hogan ... Yeung used the chemiluminescence technique to perform quantitative studies of gene expression in two bacterial lines. They ... The pores in bacterial cell walls are too small for the charged luciferin molecules to fit through. The pores can be enlarged ...
A bacterial glycosyltransferase gene toolbox: generation and applications
Digital multiplex ligation assay for highly multiplexed screening of β-lactamase-encoding genes in bacterial isolates |...
... genes, in 74 bacterial isolates. We demonstrate dMLA as a light-weight and cost-efficient workflow which provides a highly ... Current screening technologies are limited by the number of samples and genes that can easily be screened. We demonstrate here ... Here, dMLA is used for simultaneous detection of 1187 β-lactamase-encoding genes, including extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL ... targeted genomic detection workflow capable of highly-parallel screening of bacterial isolates for multiple target gene regions ...
JCI - Bacterial control of host gene expression through RNA polymerase II
Such bacterial modulation of host gene expression may be essential to sustain asymptomatic bacterial carriage by ensuring that ... Bacterial control of host gene expression through RNA polymerase II. Nataliya Lutay,1 Ines Ambite,1 Jenny Grönberg Hernandez,1 ... Gene expression in human uroepithelial cells infected with E. coli 83972 or CFT073. (A) Heatmap of genes sorted according to ... Statistics. For gene expression analysis, genes with empirical Bayes-adjusted P values less than 0.05 and log2 fold changes ...
Phys.org - bacterial gene
Analysis reveals key gene for bacterial infection. To successfully infect their hosts, bacteria need to evade the host immune ... Analyses of two bacterial strains in the Red Sea show they are enriched with gene clusters with potential to activate the ... Key gene find could enable development of disease-resistant crops. Discovery of a gene that helps plants control their response ... Research identifies mechanism that helps plants fight bacterial infection. A team led by a plant pathologist at the University ...
Simultaneous identification of bacterial virulence genes by negative selection | Science
Simultaneous identification of bacterial virulence genes by negative selection. By M Hensel, JE Shea, C Gleeson, MD Jones, E ... Simultaneous identification of bacterial virulence genes by negative selection. By M Hensel, JE Shea, C Gleeson, MD Jones, E ... Simultaneous identification of bacterial virulence genes by negative selection Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... system that uses transposons carrying unique DNA sequence tags was developed for the isolation of bacterial virulence genes. ...
Genes | Free Full-Text | Off Earth Identification of Bacterial Populations Using 16S rDNA Nanopore Sequencing
The locations of bacterial colonies chosen for identification were labeled, and a small number of cells were directly added as ... To validate the process on microbes collected from and cultured aboard the ISS, bacterial cells were selected from a NASA ... Return of the contact slide to the ground allowed for standard laboratory processing for bacterial identification. The ... "Off Earth Identification of Bacterial Populations Using 16S rDNA Nanopore Sequencing." Genes 11, no. 1: 76. ...
Genes | Special Issue : Bacterial Genetics and Ecology Inspire the Biotechnology of an Evolving Global Economy
Genes, an international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal. ... There were 42 bacterial phyla from 153 families detected in the ... Special Issue "Bacterial Genetics and Ecology Inspire the Biotechnology of an Evolving Global Economy". *Print Special Issue ... Genes 2012, 3(1), 1-18; doi:10.3390/genes3010001. Received: 2 November 2011 / Revised: 22 November 2011 / Accepted: 28 November ... Genes 2011, 2(4), 853-868; doi:10.3390/genes2040853. Received: 16 August 2011 / Revised: 23 September 2011 / Accepted: 20 ...
Genes | Free Full-Text | Ecological and Temporal Constraints in the Evolution of Bacterial Genomes | HTML
In addition, we discuss the temporal constraints in the evolution of bacterial genomes, considering bacterial evolution from ... gene acquisition and gene loss may have when bacteria colonize different habitats that present characteristic ecological ... the present article we review the differential contribution to the evolution of bacterial genomes that processes such as gene ... suggested that gene duplication and ulterior diversification of paralog genes play a much less important role in bacterial gene ...
Methods for Estimating Gene Frequencies and Detecting Selection in Bacterial Populations | Genetics
... using bacterial gene frequencies. This method provides a test of neutrality for bacterial genes assayed using SSCP that is ... First, gene frequencies in a bacterial population most accurately reflect the relative abundance of bacterial strains existing ... It is therefore neither necessary nor proper to estimate bacterial gene frequencies from, for example, the number of gene ... Methods for Estimating Gene Frequencies and Detecting Selection in Bacterial Populations. Bruce Rannala, Wei-Gang Qiu and ...
Experts and Doctors on bacterial genes in Japan
Publications about Experts and Doctors on bacterial genes in Japan ... Identification of ecoRIM gene promoters and their upstream negative regulators in the ecoRIR gene. Gene. 2007;400:140-9 pubmed ... Gene. 1997;199:19-23 pubmed ..This mutant was found to be actively motile, suggesting that this gene is unlikely to be involved ... Gene. 1994;151:181-3 pubmed ..2-kb region which contains the gyrB gene, encoding the beta-subunit of gyrase from Mycoplasma ...
Direct Amplification of rRNA Genes in Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections | Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Direct Amplification of rRNA Genes in Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Simo Nikkari, Jari Jalava, ... Direct Amplification of rRNA Genes in Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Simo Nikkari, Jari Jalava, ... Direct Amplification of rRNA Genes in Diagnosis of Bacterial Infections. Kaisu Rantakokko-Jalava, Simo Nikkari, Jari Jalava, ... A broad-range bacterial PCR targeting rRNA genes (rDNAs) was used to directly analyze 536 clinical samples obtained from 459 ...
A general system for generating unlabelled gene replacements in bacterial chromosomes
The method is based on the conditional replication of derivatives of the lactococcal plasmid pWV01, which lacks the repA gene ... A general system is described that facilitates gene replacements such that the recombinant strains are not labelled with ... A general system for generating unlabelled gene replacements in bacterial chromosomes Mol Gen Genet. 1996 Nov 27;253(1-2):217- ... The results indicate that the method should be applicable to any non-essential gene in numerous bacterial species. ...
Gene Against Bacterial Attack is Unraveled | Infection Control Today
"The group where the gene for Toll2 was switched off, survived the bacterial infection," says Wiersinga. "The other receptor ... However, how the step from gene to antibacterial effect occurs in the body is not yet known. To date, B. Pseudomallei, a ... He did this by rearing mice DNA in which the gene for Toll2 production was switched on and off. " ... Wiersinga and the Laboratory for Experimental Internal Medicine discovered which gene-protein combination renders the lethal ...
