Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Anxiety, Separation: Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Chlordiazepoxide: An anxiolytic benzodiazepine derivative with anticonvulsant, sedative, and amnesic properties. It has also been used in the symptomatic treatment of alcohol withdrawal.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Manifest Anxiety Scale: True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.Alprazolam: A triazolobenzodiazepine compound with antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic actions, that is efficacious in the treatment of PANIC DISORDERS, with or without AGORAPHOBIA, and in generalized ANXIETY DISORDERS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p238)Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Agoraphobia: Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Test Anxiety Scale: A self-reporting test consisting of items concerning fear and worry about taking tests and physiological activity, such as heart rate, sweating, etc., before, during, and after tests.Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Flunitrazepam: A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions similar to those of DIAZEPAM that can cause ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA. Some reports indicate that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may precipitate violent behavior. The United States Government has banned the importation of this drug.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.GABA Modulators: Substances that do not act as agonists or antagonists but do affect the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor-ionophore complex. GABA-A receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA-A) appear to have at least three allosteric sites at which modulators act: a site at which BENZODIAZEPINES act by increasing the opening frequency of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride channels; a site at which BARBITURATES act to prolong the duration of channel opening; and a site at which some steroids may act. GENERAL ANESTHETICS probably act at least partly by potentiating GABAergic responses, but they are not included here.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Oxazepam: A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Flumazenil: A potent benzodiazepine receptor antagonist. Since it reverses the sedative and other actions of benzodiazepines, it has been suggested as an antidote to benzodiazepine overdoses.Nitrazepam: A benzodiazepine derivative used as an anticonvulsant and hypnotic.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Personality Inventory: Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Antidepressive Agents: Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.BenzodiazepinonesAzabicyclo Compounds: Bicyclic bridged compounds that contain a nitrogen which has three bonds. The nomenclature indicates the number of atoms in each path around the rings, such as [2.2.2] for three equal length paths. Some members are TROPANES and BETA LACTAMS.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Nordazepam: An intermediate in the metabolism of DIAZEPAM to OXAZEPAM. It may have actions similar to those of diazepam.Flurazepam: A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Somatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors: Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Shyness: Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Performance Anxiety: Anxiety related to the execution of a task. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique: An immunoenzyme test for the presence of drugs and other substances in urine and blood. The test uses enzyme linked antibodies that react only with the particular drug for which the sample is being tested.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Desensitization, Psychologic: A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli.Hypochondriasis: Preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. (APA, DSM-IV)Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Dysthymic Disorder: Chronically depressed mood that occurs for most of the day more days than not for at least 2 years. The required minimum duration in children to make this diagnosis is 1 year. During periods of depressed mood, at least 2 of the following additional symptoms are present: poor appetite or overeating, insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration or difficulty making decisions, and feelings of hopelessness. (DSM-IV)Panic: A state of extreme acute, intense anxiety and unreasoning fear accompanied by disorganization of personality function.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Substance Abuse Detection: Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Carbolines: A group of pyrido-indole compounds. Included are any points of fusion of pyridine with the five-membered ring of indole and any derivatives of these compounds. These are similar to CARBAZOLES which are benzo-indoles.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders: Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Forensic Medicine: The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Implosive Therapy: A method for extinguishing anxiety by a saturation exposure to the feared stimulus situation or its substitute.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Child of Impaired Parents: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Bromazepam: One of the BENZODIAZEPINES that is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.United StatesPersonality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Triazolam: A short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of insomnia. Some countries temporarily withdrew triazolam from the market because of concerns about adverse reactions, mostly psychological, associated with higher dose ranges. Its use at lower doses with appropriate care and labeling has been reaffirmed by the FDA and most other countries.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.Citalopram: A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Child Development Disorders, Pervasive: Severe distortions in the development of many basic psychological functions that are not normal for any stage in development. These distortions are manifested in sustained social impairment, speech abnormalities, and peculiar motor movements.Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Alcohol-Related Disorders: Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.Irritable Mood: Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.Clorazepate Dipotassium: A water-soluble benzodiazepine derivative effective in the treatment of anxiety. It has also muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant actions.