The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
NEURONS in the inner nuclear layer of the RETINA that synapse with both the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and the RETINAL BIPOLAR CELLS, as well as other horizontal cells. The horizontal cells modulate the sensory signal.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, which are dependent on a coinfection with helper adenoviruses or herpesviruses for their efficient replication. The type species is Adeno-associated virus 2.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A technique in which electric pulses of intensity in kilovolts per centimeter and of microsecond-to-millisecond duration cause a temporary loss of the semipermeability of CELL MEMBRANES, thus leading to ion leakage, escape of metabolites, and increased uptake by cells of drugs, molecular probes, and DNA.
Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.
A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A common name for fish of the family Percidae, belonging to the suborder Percoidei, order PERCIFORMES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.
An Ig superfamily transmembrane protein that localizes to junctional complexes that occur between ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and EPTHELIAL CELLS. The protein may play a role in cell-cell adhesion and is the primary site for the attachment of ADENOVIRUSES during infection.
Factor derived from leukocyte lysates of immune donors which can transfer both local and systemic cellular immunity to nonimmune recipients.
The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.
The functional genetic units of ARCHAEA.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
A peptide which is a homopolymer of lysine.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
Strongly cationic polymer that binds to certain proteins; used as a marker in immunology, to precipitate and purify enzymes and lipids. Synonyms: aziridine polymer; Epamine; Epomine; ethylenimine polymer; Montrek; PEI; Polymin(e).
Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
Involuntary movements of the eye that are divided into two types, jerk and pendular. Jerk nystagmus has a slow phase in one direction followed by a corrective fast phase in the opposite direction, and is usually caused by central or peripheral vestibular dysfunction. Pendular nystagmus features oscillations that are of equal velocity in both directions and this condition is often associated with visual loss early in life. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p272)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
Specialized cells that detect and transduce light. They are classified into two types based on their light reception structure, the ciliary photoreceptors and the rhabdomeric photoreceptors with MICROVILLI. Ciliary photoreceptor cells use OPSINS that activate a PHOSPHODIESTERASE phosphodiesterase cascade. Rhabdomeric photoreceptor cells use opsins that activate a PHOSPHOLIPASE C cascade.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)
High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations.
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
Copies of transposable elements interspersed throughout the genome, some of which are still active and often referred to as "jumping genes". There are two classes of interspersed repetitive elements. Class I elements (or RETROELEMENTS - such as retrotransposons, retroviruses, LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS) transpose via reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Class II elements (or DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS - such as transposons, Tn elements, insertion sequence elements and mobile gene cassettes of bacterial integrons) transpose directly from one site in the DNA to another.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Normal nystagmus produced by looking at objects moving across the field of vision.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A class of enzymes that inactivate aminocyclitol-aminoglycoside antibiotics (AMINOGLYCOSIDES) by regiospecific PHOSPHORYLATION of the 3' and/or 5' hydroxyl.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Storage-stable blood coagulation factor acting in the intrinsic pathway. Its activated form, IXa, forms a complex with factor VIII and calcium on platelet factor 3 to activate factor X to Xa. Deficiency of factor IX results in HEMOPHILIA B (Christmas Disease).
An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A synthetic polymer which agglutinates red blood cells. It is used as a heparin antagonist.
The position or attitude of the body.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)
Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Enzymes that recombine DNA segments by a process which involves the formation of a synapse between two DNA helices, the cleavage of single strands from each DNA helix and the ligation of a DNA strand from one DNA helix to the other. The resulting DNA structure is called a Holliday junction which can be resolved by DNA REPLICATION or by HOLLIDAY JUNCTION RESOLVASES.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a "cross-eye" appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Disorders that feature impairment of eye movements as a primary manifestation of disease. These conditions may be divided into infranuclear, nuclear, and supranuclear disorders. Diseases of the eye muscles or oculomotor cranial nerves (III, IV, and VI) are considered infranuclear. Nuclear disorders are caused by disease of the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nuclei in the BRAIN STEM. Supranuclear disorders are produced by dysfunction of higher order sensory and motor systems that control eye movements, including neural networks in the CEREBRAL CORTEX; BASAL GANGLIA; CEREBELLUM; and BRAIN STEM. Ocular torticollis refers to a head tilt that is caused by an ocular misalignment. Opsoclonus refers to rapid, conjugate oscillations of the eyes in multiple directions, which may occur as a parainfectious or paraneoplastic condition (e.g., OPSOCLONUS-MYOCLONUS SYNDROME). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p240)
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.
Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
An increase in the rate of speed.
Injections introduced directly into localized lesions.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.
Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.
A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.
Images seen by one eye.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Most likely, these genes were acquired through horizontal gene transfer from viral hosts.[29] ... Oklahoma State - Horizontal Gene Transfer *^ Peter Gogarten. "Horizontal Gene Transfer - A New Paradigm for Biology". esalenctr ... Horizontal gene transfer[edit]. Main article: Horizontal gene transfer. The ancestry of living organisms has traditionally been ... Horizontal gene transfer makes it more difficult to study the last universal ancestor.[37] However, the universal use of the ...
See also: horizontal gene transfer. The ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genes to plants and fungi is used in biotechnology ... Agrobacterium is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria established by H. J. Conn that uses horizontal gene transfer to cause tumors ... Marc Van Montagu and Jozef Schell at the University of Ghent (Belgium) discovered the gene transfer mechanism between ... It also carries genes for the biosynthesis of the plant hormones, auxin and cytokinins, and for the biosynthesis of opines, ...
Main article: Horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are an important natural means of transferring genes between different species ... In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity.[7] Viruses are ... a b Canchaya C, Fournous G, Chibani-Chennoufi S, Dillmann ML, Brüssow H. Phage as agents of lateral gene transfer. Current ... One of the most effective is the presence of so-called resistance (R) genes. Each R gene confers resistance to a particular ...
... and this horizontal gene transfer is one reason why they served as a major research tool in the early development of molecular ... Richard Roberts and Phillip Sharp independently showed that the genes of adenovirus contain introns and therefore require gene ... This approach of using viruses as gene vectors is being pursued in the gene therapy of genetic diseases. An obvious problem to ... Current Gene Therapy. 3: 495-499.. *^ Kolata, Gina (2005-10-06). "Experts Unlock Clues to Spread of 1918 Flu Virus". The New ...
... allowing horizontal gene transfer. Plasmids often carry genes that are responsible for bacterial antibiotic resistance; as ... Gene. 5 (3): 197-206. doi:10.1016/0378-1119(79)90078-7. PMID 467979. Juhas M (February 2015). "Horizontal gene transfer in ... Harrison E, Brockhurst MA (June 2012). "Plasmid-mediated horizontal gene transfer is a coevolutionary process" (PDF). Trends in ... Siefert JL (2009). "Defining the mobilome". In Gogarten MB, Gogarten JP, Olendzenski LC (eds.). Horizontal Gene Transfer: ...
Horizontal gene transfer speeds the process of genetic transfer since there is no need to wait an entire generation time for ... When S. aureus came into contact with these populations, the multiple genes that code for antibiotic resistance to different ... It is thought that MSSA acquired the resistance gene through the horizontal gene transfer, a method in which genetic ... PMID 24962815.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Krishnapillai V (1996). "Horizontal gene transfer". Journal of ...
Fournier, G (2009). "Horizontal gene transfer and the evolution of methanogenic pathways". Horizontal Gene Transfer. Methods in ... The other genes of the Pyl operon mediate pyrrolysine biosynthesis, leading to description of the operon as a "natural genetic ... Another possibility is that evolution of the system involved a horizontal gene transfer between unrelated microorganisms. ... This requires only the presence of the pylT gene, which encodes an unusual transfer RNA (tRNA) with a CUA anticodon, and the ...
... gene duplication, lateral gene transfer, and transposable elements (jumping genes). The neutral theory of molecular evolution, ... Syvanen, Michael; Kado, Clarence I. (2002). Horizontal Gene Transfer. Academic Press. p. 405. ISBN 978-0-12-680126-2. Roberts, ... ISBN 978-0-632-04708-6 Serres, M. H.; Kerr, A. R.; McCormack, T. J.; Riley, M. (2009). "Evolution by leaps: gene duplication in ... In modern epigenetics, biologists observe that phenotypes depend on heritable changes to gene expression that do not involve ...
Further information: Horizontal gene transfer. Theobald noted that substantial horizontal gene transfer could have occurred ... The fact that only one such set of enzymes exists is convincing evidence of a single ancestry.[1][22] 6,331 genes common to all ... 2005 tree of life shows many horizontal gene transfers, implying multiple possible origins. ... though the suggestion of substantial horizontal gene transfer during early evolution has led to questions about the monophyly ( ...
Genetic exchange and recombination still occur, but this is a form of horizontal gene transfer and is not a replicative process ... The transfer of bacterial DNA is under the control of the bacteriophage's genes rather than bacterial genes. Conjugation in the ... Prokaryotes are asexual, reproducing without fusion of gametes, although horizontal gene transfer also takes place. Molecular ... Brown JR (February 2003). "Ancient horizontal gene transfer". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 4 (2): 121-32. doi:10.1038/nrg1000. ...
McNeilly, Celia L.; McMillan, David J. (2014-01-01). "Horizontal gene transfer and recombination in Streptococcus dysgalactiae ... In a study of 216 S.pyogenes virulence genes, S.dysgalactiae was found to harbour approximately half of them. Indeed, whole- ... However, evidence of horizontal genetic transfer has also been reported. The first pivotal step in infectious pathogenesis is ... "Superantigen-like gene(s) in human pathogenic Streptococcus dysgalactiae, subsp equisimilis: genomic localisation of the gene ...
... s are thought to extensively contribute to horizontal gene transfer in natural environments, principally via ... Their genomes may encode as few as four genes and as many as hundreds of genes. Phages replicate within the bacterium following ... Bacteriophages Promote Horizontal Gene Transfer by Transformation". MBio. 8 (1): e02115-16. doi:10.1128/mBio.02115-16. ISSN ... However, some DNA phages such as T4 may have large genomes with hundreds of genes; the size and shape of the capsid varies ...
Horizontal gene transfer Langille, MG; Hsiao, WW; Brinkman, FS (May 2010). "Detecting genomic islands using bioinformatics ... sometimes due to highly expressed genes) and that horizontally transferred DNA will ameliorate (change to the host genome) over ... tools of bacterial horizontal gene transfer and evolution". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. 33 (2): 376-393. doi:10.1111/j.1574- ... The same GI can occur in distantly related species as a result of various types of lateral gene transfer (transformation, ...
ISBN 978-1-4200-3267-3.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Francino, edited by M. Pilar (2012). Horizontal gene transfer ... "Arthrobacter aurescens TC1 Atrazine Catabolism Genes trzN, atzB, and atzC Are Linked on a 160-Kilobase Region and Are ...
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer; new species can arise rapidly through ... Horizontal gene transfer between organisms of different species, either through hybridisation, antigenic shift, or reassortment ... Melcher, Ulrich (2001). "Molecular genetics: Horizontal gene transfer". Oklahoma State University. Archived from the original ... horizontal gene transfer (HGT) makes it difficult to define a species. All species definitions assume that an organism acquires ...