GenomesVirulencePathogensSpeciesConserved sequencesEscherichiaStrainsEukaryotesGeneticResistanceInfectionAntibioticChromosomeHorizontalTranscriptionSequenceGeneticsTranscriptionalIdentify genesRRNA geneColiStructuralShaping bacterial genomePhageProteinsPopulationsProteinEncodesArchaeaClustersPathogenMutantsEvolutionPhylogenyDifferentiationLateralRDNAAnalyzeEvolutionaryInfectionsBacteriophageOperonExpression profile of bacterialTaxaSoil bacterial communityEndosymbiontsMoleculesArchaealMRNAAmplificationMechanismsDetectionResearchersGenomicDeletionsPutativeIdentificationImmuneChromosomalIntergenicMutagenesisCRISPR-CasAntimicrobialMacrophages
- Bacterial genomes are known to harbor pseudogenes. (genetics.org)
- For instance, in plant mitochondrial genomes, which have an α-proteobacterial ancestry, most, if not all, of the laterally transferred genes are pseudogenes ( R ichardson and P almer 2007 ). (genetics.org)
- and most of them are transient in bacterial genomes ( L erat and O chman 2005 ). (genetics.org)
- reported that genomes with truncated homologs might erroneously lead to false inferences of "gene gain" rather than multiple instances of "gene loss. (genetics.org)
- The team set out to sequence the genomes of 112 B. dolosa isolates taken from 14 of the infected patients, mapping genetic changes over time to reveal both the route of the infection's spread and which genes faced the greatest selective pressure - in other words, how the bacteria evolved when challenged by human defenses and medical treatment. (innovations-report.com)
- In the present article we review the differential contribution to the evolution of bacterial genomes that processes such as gene modification, gene acquisition and gene loss may have when bacteria colonize different habitats that present characteristic ecological features. (mdpi.com)
- In addition, we discuss the temporal constraints in the evolution of bacterial genomes, considering bacterial evolution from the perspective of processes of short-sighted evolution and punctual acquisition of evolutionary novelties followed by long stasis periods. (mdpi.com)
- Inadvertently incorporated into the genomes of their edited mouse cells they found DNA from the E.coli genome (a bacterium) and from the cow genome, along with goat DNA.The researchers traced this adventitious presence to contaminants of standard components of the gene-editing process, such as cell culture media. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- The stx genes carried by STEC strains are, with one possible exception (stx2e), encoded on bacteriophage genomes integrated into the bacterial chromosome. (cdc.gov)
- The location of stx genes (predominantly on λ-like bacteriophage genomes integrated into the chromosome of their host bacterium) has important implications because the induction of the SOS response, an extensively characterized genetic regulatory mechanism, induces high-level expression of previously silent bacteriophage genes ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
- The correct taxonomic assignment of bacterial genomes is a primary and challenging task. (biomedcentral.com)
- In this study, we have proposed a comprehensive method which uses the taxon-specific genes for the correct taxonomic assignment of existing and new bacterial genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The taxon-specific genes identified at each taxonomic rank have been successfully used for the taxonomic classification of 2,342 genomes present in the NCBI genomes, 36 newly sequenced genomes, and 17 genomes for which the complete taxonomy is not yet known. (biomedcentral.com)
- This approach has been implemented for the development of a tool 'Microtaxi' which can be used for the taxonomic assignment of complete bacterial genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- The taxon-specific gene based approach provides an alternate valuable methodology to carry out the taxonomic classification of newly sequenced or existing bacterial genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, genomes harbor two very different categories of genes: those genes present in a majority of organisms - persistent genes - and those present in very few organisms - rare genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- We show that two classes of genes are significantly clustered in bacterial genomes: the highly persistent and the rare genes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Yet, genes persistently present in bacterial genomes are also clustered and we try to understand why. (biomedcentral.com)
- We show that the strong selective pressure acting on the function of persistent genes, in a permanent state of flux of genes in bacterial genomes, maintaining their size fairly constant, that drives persistent genes clustering. (biomedcentral.com)
- The availability of a rapidly increasing number of completely sequenced bacterial genomes makes it possible to explore gene order conservation in related and distant species. (biomedcentral.com)
- Hypotheses accounting for the clustering of genes in genomes basically break into three main categories. (biomedcentral.com)
- It mainly concerned developing a program that reads in the sequences of all genes present on a specified set of bacterial genomes and then creates clusters of related genes. (sharcnet.ca)
- The broadened scope of sequenced bacterial genomes to include also free-living and environmental species provided a larger sample to analyze the bacterial SET domain genes. (unl.edu)
- Trying to reconstruct the core of the protein-coding gene set for a hypothetical minimal bacterial cell, we have performed a computational comparative analysis of eight bacterial genomes. (asm.org)
- The available data from several systematic experimental approaches to define all the essential genes in some completely sequenced bacterial genomes were also considered, and a reconstruction of a minimal metabolic machinery necessary to sustain life was carried out. (asm.org)
- Comparative genomics shows that most bacterial proteins are highly conserved in evolution, allowing predictions to be made about the functions of most products of uncharacterized genomes based on model organisms, such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis (gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, respectively), for which abundant high-quality genetic and biochemical information has been obtained in the past. (asm.org)
- Although bacterial genomes differ vastly in their sizes and gene repertoires, no matter how small, they must contain all the information to allow the cell to perform many essential (housekeeping) functions that give the cell the ability to maintain metabolic homeostasis, reproduce, and evolve, the three main properties of living cells ( 53 ). (asm.org)
- Reconstruction of the minimal gene set can take advantage of the increasing knowledge of completely characterized genomes. (asm.org)
- We analyze hundreds of bacterial genomes and find that the coding sequences of highly expressed genes systematically contain fewer SD sequences than expected, yielding a robust correlation between the normalized occurrence of SD sites and protein abundances across a range of bacterial taxa. (g3journal.org)
- Among the latter, virulence genes and genes encoding the bacterial cell wall elements have been prone to serial gene deletions, as evidenced in insect endosymbiont genomes sequenced so far ( 1 , 15 , 34 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- They speculated that bacterial effector proteins transferred to target cells via Type VI secretion systems might be especially effectively maintained in eukaryotic genomes. (evmedreview.com)
- ARG-ANNOT (Antibiotic Resistance Gene-ANNOTation) is a new bioinformatic tool that was created to detect existing and putative new antibiotic resistance (AR) genes in bacterial genomes. (asm.org)
- Finally, the analysis of 178 Acinetobacter baumannii and 20 Staphylococcus aureus genomes allowed the detection of a significantly higher number of AR genes than the Resfinder gene analyzer and 11 point mutations in target genes known to be associated with AR. (asm.org)
- We have created a concise database for BLAST using a Bio-Edit interface that can detect AR genetic determinants in bacterial genomes and can rapidly and easily discover putative new AR genetic determinants. (asm.org)
- Next-generation sequencing technologies have greatly reduced the cost for sequencing bacterial genomes and metagenomes and have increased the likelihood of rapid whole-bacterial-genome sequencing in clinical microbiology laboratories ( 1 ). (asm.org)
- An exponential increase in genome releases has occurred as more and more bacterial genomes are sequenced in a short time span. (asm.org)
- Moreover, because released sequences are not always complete sequences (for both bacterial genomes and metagenomes), sequence analysis and annotation should be performed on contigs or short sequences to detect putative functions, especially for AR genes. (asm.org)
- Background: Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT) has recently gained recognition as an important contributor to some eukaryote proteomes, but the mechanisms of acquisition and fixation in eukaryotic genomes are still uncertain. (diva-portal.org)
- Despite a remarkable success in the computational prediction of genes in Bacteria and Archaea, a lack of comprehensive understanding of prokaryotic gene structures prevents from further elucidation of differences among genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- It continues to be interesting to develop new ab initio algorithms which not only accurately predict genes, but also facilitate comparative studies of prokaryotic genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
- In particular, MED 2.0 is shown to reveal divergent translation initiation mechanisms in archaeal genomes while making a more accurate prediction of TISs compared to the existing gene finders and the current GenBank annotation. (biomedcentral.com)
- By analyzing 21 Escherichia genomes, we confirm that genes coding for secreted proteins-the secretome-are very frequently lost and gained and are associated with mobile elements. (uzh.ch)
- When a phage transfers virulence genes to an avirulent bacterium, the bacterium can acquire the ability to cause disease. (hindawi.com)
- These virulence genes are responsible for many of the symptoms associated with the human disease [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- If a phage encodes virulence genes, such as exotoxin genes, the phage could facilitate the transfer of these genes to nontoxigenic bacterial hosts, thereby increasing the exotoxin gene pool. (hindawi.com)
- An environmental reservoir of toxin genes would provide novel virulence genes, and the genetic exchange between phage and novel bacterial hosts, could provide the mechanism for evolution of novel human pathogens. (hindawi.com)
- An insertional mutagenesis system that uses transposons carrying unique DNA sequence tags was developed for the isolation of bacterial virulence genes. (sciencemag.org)
