They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
The interstitial fluid that is in the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Infection of the lymph nodes by tuberculosis. Tuberculous infection of the cervical lymph nodes is scrofula.
Diseases of LYMPH; LYMPH NODES; or LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Tubular vessels that are involved in the transport of LYMPH and LYMPHOCYTES.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Inflammation of the lymph nodes.
Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Radiographic study of the lymphatic system following injection of dye or contrast medium.
The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A family of DNA repair enzymes that recognize damaged nucleotide bases and remove them by hydrolyzing the N-glycosidic bond that attaches them to the sugar backbone of the DNA molecule. The process called BASE EXCISION REPAIR can be completed by a DNA-(APURINIC OR APYRIMIDINIC SITE) LYASE which excises the remaining RIBOSE sugar from the DNA.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
The external junctural region between the lower part of the abdomen and the thigh.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Newly arising secondary tumors so small they are difficult to detect by physical examination or routine imaging techniques.
Inorganic compounds that contain TECHNETIUM as an integral part of the molecule. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) is an isotope of technetium that has a half-life of about 6 hours. Technetium 99, which has a half-life of 210,000 years, is a decay product of technetium 99m.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A ZINC FINGER MOTIF protein that recognizes and interacts with damaged DNA. It is a DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. Mutations in this protein are associated with the most severe form of XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
The formation of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.
The tunnel in the lower anterior ABDOMINAL WALL through which the SPERMATIC CORD, in the male; ROUND LIGAMENT, in the female; nerves; and vessels pass. Its internal end is at the deep inguinal ring and its external end is at the superficial inguinal ring.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.
A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR D in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyses the excision of ribose residues at apurinic and apyrimidinic DNA sites that can result from the action of DNA GLYCOSYLASES. The enzyme catalyzes a beta-elimination reaction in which the C-O-P bond 3' to the apurinic or apyrimidinic site in DNA is broken, leaving a 3'-terminal unsaturated sugar and a product with a terminal 5'-phosphate. This enzyme was previously listed under EC 3.1.25.2.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Radionuclide imaging of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.
Macrophages found in the TISSUES, as opposed to those found in the blood (MONOCYTES) or serous cavities (SEROUS MEMBRANE).
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A infiltrating (invasive) breast cancer, relatively uncommon, accounting for only 5%-10% of breast tumors in most series. It is often an area of ill-defined thickening in the breast, in contrast to the dominant lump characteristic of ductal carcinoma. It is typically composed of small cells in a linear arrangement with a tendency to grow around ducts and lobules. There is likelihood of axillary nodal involvement with metastasis to meningeal and serosal surfaces. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1205)
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.
A malignant neoplasm characterized by the formation of numerous, irregular, finger-like projections of fibrous stroma that is covered with a surface layer of neoplastic epithelial cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Recirculating, dendritic, antigen-presenting cells containing characteristic racket-shaped granules (Birbeck granules). They are found principally in the stratum spinosum of the EPIDERMIS and are rich in Class II MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecules. Langerhans cells were the first dendritic cell to be described and have been a model of study for other dendritic cells (DCs), especially other migrating DCs such as dermal DCs and INTERSTITIAL DENDRITIC CELLS.
Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A rare, pigmentary, and atrophic autosomal recessive disease. It is manifested as an extreme photosensitivity to ULTRAVIOLET RAYS as the result of a deficiency in the enzyme that permits excisional repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA.
Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.
A CC-type chemokine with specificity for CCR7 RECEPTORS. It has activity towards DENDRITIC CELLS and T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Immunologic adjuvant and sensitizing agent.
Unbroken cellular lining (intima) of the lymph vessels (e.g., the high endothelial lymphatic venules). It is more permeable than vascular endothelium, lacking selective absorption and functioning mainly to remove plasma proteins that have filtered through the capillaries into the tissue spaces.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A noninvasive (noninfiltrating) carcinoma of the breast characterized by a proliferation of malignant epithelial cells confined to the mammary ducts or lobules, without light-microscopy evidence of invasion through the basement membrane into the surrounding stroma.
Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of the N-glycosidic bond between sugar phosphate backbone and URACIL residue during DNA synthesis.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Cancers or tumors of the PENIS or of its component tissues.
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
Enzymes that are involved in the reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule, which contained damaged regions.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
The period during a surgical operation.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Used for excision of the urinary bladder.
A class of fibrous proteins or scleroproteins that represents the principal constituent of EPIDERMIS; HAIR; NAILS; horny tissues, and the organic matrix of tooth ENAMEL. Two major conformational groups have been characterized, alpha-keratin, whose peptide backbone forms a coiled-coil alpha helical structure consisting of TYPE I KERATIN and a TYPE II KERATIN, and beta-keratin, whose backbone forms a zigzag or pleated sheet structure. alpha-Keratins have been classified into at least 20 subtypes. In addition multiple isoforms of subtypes have been found which may be due to GENE DUPLICATION.
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
A vascular endothelial growth factor that specifically binds to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-2 and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR-3. In addition to being an angiogenic factor it can act on LYMPHATIC VESSELS to stimulate LYMPHANGIOGENESIS. It is similar in structure to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR C in that they both contain N- and C-terminal extensions that were not found in other VEGF family members.
An adenocarcinoma containing finger-like processes of vascular connective tissue covered by neoplastic epithelium, projecting into cysts or the cavity of glands or follicles. It occurs most frequently in the ovary and thyroid gland. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Edema due to obstruction of lymph vessels or disorders of the lymph nodes.
A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on LYMPHOCYTES. It can form a heterotrimer (LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER) with the soluble ligand LYMPHOTOXIN-ALPHA and anchor it to the cell surface. The membrane-bound complex is specific for the LYMPHOTOXIN BETA receptor.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
A type I keratin found associated with KERATIN-7 in ductal epithelia and gastrointestinal epithelia.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Tumors or cancer of the VULVA.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Tumors or cancer of the TONGUE.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.
Cervical lymph nodes that are larger than 1 cm must be biopsied. Connective tissue can be removed by excision when a non- ... inflamed mass is large, and there is generally little recurrence. Infections should be treated conservatively, and causative ...
Lymph nodes may become discolored and inflamed with the presence of tattoo pigments, but discoloration and inflammation are ... Bruises generally heal within one week. Bruises can appear as halos around a tattoo, or, if blood pools, as one larger bruise. ... Keratoacanthoma may also occur, which makes excision of the affected area mandatory. Eyeball tatoos carries its own unique ... When larger particles accumulate in the lymph nodes, inflammation may occur. Smaller particles, such as those created by laser ...
... is definitively diagnosed by a lymph-node biopsy, meaning a partial or total excision of a lymph node examined under ... Lymphadenopathy or swelling of lymph nodes, is the primary presentation in lymphoma. It is generally painless. B symptoms ( ... Diagnosis, if enlarged lymph nodes are present, is usually by lymph node biopsy. Blood, urine, and bone marrow testing may also ... II represents the presence of lymphoma in two or more lymph nodes groups, III represents spread of the lymphoma to lymph nodes ...
Corben, AD.; Nehhozina, T.; Garg, K.; Vallejo, CE.; Brogi, E. (Aug 2010). "Endosalpingiosis in axillary lymph nodes: a possible ... It is generally accepted that the condition develops from transformation of coelomic tissue. It is often an incidental finding ... Endosalpingiosis is diagnosed by a pathologist on excision (e.g. biopsy). It is characterized by cysts with tubal-type ... Endosalpingiosis is occasionally found in lymph nodes, and may be misinterpreted as an adenocarcinoma metastasis. Intermed. mag ...
... report of a case with lymph node metastasis 12 years after local excision". Dermatology Online Journal. 17 (9): 5. PMID ... The rare neoplasms generally do not follow a determinate development path and are often difficult to diagnose. Histologically, ... All auxiliary lymph nodes were negative for tumour." (Garcia, Atun, and Fernando, 2016) From this information, Garcia, Atun, ... "lymph nodes and lung and less commonly, bone and brain." (Ka, Gnangnon, and Diouf, 2016) Written by Tural Selçukbiricik, Günver ...
If given subcutaneously, it may induce local infection and spread to the regional lymph nodes, causing either suppurative ( ... BCG immunization generally causes some pain and scarring at the site of injection. The main adverse effects are keloids-large, ... For non-resolving suppuration, surgical excision may be required. Evidence for the treatment of these complications is scarce. ... the abscess will generally heal on its own in a matter of weeks. The characteristic raised scar that BCG immunization leaves is ...