Syvanen, Michael; Kado, Clarence I. (2002). Horizontal Gene Transfer Academic Press. p. 405. ISBN 978-0126801262 Symonds, M.R.E ... "rate genes" or "controlling genes" that change early development and thus cause large effects in the adult phenotype. These ... Both gene duplication and lateral gene transfer have the capacity to bring about relatively large changes that are saltational ... Polyploidy, karyotypic fission, symbiogenesis and lateral gene transfer are possible mechanisms for saltational speciation. The ...
Richardson, Aaron O.; Palmer, Jeffrey D. (2007). "Horizontal Gene Transfer in Plants". Journal of Experimental Botany. 58 (1): ... As of 2018[update] his laboratory studies the evolution of genes and genomes particularly in the chloroplast, mitochondrial DNA ... Keeling, Patrick J.; Palmer, Jeffrey D. (2008). "Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic evolution". Nature Reviews Genetics. 9 ... and during horizontal gene transfer. His former doctoral students include Thomas D. Bruns, a Professor at the University of ...
Bock, R. (2010). "The give-and-take of DNA: horizontal gene transfer in plants". Trends in Plant Science. 15 (1): 11-22. doi: ... It contained three bacterial genes, two CP4 EPSPS genes, and a gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli as ... Introducing new genes into plants requires a promoter specific to the area where the gene is to be expressed. For instance, to ... Gene guns (also known as biolistics) "shoot" (direct high energy particles or radiations against[49]) target genes into plant ...
Genome-wide experimental determination of barriers to horizontal gene transfer. Science. 2007 318(5855):1449-52. Noonan JP et ... Metagenomic discovery of biomass-degrading genes and genomes from cow rumen. Science. 2011 28;331(6016):463-7. Rubin EM. ... His work on evolutionarily conserved noncoding regions helped highlight the utility of genome comparisons to decode gene ... harnessing sequence comparisons between species for the discovery of genes and non-coding sequences of pivotal evolutionary and ...
Bock, R. (2010). "The give-and-take of DNA: horizontal gene transfer in plants". Trends in Plant Science. 15 (1): 11-22. doi: ... It contained three bacterial genes, two CP4 EPSPS genes, and a gene encoding beta-glucuronidase (GUS) from Escherichia coli as ... Gene transfer in nature and traditional agriculture[edit]. DNA transfers naturally between organisms.[28] Several natural ... Introducing new genes into plants requires a promoter specific to the area where the gene is to be expressed. For instance, to ...
Horizontal gene transfer Kleptoprotein Minnhagen S, Carvalho WF, Salomon PS, Janson S (September 2008). "Chloroplast DNA ... S. K. Pierce; S. E. Massey; J. J. Hanten; N. E. Curtis (June 1, 2003). "Horizontal Transfer of Functional Nuclear Genes Between ... M. rubrum participates in additional endosymbiosis by transferring its plastids to its predators, the dinoflagellate planktons ... Catherine Brahic (24 November 2008). "Solar-powered sea slug harnesses stolen plant genes". New Scientist. Retrieved 24 ...
... states that the high levels of horizontal gene transfer, rapid mutation rates in viral genomes, and lack of universal gene ... but the phylogeny of these genes was interpreted to reveal interdomain gene transfer, and might not reflect the organismal ... Archaea show high levels of horizontal gene transfer between lineages. Some researchers suggest that individuals can be grouped ... Sota M, Top EM (2008). "Horizontal Gene Transfer Mediated by Plasmids". Plasmids: Current Research and Future Trends. Caister ...
Horizontal Gene Transfer:Genomes in Flux. Methods in Molecular Biology. 532. Humana Press. pp. 181-191. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327 ... The power of phylogenetic approaches to detect horizontally transferred genes. Evolutionary Biology. 7. pp. 45-78. doi:10.1007/ ... "Genome acquisition in horizontal gene transfer: symbiogenesis and macromolecular sequence analysis". In Gogarten, Maria Boekels ... In 1997 she transferred to the Department of Geosciences at Amherst to become Distinguished Professor of Geosciences "with ...
Boto, Luis (2010). "Horizontal Gene Transfer in Evolution: Facts and Challenges". Proc Biol Sci. 277 (1683): 819-827. doi: ... Newman, Stuart A.; Müller, Gerd B. (2006-01-06), "Genes and Form", Genes in Development, Duke University Press, pp. 38-73, doi: ... Kurland, CG; Canback, B; Berg, OG (2003). "Horizontal Gene Transfer: A Critical View". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100 (17): 9658 ... In Reticulate Evolution: Symbiogenesis, Lateral Gene Transfer, Hybridization and Infectious Heredity. Springer. pp. 1-40. ISBN ...
He has also identified several cases of horizontal gene transfer. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2019-06-18. ... "A Tertiary Plastid Uses Genes from Two Endosymbionts". Journal of Molecular Biology. 357 (5): 1373-1382. doi:10.1016/j.jmb. ... Keeling, Patrick J.; Palmer, Jeffrey D. (2008). "Horizontal gene transfer in eukaryotic evolution". Nature Reviews Genetics. 9 ... "Characterization of a Divergent Sec61β Gene in Microsporidia". Journal of Molecular Biology. 359 (5): 1196-1202. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Nosenko T, Bhattacharya D. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates. BMC Evol Biol. 2007 ... Nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted genes suggest a single common origin for apicomplexan and dinoflagellate plastids. Mol Biol ... Gene-cluster analysis in chloroplast genomics. Trends Genet. 1999. *Durnford DG, Deane JA, Tan S, McFadden GI, Gantt E, et al. ... Gene trees in species trees. Syst Biol. 1997. *Stiller JW. Plastid endosymbiosis, genome evolution and the origin of green ...
Updated clusters of orthologous genes for Archaea: a complex ancestor of the Archaea and the byways of horizontal gene transfer ... Kapitola Horizontal Gene Transfer Mediated by Plasmids.. *↑ Graham D. E., Overbeek R, Olsen GJ, Woese CR. An archaeal genomic ... Evidence for lateral gene transfer between Archaea and bacteria from genome sequence of Thermotoga maritima. Nature. 1999, roč ... Integrative modeling of gene and genome evolution roots the archaeal tree of life. S. E4602-E4611. Proceedings of the National ...
Horizontal Gene Transfer and the Evolution of Microvirid Coliphage Genomes. Journal of Bacteriology, 118(3) p1134-1142 ... Gene E is encoded with gene D with a +1 frameshift. Gene K overlaps genes A, B, and C. The origin of replication lies within a ... It encodes 11 genes (in order: A, A*, B, C, K, D, E, J, F, G, and H), nine of which are essential. The nonessential genes are E ... evidence from overlaid genes" J Mol Evol 13(3) 245-252 Fiddes JC, Godson GN (1979) Evolution of the three overlapping gene ...
... gene duplications and occasional horizontal gene transfers. In principle, this process can be summarized in a phylogenetic tree ... A series of gene duplications of a single eukaryote LSm gene resulted in most (if not all) of the known eukaryote LSm genes. ... This last instance is probably a case of horizontal gene transfer.) Hfq is pleiotropic with a variety of interactions, ... pre-transfer RNA, and pre-RNase P. Then, according to this hypothesis, the seven ancestral eukaryote LSm genes duplicated again ...
To test whether these genes have been acquired from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer, firstly, the distribution of ... Horizontal gene transfer. The driving force behind the evolution of plant parasitic nematodes?. ... us clues for the function of a gene.. In this way we are able to silence nematode genes that are putative parasitism related, ... The use of octopamin was applied in gene silencing experiments, were nematodes were soaked in dubbel-stranded RNA and ...
These results indicate that natural mechanisms exist for the horizontal transfer of mt genes, suggesting that horizontal gene ... Possible Mechanisms of Horizontal Gene Transfer. The mechanisms by which horizontal gene transfer takes place are largely a ... Horizontal gene transfer is the basis for the genetic engineering of commercially important crops, and natural horizontal gene ... Although horizontal gene transfer is well documented in microbial genomes, no case has been reported in higher plants. We ...
... by Horizontal Transfer and Positive Selection Is Accommodated by Relaxed Negative Selection upon Upstream Pathway Genes in ... Analysis of Ten Brucella Genomes Reveals Evidence for Horizontal Gene Transfer Despite a Preferred Intracellular Lifestyle ... A Variety of Bacterial Pili Involved in Horizontal Gene Transfer Alain Filloux ... Mycobacterial Biofilms Facilitate Horizontal DNA Transfer between Strains of Mycobacterium smegmatis Kiet T. Nguyen, Kristina ...
Hilario, E., Gogarten, J. P. (1993) Horizontal transfer of ATPase genes - the tree of life becomes a net of life. Biosystems 31 ... Zhaxybayeva, O., Gogarten, J. P. (2007) Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life. In ... Jain, R., Rivera, M. C., Lake, J. A. (1999) Horizontal gene transfer among genomes: the complexity hypothesis. Proc Natl Acad ... In: Gogarten M.B., Gogarten J.P., Olendzenski L.C. (eds) Horizontal Gene Transfer. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 532. ...
... of horizontal gene transfer has been shown to be responsible for widespread transfer among bacterial populations of genes ... showing mrfp1 gene expression, about 2 hours after the transfer of the mrfp1 gene. This expression of the mrfp1 gene was ... the fate of the transferred DNA, the global frequency of the horizontal gene transfer (versus the frequency of inheritance of ... Direct Visualization of Horizontal Gene Transfer. By Ana Babić, Ariel B. Lindner, Marin Vulić, Eric J. Stewart, Miroslav Radman ...
horizontal gene transfer Intelligent Design Horizontal gene transfer: Human gut microbes exchange genes more frequently in ... horizontal gene transfer. Cell biology Evolution horizontal gene transfer Intelligent Design Researchers: The last bacterial ... horizontal gene transfer Intelligent Design Plants Horizontal gene transfer between plants and insects acknowledged. So what ... horizontal gene transfer Intelligent Design Massive horizontal gene transfer in plants. Researchers: This union of two ...
Several genomic evidence suggest horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of mntH C genes: (i) The enterobacteria Wigglesworthia mntH ... Horizontal gene transfer of "prototype" Nramp in bacteria.. Richer E1, Courville P, Bergevin I, Cellier MF. ... identified in invertebrates represent a possible source for transfer of Nramp genes toward opportunistic bacteria. This study ... Eukaryotic Nramp genes encode divalent metal ion permeases important for nutrition and resistance to microbial infection. ...
... some of the genes could have come from horizontal gene transfer from now-extinct species. How about changing this sentence " ... Horizontal gene transfer/Draft. From Citizendium. , Talk:Horizontal gene transfer(Redirected from Talk:Horizontal gene transfer ... of core genes are transferred laterally." to "... only about 2% of core genes have been shown to have been transferred ... But what does horizontal gene transfer have to do with politics? May some editor/author please explain. Thanks! Yi Zhe Wu 11:10 ...
... how a hosts gene regulatory environment can facilitate the establishment of a gene newly arrived via horizontal transfer. ... Studying the cellulose synthase gene in ascidians, originally derived from actinobacteria, the team showed that a GC-rich AP-2 ... binding site upstream of this gene must have been key to it becoming established. This enabled its epidermis-specific ... Tsukuba, Japan - The transfer of genes from one organism to another is potentially a rapid way for evolution to occur and for ...