- This approach resulted in the identification of new virulence genes, some of which are related to, but functionally distinct from, the inv/spa family of S. typhimurium. (sciencemag.org)
- Mutations in all ivi (in vivo-induced) genes that were tested conferred a defect in virulence. (sciencemag.org)
- However, many E . coli strains that severely infected the mouse models were missing these virulence genes, and some of these strains outcompeted those with high numbers of the genes. (broadinstitute.org)
- These results reveal that S. enterica genes important for virulence in animal systems are also required for colonization of plants, a secondary host that can serve as a vector of S. enterica from animal to animal. (asm.org)
- Bacterial attachment to plants has predominantly been studied for its role in virulence of plant pathogens. (asm.org)
- Identifying a novel mechanism, here we demonstrate that bacteria use the universal communication molecule AI-2 to induce virulence genes and transfer them via phage release. (uni-muenchen.de)
- Both AI-2 and ciprofloxacin lead to phage release, indicating that conditions in the gastrointestinal tract of hospitalized patients treated with antibiotics might lead to distribution of virulence genes to apathogenic enterococci and possibly also to other commensals or even to beneficial probiotic strains. (uni-muenchen.de)
- The mechanisms used by bacterial pathogens to regulate the expression of their genes, especially their virulence genes, have been the subject of intense investigation for several decades. (clinsci.org)
- Themes that have emerged include the importance of horizontal gene transfer to the evolution of pathogens, the need to impose regulatory discipline upon these imported genes and the important roles played by factors normally associated with the organization of genome architecture as regulatory principles in the control of virulence gene expression. (clinsci.org)
- Together with the previously described high induction level of endosymbiont virulence genes at the nymphal phase (C. Dale, G. R. Plague, B. Wang, H. Ochman, and N. A. Moran, Proc. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- 12397-12402, 2002), these findings indicate that insect mutualistic relationships evolve through an interplay between bacterial virulence and host immune defense and that the host immunity engages the PGRP gene family in that interplay. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Information on resistance genes can be found in the virulence section of an annotated genome or can be extracted manually from the generated Excel file using specific key words. (asm.org)
- In this review, we focus our attention on the roles of DNA methylation in regulating bacterial gene expression and virulence. (asm.org)
- These methylases participate in cellular regulatory events, including those that control bacterial virulence, which are the primary focus of this review. (asm.org)
- Recent studies in group A Streptococcus (GAS) suggested that the transcriptional regulator catabolite control protein A (CcpA) influences many of the same genes as the control of virulence (CovRS) two-component gene regulatory system. (prolekare.cz)
- The transcript levels of several of the same genes encoding virulence factors and proteins involved in basic metabolic processes were affected in both Δ ccpA and Δ covR isogenic mutant strains. (prolekare.cz)
- Inactivation of CcpA and CovR alone and in combination led to significant alterations in the transcript levels of several key GAS virulence factor encoding genes during infection. (prolekare.cz)
- Genes encoding bacterial virulence factors are often upregulated during infection, but the molecular mechanisms governing virulence gene expression in the host are only beginning to be understood , . (prolekare.cz)
- Bacterial sRNAs effect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can effect a variety of bacterial functions like metabolism, virulence, environmental stress response, and structure. (wikipedia.org)
- It is important to understand the role played by the phage that carry these genes in the evolution of pathogens. (hindawi.com)
- Exotoxins are secreted polypeptides produced by certain bacterial pathogens. (hindawi.com)
- Horizontal gene transfer between the phage and the bacterium can result in the rapid evolution of new pathogens and may have serious implications in public health [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
- The findings found that English epidemics of these typically-rare pathogens were associated with resistance to the antibiotic azithromycin, and that many of the co-circulating Shigella strains carried the azithromycin resistance genes on the same plasmid. (eurekalert.org)
- Dr Kate Baker, from the University's Institute of Integrative Biology, said: "Through this study we've been able to show that horizontal gene transfer can rapidly facilitate new epidemics of important pathogens. (eurekalert.org)
- Particularly relevant in this respect are the studies on the evolution of bacterial pathogens that produce long-lasting chronic infections. (mdpi.com)
- Macrolactin produced by many soil microbes has been shown to be an efficient antibacterial agent against many bacterial pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
- However, only one study has begun to address the fundamental questions of what allows animal bacterial pathogens to associate with plants initially and how they remain attached ( 14 ). (asm.org)
- It has long been recognized that the gene expression profile of bacterial pathogens differs significantly during infection compared to the laboratory environment . (prolekare.cz)
- The developing complementary technologies of DNA microarrays and proteomics are allowing the response of bacterial pathogens to different environments to be probed at the whole genome level. (cdc.gov)
- The Glimmer gene-finding software has been successfully used for finding genes in bacteria, archaea and viruses representing hundreds of species. (nih.gov)
- The new methods dramatically reduce the rate of false-positive predictions, while maintaining Glimmer's 99% sensitivity rate at detecting genes in most species, and they find substantially more correct start sites, as measured by comparisons to known and well-curated genes. (nih.gov)
- GSIII genes have been found in only a few bacterial species. (springer.com)
- In order to study the evolution of GS, we cloned and sequenced GSI genes from two divergent archaeal species: the extreme thermophile Pyrococcus furiosus and the extreme halophile Haloferax volcanii . (springer.com)
- We suspect that the similarity of GSI-α genes from Euryarchaeota and several bacterial species does not reflect a common phylogeny but rather lateral transmission between archaea and bacteria. (springer.com)
- There's a large pool of bacterial species whose sodium channels might have slightly different electrical characteristics to draw from," said Nguyen. (eurekalert.org)
- This method is of general use since there are a number of suitable vectors and polA strains are available in both Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, the two most widely studied bacterial species. (pnas.org)
- Jennifer Tsang and Timothy R. Hoover, "Themes and Variations: Regulation of RpoN-Dependent Flagellar Genes across Diverse Bacterial Species," Scientifica , vol. 2014, Article ID 681754, 14 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
- Methods of allele frequency analysis developed for use in studies of animal and plant populations are, in principle, applicable to bacterial species as well. (genetics.org)
- Using molecular typing methods it is now also possible to survey the genetic variation of a bacterial species in its natural environment. (genetics.org)
- The results indicate that the method should be applicable to any non-essential gene in numerous bacterial species. (nih.gov)
- The discovery suggests not only that edited organisms may acquire random foreign DNA, but that present methods of gene-editing can transmit genetic elements, viruses, and other pathogenic agents between species. (biofuelsdigest.com)
- More than 700 types of bacterial species have been detected in the oral cavity, and some have been identified to play a significant role in the development of oral disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To demonstrate the effectiveness of RNA later at preserving RNA in intact bacteria, samples from five bacterial species, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Campylobacter fetus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, were suspended in RNAlater and incubated at 25°C or 4°C for up to one week. (thermofisher.com)
- However, studies examining the effect of macrolactin on both the soil bacterial community and the intrinsic bacterial species that harbor genes responsible for the production of this antibiotic have not been conducted so far. (frontiersin.org)
- Moreover, the populations of the intrinsic bacterial species which harbor genes responsible for macrolactin production were inhibited when the external source antibiotic was applied. (frontiersin.org)
- Agrobacterium tumefaciens , which causes tumorigenic diseases in many plant species, requires a Ca 2+ -dependent adhesin ( 35 ), a repertoire of proteins encoded by att genes ( 22 , 23 ), exo- and capsular polysaccharides ( 30 ), and cellulose fibrils ( 21 , 22 ) to attach to roots. (asm.org)
- Several computational approaches have been proposed for the taxonomic assignment of bacterial species. (biomedcentral.com)
- Mapping Heat Resistance in Yeasts In a proof-of-concept study, researchers demonstrated that a new genetic mapping strategy called RH-Seq can identify genes that promote heat resistance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, allowing this species to grow better than its closest relative S. paradoxus at high temperatures. (doe.gov)
- First Monoploid Reference Sequence of Sugarcane For the highly polyploid sugarcane, an international team of researchers has successfully assembled a first monoploid reference sequence using a targeted approach that focused on the gene rich part of the genome by harnessing information from a sequenced related species - sorghum. (doe.gov)
- Complete genome sequences are becoming available for a large number of diverse bacterial species. (asm.org)
- Of the four tae genes found in bacterial species, three have been transferred to one or another eukaryotic genome. (evmedreview.com)
- Third, the authors acquired evidence for expression of the dae genes in a species of ameba. (evmedreview.com)
- They also found previously published evidence for dae gene expression in a species of lancelet, a small marine organism. (evmedreview.com)
- Fourth, several examples of eukaryotic Dae proteins from tick, ameba, and lancelet species were tested for the ability to enzymatically degrade peptidoglycan, a major component in bacterial cell walls. (evmedreview.com)
- did not find any evidence for transfer of bacterial housekeeping amidases to eukaryotic species. (evmedreview.com)