Surgery is also commonly used to resect (remove) some or all of the cervical lymph nodes to prevent further spread of the ... or postoperative radiation and complete surgical excision are generally used. More recently, as historical survival and control ... like an enlarged lymph node on the outside of the neck, a sore throat or a hoarse sounding voice. However, in the case of ... N is the presence or absence of lymph node metastases, and M is the presence or absence of distant metastases. The T, N, and M ...
It typically describes the removal of a tumor or mass and ancillary lymph nodes that may drain the mass, as in radical ... In histopathology, radicality of tumor excisions is generally defined as the absence of tumor cells in a certain resection ... A non-radical excision may require re-excision. "Radical surgery". Farlex medical dictionary. Retrieved 2019-12-12. CS1 maint: ...
Stage IIIa-There is deep invasion into the penis and metastasis in one lymph node. Stage IIIb-There is deep invasion into the ... Generally speaking, the earlier the cancer is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. The overall 5-year survival rate for all ... The most common treatment is one of five types of surgery: Wide local excision-the tumor and some surrounding healthy tissue ... and possibly the associated lymph nodes. The role of radiation therapy includes an organ-sparing approach for early-stage ...
Lymph nodes may become discolored and inflamed with the presence of tattoo pigments, but discoloration and inflammation are ... Bruises generally heal within one week. Bruises can appear as halos around a tattoo, or, if blood pools, as one larger bruise. ... Keratoacanthoma may also occur, which makes excision of the affected area mandatory. Eyeball tattoos carry their own unique ... Some pigment migrates from a tattoo site to lymph nodes, where large particles may accumulate. Particles created by laser ...
This is usually followed up with a wider excision of the scar or tumor. Depending on the stage, a sentinel lymph node biopsy ... Doctors can generally distinguish seborrheic keratosis from melanoma upon examination, or with dermatoscopy.[citation needed] ... If a lymph node is positive, depending on the extent of lymph node spread, a radical lymph node dissection will often be ... lymph node biopsies and examination of the lymph nodes are also performed in patients to assess spread to the lymph nodes. A ...
If mediastinal lymph node involvement is suspected, the nodes may be sampled to assist staging. Techniques used for this ... Radioactive iodine brachytherapy at the margins of wedge excision may reduce the risk of recurrence. Rarely, removal of a whole ... Outcomes are generally worse in the developing world.[20] Stage is often advanced at the time of diagnosis. At presentation, 30 ... In NSCLC, samples are taken of nearby lymph nodes during surgery to assist staging. If stage II or III disease is confirmed, ...
The course of the disease is generally benign and self-limiting. Lymph node enlargement usually resolves over several weeks to ... It is diagnosed by lymph node excision biopsy. Kikuchi disease is a self-limiting illness which has symptoms which may overlap ... If the clinical course is more severe, with multiple flares of bulky enlarged cervical lymph nodes and fever, then a low-dose ... The signs and symptoms of Kikuchi disease are fever, enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), skin rashes, and ...
The presence of regionally swollen lymph nodes in older patients in whom needle aspiration biopsy reveals characteristic ... This form of cancer generally carries a very poor prognosis due to its aggressive behavior and resistance to cancer treatments ... In the absence of extracervical or unresectable disease, surgical excision should be followed by adjuvant radiotherapy. In the ... with invasion of the local structures and may help to better characterize the presence or absence of neck lymph node metastases ...
Surgical block dissection if palpable nodes or in cases of Marjolin's ulcers but the benefit of prophylactic block lymph node ... This can be by simple excision if the cancer is small otherwise Mohs surgery is generally recommended. Other options may ... Unlike basal-cell carcinomas, SCCs carry a higher risk of metastasis, and may spread to the regional lymph nodes, Erythroplasia ... An excision biopsy is ideal, but not practical in most cases. An incisional or punch biopsy is preferred. A shave biopsy is ...
... the lymph nodes are removed, as well. Alternatives include local surgical procedures such as a loop electrical excision ... A wait of at least one year is generally recommended before attempting to become pregnant after surgery. Recurrence in the ... Due to the possible risk of cancer spread to the lymph nodes in stage 1B cancers and some stage 1A cancers, the surgeon may ... The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage does not incorporate lymph node involvement in contrast ...
Tumors generally located in the peripheral lymph nodes which can be detected via PET scan and CT scan. Ann Arbor staging is ... Surgical lymph node excision may be carried out at the time of diagnosis in certain cases such in children diagnosed at an ... study found sustained complete remission in half of the cases with a watch-and-wait strategy after surgical lymph node excision ...
Stage II: the cancer involves the testis and metastasis to retroperitoneal and/or paraaortic lymph nodes (lymph nodes below the ... More generally, if a young adult or adolescent has a single enlarged testicle, which may or may not be painful, this should ... surgical excision of the entire testis along with attached structures (epididymis and spermatic cord). A biopsy should not be ... In the case of nonseminomas that appear to be stage I, surgery may be done on the retroperitoneal/paraaortic lymph nodes (in a ...
The carcinoma of tonsil usually spreads through the cervical lymph node levels II, III, IV, V, and retropharyngeal lymph nodes ... Generally the patient presents very late due to the lack of definitive symptoms in the early stages of the disease. Nearly ... Excision of the tonsil can be done for early superficial lesions. Large lesions and those which invade bone require wide ... The N staging is based on the extent of spread of cancer to the lymph nodes. Finally, the M stage indicates if the cancer has ...
APRs involves removal of the anus, the rectum and part of the sigmoid colon along with the associated (regional) lymph nodes, ... Miles, W. E. (1971). "A Method of Performing Abdomino-Perineal Excision for Carcinoma of the Rectum and of the Terminal Portion ... There are several advantages in terms of outcomes if the surgery can be performed laparoscopically An APR, generally, results ... An abdominoperineal resection, formally known as abdominoperineal resection of the rectum and abdominoperineal excision of the ...
Invasion of local lymph nodes and venous system Movement out from lymph nodes and venous system Proliferation at new site ... Wide local excision with a 3cm margin and intra-operative frozen sections are suggested, due to high risk of local extension ... Prognosis is generally good, but factors such as depth of invasion and duration of disease need to be considered. In primary ... Similar to the primary form, if secondary EMPD invades the dermis, the neoplastic cells can metastasise to the lymph nodes and ...
The last deep femoral node is called the Cloquet's node. Spread beyond this node reaches the lymph nodes of the pelvis. The ... Surgery may involve a wide local excision (excision of the tumor with a safety-margin of healthy tissue, that ensures complete ... This can generally be done in an office setting under local anesthesia. Small lesions can be removed under local anesthesia as ... Sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection is the identification of the main lymph node(s) draining the tumor, with the aim of ...
Invasion of adjacent structures such as kidney, vena cava, liver, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes are also common. On MRI, it ... ACC, generally, carries a poor prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate of about 50%. Five-year disease-free survival ... Adrenocortical carcinoma The only curative treatment is complete surgical excision of the tumor, which can be performed even in ...
... is the network of vessels responsible for returning to the venous system excess fluid from tissues as well as the lymph nodes ... Cavernous lymphangiomas are generally present at birth, but may appear later in the child's life. These bulging masses occur ... Treatment includes aspiration, surgical excision, laser and radiofrequency ablation, and sclerotherapy. There are three ... They communicate with the superficial lymph vesicles through vertical, dilated lymph channels. Whimster theorized the cisterns ...
One or more lymph nodes may be biopsied during the surgery; increasingly the lymph node sampling is performed by a sentinel ... and generally have a better prognosis. Untreated, HER2+ breast cancers are generally more aggressive than HER2- breast cancers ... Lumpectomy or Wide local excision). In early breast cancer, partial breast irradiation does not give the same cancer control in ... Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node. ...
"Tattoo Ink Nanoparticles Persist in Lymph Nodes". The Scientist. "Re: Cutaneous melanoma attributable to sunbed use: systematic ... Judaism generally prohibits tattoos among its adherents based on the commandments in Leviticus 19. Jews tend to believe this ... Pre-laser tattoo removal methods include dermabrasion, salabrasion (scrubbing the skin with salt), cryosurgery and excision- ... Tattoos are generally considered an important part of the culture of the Russian mafia. Current cultural understandings of ...
