Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Embryoid Bodies: Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Gene Targeting: The integration of exogenous DNA into the genome of an organism at sites where its expression can be suitably controlled. This integration occurs as a result of homologous recombination.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Totipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cell SeparationMesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Mice, Inbred C57BLGenetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Microdissection: The performance of dissections with the aid of a microscope.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigens: Cell-surface molecules that exhibit lineage-restricted patterns of expression during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. The antigens are useful markers in the identification of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Feeder Cells: Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4: A bone morphogenetic protein that is a potent inducer of bone formation. It also functions as a regulator of MESODERM formation during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Laser Capture Microdissection: Techniques using a laser to cut away and harvest a specific cell or cluster of cells from a tissue section while viewing it under the microscope.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Activins: Activins are produced in the pituitary, gonads, and other tissues. By acting locally, they stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and have diverse effects on cell differentiation and embryonic development. Activins are glycoproteins that are hetero- or homodimers of INHIBIN-BETA SUBUNITS.Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Cloning, Organism: The formation of one or more genetically identical organisms derived by vegetative reproduction from a single cell. The source nuclear material can be embryo-derived, fetus-derived, or taken from an adult somatic cell.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Gene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Embryo Culture Techniques: The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.HMGB Proteins: A family of sequence-related proteins similar to HMGB1 PROTEIN that contains specific HMG-BOX DOMAINS.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.SOXF Transcription Factors: A subclass of closely-related SOX transcription factors. Members of this subclass are expressed in VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and may play a role in vasculogenesis.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Neural Plate: The region in the dorsal ECTODERM of a chordate embryo that gives rise to the future CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Tissue in the neural plate is called the neuroectoderm, often used as a synonym of neural plate.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Blastocyst Inner Cell Mass: The cluster of cells inside a blastocyst. These cells give rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper. They are pluripotent EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS capable of yielding many but not all cell types in a developing organism.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Bone Morphogenetic Proteins: Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Nodal Protein: The founding member of the nodal signaling ligand family of proteins. Nodal protein was originally discovered in the region of the mouse embryo primitive streak referred to as HENSEN'S NODE. It is expressed asymmetrically on the left side in chordates and plays a critical role in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during vertebrate development.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Nerve Tissue ProteinsChromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Research Embryo Creation: The creation of embryos specifically for research purposes.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Teratocarcinoma: A malignant neoplasm consisting of elements of teratoma with those of embryonal carcinoma or choriocarcinoma, or both. It occurs most often in the testis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Polycomb-Group Proteins: A family of proteins that play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING. They are best known for silencing HOX GENES and the regulation of EPIGENETIC PROCESSES.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Genes, Developmental: Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Wnt3A Protein: A Wnt protein subtype that plays a role in cell-cell signaling during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and the morphogenesis of the developing NEURAL TUBE.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Fibroblast Growth Factor 4: A HEPARIN binding fibroblast growth factor that may play a role in LIMB BUDS development.Hemangioblasts: Bipotential angio-hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to both HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS and ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.

*Induced pluripotent stem cell

Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are a type of pluripotent stem cell that can be generated ... "Embryonic stem cell-specific microRNAs promote induced pluripotency". Source the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration ... The most well-known type of pluripotent stem cell is the embryonic stem cell. However, since the generation of embryonic stem ... Induced pluripotent stem cells are similar to natural pluripotent stem cells, such as embryonic stem (ES) cells, in many ...

*Neural stem cell

There are two basic types of stem cell: adult stem cells, which are limited in their ability to differentiate, and embryonic ... Neurons are generated in large numbers by NSCs during a specific period of embryonic development through the process of ... both daughter cells are also stem cells. In asymmetric division, a stem cells produces one stem cell and one specialized cell. ... "FoxO3 regulates neural stem cell homeostasis". Cell Stem Cell. 5 (5): 527-539. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2009.09.014. PMC 2775802 . ...

*Adult stem cell

In common with embryonic stem cells, adult stem cells have the ability to differentiate into more than one cell type, but ... In mice, pluripotent stem cells can be directly generated from adult fibroblast cultures. Adult stem cell treatments have been ... Consequently, adult stem therapies require a stem cell source of the specific lineage needed, and harvesting and/or culturing ... such as mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, etc.). A great deal of adult stem cell ...

*Stem cell

In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of ... Embryonic cell lines and autologous embryonic stem cells generated through somatic cell nuclear transfer or dedifferentiation ... Pluripotency in certain stem cells could also make it difficult to obtain a specific cell type. It is also difficult to obtain ... mesenchymal stem cell, adipose-derived stem cell, endothelial stem cell, dental pulp stem cell, etc.). Muse cells (multi- ...

*Endogenous cardiac stem cell

... capable of generating the 3 major cell types of the myocardium: myocytes, smooth muscle and endothelial vascular cells. They ... Endogenous cardiac stem cells (eCSCs) are tissue-specific stem progenitor cells harboured within the adult mammalian heart. ... have been employed to identify and characterize these cells in the embryonic and adult life. eCSCs are clonogenic, self- ... Adult cardiac stem cells are multipotent and support myocardial regeneration. Cell, 2003; 114:763-776 Messina E, De Angelis L, ...

*P19 cell

Retinoic acid can induce not only P19 cells but also other progenitor cells or embryonic stem cells to differentiation. Since ... the drug specific differentiation is not due to selection but induction of cells. Mutants of P19 cells were further generated ... Using doses between 1 μM to 3 μM of RA can generate neurons as the most abundant cell type. Neurons under this treatment ... These stem cells were named embryonal carcinoma P19 cells. These derived P19 cells grew rapidly without feeder cells and were ...

*Bryant Villeponteau

Stem cell numbers and/or function decline with age. Many stem cell scientists hypothesize that stem cells hold the key to ... which live 3 to 4 times longer than wild-type flies. Geron Corporation was the first company to develop human embryonic stem ... so many scientists and practitioners focused instead on adult stem cells, which do not typically generate tumors. In 2008, ... Extensive work at Genescient showed definitively that the formulation can double maximum Drosophila life span under specific ...

*Epigenetics in stem-cell differentiation

... cells. Embryonic stem cells exhibit dramatic and complex alterations to both global and site-specific chromatin structures. Lee ... In order to analyze the process of HDAC knockout mouse in detail, the knockout mice embryonic stem cells were used to generate ... including cancer as well as congenital diseases such as pseudohypoparathyroidism type IA, Beckwith-Wiedemann, Prader-Willi and ... In embryonic stem cells, DNMT1 depletion within the undifferentiated progenitor cell compartment led to cell cycle arrest, ...

*Somatic cell nuclear transfer

June 2005). "Patient-specific embryonic stem cells derived from human SCNT blastocysts". Science. 308 (5729): 1777-83. doi: ... Another application of SCNT stem cell research is using the patient specific stem cell lines to generate tissues or even organs ... as stem cells are defined as having the ability to differentiate into any cell type. SCNT stem cells do not pose such a problem ... 1], Nature Stem Cell Blog. [2], The Scientist 19 June 2007 Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Using Adult Cells Cell Stem Cell ...

*Progenitor cell

... like a stem cell, has a tendency to differentiate into a specific type of cell, but is already more specific than a stem cell ... Before embryonic day 40 (E40), progenitor cells generate other progenitor cells; after that period, progenitor cells produce ... Bone marrow stromal cells, basal cell of epidermis have 10% of progenitor cell, although they are often classed as stem cells ... Induced progenitor stem cells Endothelial progenitor cell Seaberg, R. M.; Van Der Kooy, D. (2003). "Stem and progenitor cells: ...

*Cancer stem cell

Stem-like tumor cells have been identified using cell surface markers including CD133, SSEA-1 (stage-specific embryonic antigen ... CSCs may generate tumors through the stem cell processes of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell types. Such ... They examined cancer stem cell plasticity in which cancer stem cells can transition between non-cancer stem cells (Non-CSC) and ... "Critical appraisal of the side population assay in stem cell and cancer stem cell research". Cell stem cell. 8 (2): 136-47. doi ...

*Endothelial stem cell

Endothelial stem cells (ESCs) are one of three types of stem cells found in bone marrow. They are multipotent, which describes ... This can occur "in vitro" in embryoid bodies (EB) derived from embryonic stem cells; this process in EB is similar to "in vivo ... the intermediate progenitor cell cannot always generate functional ECs. This is because some of the differentiated cells may ... A study showed that ectopic expression of Prox-1 in blood vascular ECs (BECs) induced one-third of LEC specific gene expression ...

*Stemcell Technologies

Human Embryonic Stem Cells - Overview mTeSR™1 & TeSR™2 - Embryonic Stem Cell Culture Media , STEMCELL Technologies MyeloCult™ ... 400 For Standardized Embryonic Stem Cell And Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research AggreWell™ - Generate Embryoid Bodies from ... EasySep is a column-free immunomagnetic system for isolating immune cells from a variety of species and sample types. Select ... produce and distribute products specific to a given research field. STEMCELL has helped several scientific technologies born in ...

*ERG (gene)

Homozygous Mld2 is embryonic lethal at day 13.5. Adult mice heterozygous for the Mld2 mutation have hematopoietic stem cell ... types of white blood cells). Therefore, ERG may act as a regulator of differentiation of early hematopoietic cells. The Mld2 ... ERG is a member of the ETS (erythroblast transformation-specific) family of transcription factors. The ERG gene encodes for a ... Duterque-Coquillaud M, Niel C, Plaza S, Stehelin D (Jul 1993). "New human erg isoforms generated by alternative splicing are ...

*Angiocrine growth factors

Endothelial cells generated from mouse embryonic stem cells were functional, transplantable and responsive to ... "Molecular Signatures of Tissue-Specific Microvascular Endothelial Cell Heterogeneity in Organ Maintenance and Regeneration". ... become educated by the tissue and acquire the characteristic phenotype of that organ type's endothelials. Such cells were ... They could be derived from the patient's embryonic pluripotent stem cells as well as by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). ...

*Dental pulp stem cells

Scientists have identified the mesenchymal type of stem cell inside dental pulp. This particular type of stem cell has the ... and Characterization of a Population of Immature Dental Pulp Stem Cells Expressing OCT-4 and Other Embryonic Stem Cell Markers ... Through the addition of tissue-specific cytokines, differentiated cells were obtained in vitro from these cells, not only of ... Neuronal to generate nerve and brain tissue Myocytes to repair muscle Osteocytes to generate bone Chondrocytes to generate ...

*Ganglion mother cell

2010). Proliferative cell types in embryonic lineages of the central complex of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria. Cell And ... Each OL is generated from three neuroepithelia called LPC(laminar precursor cells), OPC(outer proliferation center, and IPC( ... At the end of embryonic development neuroblasts become quiescent, but re-enter their cell cycles during later specific larval ... In Drosophila, each neural stem cell has been identified and categorized according to their location. Many neuroblasts, but not ...

*Embryonic stem cell

... while embryonic stem cells can generate all cell types in the body, adult stem cells are multipotent and can produce only a ... The main strategy to enhance the safety of ESC for potential clinical use is to differentiate the ESC into specific cell types ... Embryonic stem cells (ES cells) are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, an early-stage pre ... Embryoid body Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight Committees Fetal tissue implant Stem cell controversy Induced stem cells ...

*Neuroepithelial cell

... by combining neurons that developed from embryonic stem cells with glial cells that were also derived from embryonic stem cells ... These neural Stem cells differentiate further into multiple types of cells, like neurons, astrocytes and other glial cells. ... Neuroepithelial cells undergo mitosis generating more neuroepithelial cells, radial glial cells or progenitor cells, the latter ... They appear during embryonic development of the neural tube as well as in adult neurogenesis in specific areas of the central ...

*Induced stem cells

The similar network also controls embryonic stem cell self-renewal but is associated with distinct embryonic stem cell-specific ... A variety of nontumorigenic stem cells display the ability to generate multiple cell types. For instance, multilineage- ... "Small Molecule-Mediated TGF-β Type II Receptor Degradation Promotes Cardiomyogenesis in Embryonic Stem Cells". Cell Stem Cell. ... Induced stem cells (iSC) are stem cells derived from somatic, reproductive, pluripotent or other cell types by deliberate ...

*EUCOMM

Mouse Mutagenesis Program or EUCOMM is an EU-funded program to generate a library of mutant mouse embryonic stem cells for ... Each stem cell contains one mutant gene copy and one 'wild-type' (normal) gene copy. The entire library is intended to mutate ... at a specific time-point or tissue-type in mutant mice derived from the mutant ES Cells, by appropriate breeding to other ... The EUCOMM program is funded by the European Union sixth R&D programme to make a library of mutant mouse embryonic stem cell ...