- The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. fluorescens with other bacterial species after treatment. (vixra.org)
- Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, treated sample was detected to be Pseudomonas entomophila (GenBank Accession Number: AY907566) with 96% identity of gene sequencing data, which was nearest homolog species to P. fluorescens (Accession No. EF672049). (vixra.org)
- Numerous sRNAs have been identified using both computational analysis and laboratory-based techniques such as Northern blotting, microarrays and RNA-Seq in a number of bacterial species including Escherichia coli, the model pathogen Salmonella, the nitrogen-fixing alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti, marine cyanobacteria, Francisella tularensis (the causative agent of tularaemia), Streptococcus pyogenes, the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, and the plant pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pathovar oryzae. (wikipedia.org)
- The morphology of active structural and putative ribosomal RNA genes was observed by electron microscopy after lysis of fragile Escherichia coli cells. (nih.gov)
- This ORF contains the fructose bis-P aldolase gene in Escherichia coli (EG14062) and the current Ecogene verified start site is at position 1050, near the peak score. (nih.gov)
- The bacterium Escherichia coli carries approximately 3000 genes, but this total repertoire describes its potential properties and, in reality, only a small subset of this genetic information is expressed at any given moment. (springer.com)
- Kohno K, Wada M, Kano Y, Imamoto F. Promoters and autogenous control of the Escherichia coli hupA and hupB genes. (labome.org)
- Okada M, Matsuzaki H, Shibuya I, Matsumoto K. Cloning, sequencing, and expression in Escherichia coli of the Bacillus subtilis gene for phosphatidylserine synthase. (labome.org)
- Shiozawa T, Ueguchi C, Mizuno T. The rpoD gene functions as a multicopy suppressor for mutations in the chaperones, CbpA, DnaJ and DnaK, in Escherichia coli. (labome.org)
- In the search for a defining feature of the Escherichia coli that cause urinary tract infections, comparative transcriptomics and infection models show that infection depends on both the host environment and gene expression levels in the bacteria. (broadinstitute.org)
- Fully genetically encoded light sensors take advantage of the favorable characteristics of light, do not need the supplementation of any chemical inducers or co-factors, and have been demonstrated to control gene expression in Escherichia coli. (diva-portal.org)
- Toxin synthesis by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) appears to be coregulated through induction of the integrated bacteriophage that encodes the toxin gene. (cdc.gov)
- Pathogenic Salmonella , but not commensal Escherichia coli , translocate flagellin across epithelia, thus activating epithelial proinflammatory gene expression. (jimmunol.org)
- The alkane hydroxylase ( alkB ) gene of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 was constructed in a pCom8 expression vector, and the pCom8-GPo1 alkB plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α. (scielo.br)
- The Staphylococcus enterotoxin A ( sea ) gene carried by virulent strains of S. aureus is encoded by multiple phages, including ϕ 11, ϕ 12, ϕ 13, 80 α , and 42D [ 18 - 21 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Bacterial Strains and Culture. (pnas.org)
- A general system is described that facilitates gene replacements such that the recombinant strains are not labelled with antibiotic resistance genes. (nih.gov)
- To better understand UTIs and potentially offer new therapeutic strategies, a team of researchers analyzed 43 strains of E . coli sampled from 14 women with recurrent UTIs, and found that infection depends on both individual host susceptibility and how the bacteria express their genes. (broadinstitute.org)
- Among the characterized genes were strains with insertions in the intergenic region between agfB , the surface-exposed aggregative fimbria (curli) nucleator, and agfD , a transcriptional regulator of the LuxR superfamily, and rpoS , the stationary-phase sigma factor. (asm.org)
- Our hypothesis is that acquisition of copper hyper-resistance via horizontal gene transfer plays a crucial role in the emergence of S. aureus strains, and potentially other pathogenic bacteria, with increased infectivity conferred through their improved resistance to the copper-dependent killing mechanisms of the host's immune cells. (findaphd.com)
- Genes for GSI have been found only in bacteria (eubacteria) and archaea (archaebacteria), while GSII genes only occur in eukaryotes and a few soil-dwelling bacteria. (springer.com)
- The presence of Supressor of variegation-Enhanser of zeste-Trithorax ( SET ) domain genes in bacteria is a current paradigm for lateral genetic exchange between eukaryotes and prokaryotes. (unl.edu)
- By phylogenetic analysis, examination of individual chromosomal regions for signs of insertion, and evaluating the chromosomal versus SET domain genes' GC contents, we provide evidence that SET domain genes have existed in the bacterial domain of life independently of eukaryotes. (unl.edu)
- The eukaryotes cited above all have "domesticated amidase effectors" ( dae ) genes, all of which are extremely similar to one of the four extant bacterial tae genes. (evmedreview.com)
- A previously defined norm for LGTs in microbial eukaryotes states that the majority are genes involved in metabolism, the LGTs are typically localized one by one, surrounded by vertically inherited genes on the chromosome, and phylogenetics shows that a broad collection of bacterial lineages have contributed to the transferome. (diva-portal.org)
- Unlike in eukaryotes, bacterial transcription and translation can occur simultaneously in the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
- Many exotoxin genes are carried on mobile genetic elements, including bacterial viruses (bacteriophage or phage). (hindawi.com)
- As highly mobile genetic elements, phage can readily move between different environments, and are generally more resistant to environmental stress than their bacterial counterparts [ 4 - 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A team led by a plant pathologist at the University of California, Riverside, has identified a regulatory, genetic mechanism in plants that could help fight bacterial infection. (phys.org)
- Recent breakthroughs in molecular technology, most significantly the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization, have allowed the detection of genetic variation in bacterial communities without prior cultivation. (genetics.org)
- A genetic system was devised that positively selects for bacterial genes that are specifically induced when bacteria infect their host. (sciencemag.org)
- This genetic system was designed to be of general use in a wide variety of bacterial-host systems and has several applications in both vaccine and antimicrobial drug development. (sciencemag.org)
- He used a genetic reporter that fluoresces or generates a color when the gene cluster is activated to easily identify positive hits. (phys.org)
- A new discovery by researchers at Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons could fix one of the major shortcomings of current gene-editing tools, including CRISPR, and offer a powerful new approach for genetic engineering and gene therapy. (biotechnews.com.au)
- This makes gene editing difficult or impossible in some cell types, and severely constrains researchers' ability to introduce precise genetic modifications in a safe manner. (biotechnews.com.au)
- This transposon has co-opted the bacterium's CRISPR-Cas system, normally used to thwart mobile genetic elements, to insert itself into different regions of the bacterial genome. (biotechnews.com.au)
- Insights into Functional Diversity in Neurospora This proposal investigates the genetic bases of fungal thermophily, biomass-degradation, and fungal-bacterial interactions in Sordariales, an order of biomass-degrading fungi frequently encountered in compost and encompassing one of the few groups of thermophilic fungi. (doe.gov)
- The proposed minimal genome contains 206 protein-coding genes with all the genetic information necessary for self-maintenance and reproduction in the presence of a full complement of essential nutrients and in the absence of environmental stress. (asm.org)
- Horizontal gene transfer rapidly changes bacterial genetic repertoire and contributes to bacterial evolution. (illinois.edu)
- CONCLUSION: Our analysis matches the predictions of our model suggesting that horizontal transfer promotes cooperation, as transmission increases local genetic relatedness at mobile loci and enforces cooperation on the resident genes. (uzh.ch)
- Cis-acting sRNAs interact with genes encoded on the same genetic locus as the sRNA. (wikipedia.org)
- Bacterial transcription is the process in which messenger RNA transcripts of genetic material in bacteria are produced, to be translated for the production of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
- Behrmann I, Hillemann D, Pühler A, Strauch E, Wohlleben W (1990) Overexpression of a Streptomyces viridochromogenes gene ( glnII ) encoding a glutamine synthetase similar to those of eucaryotes confers resistance against the antibiotic phosphinothricyl-alanylalanine. (springer.com)
- Known as 'horizontal gene transfer', this phenomenon is understood to have played a role in developing the global antimicrobial resistance (AMR) crisis. (eurekalert.org)
- The HMS professor of systems biology studies bacterial evolution, exploring such questions as how antibiotic resistance arises. (innovations-report.com)
- The finding provides a novel target for drugs that could minimize the incidence of bacterial resistance. (medindia.net)
- Detailed antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) surveillance at regional, national, and global scale is required for the development of strategies aiming to mitigate this health threat. (nature.com)
- In this study, we compared the structure of the fecal microbiota between feral and domestic goats using the G2 PhyloChip and assessed the presence of five tetracycline resistance genes [ tet (M), tet (S), tet (O), tet (Q) and tet (W)] by PCR. (mdpi.com)
- Both feral and domestic goats carried antibiotic resistance genes tet (O) and tet (W), but domestic goats additionally carried tet (Q). Diet, host genetics and antibiotic exposure are likely determinant factors in shaping the intestinal microbiota and may explain the differences observed between feral and domestic goats fecal microbiota. (mdpi.com)
- The problem is i am using a suicide vector pFS100 a derivative of pGP704 carrying a 'pir' dependent origin of replication from plasmid R6K and gene encoding resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin but no sacB gene marker in it. (protocol-online.org)
- The rice xa5 gene for disease resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. (apsnet.org)