... the cancer has spread to lymph nodes (or glands) within the chest (between limited and extensive stage SCLC). Lymph nodes act ... The stage is generally determined by the presence or absence of metastases, whether or not the tumor appears limited to the ... surgical excision may improve survival when used prior to chemotherapy ("adjuvant chemotherapy"). In ES-SCLC, platinum-based ... In general, if the tumor is confined to one lung and the lymph nodes close to that lung, the cancer is said to be LS. If the ...
Specifically, MRI shows increased detection of small cancers which have less associated lymph node involvement and consequently ... then the excision of the duct (microdochectomy) is indicated; if the discharge comes from several ducts or if no specific duct ... MRI in detection of cancer is considerably higher than that of either radiographic mammography or ultrasound and is generally ... indicates axillary lymph node metastasis". Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery. 10 (3): 624-633. doi:10.21037/qims. ...
Differential diagnosis are ectopic thyroid, enlarged lymph nodes, dermoid cysts and goiter. ... "classic": excision of the center of the hyoid bone along with a thyroglossal duct cyst, removal of one-eighth inch diameter ... Although generally benign, the cyst must be removed if the patient exhibits difficulty in breathing or swallowing, or if the ... Thyroglossal cysts are the most common cause of midline neck masses and are generally located caudal to (below) the hyoid bone ...
... sublumbar lymph nodes, and anal glands. In horses it is a vital component of the clinical examination for colic, to determine ... Thus, routine performance is unnecessary and generally unhelpful. The examination is warranted in cases where urethral injury ...
Klopfleisch R, Gruber AD (May 2009). "Increased expression of BRCA2 and RAD51 in lymph node metastases of canine mammary ... This repression was generally associated with decreased HR and increased sensitivity of the cells to DNA damaging agents. ... Excision repair. *Base excision repair/AP site *DNA glycosylase. *Uracil-DNA glycosylase ... miR-34a is also generally under-expressed in primary neuroblastoma tumors.[47] ...
Besides the tumour itself, the radiation fields may also include the draining lymph nodes if they are clinically or ... Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of ... This is most commonly seen in the treatment of breast cancer with wide local excision or mastectomy followed by adjuvant ... Cancer cells are generally less differentiated and more stem cell-like; they reproduce more than most healthy differentiated ...
... inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck). The fevers occur periodically about every 3-5 weeks. The condition appears to ... These lesions are generally less than 10 mm in diameter (usually about 2-3 mm),[7] and affect non-keratinized mucosal surfaces ... Surgical excision of aphthous ulcers has been described, but it is an ineffective and inappropriate treatment.[5] Silver ... It generally occurs in a slightly older age group than the other subtypes,[8] and females are affected slightly more frequently ...
"Tattoo Ink Nanoparticles Persist in Lymph Nodes". The Scientist.. *^ "Re: Cutaneous melanoma attributable to sunbed use: ... Judaism generally prohibits tattoos among its adherents based on the commandments in Leviticus 19. Jews tend to believe this ... Pre-laser tattoo removal methods include dermabrasion, salabrasion (scrubbing the skin with salt), cryosurgery and excision- ... Radiation Facility in France say the chemicals in tattoo ink can travel in the bloodstream and accumulate in the lymph nodes, ...
Sometimes the "sentinel lymph node"-that is, the first axillary lymph node that the metastasizing cancer cells would be ... The surgery is generally considered when the person has BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations in their genes. The tissue from just beneath ... Alternatively, some patients can choose to have a wide local excision, also known as a lumpectomy, an operation in which a ... This type of mastectomy is used to examine the lymph nodes because this helps to identify whether the cancer cells have spread ...
Excision and reconstruction of facial skin cancers is generally more challenging due to presence of highly visible and ... Sentinel lymph node. Topography. *Head and neck (oral, nasopharyngeal). *Digestive system. *Respiratory system ... Currently, surgical excision is the most common form of treatment for skin cancers. The goal of reconstructive surgery is ... Cure rates are equivalent to wide excision. Special training is required to perform this technique. An alternative method is ...
... lymph nodes, granulomatous lesions or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament in the context of Eagle syndrome (elongated ... They are generally soft, sometimes rubbery. This tends to occur most often in people who suffer from chronic inflammation in ... Larger lesions may require local excision, although these treatments may not completely help the bad breath issues that are ... Many lymph cells (dark-colored region) pass from the nodules toward the surface and will eventually mix with the saliva as ...
Lymph nodes. *Lymphadenectomy. *Neck dissection. *Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. *Lymph node biopsy ... excision - cutting out an organ, tumor,[9] or other tissue.. *resection - partial removal of an organ or other bodily structure ... Barber-surgeons generally had a bad reputation that was not to improve until the development of academic surgery as a specialty ... Excision surgery names often start with a name for the organ to be excised (cut out) and end in -ectomy. ...
Bernard Peyrilhe treated breast cancer by radical mastectomy which included both the pectoral muscle and axillary lymph nodes.[ ... With little or no formal training, they generally had a bad reputation that was not to improve until the development of ... About this year Leonidas of Alexandria began advocating the excision of breast cancer via a wide cut through normal tissues ... generally regarded as the father of modern scientific surgery.[46] He brought an empirical and experimental approach to the ...
A triangular perifissural node can be diagnosed as a benign lymph node.[8] ... Excision[edit]. Where workup indicates a high risk of cancer, excision can be performed by thoracotomy or video-assisted ... Growth rate: solid cancers generally doubles in volume over between 100 and 400 days, while subsolid cancers (generally ... For multiple nodes, management is based on the most suspicious node.[7] These guidelines do not apply in lung cancer screening ...
Mannu, G.S.; Navi, A.; Morgan, A.; Mirza, S.M.; Down, S.K.; Farooq, N.; Burger, A.; Hussien, M.I. (2012). "Sentinel lymph node ... DIEP reconstruction generally produces the best outcome for most women.[12] See free flap breast reconstruction for more ... Mannu, Gurdeep S.; Navi, Ali; Hussien, Maged (2015). "Sentinel lymph node biopsy before mastectomy and immediate breast ... Generally, the aesthetic appearance is acceptable to the woman, but the reconstructed area is commonly completely numb ...
Generally speaking, however, the term tumor is used generically, without reference to the physical size of the lesion.[1] More ... biopsy or surgical exploration/excision in an attempt to avoid such severe complications. ... Sentinel lymph node. Topography. *Head/Neck (Oral, Nasopharyngeal). *Digestive system. *Respiratory system ... then colon cancers generally should be associated with, and be preceded by, fields of increasing abnormality reflecting the ...
This diagnosis is usually performed by an ELISA or isolation of the virus from either the blood, lymph nodes, spleen, or serum ... The virus encodes enzymes required for replication and transcription of its genome, including elements of a base excision ... infection is generally asymptomatic. This virus appears to have evolved around 1700 AD. This date is corroborated by the ...
Open surgery may be preferred if there is a suspicion that lymph nodes are involved and they need to be removed or biopsied ... They are generally composed of simple sugars and are often slightly alkaline. Because the Skene's gland and the male prostate ... "The idea of extirpating the entire gland is, indeed, too absurd to be seriously entertained... Excision of the middle lobe ... A perineal approach will not involve lymph node removal and may result in less pain and a faster recovery following an ...
More radical procedures generally are not warranted. [24] Axillary lymph node dissection should be performed only for ... Tumor Excision and Mastectomy. Complete excision, with accurate histologic examination and continued follow-up care, is the ... In most cases, wide local excision is indicated, with a rim of normal tissue included. [23, 24, 8] No absolute rules regarding ... If the tumor-to-breast ratio is sufficiently high to preclude a satisfactory cosmetic result with segmental excision, total ...
... laparoscopic gastrectomy that includes removal of lymph nodes outside the immediate area around the stomach offered excellent ... whether patients received D1 or D2 lymph node dissection. In addition, there are generally more short-term complications with ... Extended Lymph Node Excision Feasible in Gastric Cancer. by Ed Susman, Contributing Writer, MedPage Today January 24, 2012 ... D2 laparoscopic dissection improved lymph node harvest from the historical average of 11 nodes to 32 nodes, reported Danielle ...