*Shinya Yamanaka

Transcription factors required for inducing pluripotency in different cell types have been identified (e.g. neural stem cells ... In 2006, he and his team generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from adult mouse fibroblasts. iPS cells closely ... to act as a source of cell replacement. The fact that differentiated cell types had specific patterns of proteins suggested ... "Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mouse Embryonic and Adult Fibroblast Cultures by Defined Factors". Cell. 126 (4): 663- ...

*Stem-cell therapy

... a specific type or all), however other types of adult stem cells may be used, such as adipose-derived stem cells. Adult stem ... The use of embryonic stem cells has also been applied to tendon repair. The embryonic stem cells were shown to have a better ... Fully mature human red blood cells may be generated ex vivo by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are precursors of red ... Fetal tissue implant Human Stem Cells Institute Induced pluripotent stem cell Induced stem cells Ian Murnaghan for Explore Stem ...

*Lorenz Studer

... the directed differentiation of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells and parthenogenetic stem cells into specific neuron types ... "Differentiation of embryonic stem cell lines generated from adult somatic cells by nuclear transfer." Science 292, no. 5517 ( ... "Isolation and directed differentiation of neural crest stem cells derived from human embryonic stem cells." Nature ... Over the years, he has developed a variety of novel cell engineering strategies for developing specific neural cell types in ...

*New York Stem Cell Foundation

... including studies that involve embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, and somatic cell nuclear transfer. As of ... which may thereafter be reprogrammed into other cell types (e.g. heart cells, liver cells, and brain cells). These cells ... the cells generated through this somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) method could replace damaged or diseased cells without ... including insulin-producing beta cells. This is an important advance in the development of patient-specific stem cells that ...