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the process whereby genes are transferred from one type of creature to another without sexual ... Another Horizontal Gene Transfer Fairy Tale by Jeffrey P. Tomkins, Ph.D. * Evidence for Creation › Evidence from Science › ... This is actually one of the few clearly documented cases of horizontal gene transfer showing that a specific type of parasite- ... To explain this glaring problem, evolutionists have resorted to the myth of pervasive horizontal gene transfer. ...
We describe the reasons why the newly recognized process of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) forces evolutionists who study ... The former are sets of co-evolving genes, pathways, or organisms, which share the same phylogenetic origin, while the latter ... Species concept pluralism systematics horizontal gene transfer evolutionary units nested hierarchy This is a preview of ... In: Gogarten M.B., Gogarten J.P., Olendzenski L.C. (eds) Horizontal Gene Transfer. Methods in Molecular Biology, vol 532. ...
In other words, it enhances horizontal gene transfer ... Genes are never transferred alone. They are transferred in unit ... Horizontal gene transfer may spread transgenes to the entire biosphere. Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genetic ... and horizontal gene transfer is one of the major considerations.. Some of us have argued that the hazards of horizontal gene ... What are the hazards of horizontal gene transfer?. Most artificial vectors are either derived from viruses or have viral genes ...
"Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) (or Lateral gene transfer) is any process in which an organism gets genetic material from ... Integrons, a bacterial "kit" for transferring gene cassettes.. History[change , change source]. Horizontal gene transfer was ... Most thinking in genetics has focused on vertical transfer, but there is a growing awareness that horizontal gene transfer is a ...
Detection of mRNA Expression of Mpf Gene, Dtr Gene, and Global Regulatory Genes.. mRNA expression of all genes was quantified ... Nanoalumina promotes the horizontal transfer of multiresistance genes mediated by plasmids across genera. Zhigang Qiu, Yunmei ... Nanoalumina may promote horizontal transfer by repressing the expression of global regulatory genes that are involved in RP4 ... The effect of nanoalumina in water on the promotion of horizontal transfer of antibiotic-multiresistance genes across genera is ...
Cross species transfer of genes has driven evolution. Far from just being the product of our parents, University of Adelaide ... Studying the hotbed of horizontal gene transfers. For over 200,000 years, humans and their gut microbiomes have coevolved into ... New gene transfer rules could help prevent spread of antibiotic resistance. Unlike other organisms, bacteria can take up ... Microbes in the human body swap genes, even across tissue boundaries: study. Bacteria in the human body are sharing genes with ...
... which is usually encoded by antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) carried by mobile genetic elements- plasmids, genomic islands ... Many horizontal gene transfer processes, including conjugation, transformation, transduction via bacteriophages have been shown ... Many bioinformatical and microbiomic analyses have also been performed to elucidate AMR transfer dynamics. Despite these ... Horizontal gene transfer processes for AMR dissemination and the regulatory mechanisms for AMR dissemination.. • Mobile genetic ...
In other words, it enhances horizontal gene transfer ... Genes are never transferred alone. They are transferred in unit ... Horizontal gene transfer may spread transgenes to the entire biosphere Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genetic ... The hazards of horizontal gene transfer are summarized in Box 2. Box 2 Potential hazards of horizontal gene transfer from ... Artificial vectors greatly enhance horizontal gene transfer (see Box 1) [14]. Box 1 Artificial vectors enhance horizontal gene ...
Simultaneous horizontal gene transfer of a gene coding for ribosomal protein l27 and operational genes in Arthrobacter sp. ... Associations of Gene Transfer, Horizontal with chemical compounds. *Phylogenetic analysis suggests horizontal gene transfer of ... Disease relevance of Gene Transfer, Horizontal. *In addition, comparison of the sequence of the atpCAB genes of S. pneumoniae ... Gene context of Gene Transfer, Horizontal. *Our data suggest that bacterial GlnRS has a eukaryotic origin and was acquired by a ...
... and we observe predator cells functionally acquiring adaptive resistance genes from adjacent prey. We then develop a population ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a major role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. Of particular concern are ... Inter-species population dynamics enhance microbial horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance.. Cooper RM1, ... Inter-species population dynamics enhance microbial horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance ...
... in contrast to the more traditional methods which used single genes earlier and now typically use groups of conserved genes. ... in particular horizontal gene transfer, where DNA is transferred from one organism to another, resulting in an organisms ... We found that for SlopeTree and all other whole-genome methods we applied, horizontal transfer causes some evolutionary ... developed a new whole-genome method for estimating evolutionary distances which identifies and corrects for horizontal transfer ...
CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs.The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus ... Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer ( ... Following this discovery, it was therefore of interest to examine the extent and possible routes of horizontal gene transfer ( ... CODH genes and gene clusters that include [Ni,Fe]-CODHs. The genome sequence of the extreme thermophile Thermosinus ...
The Genes of Parkinsons Disease. By Bobby Thomas and M. Flint Beal , February 1, 2011 ... Small trials using younger donors and elderly recipients hint that mesenchymal stem cell transfers might reduce frailty. ... tags: horizontal gene transfer x neuroscience x The Scientist. » horizontal gene transfer and neuroscience ...
A. C. Martiny, Y. Huang, and W. Li, "Occurrence of phosphate acquisition genes in Prochlorococcus cells from different ocean ... Parallel Evolution and Horizontal Gene Transfer of the pst Operon in Firmicutes from Oligotrophic Environments. Alejandra ... A. C. Martiny, M. L. Coleman, and S. W. Chisholm, "Phosphate acquisition genes in Prochlorococcus ecotypes: evidence for genome ...
However, the origin of the genes and the direction of the transfer remained elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings We used ... Gene duplication and subfunctionalization, as well as horizontal gene transfer are proposed mechanisms in the evolution of ... Our results support an ancient horizontal gene transfer event from an actinobacterial source into ascomycete fungi, followed by ... interkingdom horizontal gene transfer has been evoked as the most likely evolutionary scenario. ...
... was made possible when genes from soil bacteria were transferred to algae through a process called horizontal gene transfer. ... Unlike vertical gene transfer, such as the transfer of DNA from parent to child, horizontal gene transfer occurs between ... Horizontal gene transfer: The surprising trick bacteria uses to render drugs useless ... "These algae mingled with and received key genes from soil bacteria that helped them and their descendants to cope with the ...
... contained genes which the researchers concluded had been transferred from bacteria and fungi by horizontal gene transfer. The ... Citizendium:Horizontal gene transfer Citizendium:Horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes Citizendium:Horizontal gene transfer ... Barlow M (2009). "What antimicrobial resistance has taught us about horizontal gene transfer". Horizontal Gene Transfer. ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or ...
The genes were transferred to the beetles, researchers say, from sea squirts (tunicates) , with whom they have, may we say, not ... The genes were transferred to the beetles, researchers say, from sea squirts (tunicates) , with whom they have, may we say, not ... Darwinism horizontal gene transfer Intelligent Design Horizontal gene transfer from tunicates helps beetles against fungus. ... 4 Replies to "Horizontal gene transfer from tunicates helps beetles against fungus" * 1 ...
Fndings provide insight into one way in which the conditions in the new host can facilitate expression of a newly transferred ... gene and its integration into the hosts functions ... University of TsukubaThe transfer of genes from one organism to ... Mechanism of Horizontal Gene Transfer between Divergent Organisms Explained. Fndings provide insight into one way in which the ... Tags: Bacteriahorizontal gene transferIndustry NewsLife ScienceProduct Resource: Industry News ...
Bacteria are able to exchange genes by the transfer of these plasmids in a process called horizontal gene transfer. This is one ... Horizontal Gene Transfer This animation shows how bacteria exchange genes on small pieces of DNA called plasmids through a ... This animation shows how bacteria exchange plasmids through a process called horizontal gene transfer. ... Genes are small sections of DNA within the genome that code for proteins. They contain the instructions for our individual ...
... like the genes that allow bacteria to defeat antibiotics. "We have developed the first exact solution of a mathematical model ... "Massive" Horizontal Gene Transfer In Animal Kingdom Revealed Biologists Create Gene "Dimmer Switch" Wild Wheat Gene Puts A ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a cross-species form of genetic transfer. It occurs when the DNA from one species is ... Horizontal Gene Transfer Accelerating Evolution. By Will Parker on January 30, 2007 in News ...