Excision of the involved skin and glands is the only cure; such resections are generally quite disfiguring. The exact cause is ... Axillary lymphadenitis is the inflammation and enlargement of underarm lymph nodes.. Axillary hidradenitis is chronic recurring ... Skoog T. Excision of the axillary sweat glands. Plastic Surgery, New Methods and Refinements. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders Co ...
If lymph nodes are negative, excision is generally performed en bloc with pulmonary resection. After the thorax is entered and ... especially when lymph nodes were not metastatically involved. Chest wall resection should be preceeded by mediastinoscopy. ... Generally, the line of resection should encompass the area of invasion by several centimeters. The lung with attached chest ...
Excision of the breast. mastectomy. Removal of the breast and any involved skin, pectoral muscles, asillary lymph nodes and ... Excision of a myomatous tumor, generally uterine. myomectomy. Excision of an ovary and fallopian tube. salpingo-oophorectomy. ... Excision of the uterus. hysterectomy. Hysterectomy where the cervix, ovaries, and fallopian tubes remain. subtotal hysterectomy ... Excision of a cone-shaped piece of tissue, such as the cervix, for histological examination. conization. ...
... and an excision biopsy removes the entire tumor. The surgeon also can take samples of neighboring lymph nodes. Cancer in ... It generally works best on slow-growing cancers.. Not only can surgery be curative for some cancers, but it is an essential ... If microscopic analysis determines the presence of cancer cells in lymph nodes, the surgeon may decide to perform a more ... surrounding lymph nodes is an important avenue for distant spread of cancer to other areas. ...
The two main types of surgery used are a wide excision and a lymph node dissection. Wide excision A wide excision is surgery ... Generally, surgery is the main or primary (first) treatment for melanoma skin cancer. Thus, almost all patients with melanoma ... When wider margins are removed, or when wide excision is combined with lymph node surgery, general anesthesia is often needed. ... See Guide 2. Depending on the size of the surgical margin and the location of the melanoma, a wide excision may be done using ...
Pulmonary and lymph node involvement are the commonest form of tuberculosis in HIV infection [1, 2]. Other forms of ... Tuberculous abscesses are generally single brain lesions, larger than tuberculomas, and evolve more rapidly in comparison. This ... described a case of tuberculous brain abscess and emphasized the early need for stereotactic biopsy or surgical excision. Neuro ... Lymph node involvement may be acute resembling pyogenic adenitis. Other structures involved in late stage are brain, liver, ...
with regional lymph-node involvement or metastases at presentation, less than 20% will survive;. - surgical excision of ... generally can be cured regardless of disease stage;. - older children:. - older patients with advanced disease have a poor ... majority of patients have tumor involvment of regional lymph nodes or have metastasis to bone at time of diagnosis;. - only 20 ...
Lymph nodes (when present). No clear recommendation exists. One approach is to submit all lymph nodes ,10mm whole. Lymph nodes ... This can generally be achieved in 1-4 cassettes. 8,9. * Record a diagram of inking and sampling of orientated re-excision ... If tumour macroscopically involves any lymph nodes, record:. * Number of macroscopically-involved nodes out of total number of ... Slater D and Walsh M Dataset for the histological reporting of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma and regional lymph nodes, ...
Cervical lymph nodes that are larger than 1 cm must be biopsied. Connective tissue can be removed by excision when a non- ... inflamed mass is large, and there is generally little recurrence. Infections should be treated conservatively, and causative ...
Treatment of CSD is generally supportive, although excision of the affected lymph node(s) and the use of antimicrobials may be ... Affected lymph nodes usually are proximal to the site of a cat scratch or bite, frequently are tender, and may suppurate. ... Microscopic examination of lymph node biopsies was consistent with CSD for the two children with lymphadenopathy on ... CSD affects persons of all age groups and both sexes and generally is characterized by a self-limiting, regional ...
If the excision is for cancer, an effort is made to remove a wider segment to include lymph nodes. The ends of the bowel are ... Segmental Colectomies: Generally, a vertical incision is made in the middle of the abdomen, overlying the portion of the bowel ... The anus, rectum and part of the sigmoid colon are removed to include the attending vessels and lymph nodes. The end of the ... Laparoscopic colon resection uses this minimal-access approach for removing cancerous tissue and lymph nodes. ...
For other causes of lymph node enlargement, see lymphadenopathy. Diagnosis[edit] It is diagnosed by lymph node excision biopsy ... enlarged lymph nodes that are not generally painful, fevers, sweats, itchiness, weight loss and feeling tired among others.[2][ ... Sources tend to differ on the name of these lymph nodes. These particular names of the lymph nodes used correspond to adjacent ... The intervening lymph nodes can trap the cancer cells. If they are not successful in destroying the cancer cells the nodes may ...
This operation is called a wide local excision (WLE). DCIS does not generally spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit (axilla ... the lymph nodes may be removed during the surgery and checked for cancer cells. This is because, for some women, there may be ... an area of invasive cancer cells within the DCIS which could spread into the lymph nodes. ref:http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/ ...
Lymphoma is definitively diagnosed by a lymph-node biopsy, meaning a partial or total excision of a lymph node examined under ... Lymphadenopathy or swelling of lymph nodes, is the primary presentation in lymphoma. It is generally painless. B symptoms ( ... Diagnosis, if enlarged lymph nodes are present, is usually by lymph node biopsy. Blood, urine, and bone marrow testing may also ... II represents the presence of lymphoma in two or more lymph nodes groups, III represents spread of the lymphoma to lymph nodes ...
Lymph nodes may become discolored and inflamed with the presence of tattoo pigments, but discoloration and inflammation are ... Bruises generally heal within one week. Bruises can appear as halos around a tattoo, or, if blood pools, as one larger bruise. ... Keratoacanthoma may also occur, which makes excision of the affected area mandatory. Eyeball tatoos carries its own unique ... When larger particles accumulate in the lymph nodes, inflammation may occur. Smaller particles, such as those created by laser ...
The nucleic acid amplification tests (eg, to the cor- systems, the proponents of retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Cell nuclear ... Excision is then occluded below the origin of the men receiving efavi- tenderness. Pro and con argu- the benefit of should ... generally be less omi- tial biologic behavior of these trauma-related deaths. Data suggest that dysplas- t5 penile carcinomas ... can prevent or alleviate airway focus and calcified hilar lymph nodes). 2014 sep; kolman sa et al. 0.12% chlorhexidine or half- ...
Total thymectomy and complete surgical excision are generally appropriate for most patients.6-8 Before surgery, all patients ... Although thymomas can be locally invasive (pleura, lung), they rarely spread to regional lymph nodes or distant sites. The ... Thymic carcinomas are rare aggressive tumors that often metastasize to regional lymph nodes and distant sites; thus, they have ... because thymomas do not typically metastasize to regional lymph nodes.14 CT-based planning is highly recommended (see pages ...
Treatment of HCCC involves local excision with healthy margins followed by reconstruction. If lymph node metastases are ... Generally, the hyalinizing nature of the stroma can be a feature that points to a diagnosis of HCCC as well as the PAS and DPAS ... head and body CT scans and regional lymph node biopsies. Surgical intervention included a partial maxillectomy with ... Chemotherapy has generally not been considered to be effective in the management of salivary gland tumours. The rare nature of ...
Clinically involved lymph nodes are removed by a radical or modified neck dissection. Elective neck dissections are generally ... In most cases, local excision with a margin of normal tissue is the appropriate form of biopsy for a major salivary gland tumor ... Enlarged cervical lymph nodes in association with a salivary gland tumor are considered a manifestation of cancer until proved ... For high-grade cancers, postoperative radiation therapy is indicated for the primary cancer site and regional lymph nodes. ...
... are generally associated with fibrocystic change. Palpable axillary lymph nodes may be present, however may not be 100% ... Gold standard is still through biopsy, either through core-needle biopsy, incisional biopsy or excision biopsy. ... They generally involute and symptoms disappear with menopause.. ***On the final note, women aged 35 years old and above who ...
Nearby lymph nodes may also be removed to further help control the disease and a skin graft may be performed depending upon the ... The excision generally includes some healthy tissue surrounding the growth, as well, to ensure that no cancer cells remain in ... The excision generally includes some healthy tissue surrounding the growth, as well, to ensure that no cancer cells remain in ... Nearby lymph nodes may also be removed to further help control the disease and a skin graft may be performed depending upon the ...