*Senescence

On mitosis the debris is not evenly divided between the new cells. Instead it passes to one of the cells leaving the other cell ... While there may be some validity to the idea that for various types of specific damage detailed below that are by-products of ... Stem Cells. 35 (1): 207-221. doi:10.1002/stem.2452. PMID 27350449. Han J, Mistriotis P, Lei P, Wang D, Liu S, Zhao R, Andreadis ... Senescent cells affect tumour suppression, wound healing and possibly embryonic/placental development and a pathological role ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Non-cell autonomous cues for enhanced functionality of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes via maturation of sarcolemmal and mitochondrial K ATP channels. AU - Keung, Wendy. AU - Ren, Lihuan. AU - Sen Li, Li. AU - Wong, Andy On Tik. AU - Chopra, Anant. AU - Kong, Chi Wing. AU - Tomaselli, Gordon F.. AU - Chen, Christopher S.. AU - Li, Ronald A.. PY - 2016/9/28. Y1 - 2016/9/28. N2 - Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a potential unlimited ex vivo source of ventricular (V) cardiomyocytes (CMs), but hESC-VCMs and their engineered tissues display immature traits. In adult VCMs, sarcolemmal (sarc) and mitochondrial (mito) ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP) channels play crucial roles in excitability and cardioprotection. In this study, we aim to investigate the biological roles and use of sarcK ATP and mitoK ATP in hESC-VCM. We showed that SarcI K, ATP in single ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transplantation of expanded bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) improves left ventricular function and remodelling after myocardial infarction. AU - Zuba-Surma, Ewa K.. AU - Guo, Yiru. AU - Taher, Hisham. AU - Sanganalmath, Santosh K.. AU - Hunt, Greg. AU - Vincent, Robert J.. AU - Kucia, Magda. AU - Abdel-Latif, Ahmed. AU - Tang, Xian Liang. AU - Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.. AU - Dawn, Buddhadeb. AU - Bolli, Roberto. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Adult bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) exhibit a Sca-1+/Lin-/CD45- phenotype and can differentiate into various cell types, including cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. We have previously reported that transplantation of a small number (1 × 106) of freshly isolated, non-expanded VSEL-SCs into infarcted mouse hearts resulted in improved ...
Movahednia, Mohammad Mehdi Ehdi, Kidwai, Fahad Karim Arim, Zou, Yu, Tong, Huei Jinn, Liu, Xiaochen, Islam, Intekhab, Toh, Wei Seong, Raghunath, Michael, Cao, Tong (2015). Differential effects of the extracellular microenvironment on human embryonic stem cell differentiation into keratinocytes and their subsequent replicative life span. Tissue Engineering - Part A 21 (42223) : 1432-1443. [email protected] Repository. https://doi.org/10.1089/ten.tea. ...
0010] Other researchers have also generated RBCs from ESCs; however, these methods either used non-human/non-primate stem cells or used an embryoid body-dependent method (i.e. no direct differentiation). These methods, however, produced a mixture of erythroid and myeloid cells. See Carotta S, et al., "Directed differentiation and mass cultivation of pure erythroid progenitors from mouse embryonic stem cells," Blood 104:1873-1880 (2004); Chadwick K, et al., "Cytokines and BMP-4 promote hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells," Blood 102:906-915 (2003); Kaufman D, et al., "Hematopoietic colony-forming cells derived from human embryonic stem cells," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:10716-10721 (2001); Ng, E, et al., "Forced aggregation of defined numbers of ...
Human embryonic stemcells (hESCs) can serve as a potentially limitless source of cells that may enable regeneration of diseased tissue and organs. Here we investigate the use of human embryonic stemcell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in promoting recovery from cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury in a mouse model. Using microarrays, we have described the hESC-CM transcriptome within the spectrum of changes that occur between undifferentiated hESCs and fetal heart cells. The hESC-CMs expressed cardiomyocyte genes at levels similar to those found in 20-week fetal heart cells, making this population a good source of potential replacement cells in vivo. Echocardiographic studies showed significant improvement in heart function by 8 weeks after transplantation. Finally, we demonstrate long-term engraftment of hESC-CMs by using molecular imaging ...
In spite of serious cardiotoxicity side-effects, doxorubicin is frequently used for treatment of several types of cancers. Isolated human adult cardiomyocytes could be the best model for assessing drug-induced cardiotoxicity, while harvesting mature cardiomyocytes is restricted by some limitations such as biopsy size, cell numbers, viability, proliferative capacity and their disability to be passaged as a cell line. In the present study, human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes applied as a model for evaluation of doxorubicin cardiotoxicity. In this process, cardiogenic differentiated hESCs spheroids were exposed to different concentrations of doxorubicin for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The viability of spheroids as well as their morphology was assessed as important criterion of cardiotoxicity. Findings of the study showed that the viability of spheroids was significantly reduced at doses of 3 and 30 ...
A purified preparation of primate embryonic stem cells is disclosed. This preparation is characterized by the following cell surface markers: SSEA-1 (−); SSEA-4 (+); TRA-1-60 (+); TRA-1-81 (+); and alkaline phosphatase (+). In a particularly advantageous embodiment, the cells of the preparation are human embryonic stem cells, have normal karyotypes, and continue to proliferate in an undifferentiated state after continuous culture for eleven months. The embryonic stem cell lines also retain the ability, throughout the culture, to form trophoblast and to differentiate into all tissues derived from all three embryonic germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm). A method for isolating a primate embryonic stem cell line is also disclosed.
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) derived from the inner cell mass of pre-implantation human blastocysts have two unique properties-indefinite self-renewal in culture and pluripotency, or the ability to differentiate into tissues from all three embryonic germ layers. As a result, hESC are a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine applications and have enormous potential in modeling human embryonic development. To realize this potential, a deeper understanding of the basic biology of hESC, especially of the genes that regulate self-renewal and differentiation, will be necessary. ❧ The focus of our study is on Oct4, a POU domain transcription factor and critical regulator of pluripotency whose levels are precisely controlled in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). In contrast to the single murine Oct4 isoform, which is better ...
... ,R&D Systems adds two new Stem Cell Antibody Panels to its expanding line of stem cell products. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Marker Antibody Panel (Catalog # SC008) contains the antibodies against: alkaline phosphatase, Nanog, Oct-3/4, SSEA-1 and SSEA-4. The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Marker Antibo,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
The mitochondrion is emerging as a key organelle in stem cell biology, acting as a regulator of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation. In this study we sought to understand the effect of mitochondrial complex III inhibition during neuronal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. When exposed to antimycin A, a specific complex III inhibitor, embryonic stem cells failed to differentiate into dopaminergic neurons, maintaining high Oct4 levels even when subjected to a specific differentiation protocol. Mitochondrial inhibition affected distinct populations of cells present in culture, inducing cell loss in differentiated cells, but not inducing apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells. A reduction in ...
Cites Embryonic Stem Cell Research at UGA As Proof That Its Possible to Pursue Hope of Science Without Crossing Moral Line. WASHINGTON - Citing the stem cell research being conducted at the University of Georgia, U.S. Senator Johnny Isakson (R-Ga.) today said there is a way to conduct embryonic stem cell research without destroying human life.. "As we go though this difficult, tenuous debate over a subject of immense importance to the American people, lets look for ways that we can be respectful of human life and open the doors for further development in science in embryonic stem cells. I would submit there are ways to do both," Isakson said in a speech on the Senate floor.. Senate Majority Leader Bill Frist is asking the Senate to vote Tuesday on three stem cell bills: one that bans fetal ...
Geron stops human embryonic stem cell tests Geron Corp., the company that started the first U.S.-approved trial of human embryonic stem cells, fell the most in more than 11 years after research costs and regulatory complexities caused it to end the program. The first trial testing Gerons embryonic stem-cell therapy in spinal-cord injury patients began in April. In October, it reported that none of the four patients in the trial had experienced negative reactions to the therapy, consisting of 2 million cells injected into their spines at the damaged site.
Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays a central role in regulating stem cell fates. Its exact role in the maintenance of mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs), however, remains undefined. Here, we show that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mouse EpiSCs and human ESCs can promote self-renewal or differentiation, with the self-renewal effect being realized only when β-catenin mediated T-cell factors (TCFs)-dependent transcription activities are blocked. Introduction of a stabilized β-catenin transgene harboring point mutations at the TCF binding site enables mouse EpiSCs and human ESCs to self-renew without exogenous growth factors. By contrast, β-catenin-mediated self-renewal in mouse ESCs requires TCF-binding activity. Moreover, we show that Axin2, but not Axin1, functions to redistribute β-catenin mainly on cell cytoplasm, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiation and Transplantation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes. AU - Basma, Hesham E. AU - Soto-Gutiérrez, Alejandro. AU - Yannam, Govardhana Rao. AU - Liu, Liping. AU - Ito, Ryotaro. AU - Yamamoto, Toshiyuki. AU - Ellis, Ewa. AU - Carson, Steven D. AU - Sato, Shintaro. AU - Chen, Yong. AU - Muirhead, David. AU - Navarro-Álvarez, Nalu. AU - Wong, Ronald J.. AU - Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta. AU - Platt, Jeffrey L.. AU - Mercer, David F. AU - Miller, John D.. AU - Strom, Stephen C.. AU - Kobayashi, Naoya. AU - Fox, Ira J.. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - Background & Aims: The ability to obtain unlimited numbers of human hepatocytes would improve the development of cell-based therapies for liver diseases, facilitate the study of liver biology, and improve the early stages of drug discovery. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, potentially can differentiate into ...
Cell therapies to repair the failing heart could offer great clinical benefit but few studies directly comparing efficacy between cell types have been performed. Here we sought to compare the cardiac repair efficacy of three promising human cell types: bone marrow mononuclear cells (hBMMNC), human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CM) and hESC-derived cardiovascular progenitors (hESC-CVP).. Methods/Results: Myocardial infarction (MI) was performed in athymic nude rats by 60 min ischemia then reperfusion. Baseline echocardiography was performed 4 days after MI before transplantation with 10x10^6 cells into the central infarct region and border zones. Rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: hESC-CVP n=10, hESC-CM n=11, hBMMNC n=11 and non-cardiac cells (control) derived from human ESCs (hNC) n=13. ...
Introduction. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Summary 3. What are stem cells? 3.1 Adult stem cells 3.2 Core blood stem cells 3.3 Embryonic stem cells 4. Potentially of embryonic stem cells 5. UK Stem Cell bank. 6. Controversial Issues 7. Bibliography 1. Introduction This is a report on stem cells and the stem cell bank The aim of this report to overview stem cell research, including stem cell banks and pitched at general readers of non scientific background. 2 Summary This report consists of brief information on what stem cells are and their sources, the UK Stem Cell Bank and ...
Stem cell research has important implications for medicine. The source of stem cells influences their therapeutic potential, with stem cells derived from early-stage embryos remaining the most versatile. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), a source of embryonic stem cells, allows for understandings about disease development and, more importantly, the ability to yield embryonic stem cell lines that are genetically matched to the somatic cell donor. However, SCNT requires women to donate eggs, which involves injection of ovulation-inducing hormones and egg retrieval through laparoscopy or transvaginal needle aspiration. Risks from this procedure are fiercely debated, most notably risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). This review examines risk of OHSS resulting ...
Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are promising candidates to regenerate myocardium as a treatment for heart disease. However, this application is limited because of the inability to prospectively identify a pure population of cardiovascular progenitors (CVPs) that is devoid of residual, undifferentiated cells capable of teratoma formation. Furthermore, the potential of hESC-derived cardiovascular lineage cells to functionally couple to human myocardium remains unknown. The purpose of the current study was to test the hypotheses that (i) CVPs derived from hESCs can be isolated based on a set of distinct surface markers and (ii) they can functionally integrate into the human fetal heart. We screened a large panel of monoclonal antibodies to prospectively identify early cardiovascular precursors that emerge from differentiating hESCs based on the expression of surface markers. We ...
Stem cell Q & A. The scientific community had reason to celebrate when President Barack Obama signed an executive order on March 9 removing the previous administrations restrictions on human embryonic stem cell research. The order lifted the ban on federal funding for research using embryonic stem cell lines created after August 9, 2001, fulfilling one of Obamas campaign promises.. Investigators at the Massachusetts General Hospital Center for Regenerative Medicine are excited by the possibilities presented by the change, hoping it will foster scientific collaboration, new funding and advances in this burgeoning field.. Human embryonic stem cells have the ability to develop into any tissue in the body. Researchers hope to someday use this capability to repair damage to organs and tissue caused by injury and chronic illness.. ...
The Embryonic Stem Cell Research Oversight (ESCRO) committee was established in response to recommendations included in the National Academies of Science Guidelines for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. Its functions include:
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can proliferate extensively in culture and give rise to progeny of the three germ layers. Several reports suggested that mouse and hESCs may attenuate immune responses. In this study, we focused on the mechanism by which hESCs inhibit T cell responses. Using coculture experiments, we demonstrate that hESCs inhibit cytokine secretion and T cell proliferation in response to potent T cell activators. Furthermore, we show that hESCs downmodulate the TCR-associated CD3-ζ chain. These effects are maintained when hESCs are replaced by their conditioned media and can be restored by the addition of l-arginine to hESC-conditioned media or by treatment of hESCs with a specific arginase inhibitor. Moreover, we show arginase-I expression and activity in hESCs. We further demonstrate that mouse ESCs (mESCs) similarly inhibit T cell activation via ...
Pluripotent stem cells are known to display distinct metabolic phenotypes than their somatic counterparts. While accumulating studies are focused on the roles of glucose and amino acid metabolism in facilitating pluripotency, little is known regarding the role of lipid metabolism in regulation of stem cell activities. Here, we show that fatty acid (FA) synthesis activation is critical for stem cell pluripotency. Our initial observations demonstrated enhanced lipogenesis in pluripotent cells and during cellular reprogramming. Further analysis indicated that de novo FA synthesis controls cellular reprogramming and embryonic stem cell pluripotency through mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, we found that de novo FA synthesis regulated by the lipogenic enzyme ACC1 leads to the enhanced ...
Our previous study demonstrated the direct involvement of the HIF-1α subunit in the promotion of cardiac differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We report the use of cobalt chloride to induce HIF-1α stabilization in human ESCs to promote cardiac differentiation. Treatment of undifferentiated hES2 human ESCs with 50μM cobalt chloride markedly increased protein levels of the HIF-1α subunit, and was associated with increased expression of early cardiac specific transcription factors and cardiotrophic factors including NK2.5, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cardiotrophin-1. When pretreated cells were subjected to cardiac differentiation, a notable increase in the occurrence of beating embryoid bodies and sarcomeric actinin-positive cells was observed, along with increased expression of the cardiac-specific markers, MHC-A, MHC-B, and MLC2V. Electrophysiological study ...
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have large nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios and nucleic acid spectral bands are prominent in their characteristic Raman signatures. Under normal conditions, the major variations in these signatures are due to changes in glycogen content, but how these signatures vary in response to different external conditions is largely unknown. In this study we investigated the influences of temperature variations on hESC Raman signatures. At 32 °C, compared to the 37 °C control condition, cell proliferation rates were markedly reduced and glycogen Raman band intensities were elevated. In addition, at both temperatures, an inverse relationship between cell proliferation rates (i.e., onset of exponential growth phase vs. end of exponential phase) and glycogen Raman band intensities was observed. This relationship suggested a role for glycogen in the energy metabolism of hESC self-renewal. Protein and lipid ...