- xa5 is unusual in that it is recessive and does not conform to one of the typical resistance gene structural classes. (apsnet.org)
- However, the discovery in the 1970s of spiroplasmas, very small, thermostable, wall-less, helical-fibrillar bacteria that pass through 0.2-μm bacterial filters and show remarkable resistance to many common biocides including heat ( 47 ), provided a possible bacterial candidate for the infectious agent of TSEs. (asm.org)
- Prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in bacterial isolates from manured agricultural soils and pig slurry in the United Kingdom. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Our data show that this novel, horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus is associated with the SCCmec elements of USA300. (findaphd.com)
- These genes are additional to existing core genome copper resistance mechanisms, and are not found in typical S. aureus lineages, but are increasingly identified in emerging pathogenic isolates. (findaphd.com)
- Multiple genes for heavy metal resistance have been identified in L. monocytogenes. (findaphd.com)
- 2018 A horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus confers hyper-resistance to antibacterial copper toxicity and enables survival of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 in macrophages. (findaphd.com)
- Bacterial superintegrons, a source of new genes with adaptive functions Ilyina, T. 2006-11-07 00:00:00 Data on the structural organization of the platform of integrons, gene cassettes, and integrons with integrated cassettes of genes encoding drug resistance are briefly summarized. (deepdyve.com)
- Data obtained during recent years about superintegrons or chromosomal integrons, characteristics of their organization, the presence of genes with known adaptive and unidentified functions in them, as well as data on the differences between superintegrons and previously described multiple resistance integrons, are considered in more detail. (deepdyve.com)
- Data on the structural organization of the platform of integrons, gene cassettes, and integrons with integrated cassettes of genes encoding drug resistance are briefly summarized. (deepdyve.com)
- CRISPR-Cas9 gene drives to eradicate antimicrobial resistance from bacterial communities. (findaphd.com)
- The most important resistance mechanisms are carried on plasmids, which are mobile DNA elements that can spread by horizontal gene transfer within bacterial populations. (findaphd.com)
- This project "CRISPR-Cas9 gene drives to eradicate antimicrobial resistance from bacterial communities" will develop a recently discovered bacterial immune system called CRISPR-Cas to target and destroy mobile bacterial resistance plasmids. (findaphd.com)
- After building a database that includes 1,689 antibiotic resistance genes, the software was tested in a blind manner using 100 random sequences selected from the database to verify that the sensitivity and specificity were at 100% even when partial sequences were queried. (asm.org)
- RAST also provides little information about antibiotic resistance (AR) genes. (asm.org)
- A set of resistance-gene analog (RGA) sequences identified 121 RGA-containing BAC clones representing 20 different regions of the genome with an average of 6.1 clones per locus. (arizona.edu)
- Researchers at Harvard Medical School and Children's Hospital Boston have retraced the evolution of an unusual bacterial infection as it spread among cystic fibrosis patients by sequencing scores of samples collected during the outbreak, since contained. (innovations-report.com)
- Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary disease that renders the lungs susceptible to bacterial infection. (innovations-report.com)
- An important gene in bacterial infection has been discovered by researchers at Osaka University use molecular-level analyses of evolution. (medindia.net)
- Over the course of evolution, hosts--such as humans--develop increasingly sophisticated defenses against bacterial infection, while bacteria in turn develop new strategies to overcome these defenses in a biological arms race. (medindia.net)
- The team used molecular evolutionary analysis of gene sequences to identify a gene that has been largely prevented from mutating into other variant forms, suggesting that it is essential for the infection and/or reproduction of this bacterium. (medindia.net)
- Impetigo is a contagious bacterial skin infection mostly affecting children and is characterized by blister-like sores that could form pus and later scabs. (medindia.net)
- A new study reveals that the multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) of persons with diabetes have diminished capacity to fight off bacterial infection, providing new understanding into the basis of diabetes-associated immune dysfunction. (phys.org)
- Discovery of a gene that helps plants control their response to disease could aid efforts to develop crops that are resistant to infection, research suggests. (phys.org)
- In this study, a maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) of bacterial allele frequencies designed for use with presence-absence data is derived using an explicit stochastic model of the host infection (or bacterial sampling) process. (genetics.org)
- The group where the gene for Toll2 was switched off, survived the bacterial infection," says Wiersinga. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Because the concentration of scrapie infectivity was at a known high level, it is very unlikely that a bacterial infection at the same concentration could have escaped detection. (asm.org)
- Further comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses showed infection severity correlated with the expression levels of certain genes shared by nearly all E . coli , including genes involved in motility and nutrient utilization. (broadinstitute.org)
- That's really important for clinicians because if they see a pattern of gene expression that indicates a viral infection, they could feel comfortable not prescribing antibiotics," Storch added. (healthcanal.com)
- The very active genes tell us that an infection is making a patient sick, while quiet genes tell us either there's no infection or maybe a bacterium or virus is there, but it's not causing fever or illness. (healthcanal.com)
- Whole genome sequencing projects, together with more targeted studies, have identified hundreds of DNA-binding proteins that contribute to the patterns of gene expression observed during infection as well as providing important insights into the nature of the gene products whose expression is being controlled by these proteins. (clinsci.org)
- The researchers are continuing to analyze the effects of bacterial infection on immune system cells known as macrophages to determine how the bacteria could breach the blood-brain barrier. (ufl.edu)
- Gene clustering plays an important role in the organization of the bacterial chromosome and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain its extent. (biomedcentral.com)
- During this process, genes within batches coding for coupled functions will have a higher chance of increasing the organism fitness, and thus their own, than uncoupled genes, which would require pre-existence of the interacting partners in the chromosome. (biomedcentral.com)
- Examples : Integration of bacteriophage DNA into host bacterial chromosome Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor genes DNA rearrangements via Transposition involves the movement of sequences throughout the genome and has no requirement for sequence homology. (coursehero.com)
- To develop the resources for positional cloning and structural genomic analyses in barley, we constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the cultivar Morex using the cloning enzyme HindIII. (arizona.edu)
- Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Prosthecobacter tubulins are quite divergent and do not support recent horizontal transfer of the genes from a eukaryote. (pnas.org)
- Origin of the Bacterial SET Domain Genes: Vertical or Horizontal? (unl.edu)
- Natural transformation, one mechanism of horizontal gene transfer, is defined as the process by which bacterial cells successfully take up and incorporate extracellular DNA. (illinois.edu)
- The transfer of amidase-encoding genes from bacteria to eukaryotic organisms is not the first instance of such trans-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT). (evmedreview.com)
- Addgene: Tuning dCas9's ability to block transcription enables robust, noiseless knockdown of bacterial genes. (addgene.org)
- A wide variety of mechanisms that control gene expression in bacteria are based on conditional transcription termination. (asm.org)
- Generally, in these mechanisms, a transcription terminator is located between a promoter and a downstream gene(s), and the efficiency of the terminator is controlled by a regulatory effector that can be a metabolite, protein, or RNA. (asm.org)
- The changes in gene expression correlate positively with both epigenetic changes and chromatin accessibility of promoters at transcription start sites of genes induced by both types of membrane vesicles. (uio.no)
- An experimental‐computational approach is applied to dissect the contribution of specific transcription factor‐mediated versus global growth‐dependent regulation to bacterial gene expression, and obtain a quantitative understanding of dynamic adaptations in arginine biosynthesis of E. coli . (embopress.org)
- We present a model‐based approach to quantitatively dissect simultaneous contributions from specific transcription factors and the global growth status to bacterial gene expression, based on parameter inference from GFP‐based promoter activity measurements. (embopress.org)
- Real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification of the wPGRP gene transcript performed at different points in insect development has shown a high steady-state level in the bacteria-bearing organ (the bacteriome) of larvae and a high level of wPGRP up-regulation in the symbiotic nymphal phase. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- In addition to the receiver domain, Skn7 also contains a DNA binding and transcription activation domain, which is analogous to that found in most bacterial response regulators. (plantcell.org)
- The direction of transcription is represented by arrows, and gene names are indicated. (asm.org)
- The active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), plays an important immunomodulatory role, regulating transcription of genes in the innate and adaptive immune system. (g3journal.org)
- Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of copper and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alone and in combination, on the transcription of target genes related with immune system, respiratory burst activity and cell death, using rainbow trout macrophages as in vitro model. (stir.ac.uk)