  • Although horizontal gene transfer is well documented in microbial genomes, no case has been reported in higher plants. (
  • The second intron of the nad1 gene, located between exons b and c, is a group II intron (ref. 11 and Fig. 1 A ). Group II introns are self-splicing RNAs that are typical components of contemporary organellar genomes in plants, algae, fungi, protists, and eubacteria ( 10 , 12 - 14 ). (
  • The article in the link you provided seems to suggest that some researchers compared 40 genomes and found 2% of the genes seemed to be explained by HGT. (
  • Earlier in my career, I participated in a study (published in the journal Science ), in which we found that the pathogenic bacterium Wolbachia had transferred large portions of its DNA into the genomes of both worms and insects. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer is the transfer of genetic material between cells or genomes belonging to unrelated species, by processes other than usual reproduction. (
  • Currently, 185 out of 2887, or 6% of sequenced bacterial and archaeal genomes possess at least one gene encoding [Ni,Fe]-CODH, the key enzyme for anaerobic CO utilization. (
  • Many genomes encode multiple copies of [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes whose functions and regulation are correlated with their associated gene clusters. (
  • As Jian, Rivera and Lake (1999) put it: "Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes" (see also Lake and Rivera, 2007). (
  • Also, as HGT can bring into genomes radically different genotypes from distant lineages, or even new genes bearing new functions, it is a major source of phenotypic innovation and a mechanism of niche adaptation. (
  • Most of the foreign genes that Arkhipova found in the bdelloid genomes were clustered near the tips of chromosomes, called the telomeres. (
  • Applying this new tool to the Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus flavus , and Aspergillus nidulans genomes, we found 273, 542, and 715 transferred genes (HTGs), respectively. (
  • Gene clustering analysis showed that 61%, 41% and 74% of HTGs in the three genomes form physically linked gene clusters (HTGCs). (
  • It mainly concerned developing a program that reads in the sequences of all genes present on a specified set of bacterial genomes and then creates clusters of related genes. (
  • They speculated that bacterial effector proteins transferred to target cells via Type VI secretion systems might be especially effectively maintained in eukaryotic genomes. (
  • One hypothesis posits that HGT can restore genes inactivated by mutations and thereby prevent stochastic, irreversible deterioration of genomes in finite populations known as Muller's ratchet. (
  • Because genes involved in these mechanisms reside in the genomes of mobile genetic elements, transduction and conjugation can be considered side effects of the selfish propagation of these infectious agents ( Redfield 2001 ). (
  • The genomes of w Bol1-b and w Pip are similar in genomic organisation, sequence and gene content, but show substantial differences at some rapidly evolving regions of the genome, primarily associated with prophage and repetitive elements. (
  • Here, we compare the genomes of six plant species with those of 159 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species and identify 1689 genes that show the highest similarity to corresponding genes from fungi. (
  • By analyzing 21 Escherichia genomes, we confirm that genes coding for secreted proteins-the secretome-are very frequently lost and gained and are associated with mobile elements. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer Any process in which a bacterium inserts genetic material into the genomes of other pathogens or into the genome of its host. (
  • Bdelloid rotifers are microscopic animals that contain a higher proportion of horizontally transferred, non-metazoan genes in their genomes than typical of animals. (
  • For approximately half of the fusions, stand-alone forms of the fusion components are encoded by juxtaposed genes, which are known or predicted to belong to the same operon in some of the prokaryotic genomes. (
  • Analysis of the growing number of available fully-sequenced genomes has shown that Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in eukaryotes is more common than previously thought. (
  • Although several genomes of amoebozoan species have been sequenced, little is known about the phyletic distribution of globin genes within this phylum. (
  • Only two flavohemoglobins (FHbs) of D. discoideum have been reported and characterized previously while the genomes of Entamoeba species are apparently devoid of globin genes. (
  • Additional FHb genes were identified in the genomes of four social amoebas and the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum . (
  • Using other approaches based on phylogenetic and linkage disequilibrium analysis we analyzed 24 genomes of M. tuberculosis complex isolates and found an excess of genetic diversity in regions encoding key adaptive functions including the type VII secretion system and the ancient horizontally transferred virulence-related regions carrying Rv0986 and Rv0987 genes above described. (
  • Conjugation machinery offers an efficient method for acquisition of AMR and virulence genes, which may be responsible for propelling the evolution of pathogenic bacteria. (
  • These results demonstrate the applicability of generating competitive analogues of CSPs as drugs to control horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes, and to attenuate virulence during infection by S. pneumoniae . (
  • Kat also provides a reliable commentary of how several virulence genes were added to the outbreak strain's disease-ability armoury from various bacterial viruses and plasmids. (
  • T4SSs mediate horizontal gene transfer, thus contributing to genome plasticity and the evolution of pathogens through dissemination of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. (
  • During work on the phylogeny of Gnetum , we developed specific primers to amplify the second intron in the nad1 gene, plus flanking exons, from numerous previously unstudied species of Gnetum . (
  • Researchers: Overall, we showed that LGT is a widespread phenomenon in grasses that has moved functional genes across the grass family into domesticated and wild species alike. (
  • At Quanta: "Davis' team estimated that at least 1.2% of the plant's genes came from other species, particularly its hosts, past and present. (
  • Furthermore, some of the genes could have come from horizontal gene transfer from now-extinct species. (
  • Not only that, but the cells of the germline (those that produce sperm and egg) must be specifically targeted or the introgressed genes (those that were incorporated from one species into the genome of another) will not be inherited. (
  • In other words, it enhances horizontal gene transfer the direct transfer of genetic material to unrelated species. (
  • Some of us have argued that the hazards of horizontal gene transfer to unrelated species are inherent to genetic engineering(4). (
  • Bacteria have been known to exchange genes across species barriers in nature. (
  • By contrast, vertical transfer occurs when an organism gets genetic material from its ancestor , e.g., its parent or a species from which it has evolved. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer was first described in Japan in a 1959 publication that demonstrated the transfer of antibiotic resistance between different species of bacteria . (
  • Conjugative transfer between closely related strains or species of bacteria is an important method for the horizontal transfer of multidrug-resistance genes. (
  • Horizontal transfer often occurs between closely related strains or species of bacteria but occurs at a very low frequency across genera ( 6 ), although the medical importance of the latter is greater. (
  • Inter-species population dynamics enhance microbial horizontal gene transfer and spread of antibiotic resistance. (
  • 2013). Here, we show bacterial predation by Acinetobacter baylyi increases cross-species HGT by orders of magnitude, and we observe predator cells functionally acquiring adaptive resistance genes from adjacent prey. (
  • The plant Lophophytum pilfers mitochondrial genes from the species it parasitizes. (
  • Unlike vertical gene transfer, such as the transfer of DNA from parent to child, horizontal gene transfer occurs between different species. (
  • Genes responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms of HGT such as transformation, transduction and conjugation, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient against antibiotics. (
  • Inter-bacterial gene transfer was first described in Japan in a 1959 publication that demonstrated the transfer of antibiotic resistance between different species of bacteria. (
  • Grafting of one plant to another can transfer chloroplasts (organelles in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis), mitochondrial DNA, and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species. (
  • The Rice researchers suggest that the speed of evolution has increased over time thanks to horizontal gene transfer, where bacteria and viruses exchange transposable chunks of DNA between species, thus making it possible for life forms to evolve faster than they would if they relied only on sexual selection or random genetic mutations. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a cross-species form of genetic transfer. (
  • Sequence composition-based ("parametric") methods search for deviations from the genomic average whereas evolutionary history-based ("phylogenetic") approaches identify genes whose evolutionary history significantly differs from that of the host species. (
  • This lends them the ability to better characterize the HGT events they infer-notably by designating the donor species and time of the transfer. (
  • Finally, the computational costs of reconstructing many gene/species trees can be prohibitively expensive. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is thought to occur frequently in bacteria in nature and to play an important role in bacterial evolution, contributing to the formation of new species. (
  • Three hundred three luminous strains, most of which were recently isolated from nature and which represent 11 Aliivibrio , Photobacterium , and Vibrio species, were screened for incongruence of phylogenies based on a representative housekeeping gene ( gyrB or pyrH ) and a representative lux gene ( luxA ). (
  • In nearly all cases, housekeeping gene and lux gene phylogenies were congruent, and there was no instance in which the lux genes of one luminous species had replaced the lux genes of another luminous species. (
  • In none of these cases of apparent HGT, however, did acquisition of the lux genes correlate with phylogenetic divergence of the recipient strain from other members of its species. (
  • An intermediate view is that HGT occurs frequently between bacterial lineages, contributing various strain-specific genes and thereby increasing the pan-genome of a bacterial species, but that the bacterium's core genome is inherited vertically and rarely perturbed by HGT ( 15 , 41 , 50 , 51 , 58 ). (
  • An alternative mechanism of gene acquisition is through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which involves movement of genetic materials between different species. (
  • A proposed mechanism to explain the similarity of sequences between two species with a very distant common ancestor was horizontal gene transfer [ 9 ]. (
  • Here, using PCR with degenerate primers, we have successfully isolated ACC deaminase genes from a range of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species. (
  • Of the four tae genes found in bacterial species, three have been transferred to one or another eukaryotic genome. (
  • Third, the authors acquired evidence for expression of the dae genes in a species of ameba. (
  • They also found previously published evidence for dae gene expression in a species of lancelet, a small marine organism. (
  • did not find any evidence for transfer of bacterial housekeeping amidases to eukaryotic species. (
  • We found that transferred genes are concentrated in only ~1% of the chromosomal regions (hotspots) in 80 bacterial species. (
  • These data also suggest either that this bacterial species is particularly permissive for eukaryote-to-prokaryote gene transfers, or that these transfers may be more common than previously believed. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) describes the transmission of genetic material across species boundaries and is an important evolutionary phenomenon in the ancestry of many microbes. (
  • If so, we expect that species should differ in their complement of foreign genes, rather than sharing the same set of foreign genes inherited from a common ancestor. (
  • Furthermore, there should be more foreign genes in species that desiccate more frequently. (
  • Transcriptomes of all four species contain many genes with a closer match to non-metazoan genes than to metazoan genes. (
  • Whole genome sequencing of one species confirmed the presence of these foreign genes in the genome. (
  • Nearly half of foreign genes are shared between all four species and an outgroup from another family, but many hundreds are unique to particular species, which indicates that HGT is ongoing. (
  • However, HGT still contributed hundreds of foreign genes to the species from permanently aquatic habitats. (
  • We found evidence of differential loss of ancestral foreign genes previously associated with desiccation protection in the two non-desiccating species. (
  • Clustering of fusion components from phylogenetically distant species was construed as evidence of dissemination of the fused genes by horizontal transfer. (
  • These findings suggest a major role for horizontal transfer of gene fusions in the evolution of protein-domain architectures, but also indicate that independent fusions of the same pair of domains in distant species is not uncommon, which suggests positive selection for the multidomain architectures. (
  • Species phylogenies built from the comparison of gene sequences suffer from two major limitations: on one side the true gene trees may differ from the species trees, and on the other side, the signal contained in the gene sequences might be too weak or too complex to be correctly interpreted by bioinformatics methods. (
  • Gene trees will differ from species trees in cases of hidden paralogy, closely spaced cladogenesis events or horizontal gene transfers (HGT). (
  • Many of the antibiotic resistance genes are carried on plasmids, transposons or integrons that can act as vectors that transfer these genes to other members of the same bacterial species, as well as to bacteria in another genus or species. (
  • We investigated eleven amoebozoan species for the presence of globin genes by genomic and phylogenetic in silico analyses. (
  • Tuberculosis was initially considered as a clonal population with no known acquisition of genetic material by horizontal genetic transfer, although it carries IS elements with similarity to IS elements from other species. (
  • Thanks to a screening of M. tuberculosis transposon mutants impaired in the in vivo growth in macrophages we have identified a genetic region likely acquired by horizontal transfer from another bacterial species. (