Nonprofit organizations and philanthropists stepped into a funding void caused by controversies over public funding of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research. Based on interviews of 83 representatives of 53 funders, we examine the motivations and accountability structures of public agencies, corporations, fundraising dependent nonprofit organizations and philanthropic organizations that funded hESC research in three jurisdictions: California, Sweden, and South Korea. While non-traditional forms of funding are essential in the early stages of research advancement, they are unreliable for the long timeframes necessary to advance cell therapies. Such funding sources may enter the field based on high expectations, but may exit just as rapidly based on disappointing rates of progress.. ...
This medium-ACF is a serum-free medium designed for optimal growth of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells under feeder-free conditions. It is a sterile, liquid medium containing essential and non-essential amino acids, vitamins, organic and inorganic compounds, hormones, growth factors and trace minerals. The medium is bicarbonate buffered and has a pH of 7.4 when equilibrated in an incubator with an atmosphere of 5% CO2/ 95% air. This medium-ACF is formulated (quantitatively and qualitatively) to provide a defined and optimally balanced nutritional environment that selectively promotes growth of normal human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro. This medium should be used in conjunction with BD Matrigel™ for feeder-free culture condition ...
The mGlu5 receptor is the only metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype expressed by mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells grown under non-differentiating conditions [Cappuccio, L, Spinanti, P. Porcellini, A., Desiderati, F., De Vita, T., Storto, M., Capobianco, L., Battaglia, G., Nicoletti, F., Melchiorri, D., 2005. Endogenous activation of mGlu5 metabotropic glutamate receptors supports self-renewal of cultured mouse embryonic stem cells. Neuropharmacology 1, 196-205]. We now report that ES cells differentiating into embryoid bodies (EBs) progressively lose mGlu5 receptors and begin to express mGlu4 receptors at both mRNA and proteinc level. A 4-day treatment of EBs with the mGlu4 receptor agonist, L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoate (L-AP4), increased mRNA levels of the mesoderm marker, brachyury and the endoderm marker, H19, and decreased the expression of the transcript for the ...
SAN DIEGO, December 15, 2017 - ViaCyte, Inc., a privately-held regenerative medicine company, today announced that the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) approved a grant of $1.4 million to support the initial development of immune-evasive pluripotent stem cell lines. The focus of the project will be to genetically engineer the Companys CyT49 pluripotent stem cell line. ViaCytes proprietary CyT49 cell line is well characterized and has been used to manufacture cell replacement product candidates that have been reviewed and allowed for use in clinical trials by multiple regulatory authorities.. One of the main challenges in developing an off-the-shelf cell therapy is the potential for immune rejection of implanted cells. Genetic engineering of a pluripotent stem cell line may make it possible to generate ...
Highlights: •Down-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression blocks L1-induced neuronal differentiation of ESCs. •Up-regulating FUT9 and ST3Gal4 expression in L1-ESCs depends on the activation of PLCγ. •L1 promotes ESCs to differentiate into neuron through regulating cell surface glycosylation. -- Abstract: Cell recognition molecule L1 (CD171) plays an important role in neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, neurite outgrowth, myelination, synaptic plasticity and regeneration after injury. Our previous study has demonstrated that overexpressing L1 enhances cell survival and proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) through promoting the expression of FUT9 and ST3Gal4, which upregulates cell surface sialylation and fucosylation. In the present study, we examined whether sialylation and fucosylation are involved in ESC differentiation through L1 signaling. RNA interference ...
As debate begins today on HR 810, the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act, this post from the archives describes how some states have had to find their own solutions for supporting embryonic stem cell research in the face of a ban on federal funding. Hopefully tomorrows vote will make these unnecessary.. (12 May 2006) As the federal government continues to hold on to a restrictive embryonic stem cell research funding scheme-one that prevents the use of federal funds for any research associated with new embryonic stem cell lines-others are having to take up the slack. Chris Gabrieli, a Democrat campaigning to become governor of Massachusetts, laid out his vision for the role of his state in funding the research. The plan calls for $1 billion in research funding (about half for work on stem ...
Pluripotent stem cells such as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) form teratomas when transplanted into immunodeficient mice. As teratomas contain all three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, ectoderm), teratoma formation assay is widely used as an index of pluripotency (Evans and Kaufman, 1981; Hentze et al., 2009; Gropp et al., 2012). On the other hand, teratoma-forming tumorigenicity also represents a major risk factor impeding potential clinical applications of pluripotent stem cells (Miura et al., 2009; Okano et al., 2013). Recently, we reported that iPSCs derived from naked mole-rat lack teratoma-forming tumorigenicity when engrafted into the testes of non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice due to an ES cell-expressed Ras (ERAS) and Alternative reading frame (ARF)-dependent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The DNA Replication Program Is Altered at the FMR1 Locus in Fragile X Embryonic Stem Cells. AU - Gerhardt, Jeannine. AU - Tomishima, Mark J.. AU - Zaninovic, Nikica. AU - Colak, Dilek. AU - Yan, Zi. AU - Zhan, Qiansheng. AU - Rosenwaks, Zev. AU - Jaffrey, Samie R.. AU - Schildkraut, Carl L.. PY - 2014/1/9. Y1 - 2014/1/9. N2 - Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a CGG repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene that appears to occur during oogenesis and during early embryogenesis. One model proposes that repeat instability depends on the replication fork direction through the repeats such that (CNG)n hairpin-like structures form, causing DNA polymerase to stall and slip. Examining DNA replication fork progression on single DNA molecules at the endogenous FMR1 locus revealed that replication forks stall at CGG repeats in human cells. Furthermore, replication profiles of FXS human embryonic stem ...
A purified preparation of primate embryonic stem cells is disclosed. This preparation is characterized by the following cell surface markers: SSEA-1 (-); SSEA-3 (+); SSEA-4 (+); TRA-1-60 (+); TRA-1-81
Enhancers and Super-Enhancers Have an Equivalent Regulatory Role in Embryonic Stem Cells through Regulation of Single or Multiple Genes The authors employed a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion approach to study the function of several enhancer clusters and isolated enhancers in mouse embryonic stem cells. [Genome Res] Abstract Somatic Increase of CCT8 Mimics Proteostasis of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells and Extends C. elegans Lifespan Investigators showed that human pluripotent stem cells exhibit increased assembly of the chaperonin TRiC/CCT complex, a mechanism induced by high levels of specific CCT subunits. [Nat Commun] Full Article , Press Release The Deubiquitinase USP21 Maintains the Stemness of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells via Stabilization of Nanog The ...
Since it was first demonstrated that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) could be derived from mature cells, significant progress has been made in the field of acquisition, characteristics, identification and application of iPS cells. Until now, diverse means have been proven to generate iPS cells successfully in many biological species and more cell types. Meanwhile, researchers continue to target the efficiency of induction. To identify the characteristics of induced pluripotent stem cells and attest to their pluripotency, one must verify the expression of new derived stem cell genes and proteins, doubling times, methylation patterns, teratoma formation, embryoid body formation, viable chimera formation and capacity to differentiate into all cell ...
Field potential duration (FPD) in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs), which can express QT interval in an electrocardiogram, is reported to be a useful tool to predict K{sup +} channel and Ca{sup 2+} channel blocker effects on QT interval. However, there is no report showing that this technique can be used to predict multichannel blocker potential for QT prolongation. The aim of this study is to show that FPD from MEA (Multielectrode array) of hiPS-CMs can detect QT prolongation induced by multichannel blockers. hiPS-CMs were seeded onto MEA and FPD was measured for 2 min every 10 min for 30 min after drug exposure for the vehicle and each drug concentration. I{sub Kr} and I{sub Ks} blockers concentration-dependently prolonged corrected FPD (FPDc), whereas Ca{sup 2+} channel blockers concentration-dependently shortened FPDc. Also, the multichannel blockers Amiodarone, Paroxetine, Terfenadine and Citalopram prolonged FPDc in a concentration ...
Induced pluripotent stem cell technology makes in vitro reprogramming of somatic cells from individuals with various genetic backgrounds possible. By applying this technology, it is possible to produce pluripotent stem cells from biopsy samples of arbitrarily selected individuals with various genetic backgrounds and to subsequently maintain, expand, and stock these cells. From these induced pluripotent stem cells, target cells and tissues can be generated after certain differentiation processes. These target cells/tissues are expected to be useful in regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug screening, toxicology testing, and proof-of-concept studies in drug development. Therefore, the number of publications concerning induced pluripotent stem cells has recently been increasing rapidly, ...
Because of the many ocular diseases that may benefit from genetic alteration, ophthalmology will be embroiled in the controversy over the ethics of stem cell Mar 07, 2012 · Biomedical Research Issues in Genetics. Genetic Engineering and Enhancement; Cloning; Stem Cell Research; Eugenics; In addition to analyzing the … The papers prepared and presented by these external experts were published in a special edition of final contribution to that issue came from Professor Dr. med. Thomas . Reinhard Merkel, Professor of Criminal Law and Philos- ophy of Law at of research on embryonic stem cells ("Forschungsobjekt Embryo", 2002), a.Jul 07, 2009 · Related Material. On March 9, 2009, Policy & Guidelines Archive Policy statements and guidelines on federally funded stem cell research. can i write my thesis in 2 months Embryonic Stem ...
Functional cardiomyocytes can be efficiently derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), which collectively include embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells. This cellular platform presents
Looking for online definition of induced pluripotent stem cell in the Medical Dictionary? induced pluripotent stem cell explanation free. What is induced pluripotent stem cell? Meaning of induced pluripotent stem cell medical term. What does induced pluripotent stem cell mean?
Dissociation culture of STAP stem cells to form colonies. The list of charitable research organizations and their corresponding positions on the life issues posted to our website is neither all pro life nor all anti life; it. Ale bar, 100 m. Ten Problems with Embryonic Stem Cell Research by Kelly Hollowell, Ph? To date, embryonic stem cell research has not produced a single medical treatment, where ethical, adult stem cell research has produced some 67 medical miracles. Previous experience is necessary and the online tests can be done. E Stem Cell Debates: Lessons for Science and Politics. Stem cell research is a focus for hope, activity, discussion and sometimes controversy throughout the world. Participate in Online Experiments Rupert invites you to participate in his ...
Emerging evidence suggests that microRNA (miRNA)-mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation plays an essential role in modulating embryonic stem (ES) cell pluripotency maintenance, differentiation, and reprogramming of somatic cells to an ES cell-like state. Investigations from ES cell-enriched miRNAs, such as mouse miR-290 cluster and human miR-302 cluster, and ES cell-depleted miRNAs such as let-7 family miRNAs, revealed a common theme that miRNAs target diverse cellular processes including cell cycle regulators, signaling pathway effectors, transcription factors, and epigenetic modifiers and shape their protein output. The combinatorial effects downstream of miRNA action allow miRNAs to modulate cell-fate decisions effectively. Furthermore, the transcription and biogenesis of miRNAs are also tightly regulated. Thus, elucidating the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization and multilineage differentiation of embryonic stem cells derived from a buffalo parthenogenetic embryo. AU - Sritanaudomchai, Hathaitip. AU - Pavasuthipaisit, Kanok. AU - Kitiyanant, Yindee. AU - Kupradinun, Piengchai. AU - Mitalipov, Shoukhrat. AU - Kusamran, Thanit. PY - 2007/10/1. Y1 - 2007/10/1. N2 - Embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from mammalian embryos have the ability to form any terminally differentiated cell of the body. We herein describe production of parthenogenetic buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis) blastocysts and subsequent isolation of an ES cell line. Established parthenogenetic ES (PGES) cells exhibited diploid karyotype and high telomerase activity. PGES cells showed remarkable long-term proliferative capacity providing the possibility for unlimited expansion in culture. Furthermore, these ...
Title:The Role of MicroRNAs in the Pancreatic Differentiation of Pluripotent Stem Cells. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Natalie Francis, Melanie Moore, Guy A. Rutter and Chris Burns. Affiliation:Endocrinology Section, Biotherapeutics Department, National Institute of Biological Standards and Control, Blanche Lane, South Mimms, Hertfordshire, EN6 3QG, UK.. Keywords:Differentiation, embryonic stem cells, endoderm, induced pluripotent stem cells, insulin, microRNA, pancreas, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes.. Abstract:The generation of β-cells in vitro is an attractive option for cell therapy treatments for type 1 diabetes and also for the development of more accurate disease models. A number of studies have demonstrated that insulin-expressing cells can be generated by the in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent ...
Abstract Embryonic stem cells, which have the potential to save many lives, must be recovered from aborted fetuses or live embryos. Although tissue from aborted fetuses can be used without moral complicity in the underlying abortion, obtaining stem cells from embryos necessarily kills them, thus raising difficult questions about the use of embryonic human material to save others. This article draws on previous controversies over embryo research and distinctions between intrinsic and symbolic moral status to analyze these issues. It argues that stem cell research with spare embryos produced during infertility treatment, or even embryos created specifically for research or therapeutic purposes, is ethically acceptable and should receive federal funding. ...
0060] The term "cell proliferation control" means a procedure in which cell proliferative capacity is stopped at a desired time, the cell concentration is maintained without significant damage affecting the viability of cells to the cells, and subsequently cell proliferation is restarted at a desired time. In other words, in a method for controlling cell proliferation of the present invention, the proliferation of primate pluripotent stem cells can be inhibited with a maintenance medium for pluripotent stem cells of the present invention, and after a desired period elapsed, the proliferation of primate pluripotent stem cells can be promoted with a culture medium containing glucose. In a method for controlling cell proliferation of the present invention, the growth rate and ...
Missouri vote may point to stem cell future By JOE FEUERHERD. Is embryonic stem cell research a pro-life issue, where protection of human life at its earliest stages is politically akin to such popularly backed measures as requiring parental notification before a teenager can undergo an abortion? Or is it another type of pro-life issue, one that gives the visible medical needs of diabetics, Alzheimer s and Parkinson s disease sufferers priority over fertilized eggs in petri dishes?. Thanks to an upcoming ballot initiative, voters in strongly pro-life Missouri will have a say on the matter.. It s one thing for California s largely liberal voters, despite opposition from Catholic leaders and the state s antiabortion lobby, to approve $3 billion in spending over 10 years on embryonic stem cell research, as they did in November 2004. And state funding for similar programs in the ...
Money talks, said Gene Tarne, author of papers for the Charlotte Lozier Institute that find that the bulk of stem cell funding grants in California and Maryland are moving toward ethical research that doesn t use human embryos.. "The shift looks like a sea change from when state funding strongly favored research from embryonic stem cells over adult stem cells, which are taken from the placenta, umbilical cord and some mature tissues and do not kill human embryos."…. [A] Kansas stem cell research center that, by law, won t use stem cells culled from human embryos also is taking off….. The center… is a visionary move to support science that can actually lead to a lot of new therapies and potentially change the face of medicine, said Dr. Buddhadeb Dawn, director of the center, which is housed at the University of Kansas Medical ...
The debate over funding for stem cell research has been marked by deliberate obfuscation and overblown promises. There is a huge difference between embryonic stem cell research and the other two types of stem cell research. Today, the left wing Los Angeles Times publishes an op-ed by Sigrid Fry-Revere of the Cato Institute which conforms to this pattern of propaganda. While arguing against government funding of stem cell research, the op-ed does nothing to clarify the essential distinction between embryonic stem cell research, the holy grail for cultural leftists anxious to protect the abortion industry, and adult and umbilical stem cell research. ...