It may spread into local lymph nodes and metastasise to other parts of the body. ... It is generally a slow-growing, locally invasive epidermal skin tumour that rarely spreads to other parts of the body. Although ... Current treatments for BCC and SCC include surgical excision and radiotherapy, and less commonly curettage, cryotherapy and ...
The presence of a palpable lymph node mandates biopsy of the suspicious node, generally with fine needle aspiration (FNA). If ... Melanoma metastatic to cervical lymph nodes: Can radiotherapy replace formal dissection after local excision of nodal disease? ... Clinically evident lymph nodes should be evaluated with fine-needle aspiration to determine the need for lymph node dissection. ... Regional lymph node involvement. In patients with intermediate-risk melanoma (1 to 4 mm in thickness), lymph node involvement ...
Radical local excision with ipsilateral or bilateral inguinal and femoral lymph node dissection may be indicated. For stage I ... radical local excision with a margin of at least 1 cm has generally replaced radical vulvectomy; separate incision has replaced ... Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) Another strategy to minimize the morbidity incurred by groin lymph node dissection in ... Some investigators recommend radical excision and groin nodal radiation therapy as a means to avoid the morbidity of lymph node ...
MUP behaves more like thick primary melanoma and is generally treated by wide local excision and sentinel lymph node biopsy, if ... Lymph node metastases commonly arise in the axillary (50%), neck (26%), and groin (20%) lymph nodes [1]. ... For nodal MUP, radical lymph node dissection of the affected region is generally undertaken. Patients who undergo surgery are ... Studies have shown that lymph node and subcutaneous MUP have a better prognosis than stage III melanoma of a known primary site ...
Its closely associated with tobacco use, and it generally... ... Aggressive cancers may necessitate the removal of lymph nodes ... Following the removal of cancerous tissues, individuals will generally be given chemo and/or radiation therapies to eradicate ... Nearly all treatment approaches involve the surgical excision of the tumor and affected tissues in the immediate area. ... Belonging to the classification of head and neck cancers, mouth cancer generally necessitates surgery and follow-up treatment ...
Lymph node metastases were identified in surgical specimens in 7 (54%) of 13 patients in whom lymph nodes were examined, ... In general, endoscopic excision of primary duodenal carcinoids appears to be most appropriate for tumors smaller than 1 cm.[1] ... In patients with distant metastases, prognosis is generally poor, with an overall 5-year survival rate of approximately 30%.[12 ... Histological examination of a regional lymphadenectomy specimen will ordinarily include 12 or more lymph nodes. If the lymph ...
... but has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or invaded adjacent organs. Stage III cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or has ... Excision is possible; if not resectable (which is common), palliative procedures may be used including biliary bypass, ... Late Stage I cancers, which involve the outer muscular layers of the gallbladder wall, are generally treated in the same way as ... Stage IV disease has invaded very deeply into two or more adjacent organs or has spread to distant lymph nodes or organs by way ...
  • In most cases, wide local excision is indicated, with a rim of normal tissue included. (medscape.com)
  • This operation is called a wide local excision (WLE). (medhelp.org)
  • Wide local excision removes the tumour along with a margin of normal tissue around it. (cancer.ca)
  • If a diagnosis of melanoma is confirmed, you will probably need further surgery, such as a wide local excision. (cancersa.org.au)
  • A sentinel lymph node biopsy is usually done at the same time as the wide local excision. (cancersa.org.au)
  • This is often done by a wide local excision with 1 to 2 cm margins. (unizg.hr)
  • The diagnosis of MUP is usually made based on clinical signs and symptoms consistent with metastatic disease, along with histopathology of a tissue specimen that confirms the presence of malignant melanocytes, such as excisional biopsy of the lymph node or needle core biopsy of a solid organ metastasis [8]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Stage IV disease has invaded very deeply into two or more adjacent organs or has spread to distant lymph nodes or organs by way of metastasis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any patient with persistent asthma whose symptoms do not demon- the total daily dose excision of retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis n1 metastasis within does not cause hypoglycemia. (goodbelly.com)
  • One or more tumors with metastasis in the skin with lymph node involvement. (wearethecure.org)
  • Less than one-third of cases have localized disease, with 23% having distant metastasis, 13.5% lymph node metastasis and 34.6% diagnosed with vascular/lymphatic or intrapulmonary spread [ 7 ]. (plos.org)
  • Even upon metastasis, with or without local or regional lymph node involvement, the patient may remain asymptomatic. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • FIGO 's revised TNM classification system uses tumor size (T), lymph node involvement (N) and presence or absence of metastasis (M) as criteria for staging. (checkorphan.org)
  • The first lymph node to directly drain the primary tumor, the so-called sentinel lymph node (SLN), is the preferred site of early metastasis ( 16 - 18 ) and takes the brunt of the tumor-induced immunosuppression ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • HLRCC-associated kidney cancer is an aggressive tumor characterized by early metastasis to regional lymph nodes and distant organs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinically, skin tumors are further classified, utilizing the TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) system devised by the World Health Organization ( J Vet Intern Med 4:242-246, 1990). (maxshouse.com)
  • Sadly, isolated metastasis, intensive local lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion preclude resection [5] frequently. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • This tumour which has a poor prognosis and displays different biological behaviour, often has a tendency to recurrence and metastasis is seen in the skin and lymph nodes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Traditional TNM (tumour - node - metastasis) classification system classifies melanomas on the basis of their characteristic. (unizg.hr)
  • Axillary lymph node dissection should be performed only for clinically suspicious nodes. (medscape.com)
  • In a single-arm, retrospective study, D2 laparoscopic dissection improved lymph node harvest from the historical average of 11 nodes to 32 nodes, reported Danielle Bischof, MD, from the University of Toronto, and colleagues at the Multidisciplinary Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Bischof told MedPage Today that the increase was accomplished without significant change in morbidity -- 24% with a D2 dissection compared with 30.4% with the less extended lymph node surgery. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Bischof's group reviewed patient records from three surgeons who performed D2 lymph node dissection in two community hospitals in Toronto. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, I am not convinced that lymphadenectomy is therapeutic in gastric cancer," he told MedPage Today , adding that previous studies indicate no significant differences in long-term overall survival, whether patients received D1 or D2 lymph node dissection. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The two main types of surgery used are a wide excision and a lymph node dissection. (nccn.org)
  • Rudd fv, rott rk, skoglund rw, ansell js: Tumor is sentinel node biopsy in the dissection. (goodbelly.com)
  • Patients must have undergone axillary nodal staging procedures, for example sentinel node (SN) biopsy alone, SN biopsy followed by axillary sampling or completion dissection, or axillary node dissection to obtain lymph nodes for pathologic evaluation. (knowcancer.com)
  • If the patient has palpable nodes, axillary dissection is required. (knowcancer.com)
  • Neck dissection removes lymph nodes from the neck. (cancer.ca)
  • By pathologic evaluation, ipsilateral nodes must be pN1 (pN1mi, pN1a, pN1b, pN1c), pN2a, pN3a, or pN3b (only if due to microscopic involvement of internal mammary node detected by sentinel lymph node dissection and with more than 3 positive axillary lymph nodes). (knowcancer.com)
  • We successfully treated the patient with locally advanced HLRCC-associated kidney cancer, who has received active surveillance because of at-risk individual, by radical nephrectomy and extended retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, and examined surgically resected samples from a molecular point of view. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we successfully treated a patient with locally advanced HLRCC-associated pRCC2 by neoadjuvant administration of axitinib and subsequent radical nephrectomy and extended retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Then they did another wide excision and an elective lymph node dissection, where two more nodes with micromets were found. (melanoma.org)
  • The basis of treatment is surgical excision and if there is lymph node involvement, regional lymph node dissection must be applied. (bvsalud.org)
  • If a lymph node is positive, a radical lymph node dissection will often be performed. (unizg.hr)
  • Depending on the size of the surgical margin and the location of the melanoma, a wide excision may be done using local anesthesia that is injected into the area to numb it before the surgery. (nccn.org)
  • Current treatments for BCC and SCC include surgical excision and radiotherapy, and less commonly curettage, cryotherapy and chemotherapy. (nice.org.uk)
  • Nearly all treatment approaches involve the surgical excision of the tumor and affected tissues in the immediate area. (wisegeek.com)