  • Here, we present the first comprehensive multi-species analysis of E/HGT of genes encoding metabolic enzymes from bacteria to unicellular eukaryotes. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer, the acquisition of genes across species boundaries, is a major source of novel phenotypes that enables microbes to rapidly adapt to new environments. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is the lateral transfer of genetic material between different individuals and species, and a major driver of evolution in all domains of microbial life [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (
  • The success, or failure, of an HGT event is largely determined by the effect of the transferred gene on the fitness (differential growth compared to the wild-type not carrying a transferred gene) of the recipient species. (
  • Gene sharing among organisms of different species has been a prominent topic of discussion among the scientific community for the last few decades. (
  • Pneumococcal surface adhesin A (psaA) gene is universally confirmed as one of the Streptococcus pneumoniae adhesion genes, but it is disputed whether the psaA gene is a Streptococcus pneumoniae species-specific gene. (
  • however, high-frequency horizontal psaA gene transfer and recombination occurred in the other species of the streptococcus mitis group. (
  • These findings confirmed that the psaA gene was not a Streptococcus pneumoniae species-specific gene, and high-frequency HGT and recombination events may explain the presence of the psaA gene in the other species of the streptococcus mitis group. (
  • In a previous study, we detected a trp B gene of gammaproteobacterial origin in ' Ca. Tremblaya phenacola' from two Phenacoccus species, apparently indicating an unusual case of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in a bacterial endosymbiont. (
  • The spread of antibiotic-resistance genes is due to the selective pressures caused by increases in the use and misuse of antibiotics in medicine and animal feedstuffs ( 4 ). (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a major role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer is the primary mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, and plays an important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution, maintenance, and transmission of virulence. (
  • The rapid spread of antibiotic resistance genes in this manner is becoming medically challenging to deal with. (
  • This work will help shed light on many aspects of microbial evolution, including the adaptation of microbes to new ecological niches, evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance genes, the rise of emerging pathogens, and competition between microbes. (
  • This ability makes BHR plasmids efficient shuttles for HGT, clearly illustrated in the last decades by their leading role in the spread of antibiotic resistance genes among microbial populations [2] . (
  • 8) According to Beaber et al , when Vibrio cholerae is exposed to the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, it will actually promote the spread of antibiotic resistance genes. (
  • The acquisition and spread of antibiotic resistance genes in S. pneumoniae is at least partly due to genetic transformation, which occurs when the bacteria enter the competent state [7] - [9] . (
  • They are worried that DNA including such genes will spread to micro-organisms in the gut when we eat the GMO's. (
  • However, even when the two organisms in question are in close proximity to each other, such as in a symbiotic or parasitic relationship, the transfer of genetic material and its introduction into a new genome only marks the initial step for successful horizontal gene transfer. (
  • This gene encodes a protein that helps form an external protective coating, the loss of which leads to a lack of cellulose production and has adverse effects on these organisms. (
  • The former are sets of co-evolving genes, pathways, or organisms, which share the same phylogenetic origin, while the latter comprise genes, pathways, or organisms with component parts from multiple phylogenetic origins. (
  • Hundreds of scientists around the world are now demanding a moratorium on all environmental releases of transgenic organisms on grounds of safety(3), and horizontal gene transfer is one of the major considerations. (
  • [1] Amongst single-celled organisms it may be the dominant form of genetic transfer. (
  • In addition, some distantly related organisms have similar [Ni,Fe]-CODH genes. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) or lateral gene transfer (LGT) is the movement of genetic material between unicellular and/or multicellular organisms other than by the ("vertical") transmission of DNA from parent to offspring (reproduction). (
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused upon vertical transfer, but the importance of horizontal gene transfer among single-cell organisms is beginning to be acknowledged. (
  • Jumping genes are a known phenomenon in bacteria and other organisms. (
  • Horizontal or lateral gene transfer (HGT or LGT) is the transmission of portions of genomic DNA between organisms through a process decoupled from vertical inheritance. (
  • Although the transfer of genes is thought to be crucial in prokaryotic evolution, its existence in higher organisms, including animals, is less well established [ 7 - 9 ]. (
  • A proposed mechanism for this phenomenon was horizontal gene transfer between organisms with ticks as the media [ 13 ]. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a fast-track mechanism that allows genetically unrelated organisms to exchange genes for rapid environmental adaptation. (
  • The transfer of amidase-encoding genes from bacteria to eukaryotic organisms is not the first instance of such trans-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT). (
  • Better Genome Editing for Bioenergy CRISPR-Cas9 is a powerful, high-throughput gene-editing tool that can help scientists engineer organisms for bioenergy applications. (
  • Selective constraints by themselves probably do not stimulate gene transfer (a possible exception is the regulation of conjugative transposition in Bacteroides [ 29 ]) but determine whether the organisms acquiring new genetic material will multiply and grow. (
  • In fact, due to increasing evidence suggesting the importance of the phenomenon in organisms that cause disease, molecular biologists such as Peter Gogarten at the University of Connecticut have described horizontal gene transfer as "a new paradigm for biology. (
  • Gorgarten insists that horizontal gene transfer is "more frequent than most biologists could even imagine a decade ago" and that this reality turns the idea that we can classify organisms in a simple " tree of life " on its head. (
  • Recent work uncovered that D-amino acid racemases have been commonly transferred from bacteria to fungi, but their role in the receiving organisms is currently unknown. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer is any transfer of genetic material between organisms that does not involve the vertical transmission to offspring. (
  • It is termed horizontal because the two organisms are on the same level of a hypothetical family tree, whereas vertical transfer involves going to a different level of the tree, parent to offspring. (
  • Furthermore, viruses in marine environments and hot springs move genes between organisms in all three domains of life. (
  • Here we show that nanomaterials in water can significantly promote the horizontal conjugative transfer of multidrug-resistance genes mediated by the RP4, RK2, and pCF10 plasmids. (
  • This animation shows how bacteria exchange genes on small pieces of DNA called plasmids through a process called horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Bacteria are able to exchange genes by the transfer of these plasmids in a process called horizontal gene transfer. (
  • The most worrying trend is the horizontal transmission of antibiotic resistance genes via mobile elements such as plasmids and transposons, especially in Gram-negative pathogens ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Conjugation and transduction involve transfer of prokaryotic DNA between cells mediated by infectious agents such as viruses and conjugative plasmids, respectively. (
  • Competition between plasmid copies within a given cell favors plasmids with higher copy number, superior partition systems and higher transfer rates [9] . (
  • As a consequence, horizontal transfer promoted by agents such as plasmids, phages, or integrons drives microbial cooperation. (
  • The mobile nature of… gene islands, transported between bacteria via plasmids or phages, creates the potential for acquired virulence in previously innocuous microbes," states researcher Dave Relman of Stanford University. (
  • These plasmids, when replicated, can be passed in whole or part to other bacteria by means of a process called conjugative transfer. (
  • Allen, B. L., Steel, M. (2001) Subtree transfer operations and their induced metrics on evolutionary trees. (
  • Marshall favors horizontal gene transfer as a key method of early development because ancestor-descendant evolution is a "very slow" (42:25) evolutionary process. (
  • One issue is the fact that different creatures have unique sets of genes specific to their kind with no apparent evolutionary history. (
  • First, the researchers found unique genes in a variety of fruit flies, worms, primates, and humans that had no clear evolutionary ancestry. (
  • Scientists have previously termed these 'orphan genes'-a unique type of gene that provides a clear anti-evolutionary enigma I have discussed in previous reports. (
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen suggested that lateral gene transfer not only had biological significance, but was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (
  • To more clearly define if the branching patterns observed in the [Ni,Fe]-CODH trees are due to functional conservation vs. evolutionary lineage, the genomic context of the [Ni,Fe]-CODH gene clusters was examined, and superimposed on the phylogenetic trees. (
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (
  • As noted re an earlier story about bats, the finding also suggests that Darwinian claims about natural selection producing evolutionary changes should be tested against the possibility that the change was in fact caused by horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Inferring horizontal gene transfer through computational identification of HGT events relies upon the investigation of sequence composition or evolutionary history of genes. (
  • Phylogenetic methods examine evolutionary histories of genes involved and identify conflicting phylogenies. (
  • Phylogenetic methods tend to be applied to genes or protein sequences as basic evolutionary units, which limits their ability to detect HGT in regions outside or across gene boundaries. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the acquisition of genes by a member of one bacterial lineage from another lineage, is widely believed to play a major role in bacterial evolutionary divergence and speciation ( 29 , 39 , 40 , 46 ). (
  • There is strong genomic evidence that bacteria often acquire evolutionary novelties from outside their ancestral population by horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Gene fusions can be used as tools for functional prediction and also as evolutionary markers. (
  • The evolutionary history of gene fusions was studied by phylogenetic analysis of the domains in the fused proteins and the orthologous domains that form stand-alone proteins. (
  • On many occasions, the evolutionary scenario also involves one or more secondary fissions of the fusion gene. (
  • Previously identified evolutionary barriers - gene function and the number of protein-protein interactions - did not predict the fitness effects of transferred genes. (
  • While computational approaches have been successful in describing long-term barriers to horizontal gene transfer, our experimental results identified previously underappreciated barriers that determine the fitness effects of newly transferred genes, and hence their short-term eco-evolutionary dynamics. (
  • Also, the evolutionary scenarios of these psaA genes in these streptococcus mitis group isolates were analyzed by a phylogenetic tree based on the housekeeping genes (sodA and rnpB) and psaA genes. (
  • It rather represents a genome fusion between a beta and a gammaproteobacterium, followed by massive rearrangements and loss of redundant genes, leading to an unprecedented evolutionary collage. (
  • Transfer of genetic material to a being other than one of the donor's offspring. (
  • The artificial constructs or transgenic DNA typically contain genetic material from bacteria, viruses and other genetic parasites that cause diseases as well as antibiotic resistance genes that make infectious diseases untreatable. (
  • They consist of genetic material originating from bacteria, viruses and other genetic parasites that cause diseases and spread drug and antibiotic resistance genes. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) (or Lateral gene transfer ) is any process in which an organism gets genetic material from another organism without being the offspring of that organism. (
  • Bacterial conjugation , a process in which a bacterial cell transfers genetic material to another cell by cell-to-cell contact. (
  • For horizontal gene transfer to be successful, the foreign genetic material must become integrated into the cell s genome, or become stably maintained in the recipient cell in some other form. (
  • There are several mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer: Transformation, the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). (
  • However, this is one of the few examples in which there is direct evidence that such transfer of genetic material underlies the defensive potential of a symbiont. (
  • 2010). One of the hazards accompanying consumption of GM- plants is the possible horizontal gene transfer (HGT) which is the transfer of genetic material directly to a living cell or an organism (van den Eede et al. (
  • AMR results from pathogenic strains of bacteria adapting to antimicrobial-containing environments through mutations or through horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of genetic material containing resistance genes. (
  • They found that the intestinal bacteria genes were more than 90% homologous to the corresponding sequence in HIV - suggesting that the bacteria and the HIV virus had traded a significant amount of genetic material. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer , or the process of swapping genetic material between neighboring "contemporary" bacteria, is another means by which resistance can be acquired. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer is a mechanism in which genetic material is transmitted from one organism to another organism. (
  • In addition, the relative isolation of the endosymbiont populations usually hinders the possibility of acquiring genetic material through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). (