We identified differential methylation by tumor histology in a series of pediatric GCTs, with evidence that YSTs exhibit promoter hypermethylation in a large number of cancer-related genes while germinomas and teratomas do not. These CpG loci were not hypermethylated in the normal adjacent tissue from two patients with YSTs, suggesting that methylation patterns also distinguish yolk sac tumor tissue from normal ovary or testis tissue. Four pathways, most notably a human embryonic stem cell pathway, were over-represented among the CpG loci that were hypermethylated in YSTs. A smaller number of CpG loci exhibited significantly different methylation in a comparison of mature and immature teratomas, however these loci were strikingly enriched for genes associated with embryonic stem cell pluripotency and developmental signaling pathways, such as PTEN, PDGF and NF-κB. In addition, immature teratomas were enriched ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - SALL3 expression balance underlies lineage biases in human induced pluripotent stem cell differentiation. AU - Kuroda, Takuya. AU - Yasuda, Satoshi. AU - Tachi, Shiori. AU - Matsuyama, Satoko. AU - Kusakawa, Shinji. AU - Tano, Keiko. AU - Miura, Takumi. AU - Matsuyama, Akifumi. AU - Sato, Yoji. PY - 2019/12/1. Y1 - 2019/12/1. N2 - Clinical applications of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are expected, but hiPSC lines vary in their differentiation propensity. For efficient selection of hiPSC lines suitable for differentiation into desired cell lineages, here we identify SALL3 as a marker to predict differentiation propensity. SALL3 expression in hiPSCs correlates positively with ectoderm differentiation capacity and negatively with mesoderm/endoderm differentiation capacity. Without affecting self-renewal of hiPSCs, SALL3 knockdown inhibits ectoderm differentiation and conversely enhances ...
Limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) are tissue-specific stem cells responsible for renewing the corneal epithelium. Acute trauma or chronic disease affecting LESCs may disrupt corneal epithelial renewal, causing vision threatening and painful ocular surface disorders, collectively referred to as LESC deficiency (LESCD). These disorders cannot be treated with traditional corneal transplantation and therefore alternative cell sources for successful cell-based therapy are needed. LESCs derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are a prospective source for ocular surface reconstruction, yet critical evaluation of these cells is crucial before considering clinical applications. In order to quantitatively evaluate hPSC-derived LESCs, we compared protein expression in native human corneal cells to that in hPSC-derived ...
We report a method for specific capture of an arbitrary subset of genomic targets for single molecule bisulfite sequencing, and for digital quantitation of DNA methylation at a single nucleotide resolution. We used targeted bisulfite sequencing to characterize the changes of DNA methylation during the de-differentiation of human fibroblasts into hybrid stem cells, and into induced pluripotent stem cells. We compared the methylation level of approximately 66,000 CpG sites within 2020 CpG islands on chromosome 12, chromosome 20, and 34 selected regions. A total of 288 differentially methylated regions were identified between fibroblasts and pluripotent cells. Methylation cluster analysis revealed distinct methylation patterns between fibroblasts and pluripotent cells. Furthermore iPS cells are globally more methylated than human embryonic stem ...
The California Legislature mandated the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) in Health and Safety Code Section 125118 to develop a comprehensive set of guidelines, which would fully address the ethical, legal, and social aspects of stem cell research as well as ensure the systematic monitoring and reporting of human stem cell research activity in California that is not fully funded by Proposition 71 money granted through the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM) (Senate Bill 322, Chapter 506, Statutes of 2003; Senate Bill 1260, Chapter 483, Statutes of 2006). To fulfill this intent, a diverse group of 13 national and international specialists were enlisted to serve on a Human Stem Cell Research (HSCR) Advisory Committee established to advise the Department in the development of statewide guidelines for human stem cell research and ...
In addition to its generous endowment, the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at Einstein is supported by external sources, including the NIH and the New York State Empire State Stem Cell (NYSTEM) Board. Created in 2007, NYSTEM provided substantial funding support for stem cell research over the next decade. Notably, Einstein is among the highest-ranked institutions in New York competing for state support and, to date, Einstein has received thus far from NYSTEM over $24M in funding for stem cell research ranking 4th in total funding among all New York Institutions. Funding from NYSTEM supported the creation of the Einstein Comprehensive Pluripotent Stem Cell Center, which consisted of three units: the Human Pluripotent Stem ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Establishment of a Duchenne muscular dystrophy patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cell line carrying a deletion of exons 51-53 of the dystrophin gene (CCMi003-A). AU - Rovina, D.. AU - Castiglioni, E.. AU - Farini, A.. AU - Bellichi, M.. AU - Gervasini, C.. AU - Paganini, S.. AU - Di Segni, M.. AU - Santoro, R.. AU - Torrente, Y.. AU - Pompilio, G.. AU - Gowran, A.. N1 - Export Date: 6 February 2020. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. U2 - 10.1016/j.scr.2019.101544. DO - 10.1016/j.scr.2019.101544. M3 - Article. VL - 40. JO - Stem Cell Research. JF - Stem Cell Research. SN - 1873-5061. ER - ...
The University last week received 15 grant awards totaling more than $12 million of the nearly $20 million awarded by the Connecticut Stem Cell Research Advisory Committee to advance embryonic and human adult stem cell research in the state. A total of 21 grants were awarded. The disbursements are the first made under Connecticuts 10-year, $100 million commitment to fund stem cell research, as authorized by Gov. M. Jodi Rell and the General Assembly in 2005. California, New Jersey, Maryland, and Illinois have passed stem cell research legislation, but Connecticut is the first state to implement an ongoing, structured grant program for stem cell research. The state-funded grants will support some 23 investigators from UConn departments at both the Storrs campus and the Health Center who are already engaged in significant ...
Simply put, adult stem cells, when taken as a whole, have the potential to grow into any of the bodys more than 200 cell types.. Adult Stem Cells are Ethical. Because adult stem cells are derived from adult tissues, there are no ethical dilemmas related to this type of therapy. Furthermore, research continues to show adult stem cells have far greater potential than embryonic stem cells to treat a variety of disease and conditions, including cancer, heart disease and neurodegenerative diseases.. It is only through continued research and clinical trials in patients that scientists and doctors will identify the different applications for adult stem cell therapy.. Adult Stem Cell Therapy. One of the oldest forms of adult ...
Pope Benedict XVI has reaffirmed his opposition to embryonic stem cell research, saying its morally wrong to destroy an embryo no matter how beneficial the resulting treatment is.. Benedict made the comments Saturday to participants of a Vatican conference on adult stem cells convened under an unusual new partnership between the Vaticans culture office and a small U.S. biotech firm, NeoStem Inc.. Church teaching holds that life begins at conception. As a result, the Vatican opposes embryonic stem cell research because embryos are destroyed in the process. It supports research using adult stem cells.. Benedict said: "The destruction of even one human life can never be justified in terms of the benefit that it might conceivably bring to another." ...
The Anchoress wrote the facts down about this bad science and BIG MISTAKE.. Many of you are not familiar with the controvery and truth of the stem cell issue, an issue that was on the ballot in Missouri. The controversy was never that Republicans were against stem cell research as Claire McCaskill falsely claimed in her election commercials. The controvery was that democrats were planning to publicly fund embryonic stem cell research. In Missouri anyway, when democrats talk about "stem cell research" they mean adult and embryonic stem cell research. Do you suppose is is any different at the national level?. The embryonic research uses a method of cloning and then aborts the embryos after several days. Also, adult stem cell research outperforms the ...
Introduction. In recent years the multipotent extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) stem cells have been a focus of intense research. In Vivo, XEN cells contribute to the formation of the extraembryonic endoderm, visceral and parietal endoderm and later on, the yolk sac. The mature mouse blastocyst consists of three distinct cell types: the trophectoderm, which gives rise to the trophoblast and extraembryonic ectoderm (ExEc), the pluripotent cells of the epiblast, and the primitive or extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn), an epithelial layer of cells on the surface of the epiblast. The primitive endoderm gives rise to: (i) visceral endoderm (VE) that surrounds the epiblast and the ExEc; and (ii) parietal endoderm (PE) that interacts with the trophoblast giant cell layer. PE cells migrate along the inner ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Patent application trends of induced pluripotent stem cell technologies in the United States, Japanese, and European applications. AU - Morita, Yasushi. AU - Okura, Hanayuki. AU - Matsuyama, Akifumi. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Patent application trends were investigated for induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technologies, particularly disease-specific cell technologies related to iPSCs, in the U.S., Japanese, and European applications during 2017. The number of patent applications for iPSC technologies was 1516 in the United States, 895 in Japan, and 420 in Europe, with 5% of applications for disease-specific cell technologies. In contrast, the percentages of patent applications for iPSC preparation and differentiation technologies were 17% and 23%, respectively. Patent applications for disease-specific cell ...
The extraembryonic endoderm of mammals is essential for nutritive support of the foetus and patterning of the early embryo. Visceral and parietal endoderm are major subtypes of this lineage with the former exhibiting most, if not all, of the embryonic patterning properties. Extraembryonic endoderm (XEN) cell lines derived from the primitive endoderm of mouse blastocysts represent a cell culture model of this lineage, but are biased towards parietal endoderm in culture and in chimaeras. Here, I further characterise XEN cells and show that these cell lines exhibit high levels of heterogeneity. In an effort for XEN cells to adopt visceral endoderm character different aspects of the in vivo environment were mimicked. I found that BMP4 and laminin promote a mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition of XEN cells with upregulation of epithelial markers ...
Stem cell transplantation has the long history of more than 50 years from the first bone marrow transplantation in 1957. From the 2000s, clinical applications of stem cells significantly increased with more diseases and more patients treated with stem cells. Both autologous stem cells and allogeneic stem cells as well as adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and both in vitro non-expanded stem cells and in vitro expanded stem cells were clinically applied. For adult stem cells, besides hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), neural stem ...
Adult stem cell treatments have been used for many years to successfully treat leukemia and related bone/blood cancers utilizing bone marrow transplants.[49] The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not considered as controversial as the use of embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. Early regenerative applications of adult stem cells has focused on intravenous delivery of blood progenitors known as Hematopetic Stem Cells (HSCs). CD34+ hematopoietic Stem Cells have been clinically applied to treat various diseases including spinal cord injury,[50] liver cirrhosis [51] and Peripheral Vascular disease.[52] Research has shown that CD34+ hematopoietic Stem ...
In mouse, X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) can either be imprinted or random. Imprinted XCI (iXCI) is considered unstable and depending on continuous Xist expression, whereas random XCI (rXCI) is stably maintained even in the absence of Xist. Here we have systematically examined epigenetic modifications associated with the inactive X-chromosome (Xi) in Trophoblast Stem cells, eXtra-Embryonic Endoderm Cells, undifferentiated and differentiated Epiblast Like Stem Cells in order to understand intrinsic differences in epigenetic mechanisms involved in silencing of the inactive X-chromosome in lineages presenting iXCI and rXCI. Whereas euchromatic histone modifications are predominantly lost from the Xi territory in all cell types, the accumulation of heterochromatic modifications diverges in between the analysed cell lineages. Particularly, only ...
Reprogramming of somatic cells is a valuable tool to understand the mechanisms of regaining pluripotency and further opens up the possibility of generating patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. Reprogramming of mouse and human somatic cells into pluripotent stem cells, designated as induced pluri …
Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cell Culture Extra-cellular Differentiation Matrix is essential for Differentiation of Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cell Cultures. This product requires Human Prostate Cancer Stem Cell Culture Media Cat#M36103-30 and Cells Cat# 36103-30. Also available Products ...
Human Colon Cancer Stem Cell Culture Extra-cellular Differentiation Matrix is essential for Differentiation of Human Colon Cancer Stem Cell Cultures. This product requires Human Colon Cancer Stem Cell Culture Media Cat#M36112-39 and Cells Cat# 36112-39. Also available Products ...
A number of current stem cell treatments already. their ability to make choices explains why they stay as stem cells in culture.Stap cells: research paper on stem cell breakthrough was partly falsified.This journal is a member of and subscribes to the principles of the Committee on Publication Ethics.In five pages this research paper considers embryonic stem cells and current research in this.Humans Clinical outcome after stem cell mobilization with granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor after acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction: 5-year results of the STEMMI trial Bookmark Download by.This walkthrough for stem cells are you need your access is central storage warehouse co.Humans The Clinical Impact of Vascular Growth Factors and Endothelial Progenitor ...
In September 2007, all Catholic parishes in NJ received a DVD and a packet of information to help dispel the myths and clarify Church teaching on stem cell research. This initiative was undertaken with the support and blessing of the bishops of New Jersey who have been concerned that the voices heard in the public square are sending a misleading message to people.. The citizens of New Jersey had the opportunity to vote on the NJ Stem Cell Research Bond Act in November in order to approve or disapprove $450 million dollars to fund stem cell research. The bond issue included funding for both embryonic and adult stem cell research, but the great majority of funding was to be dedicated to embryonic stem cell research. On November 6, 2007, the referendum was defeated. We are grateful for all of those persons who ...
by APFLI , Feb 2, 2006 , Stem Cell Research & Cloning. www.ClinicalTrials.gov - Amazing list of over 250 grants through NIH; at least half deal with non-embryonic stem cell research. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct/search?term=%22stem+cells%22&submit=Search With patients own cells, heart vessels and tissue show mending http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/metropolitan/3277225 Check the Score http://stemcellresearch.org/ Diseases Treated Now with Cord Blood Stem Cells http://www.viacord.com/what_diseases_treated.htm Why Cord Blood is the Premier Source of Stem Cellshttp://www.viacord.com/what_why_premier_source.htm Adult & Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell Research Breakthroughs, Treatments and Cures as of 4/05 Spinal Cord Injuries - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface Marker Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule and E-cadherin Facilitate the Identification and Selection of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. AU - Chen, Hsin Fu. AU - Chuang, Ching Yu. AU - Lee, Wen Chih. AU - Huang, Hsiang Po. AU - Wu, Han Chung. AU - Ho, Hong Nerng. AU - Chen, Yu Ju. AU - Kuo, Hung Chih. PY - 2011/9/1. Y1 - 2011/9/1. N2 - The derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) requires not only efficient reprogramming methods, but also reliable markers for identification and purification of iPSCs. Here, we demonstrate that surface markers, epithelial cells adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin) can be used for efficient identification and/or isolation of reprogrammed mouse iPSCs. By viral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and n- or c-Myc into mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we observed that the conventional mouse ...
Purpose: The expression of aquaporin water channel genes are shown to be affected in several pathological conditions of retina, such as in diabetic retinopathy, retinal ischemia and in autoimmune uveitis. Human native retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and immortalized human RPEs are formerly shown to express aquaporins, still the expression of aquaporins in stem cell derived RPE have not been previously elucidated. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of several aquaporin genes (aquaporin1,- 3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -10, -11 and -12) and assess the localization of aquaporin 1 water channel protein in human embryonic (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived RPE cells.. Methods: hESC- and hiPSC derived RPE cells were grown as monolayer in serum-free media. The expression of aquaporin genes was determined with qRT-PCR. The localization ...
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date include embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst-stage embryos. iPS cells are generated by reprogramming somatic cells back to pluripotent state with defined reprogramming factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (also known as Yamanaka factors). PSCs including ES cells and iPS cells are categorized into two groups by their morphology, gene expression profile and external signal dependence. Conventional mouse-type ES/iPS ...