  • After surgical excision, histopathologic examination revealed a dermal nodular proliferation of spindle cells arranged in storiform pattern, with mild pleomorphism, infiltrating around appendages and into the subcutaneous tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • A seventy-four-year-old Caucasian man underwent the surgical excision of a cutaneous lesion of the back. (hindawi.com)
  • Kidney to confirm surgical excision of rcc. (goodbelly.com)
  • When the cancer has metastasized to other sites in the body prior to surgery, complete surgical excision is usually impossible. (disabled-world.com)
  • Surgical removal remains the mainstay of treatment for primary cutaneous melanoma, and is generally considered one of the most noncontroversial aspects of melanoma management. (jnccn.org)
  • Outside of a clinical trial, however, the simplest therapy-surgical excision-is the favored initial treatment of isolated lesions or small groups of in-transit/satellite lesions that can be excised completely. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Treatment - These tumors are amenable to surgical excision because of their benign nature. (wearethecure.org)
  • therefore, surgical excision may still 6. (cdc.gov)
  • 0.5 g/mL but was resistant to cipro- here had complete surgical excision biol. (cdc.gov)
  • Introduction of complete mesocolic excision with central vascular ligation as standardized surgical treatment for colon cancer in Greece. (termedia.pl)
  • Treatment is by surgical excision which may be accompanied by radiotherapy. (oup.com)
  • The radiation is sometimes used after surgery (surgical or lymph) if the cancer is not removed (if the surgical margin is positive) if it is involved in the nerves, or if there are some remaining cancers. (canceroz.com)
  • The optimal therapy for suppurative lymphadenitis is also uncertain, and conservative management, antituberculous chemotherapy, incision and drainage, and surgical excision have all been employed {Lotte et al. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • as child is completely asymptomatic, only surgical excision is advisable. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • For necrotizing fasciitis and synergistic gangrene, early wide surgical excision and d bridement is necessary in addition to IV antibiotics. (medindia.net)
  • A complete anatomic colon resection without extensive lymphadenectomy (surgical removal of lymph nodes) is generally suggested. (learnteethwhitening.com)
  • Basic therapy of malignant melanoma is surgical excision with the adequate surgical margins. (unizg.hr)
  • If the tumor-to-breast ratio is sufficiently high to preclude a satisfactory cosmetic result with segmental excision, total mastectomy , with or without reconstruction , is an alternative. (medscape.com)
  • The interval between the last surgery for breast cancer treatment (lumpectomy, mastectomy, sentinel lymph node biopsy, axillary surgery, or re-excision of lumpectomy margins) and randomization must be no more than 84 days. (knowcancer.com)
  • Dr. Moore frequently treats Breast Cancer, Mastectomy, and Lymph Node Biopsy or Excision. (sharecare.com)
  • If your dog is intact spaying is generally done at the time of the mastectomy. (petplace.com)
  • Patients are stratified according to number of positive nodes (1-3 vs 4-9 vs 10 or more), administration of hormonal therapy (tamoxifen vs anastrozole vs neither), surgery/radiotherapy (lumpectomy plus breast irradiation vs lumpectomy plus breast irradiation plus regional irradiation vs mastectomy without radiotherapy vs mastectomy with radiotherapy), paclitaxel schedule (every 3 weeks vs weekly), and participating center. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pulmonary and lymph node involvement are the commonest form of tuberculosis in HIV infection [1, 2]. (scielo.br)
  • Other forms of tuberculosis in the absence of lung and lymph node involvement are rare. (scielo.br)
  • Abdominal involvement is common in disseminated tuberculosis, especially lymphnode involvement. (scielo.br)
  • The most common clinical presentation of MUP is lymph node disease without clinical or radiological evidence of visceral involvement. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The factors on which staging depends include the number of tumors present and lymph node involvement. (wearethecure.org)
  • One tumor in the skin incompletely removed, with no lymph node involvement. (wearethecure.org)
  • Lymph node involvement is the most important predictor of prognosis. (checkorphan.org)
  • The clinical presentation of ATM infection differs based on the specific organism and method of transmission with involvement most commonly of the skin, lungs, and lymph nodes. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • A 48-year-old woman with a left renal tumor and involvement of multiple regional lymph nodes with high accumulation of fluorine-18-deoxyglucose on positron emission tomography was treated with axitinib as a neoadjuvant therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accurate staging of many cancers with no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement is often a critical component of the management of such cancers and is generally and historically accomplished by accurate pathological assessment of multiple nodes. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The disease is usually unilateral and occurs in the cervical, submandibular, or preauricular lymph nodes, although parotid and postauricular node involvement has been reported. (cdc.gov)
  • Area can become indurated, and frequently streaks of lymphangitis can be seen with involvement of the regional lymph nodes. (medindia.net)
  • DCIS does not generally spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit (axilla), but sometimes, if the area of DCIS is large or widespread, the lymph nodes may be removed during the surgery and checked for cancer cells. (medhelp.org)
  • Because they may also spread to the lymph nodes and underlying tissue, they can compress the rectum causing your dog to have difficulty defecating (straining) and constipation. (vcahospitals.com)
  • If the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes under the armpit or above the collarbone, they may feel enlarged and hard. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • Of all the patients involved in the National Cancer Database Review, only 15% who were younger and more likely to have node-positive cancer (cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes) received chemotherapy. (learnteethwhitening.com)
  • Melanomas usually spread to the lymph nodes in the area of the tumour. (unizg.hr)
  • Generally, surgery is the main or primary (first) treatment for melanoma skin cancer. (nccn.org)
  • Wide excision A wide excision is surgery that removes the entire melanoma tumor on the skin along with some normal-looking tissue around its edge. (nccn.org)
  • Even if the melanoma is removed on the initial diagnostic biopsy, a wider excision is performed to remove nearby lymphatic channels in the skin, where there could be additional tumor cells. (nccn.org)
  • Metastatic melanoma with unknown primary (MUP) refers to metastatic melanoma in lymph nodes , subcutaneous tissue, or visceral sites in the absence of a detectable primary tumour despite detailed examination [1]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The current NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Melanoma (available in this issue and online at www.NCCN.org ) 1 and those of Europe 2 and of Australia and New Zealand 3 all recommend 1- to 2-cm excision margins predicated on the Breslow thickness of the primary tumor ( Table 1 ). (jnccn.org)
  • Impaired immune functions in the sentinel lymph node (SLN) may facilitate early metastatic events during melanoma development. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In vivo primed T cells reactive to a wide range of melanoma-specific tumor-associated antigens are detectable in tumors, in tumor-draining lymph nodes, and in the blood of patients with melanoma, and most importantly, their frequency can be increased by tumor-associated antigen-specific vaccination ( 1 - 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We recently reported on the dendritic cell (DC)-modulatory effects of intradermal injections of granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) around the excision site of stage I melanoma tumors, resulting in significantly increased numbers and activation state of MDC in the paracortical T cell areas of the SLN ( 22 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • If the doctor suspects that a spot on your skin may be melanoma, the whole spot is removed (excision biopsy) so it can be examined by a specialist doctor called a pathologist. (cancersa.org.au)
  • To work out if the melanoma has spread, your doctor will feel the lymph nodes closest to the melanoma and may recommend an ultrasound and a fine needle biopsy or a sentinel lymph node biopsy. (cancersa.org.au)
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy - You may be offered a sentinel lymph node biopsy if the lymph nodes do not seem enlarged but the melanoma is considered high risk. (cancersa.org.au)
  • This biopsy finds and removes the first lymph node that the melanoma would be likely to spread to (the sentinel node). (cancersa.org.au)
  • The removed lymph nodes are then checked for melanoma cells under a microscope. (cancersa.org.au)
  • To find the sentinel lymph node, a small amount of radioactive dye is injected into the area where the initial melanoma was found. (cancersa.org.au)
  • The results of a sentinel lymph node biopsy can help predict the risk of melanoma spreading to other parts of the body. (cancersa.org.au)
  • Melanoma is a lethal disease if untreated, early detection and excision will cure melanoma.Awareness and education is essential to cure, which is done by melanoma walks in your local area, several organisations like melanoma research alliance, melanoma.Org etc contact your local american society office for more information or your local hospital. (healthtap.com)
  • Is a sentinel lymph biopsy overkill for melanoma? (healthtap.com)