  • They also found an exciting clue: these genes are located in a so called genomic island, i.e., a region that was likely inserted in the chromosome of the symbiont from an external source. (
  • Genes encoding these toxins are well-studied, however the genomic content and organization of the CDC is not known. (
  • In addition, rapid death of both antibiotic-resistant strains and destruction of plasmid and genomic DNA were observed on copper and copper alloy surfaces, which could be useful in the prevention of infection spread and gene transfer. (
  • The w Bol1-b-specific genes we have identified provide candidates for further investigations of the genomic bases of phenotypic differences between closely-related Wolbachia strains. (
  • Many display features typical of the genomic islands found in other bacteria, including residual material from mobile genetic elements, flanking direct repeats, insertion in the vicinity of tRNA sequences, and genes with putative or documented virulence functions. (
  • The most recently described GI type T4SSs play a key role in the horizontal transfer of a wide variety of genomic islands derived from a broad spectrum of bacterial strains. (
  • Surprisingly, these nematode enzymes display strikingly similarities towards bacterial genes instead of eukaryotic ones. (
  • Among eukaryotic lineages, however, very few natural horizontal transfers have been reported, and none of them involve transfers across groups of seed plants. (
  • Eukaryotic Nramp genes encode divalent metal ion permeases important for nutrition and resistance to microbial infection. (
  • 2014) presents a fascinating study of examples in which bacterial genes have found their way to a number of distinct eukaryotic lineages including ticks and mites, gastropod (e.g., snails and slugs) and bivalve mollusks (e.g. clams and oysters), and choanoflagellates (a subset of ptotozoans). (
  • If the proteins Dae lacked such secretion signals, it might be more plausible to argue that the genes may have bacterial origins but were not functional in their new eukaryotic hosts. (
  • Given the importance of gene transfers in eukaryotic evolution and the potential implications for chemotherapy, it is important to identify the complement of transferred genes in Cryptosporidium . (
  • Keeling and Palmer, 2008 ), suggesting that universal eukaryotic cellular features, such as the possession of linear chromatin-based chromosomes, intron-exon gene structures, and the nuclear envelope, are not barriers to HGT. (
  • It has been proposed that genes with certain functions may be more prone to HGT than others, but we still have a very poor understanding of the selective forces driving eukaryotic HGT. (
  • Here, we set out to assess whether D-amino acid racemases are commonly transferred to and between eukaryotic groups. (
  • Enrichment in particular functional classes was particularly revealing: alongside plastid related processes and carbohydrate metabolism, this highlighted a number of pathways in eukaryotic parasites that are rich in enzymes encoded by transferred genes, and potentially key to pathogenicity. (
  • In eukaryotic parasites, genes encoding enzymes that have been gained through horizontal transfer may be attractive drug targets if they are part of processes not present in the host, or are significantly diverged from equivalent host enzymes. (
  • HGT that accompanies endosymbiosis, termed endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT), was important in establishing the eukaryotic organelles: the mitochondria and plastids. (
  • First, living inside eukaryotic cells renders some genes unnecessary, while others become redundant with functions provided by the host. (
  • Second, the approach to supposedly identifying many of the foreign genes in animals as microbial in origin was not even based on actual complete gene sequence, but depended upon isolated regions of similarity in the proteins they encode. (
  • In contrast, microbial genes are typically much less complex and lack these intricate and intervening regulatory regions found in animal genes. (
  • By analyzing the pool of genes in the microbial community of the L. villosa beetles, Jason Kwan and his team at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, USA, identified the genes responsible for the production of lagriamide in the genome of the dominant beetle symbiont. (
  • The discovery of horizontal gene transfer is related to the introduction of experimental microbial genetics some 70 years ago. (
  • Owing to a suite of newly available computational algorithms and experimental approaches, we have a broader understanding of the genes that are being transferred and are starting to understand the ecology of HGT in natural microbial communities. (
  • Trust our stalwart physics color commentator Rob Sheldon to draw the logical conclusion about horizontal gene transfer between plants and insects: If plants and insects can exchange genes (and who knows what else can? (
  • It has been suggested that lateral gene transfer to humans from bacteria may play a role in cancer. (
  • For example, of particular relevance to human health is the lateral transfer of antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity determinants, leading to the emergence of pathogenic lineages. (
  • In support of this predicted association, we identified six cases of lateral gene transfer between Megaviridae and oomycetes. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer, otherwise called lateral gene transfer, was discovered in 1928 as the result of a detailed set of experiments conducted by Frederick Griffith on bacteria that cause pneumonia. (
  • In this way we are able to silence nematode genes that are putative parasitism related, and study their mode of action. (
  • Just to be precise, the putative gene cluster which could be responsible for the synthesis of the antifungal molecule, consisting of 13 different genes, is in the genome of the symbiont bacterium, and the possible HGT is therefore HGT between bacterial strains. (
  • We used a transcriptome-wide analysis to identify putative horizontal gene transfer events. (
  • Using the biochemical assay procedure, it was ascertained that all of these putative genes encoded functional ACC deaminase. (
  • Putative functional annotation of the HGT candidate genes suggests that two fungi-to-plant transfers have added phenotypes important for life in a soil environment. (
  • Conjugation allows bacteria to acquire genes for antibiotic resistance, novel virulence attributes, and alternative metabolic pathways. (
  • Since then, the phenomenon of horizontal gene transfer has been shown to be responsible for widespread transfer among bacterial populations of genes conferring antibiotic resistance, metabolic functions, and virulence determinants. (
  • Greenpeace and other activist groups regard HGT as major risk with regard to GMO's that have antibiotic resistance genes. (
  • Horizontal transfer of transgenic DNA has the potential, among other things, to create new viruses and bacteria that cause diseases and spread drug and antibiotic resistance genes among pathogens. (
  • A 2010 report found that genes for antibiotic resistance could be transferred by engineering GTAs in the laboratory. (
  • Inheritance of drug resistance (and its transfer) between Shigella strains and between Shigella and E. coli strains" (in Japanese). (
  • The extent to which nanomaterials are able to cause an increase in antibiotic resistance by the regulation of the conjugative transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes in bacteria, especially across genera, is still unknown. (
  • Studies have demonstrated that water and wastewater, which are pools for antibiotic-resistant bacteria and -resistance genes, appear to contribute significantly to the acquisition of resistance against antibiotics by bacteria by horizontal DNA transfer ( 7 , 8 ). (
  • Aquatic environments and water treatment processes are able to affect the efficiency of antibiotic-resistance gene transfer ( 9 ). (
  • However, it is unknown whether or how nanomaterials affect antibiotic-resistance gene transfer between bacteria, especially across genera. (
  • Based on the above data, we hypothesized that nanomaterials that are present in water may promote the horizontal transfer of multidrug-resistance genes across bacterial genera by acting on cell membranes and/or regulating genes involved in plasmid transfer. (
  • This is one way that bacteria can share genes that make them resistant to antibiotics and how antibiotic resistance can spread through a population of bacteria. (
  • This medical problem stimulated research in bacterial genetics which revealed that horizontal gene transfer is involved in some of the genetic variations causing resistance to antibiotics. (
  • This review aims to give an overview of the major horizontal transfer mechanisms and their evolution and then demonstrate the human lower gastrointestinal tract as an environment in which horizontal gene transfer of resistance determinants occurs. (
  • Finally, implications for antibiotic usage and the development of resistant infections and persistence of antibiotic resistance genes in populations as a result of horizontal gene transfer in the large intestine will be discussed. (
  • Bacterial populations susceptible to antibiotics become resistant either through genetic mutation or through horizontal transfer and expression of resistance genes from other strains, either distantly or closely related. (
  • The human gastrointestinal tract provides an ideal combination of factors for antibiotic resistance genes to arise and spread through bacterial populations. (
  • The aim of this review is to provide a brief overview of the bacterial processes that facilitate horizontal gene transfer, and to propose how this phenomenon may be taking place in the lower human gastrointestinal tract, specifically the large intestine, intensifying the antibiotic resistance crisis we are currently facing and setting the stage for future resistant infections. (
  • Our data show that this novel, horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus is associated with the SCCmec elements of USA300. (
  • These genes are additional to existing core genome copper resistance mechanisms, and are not found in typical S. aureus lineages, but are increasingly identified in emerging pathogenic isolates. (
  • Our hypothesis is that acquisition of copper hyper-resistance via horizontal gene transfer plays a crucial role in the emergence of S. aureus strains, and potentially other pathogenic bacteria, with increased infectivity conferred through their improved resistance to the copper-dependent killing mechanisms of the host's immune cells. (
  • Multiple genes for heavy metal resistance have been identified in L. monocytogenes. (
  • 2018 A horizontally gene transferred copper resistance locus confers hyper-resistance to antibacterial copper toxicity and enables survival of community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus USA300 in macrophages. (
  • Transconjugants also exhibited the same resistance profile as the donor, suggesting multiple gene transfer. (
  • IMPORTANCE Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) conferring resistance to many classes of antimicrobials has resulted in a worldwide epidemic of nosocomial and community infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms, leading to suggestions that we are in effect returning to the preantibiotic era. (
  • Most mobile genetic elements and antibiotic resistance genes are in hotspots, but many hotspots lack recognizable mobile genetic elements and exhibit frequent homologous recombination at flanking core genes. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria is a rather general process, leading to the distribution of many traits, such as antibiotic resistance determinants or genes encoding degradative pathways. (
  • Antibiotic resistance genes have been used in numerous studies as markers for gene transfer in microcosms mimicking natural ecosystems ( 1 , 15 , 18 , 23 , 30 ). (
  • Furthermore, CSP1-E1A attenuated the acquisition of an antibiotic resistance gene and a capsule gene in vivo . (
  • a plasmid sharing high similarity with the IncI plasmid pEC_Bactec, including blaCTX-M and blaTEM-1 beta-lactamase (antibiotic resistance) genes [bottom left] and a lot of sequence similar to plasmid pCVM29188_101 from Salmonella entericaKentucky [bottom left]. (
  • Another plasmid present in the German germ is pEC_Bactec carrying antibiotic resistance gene - a plasmid widely distributed in other gut bacteria like Salmonella . (
  • Germ HUSEC041 O104:H4 also has new genes for tellurite chemical resistance not possessed by its distant African relative E. coli 55989, and these likely came from EHEC E. coli O157:H7 or its sisters. (
  • Sub-inhibitory concentrations of heavy metals facilitate the horizontal transfer of plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance genes in water environment. (
  • DNA fragments that contain resistance genes from resistant donors can then make previously susceptible bacteria express resistance as coded by these newly acquired resistance genes. (
  • This process is used by bacteria to acquire antibiotic resistance genes and is important for bacterial evolution. (
  • To describe the distribution of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance genes and the role of horizontal gene transfer and clonal expansion in recent increases of antibiotic resistance rates among uropathogenic Escherichia coli in Europe and Canada. (
  • Trimethoprim resistance gene distributions showed no regional dependency ( P = 0.84). (
  • The most common trimethoprim resistance gene was dfrA1 , which occurred in 37.9% of dfr containing isolates. (
  • Similarly, the sulfamethoxazole resistance gene distributions did not vary significantly by region ( P = 0.20). (
  • sul2 , the most common sulfamethoxazole resistance gene, was found in 77.9% of sulfamethoxazole-resistant isolates. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer plays a larger role than clonal expansion in the increase of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance levels in Europe and Canada. (
  • Instead, genetically modified plants, infused with a bacterial gene which conferred resistance to streptomycin, were used. (
  • In this experiment, the normal cultivated tobacco's chloroplasts were modified to include a gene for streptomycin resistance and a fluorescent protein. (
  • The majority of MDR hospital outbreaks are caused by a subset of Kp clones with a high prevalence of acquired antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes, while the majority of community-acquired invasive infections are caused by hypervirulent clones that rarely harbour acquired AMR genes but have high prevalence of key virulence loci. (
  • Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in the human gut microbiome. (
  • A spontaneous recombination within this locus was demonstrated in a bacterial clone containing an antibiotic-resistance gene inserted in flaA. (
  • A recombinant was isolated in which the antibiotic-resistance gene had been repositioned into flaB, indicating that genetic information can be exchanged between the two flagellin genes of C. jejuni. (