HIEMSTRA, Linda Elizabeth; TERBLANCHE, Liandi y ADRIAANSE, Basil. Rehabilitation outcomes following autologous human stem cell transplantation in a chronic complete C4 tetraplegic - the first 12 months: A case report. S. Afr. j. occup. ther. [online]. 2015, vol.45, n.2, pp.29-42. ISSN 2310-3833. http://dx.doi.org/10.17159/2310-3833/2015/V45N2A6.. Autologous Human Stem Cell Transplantation (AHESC) is emerging as one of several promising new cell-based treatments for chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Since chronic SCI is generally deemed irreversible, treatment paradigms for post-intervention rehabilitation after many years of disability are limited, and a description of the impact of such intervention on the patients is hard to find. Here we describe, for the first time, the multi-disciplinary post-operative rehabilitation and outcome of a patient with chronic cervical SCI after autologous human embryonic ...
How many clinics in Texas market stem cell procedures? What interventions do they promote? How many adult stem cell banks are located in Texas? How do they advertise their services?. There does not appear to be a comprehensive record of stem cell banks and clinics marketing stem cell procedures within the state of Texas. I am therefore trying to determine how many stem cell banks and clinics marketing stem cells in Texas can be found using an approach that a patient or customer might take when searching the Internet. In an effort to locate such businesses, I used Google search engine and entered such terms as "stem cells Texas", "stem cell clinics Texas", "cosmetic surgery stem cell Texas", "orthopedic ...
The presentation by Bernard Siegel made me visualize a junior high pitcher trying to strike out a major league slugger. He just kept throwing out these really poor assertions and arguments and Richard Doerflinger kept knocking them out of the park. Siegels background is as a personal-injury lawyer (and as a co-owner of Florida Championship Wrestling) and he only has 3 years of experience with this issue and it showed. He actually admitted somatic cell nuclear transfer was cloning but typically referred to it as "nuclear transfer," he called Michigans law banning human cloning "draconian," said opposition to embryonic stem cell research was basically fueled by a desire to attack Roe v. Wade (yeah, I know, really stupid), brought up the Science strawman attack on David Prentice, waxed about how much money opponents of embryonic stem cell research had (basically adding up the total income of a ...
Abstract: Abstract Background The inability to analyze gene expression in living neurons from Angelman (AS) and Duplication 15q (Dup15q) syndrome subjects has limited our understanding of these disorders at the molecular level. Method Here, we use dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) from AS deletion, 15q Duplication, and neurotypical control subjects for whole transcriptome analysis. We identified 20 genes unique to AS neurons, 120 genes unique to 15q duplication, and 3 shared transcripts that were differentially expressed in DPSC neurons vs controls. Results Copy number correlated with gene expression for most genes across the 15q11.2-q13.1 critical region. Two thirds of the genes differentially expressed in 15q duplication neurons were downregulated compared to controls including several transcription factors, while in AS differential expression was restricted primarily to the 15q region. Here, we show significant downregulation of the transcription factors FOXO1 and HAND2 in ...
There has been an explosion of research publications in the field of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in the past 10 yr. Many researchers have sought to exploit their potential as a source of reparative cells for clinical use in a variety of contexts [1]. Adult stem cells are multipotent, undifferentiated, self-renewing capable of healing and regeneration of injured tissues [2-4]. Adult MSCs were initially identified in bone marrow (BM) and since then have been isolated and characterized from different human and animal adult tissues, peripheral blood, adipose, muscle, skin, dental pulp and other tissues [5-10].. Adult stem cells can be conveniently sampled from an extensive array of sources bypassing the ethical controversy associated with the embryonic stem cells, which is increasingly affecting the use of stem ...
Article: Abortion, Euthanasia, Stem Cell Research, Same Sex Marriage, Human Cloning - Yesterday I received a letter from a visitor to my website, voteutah.us, asking the following: I see that you are running for Senate. I would like to know your stand on the following issues: 1. Abortion 2. Euthanasia 3. Embryonic Stem Cell Research 4. Same sex marriage 5. Human Cloning. This article gives my views.
Cardiogenesis processes in human and animals have differential dynamics, suggesting the existence of species-specific regulators during heart development. However, it remains a challenge to discover the human-specific cardiac regulatory genes, given that most coding genes are conserved. Here, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine report the identification of a human-specific long noncoding RNA, Heart Brake LncRNA 1 (HBL1), which regulates cardiomyocyte development from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Overexpression of HBL1 repressed, whereas knockdown and knockout of HBL1 increased, cardiomyocyte differentiation from hiPSCs. HBL1 physically interacted with MIR1 in an AGO2 complex. Disruption of MIR1 binding sites in HBL1 showed an effect similar to that of HBL1 knockout. SOX2 bound to HBL1 promoter and activated its transcription. Knockdown of SOX2 in hiPSCs led to decreased HBL1 ...
Recent scandals and controversies-such as the falsification, fabrication, and plagiarism of data in federally funded science; the manipulation and distortion of research sponsored by private companies; human embryonic stem cell research; cloning; and the patenting of DNA and cell lines-illustrate the importance of ethics in scientific research. This book provides an introduction and overview of many of the social, ethical, and legal issues facing scientists today. The book includes chapters on research misconduct, conflicts of interest, data management, mentoring, authorship, peer review, publication, intellectual property, research with human subjects, research with animal subjects, genetic and stem cell research, international research, and ethical decision making. The book also features dozens of real and hypothetical cases for discussion and analysis and introduces the reader to important research ...
Ischemic stroke is one of the major health problems worldwide. The only FDA approved antithrombotic drug for acute ischemic stroke is the tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). The very narrow time window of 3-5 hours required to ensure its effectiveness, but tPAs potential to exacerbate blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage (thereby increasing hemorrhagic incidents) necessitates a search for therapeutic alternatives. Stem cell based therapy for ischemic stroke seems to be promising candidate. Several studies have been devoted to assessing the therapeutic potential of different types of stem cells such as neural stem cells (NSC), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), embryonic stem cells (ESC), and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem ...
Innovative adult stem cell research by scientists at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth) could aid efforts to apply the brakes to stem cells that produce the type of fat ringing the waists of millions. Research appeared today online ahead of the print issue of Cell Stem Cell.. The scientists have developed a bold approach for targeting fat-generating stem cells that one day could aid in the delivery of drugs that slow the cells ability to direct fat expansion. Because these cells are also used in regenerative medicine, this approach may have wide applications. The cells are termed adipose stem cells.. The researchers used small artificial proteins (peptides) in a mouse model to identify a marker on the surface of adipose stem ...
... (IJSCR) is an international, open access peer reviewed online publishing. The journal that brings about latest research which aims to publish academic and quality papers in all related aspects of Stem Cell & Research.. Stem cells can be taken from radical cord blood just after birth. All stem cell types, corresponding harvesting involves the least risk. By description, related cells are obtained from everyones own body, just as one may bank his or her own blood for not obligatory surgical procedures. Stem cells are being used for cure various diseases like Diabetes, Arthritis, Few Cancers, Bone Marrow failure etc.. ...
RATIONALE: Regulatory DNA elements in the human genome play important roles in determining the transcriptional abundance and spatiotemporal gene expression during embryonic heart development and somatic cell reprogramming. It is not well known how chromatin marks in regulatory DNA elements are modulated to establish cell type-specific gene expression in the human heart. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to decipher the cell type-specific epigenetic signatures in regulatory DNA elements and how they modulate heart-specific gene expression. METHODS AND RESULTS: We profiled genome-wide transcriptional activity and a variety of epigenetic marks in the regulatory DNA elements using massive RNA-seq (n=12) and ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing; n=84) in human endothelial cells (CD31(+)CD144(+)), cardiac progenitor cells (Sca-1(+)), ...
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Biology is the newest installment in the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series, to which it adeptly contributes as it offers a selection of carefully chosen topics so that the readers can understand recent advances in the field of the hematopoietic stem cells and hemato/lymphopoiesis. Each chapter is not a simple review of the topic, but rather an in-depth insight, which allows the reader to attain a multifaceted knowledgebase on hematopoietic stem cells. The chapters, which are authored by the leading experts in the field, cover characteristics of the hematopoietic stem cells at the cellular and molecular levels, offers details in regulatory mechanisms of differentiation mechanisms of hematopoietic stem cells to more mature blood cell, ...
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Biology is the newest installment in the Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine series, to which it adeptly contributes as it offers a selection of carefully chosen topics so that the readers can understand recent advances in the field of the hematopoietic stem cells and hemato/lymphopoiesis. Each chapter is not a simple review of the topic, but rather an in-depth insight, which allows the reader to attain a multifaceted knowledgebase on hematopoietic stem cells. The chapters, which are authored by the leading experts in the field, cover characteristics of the hematopoietic stem cells at the cellular and molecular levels, offers details in regulatory mechanisms of differentiation mechanisms of hematopoietic stem cells to more mature blood cell, ...
These are profound moral concerns, and your political ads and interviews have made them seem trivial, irrational and cruel which they re not. People who oppose embryonic stem-cell research want a cure as much as you want a cure, but they do not believe that you can pick healthy fruit from a poisoned tree." --Rabbi Marc Gellman, from a letter to Michael J. Fox in Newsweek.. "Reminds me the McDonalds commercial: "If you believe in magic, and I hope you do, youll always have a friend wearing big red shoes." Except the embryonic stem cell version goes something like, "If you believe in hype, and I hope you do, scientists will be ready to take your tax dollars." --Jivin J, prolife blogger. "From the time of the Nuremberg Code, ethical norms on human experimentation have demanded that we never inflict death or disabling injury on any un-consenting individual of the human species simply for the benefit of others. ...
It was important to us to do a blog on the current state of Stem Cell Research. We have witnessed the disappointment of many in the community based on the current "Clinical Hold" that has been put on the SMA clinical trial. It is important to point out The Sophias Cure Foundation has supported and will continue to support Stem Cell Research. We believe Motor Neuron Research is part of the big picture in regards to Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Eventually Motor Neurons will have to be replaced to correct the loss of Motor Neurons in our children. I think it is important for the community to understand the recent correction that has taken place in regards to this field of research. Currently there are some major hurdles that must be overcome before Stem Cells can replace Motor Neurons that have been lost. What is a possibility for Stem cells is to offer Neurotrophic Support. This ...
The teams of students created organoids - artificially cultivated masses of cells or tissue that resemble an organ - using human-induced pluripotent stem cells, which were made possible through a gift by John Mullen M.D. 78.. "Stem cell research is so incredibly important, as this might be the true pathway - along with immunotherapy - to cure so many conditions that plague humanity," said Mullen, an orthopedic physician. "It cant be stressed how important this is.". The stem cells used in the PC lab, which are adult human cells that have been reprogrammed as stem cells, were subjected to various tests that were intended to see if the organoids could mimic natural human behavior. In each group, that happened.. In offering the course, Toth said he wanted to create an open-ended, project-based learning exercise that put the students in control. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Function, molecular structure and gene expression of stem cell factor (SCF). AU - Okada, S.. AU - Suda, T.. PY - 1992/8. Y1 - 1992/8. N2 - Mice of genotype W/Wv and Sl/Sld have been considered as a model of instinct hemopoietic disorders. W/Wv mice have a defect in hemopoietic stem cells and Sl/Sld mice have a defect in the microenvironment. The W locus in murine chromosome 5 encodes the c-kit proto-oncogene and the Sl locus in chromosome 10 encodes the ligand for c-kit, which has been named stem cell factor (SCF), mast cell growth factor (MGF), kit ligand (KL) and steel factor (SL). The cDNA sequence of SCF suggest that it is synthesized as an integral transmembrane protein and that it has common tertiary structure with M-CSF. SCF enhances the proliferation of hemopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells as well as mast ...
The Core is only available for working on projects involving stem cells except for using the Luminex 200 and Sales and Services, which are open to other researchers on campus.. Principal Investigators, who are interested in using the UCR Stem Cell Core have to first notify the Stem Cell Core Director and Academic Coordinator of their intention to use the Core facility. Subsequently, they will receive an application form to fill in and submit back via e-mail to the Core Academic Coordinator. Based on the submitted information, they will be guided through the steps necessary to obtain all documentation required for working with stem cells and/or using stem cell Core services. For more information on documentation please refer to Work in the Stem Cell Core Facility part in Regulatory Review Requirements for ...
Stem cells play an essential role in embryonic development, cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. Tissue homeostasis in adults is maintained by adult stem cells resident in the niches of different tissues. As one kind of adult stem cell, epidermal stem cells have the potential to generate diversified types of progeny cells in the skin. Although its biology is still largely unclarified, epidermal stem cells are widely used in stem cell research and regenerative medicine given its easy accessibility and pluripotency. Despite the same genome, cells within an organism have different fates due to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In this review, we will briefly discuss the current ...
Our goal is to increase the number of immature umbilical cord blood stem cells (UCBSCs) for hematopoietic transplantation. Towards this goal, our lab adapted a culture technique to grow immature CD133+ UCBSCs (CD133+ cells). Although CD133+ cells proliferate rapidly in culture, a minority self-renew and remain CD133+, while a majority differentiate and become CD133-. Therefore, new strategies to identify and grow immature UCBSCs are important. Since little is known about signally mechanisms regulating self-renewal and differentiation of UCBSCs, we sought insight from embryonic stem cell (ESC) literature to guide our studies. \r\nTo identify a population of UCBSCs that grow without differentiating, we focused on Oct-4, a transcription factor essential for self-renewal in ESCs that we previously reported expression in UCBSCs. During our studies, new challenges in the field arose. Two isomers ...
Monya Baker. Ascl2, a transcription factor and Wnt target, switches on a stem cell program in the gut. In the search for what makes a stem cell a stem cell, Hans Clevers and colleagues at Hubrecht Institute-KNAW, the Netherlands, have found a transcription factor expressed uniquely in the gut1. Deletion of the gene, called Achaete scute-like 2 (Ascl2), completely ablates stem cell activity. Activating the gene in non-stem cells causes the cells to take on stem cell characteristics, including making stem cell markers and reproducing the structures and specialized cell types that normal intestinal stem cells produce. Previously, Clevers had done complex ...
UCLA scientists have developed a new strategy to efficiently isolate, mature and transplant skeletal muscle cells created from human pluripotent stem cells, which can produce all cell types of the body. The findings are a major step toward the development of a stem cell replacement therapy for muscle diseases including Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which affects approximately 1 in 5,000 boys in the U.S. and is the most common fatal childhood genetic disease.. The study, which was published in the journal Nature Cell Biology, was led by senior author April Pyle, associate professor of microbiology, immunology and molecular genetics and member of the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA.. Using the natural human development process as a guide, researchers developed ways to mature muscle ...
Stem cell encapsulation technology demonstrates much promise for the replacement of damaged tissue in several diseases, including spinal cord injury (SCI). The use of biocompatible microcapsules permits the control of stem cell fate in situ to facilitate the replacement of damaged/lost tissue. In this work, a novel customized microfluidic device was developed for the reproducible encapsulation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) within monodisperse, alginate-collagen microcapsules. Both cell types survived within the microcapsules for up to 21 days in culture. Stem cells demonstrated retention of their multipotency and neuronal differentiation properties upon selective release from the microcapsules, as demonstrated by high proliferation rates and the production of ...