- This unit provides a chronological in‐depth description of all protocols needed for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (Q‐RT‐PCR) analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression within infected mouse tissues. (currentprotocols.com)
- Alternately, sRNAs may interact with mRNA targets and regulate gene expression by binding to complementary mRNA and blocking transcription, or by unmasking or blocking the ribosome-binding site. (wikipedia.org)
- Bozouklian H, Elmerich C (1986) Nucleotide sequence of the AzospirMum brasilense Sp7 glutamine synthetase structural gene. (springer.com)
- One isolate was confirmed positive for the sea gene, and the sequence of the sea gene was determined. (hindawi.com)
- In dMLA, two target specific half-probes (20 bp) are designed to anneal to adjacent regions on a target gene sequence within the extracted DNA of a bacterial isolate (Fig. 1a ). (nature.com)
- p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
- section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
- According to the researchers, sequence variations that affect gene expression, rather than protein-coding potential, appear to be key drivers of urovirulence. (broadinstitute.org)
- Once the 16S rRNA gene sequence is determined it can be used as definitive comparative feature. (biomedcentral.com)
- Their new technology, called INTEGRATE, harnesses bacterial jumping genes to reliably insert any DNA sequence into the genome without cutting DNA. (biotechnews.com.au)
- The best current tool, built with components from one kind of bacterial CRISPR-Cas system, cuts both strands of the DNA molecule at a specific sequence, like adding a paragraph break to a block of text. (biotechnews.com.au)
- The researchers harnessed this discovery to create a gene-editing tool that can be programed to insert any DNA sequence into any site in a bacterial genome. (biotechnews.com.au)
- And by replacing the transposon sequence with other DNA payloads, they could insert sequences up to 10,000 bases long into a bacterial genome. (biotechnews.com.au)
- Previous research identified the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence as a modulator of translation initiation in bacterial genes, while codon usage biases are frequently implicated as a primary determinant of elongation rate variation. (g3journal.org)
- Among these architectural elements is the structure of DNA itself, its variable nature at a topological rather than just at a base-sequence level and its ability to play an active (as well as a passive) part in the gene regulation process. (clinsci.org)
- Notably, BLAST analysis results obtained using the rmtF gene sequence (a new aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene sequence that is not included in the database) as a query revealed that the tool was able to link this sequence to short sequences (17 to 40 bp) found in other genes of the rmt family with significant E values. (asm.org)
- A second Arabidopsis gene with a sequence highly similar to IBC6 was identified. (plantcell.org)
- Sequence analysis revealed that IBC6 and IBC7 are similar to the receiver domain of bacterial two-component response regulators. (plantcell.org)
- The first two algorithms employ an inhomogeneous Markov model for short DNA segments ( i.e. k -tuples), from which an estimate of the likelihood for the segment to belong to a protein coding sequence is derived after a training with existing gene data. (biomedcentral.com)
- One of the ways John Roth influenced many scientists was through teaching the Cold Spring Harbor Advanced Bacterial Genetics course. (asmscience.org)
- Since its inception, the Phage course and subsequently the Advanced Bacterial Genetics course have trained many of the leaders in these fields. (asmscience.org)
- In 1950 Milislav Demerec began an offshoot of the Phage course that emphasized bacterial genetics. (asmscience.org)
- When both were consecutively taught, the Bacterial Genetics course immediately followed the Phage course, and many students took the two courses sequentially to obtain training in both phage and bacterial genetics. (asmscience.org)
- Over time many of the concepts and techniques from the Phage course were integrated into the Bacterial Genetics course until the two courses merged into a single course in 1971. (asmscience.org)
- A lab manual was published, which emphasized how genetics can be used to study pathogenic bacteria, a growing field with a dramatic need for researchers trained in bacterial genetics. (asmscience.org)
- In Maloy S, Hughes K, Casadesús J (ed), The Lure of Bacterial Genetics . (asmscience.org)
- 1980. Advanced Bacterial Genetics. (asmscience.org)
- Implementation of advanced gene regulatory circuits will require orthogonal transcriptional systems that can be simultaneously controlled and that can produce several different control states. (diva-portal.org)
- Herein, we review engineered light-sensor systems with potential for in vivo regulation of gene expression in bacteria, and highlight different means of extending the range of available light input and transcriptional output signals. (diva-portal.org)
- its expression reflects the transcriptional activity of the stx2 gene and can be visualized in simple agar plate assays and quantified in biochemical assays. (cdc.gov)
- Gene expression is regulated by specific transcriptional circuits but also by the global expression machinery as a function of growth. (embopress.org)
- We thereby uncover two principles of joint regulation: (i) specific regulation by repression dominates the transcriptional response during metabolic steady states, largely repressing the biosynthesis genes even when biosynthesis is required and (ii) global regulation sets the maximum promoter activity that is exploited during the transition between steady states. (embopress.org)
- A joint Bayesian analysis enabled clustering of genes into patterns of shared transcriptional response across treatments. (g3journal.org)
- Pathways such as mTOR signaling, EIF2 signaling, IL-8 signaling, and Tec Kinase signaling were enriched among genes with opposite transcriptional responses to 1,25D and LPS, respectively, highlighting the important roles of these pathways in mediating the immunomodulatory activity of 1,25D. (g3journal.org)
- Furthermore, a subset of genes with evidence of interethnic differences in transcriptional response was also identified, suggesting that in addition to the well-established interethnic variation in circulating levels of vitamin D, the intensity of transcriptional response to 1,25D and LPS also varies between ethnic groups. (g3journal.org)
- In this study, we focused on characterizing the transcriptional response to 1,25D in primary monocytes in the presence or absence of a proinflammatory stimulus, bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (g3journal.org)
- Transcriptional regulatory networks are fundamental to how microbes alter gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, thereby playing a critical role in bacterial pathogenesis. (prolekare.cz)
- However, understanding how bacterial transcriptional regulatory networks function during host-pathogen interaction is limited. (prolekare.cz)
- The RpoS gene in E. coli encodes sigma 38, a sigma factor which regulates stress response and acts as a transcriptional regulator for many genes involved in cell adaptation. (wikipedia.org)
- The intent of the present study was to identify genes required for attachment of S. enterica serovar Newport to plant tissue. (asm.org)
- Gene expression of the triggering receptor on myeloid cells ( TREM)-1 and G-coupled-protein receptor kinase ( GRK )-2 in PMNs isolated from patients was analysed to identify genes correlated with the severity of pathophysiological conditions. (medsci.org)
- The coded panel was searched for bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, using primers selective for spiroplasma sequences, primers selective for mollicutes in general, and universal bacterial primers. (asm.org)
- After 70 PCR cycles, nearly all samples yielded amplified products which were homologous to various bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences, including those of frequent environmental contaminants. (asm.org)
- Heterotrophic plate count using ISO 6222 agar (HPC) vs. in situ bacterial (DF) community structure from corresponding samples of a drinking water distribution system were investigated by 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR DGGE) profiling. (scielo.org.za)
- In order to ensure accurate and reproducible 16S rRNA gene profile analysis, rigorous methodical evaluation and standardisation procedures were undertaken (DGGE optimisation, replication of PCR, multiple-lane standardisation, representative sampling volume determination, application of multiple similarity coefficients). (scielo.org.za)
- Spatial- and temporal-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon profile analysis from recovered communities further revealed contrasting results. (scielo.org.za)
- Previous studies of UPEC have identified genes believed to give E . coli a potent ability to colonize the bladder. (broadinstitute.org)
- The culture of the recombinant (pCom8-GPo1 alkB/E. coli DH5α) with the oil biodegradation bacterial consortium increased the degradation ratio of diesel oil at 24 h from 31% to 50%, and the facilitation rates were increased as the proportion of pCom8-GPo1 alkB / E. coli DH5α to the consortium increased. (scielo.br)
- The results suggested that the expression of the GPo1 gene in E. coli DH5α could enhance the function of diesel oil degradation by the bacterial consortium. (scielo.br)
- Since a Dae2 mutant without amidase activity was not lytic against permeabilized E. coli and Bacillus subtilis (for which peptidoglycan is accessible on the cell surface even without permeabilization), the authors concluded that Dae2 is effective as an anti-bacterial agent by virtue of amidase activity. (evmedreview.com)
- MicF in E. coli was found to regulate the expression of a key structural gene that makes up the outer membrane of the E. coli cell. (wikipedia.org)
- Reports of microtubule-like structures in bacterial ectosymbionts ("epixenosomes") of ciliates in the genus Euplotidium present the most compelling structural evidence yet for the existence of tubulin-containing elements in bacteria. (pnas.org)
- Sugino H, Sasaki M, Azakami H, Yamashita M, Murooka Y. A monoamine-regulated Klebsiella aerogenes operon containing the monoamine oxidase structural gene (maoA) and the maoC gene. (labome.org)
- Arai H, Igarashi Y, Kodama T. The structural genes for nitric oxide reductase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (labome.org)
- Flagellin, the structural component of bacterial flagella, is secreted by pathogenic and commensal bacteria. (jimmunol.org)
- Structural genes encode proteins needed for cellular processes such as metabolism, biosynthesis, structure, hormone, etc. (coursehero.com)
Shaping bacterial genome1
- One possibility is that the phage can replicate itself using phage and host factors, resulting in lysis of the bacterial host and release of new phage (the lytic lifestyle). (hindawi.com)