  • It worked (the path for lymph flow had not been affected by the previous Wide excision) and I actually had TWO sentinal nodes filled with melanoma, plus one more. (melanoma.org)
  • Complete excision, with accurate histologic examination and continued follow-up care, is the best way to treat phyllodes tumors. (medscape.com)
  • If they are not successful in destroying the cancer cells the nodes may become sites of secondary tumors. (pearltrees.com)
  • But tumors generally don't originate in these sites. (wearethecure.org)
  • Description - These tumors have a predilection for the head and are generally exophytic (growing outwards). (wearethecure.org)
  • Generally, skin tumors are classified histologically according to the tissue of origin (epithelial, mesenchymal, melanotic, or round cell) and individual cell of origin if sufficient differentiation is present. (maxshouse.com)
  • Midline tumors may metastasize to contralateral nodes. (redorbit.com)
  • However, in cases of low‑grade and small tumors, local excision can also be performed. (learnteethwhitening.com)
  • Cervical lymph nodes that are larger than 1 cm must be biopsied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemiology[edit] Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) is a rare, self-limiting disorder that typically affects the cervical lymph nodes. (pearltrees.com)
  • Her examination showed enlarged left (6 × 4 cm) and right (4 × 3 cm) posterior, cervical lymph nodes, which were indurated, erythematous, and fl uctuant. (cdc.gov)
  • The clinical features of oral cancer can include long-standing asymptomatic ulceration, firmness or hardness on palpation, and, in advanced cases, hard cervical lymph nodes with loss of weight and pale complexion. (oup.com)
  • Oral squamous cell carcinoma infiltrates local tissues and spreads via the lymphatics to the cervical lymph nodes, where it may escape into the tissues of the neck. (oup.com)
  • The prognosis tends to be generally worse when tumours arise in the more posterior parts of the oral cavity and oropharynx, when they are large, or have spread to the cervical lymph nodes and tissues of the neck. (oup.com)
  • Inspect carefully for multiple/multifocal lesions, lymph nodes, large nerves, blood vessels and attached tissues (e.g. salivary gland, bone and cartilage). (edu.au)
  • The limbs account for generally ¼ the of the sites of these lesions. (wearethecure.org)
  • 5) Generally, lesions present initially on the face or extremities. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Five-year survival is greater than 90% for patients with stage I lesions but decreases to 20% when pelvic lymph nodes are involved. (checkorphan.org)
  • D: Excision of endometriotic lesions of the anesthesia provider needs to be this decision. (dsaj.org)
  • SAN FRANCISCO -- In patients with gastric cancer, laparoscopic gastrectomy that includes removal of regional lymph nodes outside the immediate area around the stomach -- D2 nodes -- offered "excellent" margin status and node retrieval, researchers reported here. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The removal of regional lymph nodes (nearest) may be recommended for some squamous cancers very large or deep planted into the skin, and if the lymph feels increased and/or hard. (canceroz.com)
  • In general, hidradenocarcinomas exhibit a general lack of distinguishable features and following excisional biopsy or local excision, the primary lesion may remain dormant or recur slowly in situ. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Also, in the setting of localized, completely resectable disease, sentinel lymph node biopsy can be considered in much the same way as for a primary lesion, regardless of whether the first draining basin has already been surgically cleared. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Those cases with unknown primaries can present as an involved single lymph node basin, isolated skin or soft tissue mass, or even an isolated lesion in a major organ (lung and brain) mimicking a primary brain tumor or lung cancer. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Interestingly, patients presenting with an isolated lymph node site and no primary lesion appear to have a better prognosis than those with a known primary lesion. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • The patient was treated successfully via a relaparotomy to exclude any macroscopic abdominal recurrence and complete excision of the lesion with a plastic flap to compensate for the tissue lost in the resection. (elsevier.com)
  • Belonging to the classification of head and neck cancers, mouth cancer generally necessitates surgery and follow-up treatment that can involve chemotherapy , radiation therapy or both. (wisegeek.com)
  • Compare disease-free survival in women with node-positive breast cancer treated with 3 different adjuvant chemotherapy regimens comprising dose-dense doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, paclitaxel, and gemcitabine vs docetaxel, doxorubicin, and cyclophosphamide vs dose-dense doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, and paclitaxel. (knowcancer.com)
  • PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well giving combination chemotherapy together with trastuzumab works compared to combination chemotherapy alone in treating women with node-positive stage II or stage IIIA breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Chemotherapy is an option for cancer patients squamous cancer, which spreads to lymph nodes or distant bodies. (canceroz.com)
  • The chemotherapy is generally administered on an outpatient basis. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Palpable axillary lymph nodes may be present, however may not be 100% indicative of a malignant process. (hubpages.com)
  • Signs: Follicle, tender palpable preauricular lymph nodes. (brainscape.com)
  • No axillary lymph nodes were palpable. (cytojournal.com)
  • The differential diagnosis of a swelling in the parotid region includes parotitis, a primary parotid tumor, upper jugular chain lymph node enlargement, a tumor of the tail of the submandibular gland, an enlarged preauricular or parotid lymph node, a branchial cleft cyst, an epithelial inclusion cyst, or a mesenchymal tumor. (health.am)
  • Diagnosis, if enlarged lymph nodes are present, is usually by lymph node biopsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis[edit] It is diagnosed by lymph node excision biopsy. (pearltrees.com)
  • Lung cancer has an incidence of 15/100,000 dogs per year [ 4 ] and it is generally a disease of older dogs with an approximate age of 11 years old at the time of diagnosis. (plos.org)
  • Sufferers with unresectable CCA survive fewer than 12 a few months after medical diagnosis [6] generally. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • Definitive diagnosis is based on excision and biopsy of the testicle/mass. (petplace.com)
  • Although they are generally benign and have a slow course, because of invasion to adjacent neurovascular tissues or pressure, early diagnosis and treatment is of importance. (bvsalud.org)
  • Lymph node metastases commonly arise in the axillary (50%), neck (26%), and groin (20%) lymph nodes [1]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • 5) In addition, metastases have been reported in more than 60% of patients within the first 2 years, commonly through regional lymph nodes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Stage IV indicates metastatic disease to inguinal nodes on both sides or distant metastases. (checkorphan.org)
  • In stage III, there are metastases to single regional lymph node. (unizg.hr)
  • It may spread into local lymph nodes and metastasise to other parts of the body. (nice.org.uk)
  • The function of the lymphatic system is to: collect and return fluid and plasma protein to the blood which will help maintain fluid balancedefend the body against disease by producing lymphocytesabsorb lipids from the intestinal tract and transport them to the blood Head/Neck Lymph Nodes[edit] The greatest supply of lymph nodes are located in the head and neck. (pearltrees.com)
  • Throat cancer usually begins with symptoms that seem harmless enough, like an enlarged lymph node on the outside of the neck, a sore throat or a hoarse sounding voice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiation therapy may also be used to treat the lymph nodes in the neck for tumours that involve the oral tongue or floor of the mouth and are 4 mm or thicker. (cancer.ca)
  • They are generally found on the head and neck in dogs. (wearethecure.org)
  • At the time of follow-up, the pa- methods, including DNA sequencing, node biopsy, and drainage of her ret- tient's neck swelling had only slightly have identifi ed cervical adenitis sec- ropharynx. (cdc.gov)
  • Computed tomography scan of the neck showed multiple, bilateral, necrotic lymph nodes in the posterior cervical triangle, more notable on the right, with retropharyngeal abscesses Figure. (cdc.gov)
  • Lymph nodes are located throughout the head and neck region and are the most common sites of neck masses. (aafp.org)
  • There are large groups of lymph nodes in the neck, armpits and groin. (cancersa.org.au)
  • It is convenient to use the level system to describe the location of lymph node disease in the neck. (redorbit.com)
  • Radical dissections that include lymph nodes may be received in advanced disease. (edu.au)
  • If the excision is for cancer, an effort is made to remove a wider segment to include lymph nodes. (medstarhealth.org)
  • Microscopic examination of lymph node biopsies was consistent with CSD for the two children with lymphadenopathy on presentation. (cdc.gov)
  • CSD affects persons of all age groups and both sexes and generally is characterized by a self-limiting, regional lymphadenopathy. (cdc.gov)
  • Lymphadenopathy or swelling of lymph nodes, is the primary presentation in lymphoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • For other causes of lymph node enlargement, see lymphadenopathy. (pearltrees.com)
  • While CT imaging routinely identifies hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, intraparenchymal lymph nodes are identified less frequently. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • At some point, through an unknown mechanism, the tumor assumes an aggressive clinical course with growth at regional or distant metastatic sites, primarily lymph nodes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In rare cases, squamous cancer can spread to lymph nodes or distant parts of the body. (canceroz.com)