Scientists Use 3-D Printer to Speed Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research - Scientific American Blog NetworkScientists Use 3-D Printer to Speed Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research - Scientific American Blog Network

... can generate a wider variety of specific cell types than other forms of human stem cells. In addition, any tissue formed would ... that other researchers have in the past printed mouse embryonic stem cells and even certain types of human stem cells. Human ... Depositing human embryonic stem cells in cultures using a 3-D printer offers some advantages. In particular, the cells can be ... This uniformity is important for researchers trying to generate specific cell types. ...
more infohttps://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/scientists-use-3-d-printer-to-speed-human-embryonic-stem-cell-research/

IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Neuroprotective and Therapeutic Strategies against Parkinsons Disease: Recent Perspectives | HTMLIJMS | Free Full-Text | Neuroprotective and Therapeutic Strategies against Parkinson's Disease: Recent Perspectives | HTML

Embryonic stem cells (ESC) have the ability to develop any cell type of the body. The ESC may generate DA neurons at a specific ... Barker, R.A. Developing Stem Cell Therapies for Parkinsons Disease: Waiting Until the Time Is Right. Cell Stem Cell 2014, 15, ... Mochizuki, H.; Choong, C.J.; Yasuda, T. The Promises of Stem Cells: Stem Cell Therapy for Movement Disorders. Parkinsonism ... Progress in Stem Cell Therapy for Major Human Neurological Disorders. Stem Cell Rev. 2013, 9, 685-699. [Google Scholar] [ ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/17/6/904/htm

Inserm - Integration-deficient lentivectors: an effective strategy to purify and differentiate human embryonic stem cell...Inserm - Integration-deficient lentivectors: an effective strategy to purify and differentiate human embryonic stem cell...

To date, purification of progenitors and mature cells generated from either embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells remains ... must be improved through methods that will permit the transplantation of homogenous populations of a specific cell type. ... should also be suitable for the purification of a broad range of cell types derived from either pluripotent or adult stem cells ... A human embryonic stem cell line was differentiated into hepatic progenitors using a chemically defined protocol. Subsequently ...
more infohttps://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-00852086

Medical scientists at UNSW develop game-changing stem cell repair system | Study OptionsMedical scientists at UNSW develop 'game-changing' stem cell repair system | Study Options

Stem cell therapies capable of regenerating damaged human tissue could be available within a few years thanks to a breakthrough ... There are different types of stem cells including embryonic stem (ES) cells, which during embryonic development generate every ... type of cell in the human body, and adult stem cells, which are tissue-specific. There are no adult stem cells that regenerate ... switched off their memory and converted them into stem cells so they can repair different cell types once they are put back ...
more infohttp://www.studyoptions.com/news/201604/medical-scientists-unsw-develop-game-changing-stem-cell-repair-system

Stem cells: Sources, types, and usesStem cells: Sources, types, and uses

Human stem cells can come from an embryo or an adult human. They have many possible uses in science and medicine, yet ... Stem cells are basic cells that can become almost any type of cell in the body. ... At this stage, stem cells begin to differentiate.. Embryonic stem cells can differentiate into more cell types than adult stem ... The body can use these stem cells whenever it needs them.. Also called tissue-specific or somatic stem cells, adult stem cells ...
more infohttps://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323343.php

Stem Cell Therapies: Tiny Building Blocks of Life - GetBoulder.comStem Cell Therapies: Tiny Building Blocks of Life - GetBoulder.com

As some stem-cell researchers look into the future, theres not much they envision the tiny building blocks of life wont be ... stem cells are tissue-specific and can develop the cell types within a particular tissue or organ. Adult brain stem cells, for ... can generate neurons and glial cells. Blood stem cells, transferred through bone-marrow transplant or collected in umbilical ... Until recently, researchers worked with both embryonic and nonembryonic adult stem cells. But 2006 brought a significant ...
more infohttp://getboulder.com/stem-cell-therapies-tiny-building-blocks-of-life/

Are you considering a Stem Cell Therapy Clinic for treatment of your COPD?Are you considering a Stem Cell Therapy Clinic for treatment of your COPD?

... stem cells, or lung transplant without seeing several ads for Stem Cell Therapy Centers. These types … ... Embryonic stem cells may one day be used to generate treatments for a range of human diseases. However, embryonic stem cells ... Our bodies use different types of tissue-specific stem cells to fit a particular purpose. Tissue-specific stem cells are ... As described above, each type of stem cell fulfills a specific function in the body and cannot be expected to make cell types ...
more infohttps://www.copdfoundation.org/COPD360social/Community/Questions-and-Answers/Are-you-considering-a-Stem-Cell-Therapy-Clinic-for-treatment-of-your-COPD.aspx

How Time Affects the Fate of Stem Cells | Stem Cells PortalHow Time Affects the Fate of Stem Cells | Stem Cells Portal

... have found that temporal fluctuations in protein concentrations can determine the type of cell that embryonic stem cells will ... into specific cell types.. To monitor their temporal fluctuations, the team carried out sophisticated genome engineering, ... generating five knock-in "reporter" genes in a single line of embryonic stem cells. These are genes that are attached near a ... The Stem Cells Portal is a shared platform for the STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine sister journals, providing ...
more infohttps://stemcellsportal.com/news/how-time-affects-fate-stem-cells

Researchers coax human stem cells to rapidly generate bone, heart muscle | News Center | Stanford MedicineResearchers coax human stem cells to rapidly generate bone, heart muscle | News Center | Stanford Medicine

A new study shows that combining positive and negative signals can quickly and efficiently steer stem cells down complex ... Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they can become any type of cell in the body. They do so by responding to a ... and location-specific cues within the developing embryo that direct them to become specific cell types. Researchers have ... To do so, they started with a human embryonic stem cell line, which they chemically nudged to become cells that form whats ...
more infohttp://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2016/07/researchers-coax-human-stem-cells-to-rapidly-generate-bone.html

Stem Cells: What You Need to Know  | HealthCentralStem Cells: What You Need to Know | HealthCentral

Stem cell research is required to understand what goes wrong during disease and injury and ultimately how these conditions ... Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells, meaning they can give rise to all specific cell types of the body. They can be ... Mouse embryonic stem cells can be manipulated to contain specific genetic changes and then used to generate mice, which contain ... to an unspecialized state similar to that of an embryonic stem cell. Although iPS cells and embryonic stem cells share many ...
more infohttps://www.healthcentral.com/article/stem-cells-what-you-need-to-know

SELECTBIO - Clinical Applications of Stem Cells Speaker BiographySELECTBIO - Clinical Applications of Stem Cells Speaker Biography

These patient-specific iPSC are then converted into various neural cell types, which provides us the opportunity to study ... By generating "micro-tissues" of neural origin by bioengineering multiple cell types in 3-D on biocompatible materials his ... He began his studies on differentiation of human embryonic stem cells while Director of Functional Genomics at Geron ... Clinical Applications of Stem Cells. Clinical Applications of Stem Cells in Singapore. Singapore. SELECTBIO. [email protected] ...
more infohttps://selectbiosciences.com/conferences/biographies.aspx?speaker=145446&conf=CASC2015

Disease-Specific Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line by Nuclear TransferDisease-Specific Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line by Nuclear Transfer

Dieter Egli has created the first disease-specific embryonic stem cell line with two sets of chromosomes, using somatic cell ... Generating autologous beta cells using SCNT is only the first step in developing a complete cell replacement therapy for type 1 ... to facilitate the creation of type 1 diabetes patient-specific embryonic stem cells using SCNT. Initially, the stem cell ... would replace the need for patient-specific embryonic stem cells because they allow patient- and disease-specific stem cell ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/news/disease-specific-human-embryonic-stem-cell-line-by-nuclear-transfer-135395-1.htm

SELECTBIO - Clinical Applications of Stem Cells Keynote SpeakersSELECTBIO - Clinical Applications of Stem Cells Keynote Speakers

These patient-specific iPSC are then converted into various neural cell types, which provides us the opportunity to study ... By generating "micro-tissues" of neural origin by bioengineering multiple cell types in 3-D on biocompatible materials his ... He began his studies on differentiation of human embryonic stem cells while Director of Functional Genomics at Geron ... Recently, she discovered a novel type of intrinsic human pluripotent stem cells which are named Muse cells that reside in ...
more infohttp://selectbiosciences.com/conferences/keynotespeakers.aspx?pid=3327&conf=CASC2015

Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors.  - PubMed - NCBIInduction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. - PubMed - NCBI

Cell. 2007 Nov 30;131(5):861-72. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... Furthermore, these cells could differentiate into cell types of ... A big step forward towards generating patient specific pluripotent stem cells. [J Hepatol. 2008] ... Induction of pluripotency: from mouse to human. [Cell. 2007]. *Induced pluripotent cells mimicking human embryonic stem cells. ... and disease-specific stem cells. We previously reported generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, capable of germline ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18035408?dopt=Abstract

Lawrence Recht, MD | Stanford Medicine ProfilesLawrence Recht, MD | Stanford Medicine Profiles

Although embryonic stem (ES) cells have been induced to differentiate into diverse neuronal cell types, the production of ... showing that embryonic stem cells injected into shi blastocyst embryos can generate chimeric mice with strong and widespread ... continuing to express the pluripotent marker stage-specific embryonic antigen-1. Selecting cells from the NS cell population ... assessment of stem cell specification and pluripotency using an embryonic stem cell model system in which neural ...
more infohttps://med.stanford.edu/profiles/lawrence-recht?tab=research-and-scholarship

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine | Medical BiophysicsStem Cells and Regenerative Medicine | Medical Biophysics

... including the examination of cells that can differentiate into other cell types and self-renew to reproduce more stem cells. ... The goal is to use embryonic stem cells to generate human tissues and/or study development in a dish. ... Examples of specific research topics include:. *Cancer Stem Cells. *Cell therapy. *Differentiation ... Stem Cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. MBP researchers study various ...
more infohttps://medbio.utoronto.ca/stem-cells-and-regenerative-medicine

Stem cells also rust | EurekAlert! Science NewsStem cells also rust | EurekAlert! Science News

Similarly, a research group at Lund University in Sweden, has now identified that certain cells during embryonic development ... Short facts pluripotent stem cells Pluripotent stem cells are cells that have the ability to make any specific cell type in the ... They are either derived from embryos (referred to as embryonic stem (ES) cells), or they can be generated from adult cells ... They hope in the future to be able to use the system to generate new blood cells, including blood stem cells, for patients in ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-10/lu-sca102416.php

Stem Cell Programs | ScienceStem Cell Programs | Science

... human embryonic stem cells may be clinically useful in generating cell types that have been damaged or depleted by a variety of ... an important tool for scientists to explore the fundamental mechanisms that regulate differentiation into specific cell types. ... The availability of human embryonic stem cell lines provides ... Stem Cell Programs Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ... while continuing and expanding its long-standing investment in adult stem cells and research. ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/300/5621/911

Frontiers | Generation and Applications of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced into Neural Lineages and Neural Tissues |...Frontiers | Generation and Applications of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Induced into Neural Lineages and Neural Tissues |...