  • The occurrence of recombinational events after the uptake of exogenous DNA by naturally competent bacteria was demonstrated with two mutants containing different antibiotic-resistance markers in their flagellin genes. (
  • The genes were transferred to the beetles, researchers say, from sea squirts (tunicates) , with whom they have, may we say, not much in common, by microorganisms (symbiont bacterial strains). (
  • Horizontal gene transfer was first observed in 1928, in Frederick Griffith's experiment: showing that virulence was able to pass from virulent to non-virulent strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Griffith demonstrated that genetic information can be horizontally transferred between bacteria via a mechanism known as transformation. (
  • Strains exhibiting incongruence were then subjected to detailed phylogenetic analysis of horizontal transfer by using multiple housekeeping genes ( gyrB , recA , and pyrH ) and multiple lux genes ( luxCDABEG ). (
  • The gene encoding this enzyme has been isolated from a few strains of Pseudomonas spp. (
  • We identified 44 genes in w Bol1-b that do not have homologs in any previously sequenced strains, indicating that Wolbachia 's non-core genome diversifies rapidly. (
  • If the origin of the two copies in Gnetum could be traced, this might provide evidence for horizontal gene transfer, adding a new dimension to our understanding of group II intron evolution. (
  • Tsukuba, Japan - The transfer of genes from one organism to another is potentially a rapid way for evolution to occur and for complicated novel functions to emerge. (
  • Because of their unwavering commitment to evolution, all ideas about these cleverly designed and network-integrated gene sequences being engineered by a Creator are not considered-at least not openly. (
  • The genes and gene-constructs created in genetic engineering have never existed in billions of years of evolution. (
  • GTAs transfer DNA so frequently that they may have an important role in evolution. (
  • Richardson and Palmer (2007) state: "Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a major role in bacterial evolution and is fairly common in certain unicellular eukaryotes. (
  • This analyses suggest that while fruit flies and nematodes have continued to acquire foreign genes throughout their evolution, humans and other primates have gained relatively few since their common ancestor [ 10 ]. (
  • In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been implicated in the evolution of plant parasitism. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer was previously shown to be a phenomenon that has contributed to the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. (
  • Overrepresentation of hotspots with fewer mobile genetic elements in naturally transformable bacteria suggests that homologous recombination and horizontal gene transfer are tightly linked in genome evolution.Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is an important mechanism for genome evolution and adaptation in bacteria. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major factor in the evolution of prokaryotes. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is a major force driving bacterial evolution. (
  • Another is the source of the new surface attachment genes carried on another plasmid related to that found previously in an African strain EAEC E. coli 55989, but this changed during the last few years of evolution by gaining new surface attachment genes. (
  • Evolution of Gene Fusions: Horizontal Transfer Versus Independent Events" Genome Biology 3(5): research0024.1-research0024.13. (
  • Fused genes often show a scattered phyletic distribution, which suggests a role for processes other than vertical inheritance in their evolution. (
  • This indicates that evolution of gene fusions often, if not always, involves an intermediate stage, during which the future fusion components exist as juxtaposed and co-regulated, but still distinct, genes within operons. (
  • We characterized the genes that supported each of these two hypotheses, and found that differences in rates of evolution or in amino-acid compositions could not explain the presence of two incongruent phylogenetic signals in the alignment. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a key role in prokaryotic evolution and its importance in eukaryotes is increasingly evident. (
  • The number of enzymes encoded by genes gained through E/HGT has been established, providing insight into functional gain during the evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. (
  • HGT is likely to have had a more important influence upon the evolution of unicellular eukaryotes because there is no separate germline in which the transferred genes need to be fixed. (
  • Together with transformation and phage-mediated transduction, conjugation is a key mechanism for horizontal gene transfer in bacteria ( 1 ). (
  • The F plasmid contains all the genes required for conjugation (e.g., mediating the contact between donor and recipient cells) and for regulation of DNA mobilization and its unidirectional transfer ( 3 ). (
  • In some cases, F can excise from the chromosome of Hfr, creating an F′ molecule that carries chromosomal genes as well as the conjugation genes ( 5 ). (
  • Many aspects of the mechanism and consequences of conjugation remain unresolved, including the role of the F pilus in DNA transfer during conjugation, the fate of the transferred DNA, the global frequency of the horizontal gene transfer (versus the frequency of inheritance of individual genetic markers), and the pattern of inheritance of donor DNA present in the initial transconjugant cell. (
  • This tool allowed us to quantify the ongoing transfer of DNA during conjugation and to acquire time-lapse movies that follow the fate of the newly acquired DNA in individual cells through any number of cell divisions. (
  • Similar observations in the 1940s and 1950s showed evidence that conjugation and transduction are additional mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer. (
  • The three major mechanisms by which bacteria transfer genes horizontally are conjugation, natural transformation, and transduction. (
  • Conjugation is the most studied mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in the human intestine or otherwise. (
  • 5 - 7 Conjugation is the transfer of DNA fragments that can be very small, up to large chromosomes. (
  • The general order of the events of conjugation is a) cell-to-cell contact, b) mating pair formation, and finally c) transfer of plasmid DNA through a conjugative pilus. (
  • The conjugation frequency was approximately 10 to 50 times greater and occurred immediately, and resulting transconjugants were more stable with ESBL E. coli as the donor cell than with K. pneumoniae , but bla NDM-1 transfer increased with time. (
  • Conjugation occurred in all concentrations, but efficiencies of transfer were consistently low in 0 MIC and 1 MIC, with increased activity both above and below 1 MIC. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer may occur via three main mechanisms: transformation, transduction or conjugation. (
  • Conjugation involves transfer of DNA via sexual pilus and requires cell -to-cell contact. (
  • Type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) are multisubunit cell-envelope-spanning structures, ancestrally related to bacterial conjugation machines, which transfer proteins and nucleoprotein complexes across membranes. (
  • We address this question in the case of horizontal gene transfer processes such as viral transduction and conjugation, which result in the rapid acquisition of new traits in bacteria. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer has been found prevalent in prokaryotes but very rare in eukaryote. (
  • Although prevalent in prokaryotes, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is rarer in multicellular eukaryotes. (
  • Recent estimates indicate that, although occurring at a lower frequency than in prokaryotes, HGT in eukaryotes might be less rare than previously thought [ 9 ], and among metazoans there are now several well-documented cases of the horizontal transfer of single genes or small sets of genes from non-metazoan donors. (
  • Highways of gene sharing in prokaryotes. (
  • This last phenomenon is particularly relevant to the present study, as gene transfers are frequent among prokaryotes. (
  • Analyses of 70 seed plant nad1 exons b and c and intron 2 sequences, including representatives of all angiosperm clades, support that this copy originated from a euasterid and was horizontally transferred to Gnetum . (
  • Many bioinformatical and microbiomic analyses have also been performed to elucidate AMR transfer dynamics. (
  • Genome-wide comparative and phylogenetic analyses show that HGT in animals typically gives rise to tens or hundreds of active 'foreign' genes, largely concerned with metabolism. (
  • Expression analyses of candidate genes of algal and eubacterial origin show that these genes are expressed and developmentally regulated during the life cycle of C. parvum . (
  • Long-branch attraction appears to be misleading parsimony analyses of nuclear small-subunit rDNA data, but model-based methods (maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses) recover a topology that is congruent with the mitochondrial matR gene tree, thus providing compelling evidence for organismal relationships. (
  • Analyses revealed a preference for enzymes encoded by genes gained through horizontal and endosymbiotic transfers to be connected in the metabolic network. (
  • Third, no mechanism of HGT for any of the hundreds of alleged 'foreign genes' they found was either discovered or even suggested. (
  • It is quite amazing that bdelloids are able to recruit foreign genes, which were acquired from remarkably diverse sources, to function in the new host," says MBL's Irina Arkhipova. (
  • Using a dated phylogeny, we estimate an average of 12.8 gains versus 2.0 losses of foreign genes per million years. (
  • Foreign genes were mainly enzymes with various annotated functions that include catabolism of complex polysaccharides and stress responses. (
  • Nearly half of foreign genes were acquired before the divergence of bdelloid families over 60 Mya. (
  • Unlike group I introns, at least one of which appears to have been traded within flowering plants ( 16 ), group II introns in plants have been thought to be strictly vertically inherited ( 17 - 19 ), and the only known horizontal transfer of a group II intron in eukaryotes occurred in haptophytes, marine unicellular flagellates ( 20 ). (
  • The acquisition of genes from an organism other than a direct ancestor, which is called horizontal gene transfer (HGT), is well known in bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes [ 1 - 6 ]. (
  • However, in recent years, more and more instances of horizontal gene transfer have been reported in multicellular eukaryotes, even in humans [ 7 - 12 ]. (
  • The eukaryotes cited above all have "domesticated amidase effectors" ( dae ) genes, all of which are extremely similar to one of the four extant bacterial tae genes. (
  • The phylogenetic trees of 2,257 metabolic enzymes were used to make E/HGT assertions in ten groups of unicellular eukaryotes, revealing the sources and metabolic processes of the transferred genes. (
  • Other "prototype" Nramp genes (intronless, encoding proteins strongly conserved with MntH A and B proteins) identified in invertebrates represent a possible source for transfer of Nramp genes toward opportunistic bacteria. (
  • The major problem with claiming that these alleged HGT genes are imported or 'foreign' (i.e., transferred into the genome from some other creature), is that many of them encode important enzymatic proteins and are key parts of the interconnected gene networks and complex biochemical pathways that are essential to the very life of the organism. (
  • To gain insight into the frequency of HGT in Vibrionaceae and its possible impact on speciation, we assessed the incidence of interspecies transfer of the lux genes ( luxCDABEG ), which encode proteins involved in luminescence, a distinctive phenotype. (
  • Many of the inserted genes in the GM-crops are under the control of the promoter of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMVP35S) and produce insecticidal proteins. (
  • These proteins are costly, rendering populations of cooperators vulnerable to exploitation by nonproducing cheaters arising by gene loss or migration. (
  • One plasmid codes for genes that allow the pathogens to create toxins, the other codes for proteins that help it evade the immune system by living inside the white blood cells that kill and digest bacteria. (
  • Genes encoding proteins that are involved in DNA uptake and transformation, as well as virulence, are upregulated. (
  • Methods based on concatenated informational proteins and methods based on character cladistics led to different conclusions regarding the position of Aquificales because this lineage has undergone many horizontal gene transfers. (
  • Prof. Hans-Hinrich Kaatz from the University of Jena, is reported to have new evidence, as yet unpublished, that genes engineered into transgenic plants have transferred via pollen to bacteria and yeasts living in the gut of bee larvae(1). (
  • Distinct types of rRNA operons exist in the genome of the actinomycete Thermomonspora chromogena and evidence for horizontal gene transfer of an entire rRNA operon. (
  • A. C. Martiny, M. L. Coleman, and S. W. Chisholm, "Phosphate acquisition genes in Prochlorococcus ecotypes: evidence for genome-wide adaptation," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 103, no. 33, pp. 12552-12557, 2006. (
  • Genes carrying PKS and NRPS domains were identified in clusters on the CDC and evidence supporting the origin of the CDC through horizontal transfer from an unrelated fungus was found. (
  • Conclusions: We provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that the CDC in A. arborescens was acquired through horizontal transfer, likely from an unrelated fungus. (
  • Not quite, according to scientists from the Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), who have uncovered evidence of "massive" horizontal gene transfer in the animal known as the bdelloid rotifer. (
  • The authors document several lines of evidence to support their conclusion that dae genes in the lineage encompassing ticks and mites are functional and contributing to fitness. (
  • Of key importance, the authors show that decreasing expression of the dae2 gene in I. scapularis ticks is associated with higher loads of B. burgdorferi , suggesting, in conjunction with other evidence, that the Dae2 protein is used by the tick to control the load of spirochetes. (
  • What is of special note in the transfers of both cysteine synthase and amidase genes is that, unlike in some other cases, the evidence supports the inference that these transferred genes actually benefit their new hosts. (
  • Gene transfer, either intracellular from an endosymbiont/donor organelle or horizontal from another organism, can provide evidence of a previous endosymbiotic relationship and/or alter the genetic repertoire of the host organism. (
  • Here we provide molecular phylogenetic evidence using DNA sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes for representatives of all genera in Rafflesiales. (