- Alternatively, the phage can integrate into the bacterial genome and the bacterial host can utilize certain genes the phage carries in its genome for its own benefit (the lysogenic lifestyle) [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
- To explore this hypothesis, we cultured environmental bacteria and screened them for a phage-encoded exotoxin gene. (hindawi.com)
- In this study, we describe the isolation of bacteria from environmental ambient air and the screening of the isolates for the phage-encoded sea gene using an exotoxin-specific colony PCR assay. (hindawi.com)
- This is the first report of an alternative bacterial host from the environment that carries a phage-encoded exotoxin gene that is commonly associated with a different bacterial host. (hindawi.com)
- Phage production is linked to induction of the bacterial SOS response, a ubiquitous response to DNA damage. (cdc.gov)
- In this work, reported in the journal Communications Biology, the team focused on genes encoding proteins called choline-binding proteins (CBPs), which are present on the bacterial cell surface and interact with the host's immune system. (medindia.net)
- These findings suggest that the signals for the actions of HU proteins are located in the DNA regions upstream from the sites near the 5' extremities of the coding regions of the hupB and hupA genes. (labome.org)
- Because a major function of SET domain proteins is the chemical modification of chromatin and bacteria do not have chromatin, there is no apparent functional requirement for the existence of bacterial SET domain genes. (unl.edu)
- If the proteins Dae lacked such secretion signals, it might be more plausible to argue that the genes may have bacterial origins but were not functional in their new eukaryotic hosts. (evmedreview.com)
- Recombinant CcpA and CovR bound with high-affinity to the promoter regions of several co-regulated genes, including those encoding proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. (prolekare.cz)
- These proteins are costly, rendering populations of cooperators vulnerable to exploitation by nonproducing cheaters arising by gene loss or migration. (uzh.ch)
- However, the dynamics of AMR transfer through bacterial populations and its direct impact on human disease is poorly understood. (eurekalert.org)
- Studies that provide evidence for translocations of gene cassettes from stationary chromosomal integrons into integrons associated with mobile elements resulting in gene flows in natural bacterial populations, which favors their survival and adaptation to changing environment, are also reviewed. (deepdyve.com)
- First, the student will use mathematical modelling to generate predictions when mobile CRISPR-Cas9 can remove AMR genes from bacterial populations. (findaphd.com)
- Benachenhou-Lahfa N, Forterre P, Labedan B (1993) Evolution of glutamate dehydrogenase genes: evidence for paralogous protein families and unusual branching patterns of the archaebacteria in the universal tree of life. (springer.com)
- The researchers then delivered three genes to the electrically inactive cells: one bacterial gene for a sodium ion channel and two supporting genes encoding a potassium channel and connexin-43, a protein that helps shuttle electrical signals between cells. (eurekalert.org)
- In this study, we investigated the organization and expression of these genes and conducted a comparative analysis of the bacterial and eukaryotic protein sequences, focusing on their phylogeny and 3D structures. (pnas.org)
- At present, the leading candidate for an evolutionary precursor of tubulin in the bacterial/archaeal domains is the cell division protein, FtsZ. (pnas.org)
- The method is based on the conditional replication of derivatives of the lactococcal plasmid pWV01, which lacks the repA gene encoding the replication initiation protein. (nih.gov)
- Wiersinga and the Laboratory for Experimental Internal Medicine discovered which gene-protein combination renders the lethal bacteria B. pseudomallei harmless. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- reported that overexpression of SlNRC4a in N. benthamiana enhances ROS production elicited by the bacterial flagellin peptide flg22 and the fungal protein ethylene-inducing xylanase (EIX). (plantphysiol.org)
- In recent years, several research groups have tried to define the essential set of survival protein-encoding genes in bacteria by different experimental and computational methods (reviewed in references 22 , 24 , 38 , and 79 ). (asm.org)
- We further show that depletion of SD sequences within ribosomal protein genes is correlated with organismal growth rates, supporting the hypothesis of strong selection against the presence of these sequences in coding regions and suggesting their association with translation efficiency in bacteria. (g3journal.org)
- Of key importance, the authors show that decreasing expression of the dae2 gene in I. scapularis ticks is associated with higher loads of B. burgdorferi , suggesting, in conjunction with other evidence, that the Dae2 protein is used by the tick to control the load of spirochetes. (evmedreview.com)
- High-throughput screening for the discovery of small molecules that activate silent bacterial gene clusters. (phys.org)
- The vast majority of anti-infectives on the market today are bacterial natural products, made by biosynthetic gene clusters. (phys.org)
- Genome sequencing of bacteria has revealed that these active gene clusters are outnumbered approximately ten times by so-called silent gene clusters. (phys.org)
- Using this method, two silent gene clusters were successfully activated and a new metabolite was discovered. (phys.org)
- Application of this work promises to uncover new bacterial natural products and provide insights into the regulatory networks that control silent gene clusters . (phys.org)
- Mohammad R. Seyedsayamdost, "High-throughput platform for the discovery of elicitors of silent bacterial gene clusters. (phys.org)
- The model describes how clusters are created via the gene flux that continuously introduces new genes while deleting others. (biomedcentral.com)
- Identification of the Bacterial Biosynthetic Gene Clusters of the Oral Microbiome Illuminates the Unexplored Social Language of Bacteria during Health and Disease. (jcvi.org)
- Identification of the Bacterial Biosynthetic Gene Clusters of the Oral Microbiome Illuminates. (jcvi.org)
- Recent bioinformatic studies, exploring the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) which produce many small molecules, have highlighted the incredible biochemical potential of the signaling molecules encoded by the human microbiome. (jcvi.org)
- Conclusions: We conclude that, although the majority of eukaryote LGTs are single gene occurrences, they may be acquired in clusters of several genes that are subsequently cleansed of evolutionarily less advantageous genes. (diva-portal.org)
- With the pathogen Salmonella typhimurium, the genes identified by this selection show a marked induction in bacteria recovered from mouse spleen. (sciencemag.org)
- I am trying to knockout a gene which is essential for growth of the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 (has no sacB gene in it). (protocol-online.org)
- In contrast, the more recently recognized proinflammatory bacterial product (or pathogen-associated molecular pattern) flagellin is a potent activator of intestinal epithelial proinflammatory gene expression ( 3 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
- The fact that the cbpJ gene is under strict negative selective pressure makes it a particularly attractive target for drugs, as this pressure would limit the likelihood of drug-resistant mutants emerging. (medindia.net)
- The tags from a mixed population of bacterial mutants representing the inoculum and bacteria recovered from infected hosts were detected by amplification, radiolabeling, and hybridization analysis. (sciencemag.org)
- I know that counterselectable markers are often instrumental for the construction of mutants when under appropriate growth conditions, a counterselectable gene promotes the death of the microorganisms harboring it. (protocol-online.org)
- Sixty-five percentage of these mutants had insertions in uncharacterized genes. (asm.org)
- While bacterial genes encoding sodium channels are different than their human counterparts, evolution has conserved many similarities of ion channel design since multi-celled animals diverged from bacteria hundreds of millions of years ago. (eurekalert.org)
- Bacterial gene content variation during the course of evolution has been widely acknowledged and its pattern has been actively modeled in recent years. (genetics.org)
- Analysis using the new model not only provides more accurate estimates on gene gains/losses (or insertions/deletions), but also reduces any concern of a systematic bias from applying simplified models to bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
- This will not only yield more accurate estimates of the rates of gene insertions/deletions, but also provide a quantitative view of the effect of truncated genes on rate estimation, which has been understudied in bacterial genome evolution. (genetics.org)
- The discovery of genes for tubulin in a bacterial genus may offer new insights into the evolution of the cytoskeleton. (pnas.org)
- Furthermore, their acquisition represented an important step in the evolution of eukaryotic cells by facilitating the engulfment of bacterial endosymbionts, which later became chloroplasts and mitochondria ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
- Therefore, studies on bacterial evolution are of increasing interest to understand the basic mechanisms of evolution. (mdpi.com)
- The bacterial genes have undergone an evolution of their own unconnected to the evolution of the eukaryotic SET domain genes. (unl.edu)
- A model for the evolution and distribution of SET domain genes in bacteria is proposed. (unl.edu)
- Moreover, we have demonstrated that membrane vesicles obtained only from V. cholerae induced the expression of genes associated with epithelial cell differentiation. (uio.no)
- In insects, endosymbionts are maternally inherited, and early insect embryogenesis is marked by bacterial invasion and the subsequent differentiation of specialized host cells, called bacteriocytes, that often form an organ called the bacteriome ( 4 , 18 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Recently, it has been suggested that several lateral gene transfers of archaeal GSI genes to bacteria may have occurred. (springer.com)
- Truncated genes could also arise from small-scale lateral gene transfer events. (genetics.org)
- Pseudogenes could also result from the degradation of transferred genes and might even be acquired directly via lateral gene transfer. (genetics.org)
- Here we describe oligonucleotide fingerprinting of rRNA genes (OFRG), a method that permits identification of arrayed rRNA genes (rDNA) through a series of hybridization experiments using small DNA probes. (asm.org)