We compare the various cell types available and their advantages. Finally, we provide a ... The hype is well-earned because of the potential of stem cells to contribute to disease modeling, drug screening, and even ... The hype is well-earned because of the potential of stem cells to contribute to disease modeling, drug screening, and even ... We compare the various cell types available and their advantages. Finally, we provide a ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2012.00047/full

The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid alters growth properties of renal cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.The histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid alters growth properties of renal cell carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

19405784 - Three-dimensional epithelial tissues generated from human embryonic stem cells.. Publication Detail: Type: Journal ... 6183084 - Immunohistochemical staining of granular cell tumour for neurone specific enolase: evid.... 9410884 - Reduced ... Caki-1, KTC-26 or A498 cells were treated with various concentrations of VPA during in vitro cell proliferation 3-(4,5- ... Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology*. Cell Division / drug effects*. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / pharmacology*. Humans. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-valproic-acid/18657224.html

Autologous and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Crohns Fistulae | IntechOpenAutologous and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Crohn's Fistulae | IntechOpen

Autologous and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Treatment of Crohns Fistulae , IntechOpen, Published on: 2016-10-26. ... Embryonic stem cells are obtained from the inner cell mass of the embryo at the blastocyst stage. They are able to generate ... that proceed along specific developmental pathways that will eventually lead to differentiation into specialised cell types [15 ... Although embryonic stem cells and iPS have great potential for cell‐based therapies, there are several limitations to their use ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/new-insights-into-inflammatory-bowel-disease/autologous-and-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-treatment-of-crohn-s-fistulae/

Efficient derivation of stable primed pluripotent embryonic stem cells from bovine blastocysts | PNASEfficient derivation of stable primed pluripotent embryonic stem cells from bovine blastocysts | PNAS

... the ability to generate a multitude of cell types and tissues (1, 2). ... inner cell mass. Under specific culture conditions embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be captured and expanded from the inner cell ... 2007) Whole-genome analysis of histone H3 lysine 4 and lysine 27 methylation in human embryonic stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 1: ... 2014) The ability of inner-cell-mass cells to self-renew as embryonic stem cells is acquired following epiblast specification. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/115/9/2090

Scientists reprogram mouse fat cells into clinically useful stem cellsScientists 'reprogram' mouse fat cells into clinically useful stem cells

"Many different cell types need to be investigated to generate many iPS lines for specific differentiation and different ... cell type »embryonic stem cell »fat tissue »iPS cells »pluripotent stem »pluripotent stem cells »stem cells ... cell type , embryonic stem cell , fat tissue , iPS cells , pluripotent stem , pluripotent stem cells , stem cells ... Verma, iPS cells have been shown to have many of the hallmarks of embryonic stem cells. Choosing which cells were best for ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/scientists-039-reprogram-039-mouse-fat-cells-158801.html

Adult mouse bone marrow stem cells can become cells of the nerv...( University of Minnesota researchers sho...)Adult mouse bone marrow stem cells can become cells of the nerv...( University of Minnesota researchers sho...)

Again while adult stem cells hold great promise side by side com......,Adult,mouse,bone,marrow,stem,cells,can,become,cells,of, ... The potential of these adult stem cells termed multipotent adult p... Were able to show in vitro generation of functional ... University of Minnesota researchers show that adult bone marrow stem c... ... While this type of cell differentiation has been shown to occur from embryonic and neural stem cells, this is the first time ...
more infohttp://news.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-2/Adult-mouse-bone-marrow-stem-cells-can-become-cells-of-the-nervous-system-3956-1/

Stem Cell Cryopreservation Media (CCM018): R&D SystemsStem Cell Cryopreservation Media (CCM018): R&D Systems

... protein-free stem cell cryopreservation media. High post-thaw viability and recovery. Learn More. ... Stem Cells from R&D Systems is a fully defined, ... Background: Pluripotent Stem Cells. Embryonic stem (ES) cells ... In addition, R&D Systems offers a variety of products to assess differentiation status and identify specific stem cell types of ... Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated by somatic cell reprogramming following the exogenous expression of ...
more infohttps://www.rndsystems.com/products/cryodefend-stem-cells-5-x-10-ml-_ccm018
  • Study lead author, haematologist and UNSW Associate Professor John Pimanda, said the new technique, which reprograms bone and fat cells into induced multipotent stem cells (iMS), has been successfully demonstrated in mice. (studyoptions.com)
  • While the iPSC technology has not yet advanced to a stage where therapeutic transplants have been deemed safe, iPSCs are readily being used in personalized drug discovery efforts and understanding the patient-specific basis of disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the first generation of iPSCs, these second generation iPSCs produced viable chimeric mice and contributed to the mouse germline, thereby achieving the 'gold standard' for pluripotent stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As fluctuations in transcription factor concentrations are to a large extent driven by the inherent randomness of the gene expression cascade, these could set fundamental limits in our ability to redirect cell fate decisions for therapeutic purposes," said Dr. Suter. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • The hype is well-earned because of the potential of stem cells to contribute to disease modeling, drug screening, and even therapeutic approaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, in spite of numerous statements in the social media declaring that these cells can be used in medicine for therapeutic purposes, the clinical applications remain few ( Aznar and Sanchez, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • However, based on the so‐called phenomenon of cellular plasticity, in some instances, they can differentiate into cell populations different to those of their embryonic origin, providing many therapeutic options [ 16 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • State-of-the-art therapeutic management of LSCD is described, and new and evolving techniques in ocular surface regeneration are being discussed, in particular, advantages and disadvantages of alternative cell scaffolds and cell sources for cell based ocular surface reconstruction. (hindawi.com)
  • Stem cells also show promise for treating some diseases that currently have no cure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Roop is preparing to use iPS cells in clinical trials for his research on inherited skin-fragility syndromes, or blistering skin diseases, which can be fatal. (getboulder.com)
  • The use of stem cells for treating lung diseases has great appeal. (copdfoundation.org)
  • However, as yet, there is very little known about the short and long term effects of administering any type of stem cell therapy to patients with lung diseases. (copdfoundation.org)
  • At present, there are only a small number of approved clinical trials in the United States and Canada investigating cell therapy approaches for lung diseases. (copdfoundation.org)
  • However, you may come across information on the internet or other sources about stem cells being administered to patients with lung diseases, such as emphysema, pulmonary hypertension or pulmonary fibrosis. (copdfoundation.org)
  • Their work takes the development of iPS cells a step closer toward their eventual clinical use in treating human diseases. (innovations-report.com)
  • They are excellent cell sources not only for stem cell-based therapy of dental and craniofacial diseases, but also with the potential for the treatment of other inflammatory diseases. (springer.com)
  • The objective of this review is to describe new findings in the field of dental stem cell research and their potential applications in tissue regeneration and therapy of inflammation-related diseases. (springer.com)
  • BG01V human embryonic stem cells were then thawed, counted (blue bars), and resuspended in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast (MEF) Conditioned Media (Catalog # AR005 ) containing Recombinant Human FGF basic (Catalog # 4114-TC ). (rndsystems.com)
  • After thawing, the cells were cultured for 3 days in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Conditioned Media (Catalog # AR005 ) containing FGF basic (Catalog # 4114-TC ) and imaged using brightfield microscopy. (rndsystems.com)
  • Cells that were cryopreserved in CryoDefend ® Stem Cells Media (Catalog # CCM018) or cryopreservation media from one of two competitors CryoDefend ® Stem Cells Media (Catalog # CCM018) were thawed and cultured for four days in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblast Conditioned Media (Catalog # AR005 ). (rndsystems.com)
  • This review focuses on limbal epithelial stem cells and the pathophysiology of LSCD. (hindawi.com)
  • Epithelial cells are shed regularly and replaced by stem cell sources located at the limbus, a rim of tissue located at the junction of the cornea and sclera (Figures 1 (A) and 1 (B)). The limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) reside in specific regions at the limbus known as the limbal stem cell niches [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Nestin is first detected at the earliest steps in neural plate induction ( 9 ), and most cells in the neuroepithelium are nestin-positive before neurogenesis ( 10 ) (Fig. 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The Stem Cells Portal is a shared platform for the STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine sister journals, providing up-to-the-minute coverage of the latest research from bench science and developments to clinical applications. (stemcellsportal.com)
  • In this review, we provide an overview of different types of MSCs that have been isolated and characterized from several origins such as dental pulp, exfoliated deciduous teeth, the periodontal ligament, the dental follicle, the dental papilla, oral mucosa, and gingiva, with the focus on the potential clinical applications for each type of dental stem cell. (springer.com)
  • Gates Center researchers and the University of Colorado Cancer Center are among the first in the U.S. to test drugs that target and destroy cancer stem cells, which are the source of cancer. (getboulder.com)
  • They then experimented with varying combinations of well-known signaling molecules, including WNT, BMP and Hedgehog, as a way to coax these cells to become ever-more-specialized precursor cells. (stanford.edu)
  • One means of circumventing this immune rejection problem would be to generate hematopoietic stem cells, or HSCs, using the patient's own precursor cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • Totipotent" stem cells arise in the first few days after an egg is fertilized, and are able, under the right conditions, to develop into a viable embryo. (getboulder.com)
  • They do so by responding to a variety of time- and location-specific cues within the developing embryo that direct them to become specific cell types. (stanford.edu)
  • However, since the generation of embryonic stem cells involves destruction (or at least manipulation) of the pre-implantation stage embryo, there has been much controversy surrounding their use. (wikipedia.org)
  • The promising results published in recent years, both with autologous and in allogeneic cells, highlight a need for greater understanding of the basic principles of this new route and for clarification of the current state of the topic. (intechopen.com)
  • These unlimited supplies of autologous cells could be used to generate transplants without the risk of immune rejection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Last month the US Supreme Court ended an effort to shut down government support of human embryonic stem cell research by refusing to hear a case that challenged the legality of funding for the work by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (scientificamerican.com)
  • Research on how bone-marrow stem cells form fat cells-which make other cells less responsive to insulin-may have implications for treating type 2 diabetes. (getboulder.com)
  • He has authored more than 80 scientific publications in peer-reviewed journals, is an inventor on 11 patents, an active member of the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR), is on the editorial board for the journals Stem Cells and Current Molecular Medicine, and serves on the Executive Committee of the Stem Cell Society of Singapore. (selectbiosciences.com)
  • I submit the following information and web links from Healthline, from the American Lung Association, and from the International Society for Stem Cell research. (copdfoundation.org)
  • iPS cells hold great promise for creating patient- and disease-specific cell lines for research purposes. (healthcentral.com)
  • I became involved with medical research when my son was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, and seeing today's results gives me hope that we will one day have a cure for this debilitating disease. (medindia.net)
  • The NYSCF laboratory is one of the few places in the world that pursues all types of stem cell research. (medindia.net)
  • Even though many people questioned the necessity of continuing our SCNT work, we felt it was critical to advance all types of stem-cell research in pursuit of cures. (medindia.net)
  • The research is the culmination of an effort begun in 2006 to make patient-specific embryonic stem cell lines from patients with type 1 diabetes. (medindia.net)
  • however, isolation of the cell nuclei from these skin biopsies could not be conducted in the federally funded laboratories at Columbia, necessitating a safe-haven laboratory to complete the research. (medindia.net)
  • NYSCF initially established its lab, now the largest independent stem cell laboratory in the nation, to serve as the site for this research. (medindia.net)
  • Stem cell research has grown out of seminal findings from two Department of Medical Biophysics professors, Drs. McCulloch and Till in the early 1960s. (utoronto.ca)
  • The Azrieli Center for Stem Cells and Genetic Research, Institute of Life Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat-Ram, Jerusalem 91904, Israel. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, stem cell research in dentistry has grown rapidly with the potential application for oral and maxillofacial tissue regeneration. (springer.com)
  • However, laboratories worldwide attempting to generate laboratory derived blood cells, find these cells do not perform as well as blood cells from donor sources. (eurekalert.org)
  • When investigating why the derived blood cells did not function as well as donor blood cells, the Lund University researchers found high levels of reactive oxygen species (a class of molecules that cause oxidation) in the newly derived blood cells. (eurekalert.org)