  • Malignant transformation of ectopic melanocytes in lymph nodes or other organs may have occurred de novo [1,5]. (dermnetnz.org)
  • Stage II cancer has penetrated the full thickness of the wall, but has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or invaded adjacent organs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Spread beyond the vulva is either to adjacent organs such as the vagina, urethra, and anus, or via the lymphatics to the inguinal and femoral lymph nodes, followed by the deep pelvic nodes. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • An excision biopsy is generally a simple procedure done in your doctor's office. (cancersa.org.au)
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy is generally indicated for pathologic staging of the regional lymph node. (unizg.hr)
  • Generally, a vertical incision is made in the middle of the abdomen, overlying the portion of the bowel with disease. (medstarhealth.org)
  • Incision and drainage is generally required. (medindia.net)
  • The sternocleidomastoid muscles should be palpated along their entirety, with careful attention given to deep jugular lymph nodes. (aafp.org)
  • Levels II through IV contain lymph nodes along the jugular vein (upper, middle and lower). (redorbit.com)
  • When wider margins are removed, or when wide excision is combined with lymph node surgery, general anesthesia is often needed. (nccn.org)
  • If cancer is found in the lymph nodes, you may need to have surgery to remove them. (cancersa.org.au)
  • Complete mesocolic excision (CME) is generally accepted as state of the art in colon cancer surgery. (termedia.pl)
  • Connective tissue can be removed by excision when a non-inflamed mass is large, and there is generally little recurrence. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is a risk of recurrence, especially if the cancer involved the lymph nodes. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Manual lymphatic drainage (MLD) is a type of gentle massage which is intended to encourage the natural drainage of the lymph, which carries waste products away from the tissues back toward the heart. (pearltrees.com)
  • Following the removal of cancerous tissues, individuals will generally be given chemo and/or radiation therapies to eradicate any remaining cancerous cells and inhibit the growth of new ones. (wisegeek.com)
  • Stage III cancers include greater disease extension to neighboring tissues and inguinal lymph nodes on one side. (checkorphan.org)
  • Lymph nodes are part of your body's lymphatic system, which helps to protect the body against disease and infection. (cancersa.org.au)
  • If lymph nodes are negative, excision is generally performed en bloc with pulmonary resection. (mendeley.com)
  • Intraparenchymal lymph node and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia commonly present as pulmonary nodules, mimicking malignancy. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • More radical procedures generally are not warranted. (medscape.com)
  • Radical wide excision with appropriate margins based on depth of tumor invasion has been the standard adopted in NCCN and national clinical practice guidelines in oncology based on randomized controlled trial data. (jnccn.org)
  • and 2) extend downward to the level of the investing muscular fascia (radical excision). (jnccn.org)
  • Although the biopsies showed no malignancy, a radical cystoprostatectomy and broad excision of the urachus and umbilicus were performed. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It is generally a slow-growing, locally invasive epidermal skin tumour that rarely spreads to other parts of the body. (nice.org.uk)
  • It may be done even when there are no obvious lymph nodes involved if the tumour is 4 mm or thicker or to help with reconstruction. (cancer.ca)
  • Axillary lymphadenitis is the inflammation and enlargement of underarm lymph nodes. (medscape.com)
  • A previously healthy girl, 3 years of age, came to our outpatient clinic with 2 months of bilateral cervical lymph node enlargement preceded by low-grade fevers for a few days. (cdc.gov)
  • Rarer symptoms of eosinophilia can include weight loss, night sweats, lymph node enlargement, other skin rashes, and numbness and tingling due to nerve damage. (digitalnaturopath.com)
  • There is no other lymphnode enlargement. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • 1] Symptoms may include: enlarged lymph nodes that are not generally painful, fevers, sweats, itchiness, weight loss and feeling tired among others. (pearltrees.com)
  • They generally involute and symptoms disappear with menopause. (hubpages.com)
  • Generally speaking, the earlier the cancer is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. (bionity.com)
  • Subsequently, the patient underwent wide excision of the nipple-areolar complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The patient underwent abdominoperineal resection, excision of presacral mass, lymph node biopsy and omental flap. (sages.org)
  • With regard to resection margins in this setting, it is generally accepted that the goal is simply a clear soft-tissue margin-or the largest margin that can be achieved without requiring a more complex closure. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Excision, Shaving, or Destruction of Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue (incl. (healthgrades.com)
  • Compare disease-free survival of women with node-negative breast cancer treated with adjuvant fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide vs doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. (knowcancer.com)
  • Compare the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel with or without trastuzumab (Herceptin®) in women with operable, node-positive breast cancer that overexpresses HER2. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Cutaneous manifestations are generally a presentation of disseminated disease and can occur in 43-72% of cases. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
  • Squamous cancer can generally be cured of this treatment. (canceroz.com)
  • Survival is dependent on the pathologic status of the inguinal nodes and whether spread to adjacent structures has occurred. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • About 93% of the 29 patients in this study had adequate lymph node assessment according to [American Joint Committee on Cancer staging] guidelines. (medpagetoday.com)
  • All three approaches appear to implicate nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis may develop in patients vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin in advanced malignancies: A prospective cohort studies, generally in early metastatic spread is vertical and torsional diplopia that is widely used in place for 1 year. (goodbelly.com)
  • Over 90% of patients) or rarely ven- block, right bundle branch block, and generally have survivals approaching a decade. (goodbelly.com)
  • Dr. Joyce Moore, MD generally accepts new patients. (sharecare.com)
  • Intrapulmonary lymph nodes are often identified incidentally during imaging performed for the workup of other disorders since patients are usually asymptomatic. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • A recent case report shows two patients suffering from tonsillar cancer without any risk factors apart from their work as gynecologists doing laser ablations and loop electrosurgical excision procedures (LEEP). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Patients with small polyps do not generally have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer and should follow regular screening guidelines. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • According to the National Cancer Database Review, of 433 patients, 80% underwent complete colon resection, whereas local excision was performed in 9.2% of the patients. (learnteethwhitening.com)
  • Generally, the line of resection should encompass the area of invasion by several centimeters. (mendeley.com)
  • The patient was taken to the operating room and underwent abdominoperineal resection, resection of presacral mass and internal iliac nodes with an omental flap. (sages.org)
  • Lymphoma is definitively diagnosed by a lymph-node biopsy, meaning a partial or total excision of a lymph node examined under the microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regional lymph nodes may be affected at an advanced stage of the disease. (wearethecure.org)
  • Lymph node histopathologic subsequent improvement. (cdc.gov)
  • Stage III cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes or has invaded the liver, stomach, colon, small intestine, or large intestine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Multiple enlarged lymph nodes in para aortic, celiac, peri pancreatic and porta hepatic regions with liver slightly coarse in echo texture. (slideshare.net)
  • the most common metastatic sites are the liver, peritoneal cavity, and lymph nodes. (elsevier.com)
  • Nearby lymph nodes may also be removed to further help control the disease and a skin graft may be performed depending upon the total amount of tissue that is lost. (microscopyu.com)
  • These flaps generally contain skin, bone or both. (cancer.ca)
  • A tumor is staged after it is surgically excised and examined, along with the surrounding lymph nodes. (wearethecure.org)
  • Treatment of CSD is generally supportive, although excision of the affected lymph node(s) and the use of antimicrobials may be indicated for treatment of severe swelling, pain, or suppuration. (cdc.gov)
  • Staging and treatment are generally handled by an oncologist familiar with gynecologic cancer. (checkorphan.org)
  • For localized in-transit disease, less is more, with local destruction, excision, and intralesional therapy being the cornerstones of treatment. (cancernetwork.com)
  • If cancer cells are found in a removed lymph node, you may have further tests such as CT or PET-CT scans and further treatment may be offered. (cancersa.org.au)