- The subsequent development of strategies to analyze rRNA molecules and rRNA genes (rDNA) obtained from the environment provided a culture-independent means to examine the immense diversity of microorganisms inhabiting the natural world ( 3 , 14 , 21 , 29 ). (asm.org)
- Due to evolutionary constraints associated with a strictly intracellular life style and maternal inheritance of the symbionts, selection pressure favors, during the host-symbiont coevolution, deletions of bacterial genes encoding redundant metabolic pathways with the host ( 34 ), DNA recombinational repair genes ( 11 ), and genes becoming "unnecessary" to the new association. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Scientists have identified USP18, a double agent in the immune system that makes people vulnerable to bacterial infections. (medindia.net)
- At present, the described molecular approach proved superior to bacterial culture in two clinical situations: infections caused by bacteria with unusual growth requirements and specimens taken during antimicrobial treatment of the patient. (asm.org)
- Now, researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis report that they can distinguish between viral and bacterial infections in children with fever by profiling the activity of genes in a blood sample. (healthcanal.com)
- Using microarray technology, researchers can distinguish between viral and bacterial infections in children with fever by profiling the activity of genes in a blood sample. (healthcanal.com)
- While more work is needed, the study's results support the notion that analyzing the activity of the body's genes in response to childhood infections could help to identify the cause of illness and ensure that children get the right treatment. (healthcanal.com)
- Some of these kids have serious bacterial infections that can be life threatening, but the largest number have viral infections. (healthcanal.com)
- Twenty-two of the children were known to have viral infections based on previous extensive genomic testing that is not yet practical to use in a clinic setting, and eight others children had bacterial infections. (healthcanal.com)
- But Storch and his colleagues at the university's Genome Institute and the Genome Technology Access Center wanted to know whether a test called a gene expression microarray could identify patterns of gene activity in white blood cells that could discriminate children with viral infections from those with bacterial infections. (healthcanal.com)
- Generally, the counts are elevated for bacterial infections and either low or normal for viral infections. (healthcanal.com)
- A lot of patients with viral infections had elevated white-blood cell counts so doctors thought they had bacterial infections and prescribed antibiotics, which in fact were not necessary. (healthcanal.com)
- Using microarray technology, the researchers could easily distinguish bacterial infections from viral infections based on distinctive patterns of gene expression. (healthcanal.com)
- SOS-mediated induction of toxin synthesis also provides a mechanism that could exacerbate STEC infections and increase dissemination of stx genes. (cdc.gov)
- During bacterial infections, activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) cause inflammation and organ dysfunction in severely ill patients. (medsci.org)
- TREM1 mRNA levels were inversely correlated with the severity of pathophysiological conditions in acute bacterial infections. (medsci.org)
- The gene expression levels of TREM1 in PMNs isolated from patients with bacterial infections may be used as a surrogate biomarker for determining the severity. (medsci.org)
Expression profile of bacterial1
- Similar results were obtained when arrays were probed with RNA prepared from B. subtilis cells that were stored in RNA later for one week at 4°C. RNA later is thus an ideal solution for maintaining the expression profile of bacterial mRNA when immediate RNA isolation is not possible or practical. (thermofisher.com)
Soil bacterial community2
- 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing showed that continuous application of macrolactin reduced the α-diversity of the soil bacterial community and thereby changed the relative abundance of microbes at both the phylum and genus level. (frontiersin.org)
- The results of this study suggested that a bactericide from a microbial source could decrease the diversity of the soil bacterial community and change the bacterial community structure. (frontiersin.org)
- The pores in bacterial cell walls are too small for the charged luciferin molecules to fit through. (photonics.com)
- Yong Wang, assistant professor of physics, and graduate student Asmaa Sadoon have been studying how molecules travel through bacterial cytoplasm in order to understand more about how these tiny organisms function. (phys.org)
- Noise is hence a genome-wide phenomenon that arises from the stochastic nature of the biochemical reactions that take place during gene expression and the relatively low abundance of the molecules involved. (biochemsoctrans.org)
- In an article published last week in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , Seyedsayamdost reported a strategy to quickly screen whole libraries of compounds to find elicitors, small molecules that can turn on a specific gene cluster. (phys.org)
- Many of these microbes release molecules such as LPS, which has the potential of inducing proinflammatory gene expression if internal access to the host is gained. (jimmunol.org)
- Toll-like receptors (TLR) 4 are an evolutionarily conserved family of receptors that function in innate immunity via recognition of conserved patterns in bacterial molecules (for review, see Ref. 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Bacterially produced small molecules, often encoded by BGCs, are the primary communication media of bacterial communities and play a crucial, yet largely unknown, role in the transition from health to dysbiosis. (jcvi.org)
- Type VI secretion amidase effector (Tae) molecules (encoded by tae genes) can kill rival bacteria by degrading their cells walls when delivered into those competing cells. (evmedreview.com)
- also argue that in order to be effective in killing most bacteria in vivo , secretion of Dae2 would need to be accompanied by secretion of molecules that can cause breaches in the bacterial outer membrane thereby allowing the Dae2 molecules access to the peptidoglycan in the cell wall. (evmedreview.com)
- We've defined one of the first genes and mechanisms through which mycobacteria form biofilms," said Hatfull. (bio-medicine.org)
- However, the controversies raised about the validity of each of these mechanisms remind us that the cause of this gene organization remains an open question. (biomedcentral.com)
- Bacterial sRNAs have a wide variety of regulatory mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
- We demonstrate here digital multiplex ligation assay (dMLA) as a low-cost targeted genomic detection workflow capable of highly-parallel screening of bacterial isolates for multiple target gene regions simultaneously. (nature.com)
- Here, dMLA is used for simultaneous detection of 1187 β-lactamase-encoding genes, including extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes, in 74 bacterial isolates. (nature.com)
- Here, we present a digital multiplex ligation assay (dMLA) for simultaneous detection of 1187 β-lactamase-encoding genes within 74 bacterial isolates. (nature.com)
- The researchers are seeking to develop a system for monitoring bacterial gene expression in response to signals from the natural environment using a blend of membrane diffusion cell, genomics and optical detection technologies. (stanford.edu)
- Researchers have developed a way to use firefly luciferase - which is much brighter than bacterial luciferase - as a chemiluminescent reporter in bacteria. (photonics.com)
- In Japan, Jonathan Latham reports that researchers have discovered that standard methods of animal and plant gene-editing introduce DNA from unexpected sources . (biofuelsdigest.com)
- KNOXVILLE--Researchers at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, have identified a set of bacterial genes that may help them find ways to lessen the severity of the disease malaria. (brightsurf.com)
- HHMI researchers have identified a gene. (bio-medicine.org)
- HHMI researchers have identified a gene that enables mycobacteria--the cause of tuberculosis and leprosy--to form biofilms. (bio-medicine.org)
- GAINESVILLE, Fla. - By analyzing the genes of bacteria, University of Florida researchers have moved a step closer to pinpointing how two brain disorders common in small-breed dogs occur. (ufl.edu)
- After 35 PCR cycles, no samples were positive for spiroplasma or any other bacterial DNA, while control Spiroplasma mirum genomic DNA, spiked at 1% of the concentration required to account for the scrapie infectivity present, was readily detected. (asm.org)
- One important question raised by the availability of complete genomic sequences is how many genes are essential for cellular life. (asm.org)
- Hence, association features may rely not only on the host functions but also on the level of bacterial genomic alteration and, thereby, on the age of the association. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- More recent associations have fewer bacterial genomic alterations than their free-living relatives. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Maximum-likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the new model reveal fast rates of gene insertions/deletions on recent branches, suggesting a fast turnover of many recently transferred genes. (genetics.org)
- Using the method, we have constructed two chromosomal deletions in the chemotaxis gene region of S. typhimurium. (pnas.org)
- Organization of the chromosomal region containing the genes responsible for the synthesis and export of type I O-PS in B. pseudomallei . (asm.org)
- Finally, we demonstrate that mobile elements are in conflict with their chromosomal hosts over the chimeric ensemble's social strategy, with mobile elements enforcing cooperation on their otherwise selfish hosts via the cotransfer of secretome genes with "mafia strategy" addictive systems (toxin-antitoxin and restriction-modification). (uzh.ch)
- I'm currently using a pGP704 derivative containing sacB to do some bacterial mutagenesis. (protocol-online.org)
- Transposon mutagenesis might overestimate the set by misclassification of nonessential genes that slow growth without arresting it but can also miss essential genes that tolerate transposon insertions. (asm.org)
- Teles M, MacKenzie S, Boltana S, Callol A & Tort L (2011) Gene expression and TNF-alpha secretion profile in rainbow trout macrophages following exposures to copper and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. (stir.ac.uk)
- NADPH oxidase and glutathione peroxidase gene expression increased in macrophages after 24 h exposure to copper, LPS or LPS plus copper. (stir.ac.uk)