  • Instead, evidence for a large Horizontal Gene Transfer between Aquificales and epsilon-Proteobacteria was found. (
  • Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these globin genes were independently acquired via horizontal gene transfer from some ancestral bacteria. (
  • Several selective barriers - factors that impact the fitness effect of the transferred gene - have been suggested to impede the likelihood of horizontal transmission, however experimental evidence is scarce. (
  • While horizontal gene transfer has been known in bacteria for a while and is strongly supported by evidence, finding horizontal gene transfer in plants is a more recent development. (
  • We describe the reasons why the newly recognized process of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) forces evolutionists who study classification and microbiology to go beyond the classical Darwinian framework. (
  • Transduction involves transfer of DNA from one bacterium into another via bacteriophages. (
  • We also explored the mechanisms behind this phenomenon and demonstrate that nanoalumina is able to induce oxidative stress, damage bacterial cell membranes, enhance the expression of mating pair formation genes and DNA transfer and replication genes, and depress the expression of global regulatory genes that regulate the conjugative transfer of RP4. (
  • The goal of this Research Topic is to deepen our understanding of the scope and dynamics of AMR dissemination in different microbiomes, the role of different horizontal gene transfer processes in AMR dissemination, the mobile genetic elements involved in AMR dissemination, the environmental factors/substances that impact the dissemination of AMR, and the cellular regulatory mechanisms that impact AMR dissemination. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer processes for AMR dissemination and the regulatory mechanisms for AMR dissemination. (
  • Other factors favoring spread of resistant infections include antibiotic exposure and subsequent selection followed by the innate ability for gene transfer through a variety of different mechanisms. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer impacts hundreds of human genes and this study provided insight into potential mechanisms of HGT in the human genome. (
  • Since his discovery, other mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer have been discovered. (
  • In mammals, genes are quite complex, and on average only about 10% of the entire gene sequence actually codes for protein, the rest contains a large diversity of regulatory sequences that determine how the gene is to function and its various types of products. (
  • It has also been demonstrated that the CaMV-P35S promoter sequence can convert an adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoter into a globally active promoter. (
  • Analysis of the results revealed that: 1) ingested fragments from the CaMV-35S promoter incorporated into blood, liver, and brain tissues of experimental rats, 2) The total mean of transfer of GM target sequences increased significantly by increasing the feeding durations, and 3) The affinity of different transgenic fragments from the ingested GM-diet, to be incorporated into the different tissues of rats varied from one target sequence to the other. (
  • This amino acid sequence motif facilitates the process by which a protein is transferred from the intracellular space to the extracellular space. (
  • The uncultured brown-pigmented GSB was 99.7% identical in the 16S rRNA gene sequence to its green-pigmented cultured counterpart Chlorobium luteolum DSM 273T. (
  • Do orthologous gene phylogenies really support tree-thinking? (
  • For instance, the conflicting phylogenies can be the result of events not accounted for by the model, such as unrecognized paralogy due to duplication followed by gene losses. (
  • We mated Dam methylation-proficient donor (Hfr or F′) cells with methylation-deficient recipient cells, producing the SeqA-YFP (yellow fluorescent protein) fusion protein, which enabled us to specifically and permanently label only the transferred DNA. (
  • The idea was pooh-poohed when first proposed more than 50 years ago, but the advent of drug-resistant bacteria and other discoveries, including the identification of a specialized protein that bacteria use to swap genes, has recently led to wide acceptance of the theory. (
  • A GFP-Km (Green fluorescent protein-kanamycin) cassette tagged HGT recipient Acinetobacter strain ADPWH67 with the salicylate hydroxylase gene (salA) disrupted was introduced to slurries containing either sterile or non-sterile soil. (
  • In contrast, dosage sensitivity, gene length, and the intrinsic protein disorder significantly impact the likelihood of a successful horizontal transfer. (
  • It's not yet clear why there are fewer types of microbes in urban people' guts or why they favor horizontal gene transfer more often. (
  • Bacteria acquire novel DNA through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), a process that enables an organism to rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions, provides a competitive edge and potentially alters its relationship with its host. (
  • First, they find that the dae genes in ticks and mites and in mollusks have ratios of non-synonymous to synonymous (dN/dS) mutations that are indicative of purifying selection, i.e. selection against codon changes implying a useful function of the current nucleotide sequences. (
  • The German outbreak strain is a new strain which has acquired specific gene sequences that have a role in pathogenicity, causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) . (
  • The transfer of DNA among pathogens means that once harmless microbes can acquire properties that allow them to cause problems for the host. (
  • Also it should be noted that other types of pathogens such as viruses can and do engage in horizontal gene transfer. (
  • Most thinking in genetics has focused on vertical transfer, but there is a growing awareness that horizontal gene transfer is a significant phenomenon. (
  • The bottom line of it is, long before GM crops existed, we knew that bacteria swap genes like crazy, and rates of gene moment were the, and still are, easy to detect with the right methods. (
  • Bacteria swap genes in everybody's gut whether there is GM food there or not. (
  • Chromosomal genes of the Hfr bacterium can be mobilized and transferred to a recipient. (
  • In a new discovery that increases our understanding of gene transfer, a research team centered at University of Tsukuba has studied a gene in marine invertebrates called ascidians originally came from a common bacterium. (
  • 1 The Wolbachia bacterium is able to do this extraordinary feat by targeting the cells of reproductive organs so that the transferred DNA is literally inherited in the host. (
  • and (iv) a strain of the luminous bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis was found to be merodiploid for the lux genes, and the second set of lux genes was closely related to the lux genes of the lux - rib 2 operon of P. leiognathi . (
  • When the clc genes were transferred into an appropriate recipient bacterium such as Pseudomonas putida F1, a new metabolic pathway for chlorobenzene degradation was formed by complementation which could be selected for by the addition of mono- or 1,4-dichlorobenzene (CB). (
  • Because of their complementary approaches-and often non-overlapping sets of HGT candidates-combining predictions from parametric and phylogenetic methods can yield a more comprehensive set of HGT candidate genes. (
  • T4SSs are usually encoded by multiple genes organized into a single functional unit. (
  • We mimicked HGT by transferring genes from S. Typhimurium to an E. coli recipient to determine the DFE and test whether selective barriers - functional category, number of PPI, GC content, codon usage, and dosage sensitivity - affect the likelihood of transfer. (
  • The team has revealed the likely mechanism by which this gene ended up being expressed in a functionally important and tissue-specific way. (
  • This is actually one of the few clearly documented cases of horizontal gene transfer showing that a specific type of parasite-host relationship is the mechanism for the foreign DNA importation to occur and be heritable. (
  • 2013) found that meal-derived DNA fragments which are large enough to carry complete genes can avoid the total degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, and through an unknown mechanism enter the human circulation system. (
  • The most well-known mechanism of horizontal gene transfer is performed by bacteria. (
  • Microorganisms appear to be most affected by HGT, but even in microbes only about 2% of core genes are transferred laterally. (
  • Professor Bansal is leading a research project, recently funded by the NSF, to develop new computational methods for studying Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in microbes. (
  • Conjugational DNA transfer is driven by the F plasmid unidirectionally from an F + donor cell to an F - recipient cell. (
  • DNA is transferred from the donor to the recipient in single-stranded form and converted to duplex DNA by the synthesis of the complementary strand in the recipient cell. (
  • Once the conjugational transfer ceases, double-stranded donor DNA is either circularized (in the case of F′ transfer) or, in the case of Hfr transfer, incorporated into the recipient chromosome by RecA-dependent homologous recombination or degraded by RecBCD exonuclease ( 3 , 6 ). (
  • To address these questions, we have developed an experimental system that enables us to distinguish the transferred donor DNA from both donor and recipient DNA, and to visualize DNA transfer and recombination by means of fluorescence microscopy in real time, at the level of individual living cells. (
  • The results indicate that horizontal transfer of the lux genes in nature is rare and that horizontal acquisition of the lux genes apparently has not contributed to speciation in recipient taxa. (
  • Plasmid-mediated HGT of β-lactamase genes to an azide-resistant recipient E. coli strain occurred when the donor and recipient cells were mixed together on stainless steel and in suspension but not on copper surfaces. (
  • Analysis of this model indicates that HGT can prevent the operation of Muller's ratchet even when the source of transferred genes is eDNA that comes from dead cells and on average carries more deleterious mutations than the DNA of recipient live cells. (
  • Cryptosporidium is the recipient of a large number of transferred genes, many of which are not shared by other apicomplexan parasites. (
  • Under optimized conditions with direct donor-recipient filter matings, very low transfer frequencies were observed (approximately 3.5 × 10 −8 per donor per 24 h). (
  • To date, we have little knowledge of the DFE for newly transferred genes, or of the factors that determine those fitness effects, especially following expression in the recipient cell. (
  • The virion containing these genes then transfers them to a recipient cell. (
  • As in transformation, once the DNA fragment has been injected, it must be incorporated into the recipient cell's chromosome to preserve the transferred genes. (
  • Horizontal gene transfer appears to be influencing only some taxa and some mitochondrial genes, thus indicating that the process is acting at the single gene (not whole genome) level. (
  • High levels of endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) accompanied the establishment of plastids and mitochondria, and more recent events have allowed further acquisition of bacterial genes. (
  • Molecular clock dating, using calibrations provided by gnetalean macrofossils, suggests an age of 5 to 2 million years for the Asian clade that received the horizontal transfer. (
  • The genes for bacterial light production, luxCDABEG , are present in bacteria as a conserved, contiguous, and coordinately expressed set of genes, the lux operon. (
  • This led us to suggest that the operon might have been acquired by the bacilli through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). (
  • Members of the PS-clade of cyanobacteria contain a proteobacterial form 1A RubisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) that was acquired by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of a carboxysomal operon. (
  • Gene content and order in the carboxysomal operon correlates well with the RubisCO phylogeny demonstrating that the complete carboxysomal operon was acquired by the common ancestor of the Paulinella chromatophore and the PS-clade through HGT. (
  • The carboxysomal operon shows a significantly elevated AT content in Paulinella , which in the rbcL gene is confined to third codon positions. (
  • The successful integration and expression of the transferred genes in this genome has changed the genetic and metabolic repertoire of the parasite. (
  • If genes encoding metabolic enzymes are horizontally transferred and are advantageous, they are likely to become fixed. (
  • Nanoalumina can promote the conjugative transfer of the RP4 plasmid from Escherichia coli to Salmonella spp. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine the fitness effects of orthologous genes transferred from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to Escherichia coli to identify the selective barriers using highly precise experimental measurements. (
  • Here we conduct a systematic experimental test of the barriers to HGT by transferring and expressing orthologs from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to Escherichia coli , and measuring their fitness effects. (
  • We have identified 31 genes of likely plastid/endosymbiont (n = 7) or prokaryotic (n = 24) origin using a phylogenomic approach. (
  • Identification of horizontal gene transfer and recombination of PsaA gene in streptococcus mitis group. (
  • The subunit of the flagellar filament of C. jejuni is encoded by two tandem genes, flaA and flaB, which are highly similar and therefore subject to recombination. (
  • Typically, this process affects genes involved in DNA repair and recombination in early association stages, further increasing the mutation rate and preventing genetic exchange by homologous recombination. (
  • Recently plant-to-plant horizontal gene transfer has become much more popular as an explanation for genetic similarity in plant mitochondrial DNA. (
  • Similarly, the transferred segments need to exhibit the donor's signature and to be significantly different from the recipient's. (
  • Overlapping manually curated, secondary metabolite gene clusters (SMGCs) with HTGCs found that 9 of the 33 A. fumigatus SMGCs and 31 of the 65 A. nidulans SMGCs share genes with HTGCs, and that HTGs are significantly enriched in SMGCs. (
  • The Shimodaira-Hasegawa test was used to assess whether phylogenetically anomalous gene placements suggestive of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) were significantly favored over vertical transmission. (
  • Among these genes, two phylogenetic hypotheses were found to be significantly more likely than the others: the most likely hypothesis placed Aquificales as a neighbour to Thermotogales, and the second one with epsilon-Proteobacteria. (
  • These transfers are significantly enriched in plant-associated fungi. (