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Outpatients: Persons who receive ambulatory care at an outpatient department or clinic without room and board being provided.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Personality Disorders: A major deviation from normal patterns of behavior.Antidepressive Agents, Tricyclic: Substances that contain a fused three-ring moiety and are used in the treatment of depression. These drugs block the uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin into axon terminals and may block some subtypes of serotonin, adrenergic, and histamine receptors. However the mechanism of their antidepressant effects is not clear because the therapeutic effects usually take weeks to develop and may reflect compensatory changes in the central nervous system.Tic Disorders: Disorders characterized by recurrent TICS that may interfere with speech and other activities. Tics are sudden, rapid, nonrhythmic, stereotyped motor movements or vocalizations which may be exacerbated by stress and are generally attenuated during absorbing activities. Tic disorders are distinguished from conditions which feature other types of abnormal movements that may accompany another another condition. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Anticonvulsants: Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation: A structurally and mechanistically diverse group of drugs that are not tricyclics or monoamine oxidase inhibitors. The most clinically important appear to act selectively on serotonergic systems, especially by inhibiting serotonin reuptake.Buspirone: An anxiolytic agent and serotonin receptor agonist belonging to the azaspirodecanedione class of compounds. Its structure is unrelated to those of the BENZODIAZAPINES, but it has an efficacy comparable to DIAZEPAM.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Paroxetine: A serotonin uptake inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of depression.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Tropaeolaceae: A plant family of the order Geraniales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Defense Mechanisms: Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay: Fluoroimmunoassay where detection of the hapten-antibody reaction is based on measurement of the increased polarization of fluorescence-labeled hapten when it is combined with antibody. The assay is very useful for the measurement of small haptenic antigens such as drugs at low concentrations.Extraversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Conscious Sedation: A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pregnanolone: A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Adjustment Disorders: Maladaptive reactions to identifiable psychosocial stressors occurring within a short time after onset of the stressor. They are manifested by either impairment in social or occupational functioning or by symptoms (depression, anxiety, etc.) that are in excess of a normal and expected reaction to the stressor.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pentobarbital: A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Cyclohexanols: Monohydroxy derivatives of cyclohexanes that contain the general formula R-C6H11O. They have a camphorlike odor and are used in making soaps, insecticides, germicides, dry cleaning, and plasticizers.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
The VCT predicts drugs that can manage generalized anxiety disorders and acute anxiety states. Suppressing behaviour through ... However animal models can be pharmacologically validated by usually by benzodiazepines, a common anti anxiety medication. Other ... On Day 3 animals are injected with the agent being tested. They are divided into two groups. One group is taken one by one and ... Animals can show high levels of anxiety in one test and low levels in a different test. The VCT, which measures anxiety through ...
Hydroxyzine has been shown to be as effective as benzodiazepines in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, while ... An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety. This effect is ... social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Healthcare providers can also help by ... CBT has been shown to be effective in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, and possibly more effective than ...
... and bromazepam for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, all three drugs retained their effectiveness over 2 weeks, ... while etizolam caused an increase in alpha-2 benzodiazepine binding sites (reverse tolerance to anti-anxiety effects). ... Flumazenil, a GABA antagonist agent used to reverse benzodiazepine overdoses, inhibits the effect of etizolam as well as ... "Etizolam in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A controlled clinical trial". The Journal of international medical ...
Psychiatry recommends pregabalin as one of several first line agents for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, but ... Poros, Joanna (2005). "Polish scientist is the co-author of a new anti-epileptic drug". Science and Scholarship in Poland. ... It appears to have anxiolytic effects similar to benzodiazepines with less risk of dependence. The effects of pregabalin appear ... "Pfizer's Lyrica Approved for the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in Europe" (Press release). Retrieved 2011-11- ...
Benzodiazepines are often used to reduce anxiety symptoms, muscle tension, seizure disorders, insomnia, symptoms of alcohol ... Agents that purely block 5-HT2 or dopamine receptors other than D2 have often failed as effective antipsychotics. ... Because of their ability to modify the behavior of even the most disturbed patients, the antipsychotic, antianxiety, and ... Fluoxetine in nondepressed people can produce a feeling of generalized well-being. Pramipexole, a treatment for restless leg ...
"Azapirones for generalized anxiety disorder". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3 (3): CD006115. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... Cadieux RJ (May 1996). "Azapirones: an alternative to benzodiazepines for anxiety". American Family Physician. 53 (7): 2349-53 ... As a result, further development has commenced to bring more selective of anxiolytic agents to the market. An example of this ... Prinssen EP, Colpaert FC, Koek W (October 2002). "5-HT1A receptor activation and anti-cataleptic effects: high-efficacy ...
... anxiety disorder, and Alzheimer's disease. Klonopin ( clonazepam ) - anti-anxiety and anti-epileptic medication of the ... It is licensed for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder and ... anti-seizure medication) which is sometimes used as a mood stabilizer, anti-anxiety agent or to treat chronic pain, ... anti-seizure that can also be used as a mood stabilizer Valium ( diazepam )- anti-anxiety medication of the benzodiazepine ...
... generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder and social phobia. A comparative meta-analysis of 12 major antidepressants ... Seizures are managed with benzodiazepines or other anticonvulsants. Forced diuresis, hemodialysis, exchange transfusion, or ... although agents that are marketed for this purpose (like pregabalin or duloxetine) are likely preferred. It has also been found ... than patients treated with other anti-depressants. The patients taking venlafaxine had significantly higher risk of completed ...
Due to caffeine's negative interaction with anti-anxiety medications such as benzodiazepines, treatments for caffeine-induced ... "anxiety-related disorders such as panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorder". In cases of ... This establishes the relationship between the abused chemical agent and the observed clinical effects. Caffeine has been proven ... Caffeine-induced anxiety disorder is an anxiety disorder that can be present in people susceptible to panic attacks and anxiety ...
... management of anxiety (panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia, and generalised anxiety disorder) in adults in primary, ... Although they are second-line agents, benzodiazepines can be used for a limited time to relieve severe anxiety and agitation. ... whereas a benzodiazepine marketed as an anti-anxiety drug at higher doses induces sleep. The subset of GABAA receptors that ... Benzodiazepines have robust efficacy in the short-term management of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), but were not shown ...
Antianxiety agents (benzodiazepines): Use of benzodiazepines for panic disorder is controversial with opinion differing in the ... separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety ... major depressive disorder (80%), dysthymic disorder (40%), generalized anxiety disorder (40%), somatoform disorders (40%), ... The anxiety of panic disorder is particularly severe and noticeably episodic compared to that from generalized anxiety disorder ...
... lability Anxiety Insomnia Psychotic disorder Bradyphrenia Disturbance in attention Nystagmus Paraesthesia Speech disorder ... Manufacture and Marketing of the Anti-Epileptic Agent Zonisamide in Asia". Dainippon Pharmaceutical News Releases for 2005. ... secondarily generalized), generalized (tonic, tonic-clonic (grand mal), and atypical absence) and combined seizures. In ... Mimaki, T; Suzuki, Y; Tagawa, T; Karasawa, T; Yabuuchi, H (March 1990). "Interaction of zonisamide with benzodiazepine and GABA ...
... , sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder ... The drug has been shown to be similarly effective in the treatment of GAD to benzodiazepines including diazepam, alprazolam, ... Jajoo, HK; Mayol, RF; LaBudde, JA; Blair, IA (1989). "Metabolism of the antianxiety drug buspirone in human subjects". Drug ... Wu Y-H, Rayburn LE, Ferguson JW (1972). "Psychosedative agents. 2. 8-(4-Substituted 1-piperazinylalkyl)-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane-7 ...
"Antidepressants for generalized anxiety disorder". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD003592. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003592. ... began clinical trials on two new anti-tuberculosis agents developed by Hoffman-LaRoche, isoniazid and iproniazid. Only patients ... A 2012 comparison of the effects of stopping therapy with benzodiazepines and SSRIs argued that because the symptoms are ... anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, ...
... adjunctive agent in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders to manage anxiety or agitation. Clobazam is also available as ... Benzodiazepine dependence Long-term effects of benzodiazepines Freche, C (1975). "Study of an anxiolytic, clobazam, in ... December 3rd, 2013 FDA Drug Safety Podcast: FDA warns of serious skin reactions with the anti-seizure drug Onfi (clobazam) and ... Arya, R; Anand, V; Garg, SK; Michael, BD (Oct 4, 2014). "Clobazam monotherapy for partial-onset or generalized-onset seizures ...
Mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, clinical depression, generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, ... Use of or withdrawal from alcohol and other sedatives, such as anti-anxiety and sleep drugs like benzodiazepines. Use of or ... making them superior anxiolytic agents). Modulation of the α1 subunit is associated with sedation, motor impairment, ... often a symptom of anxiety disorders. Delayed sleep phase disorder can be misdiagnosed as insomnia, as sleep onset is delayed ...
... second-line agent in partial epilepsy with or without secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures and was one of four agents ... "Primidone and rapid cycling affective disorders" describing a 62-year-old woman who had rapid-cycling bipolar disorder starting ... de Haan, G. J.; J. A. Carpay; C. A. van Donselaar (November 22, 2003). "Anti-epilepticum primidon binnenkort uit de handel: nu ... Primidone, like phenobarbital and the benzodiazepines, can also cause sedation in the newborn and also withdrawal within the ...
For individuals who experience anxiety, anti-anxiety medications can be used, usually on a short-term basis. Benzodiazepines, ... Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is recognized as being particularly effective when other antipsychotic agents have ... what can be generalized from current knowledge about differences in provision, costs and outcomes of mental health care?". Acta ... People with schizoaffective disorder are likely to have co-occurring conditions, including anxiety disorders and substance use ...
However, anticonvulsants and anxiolytic agents, such as valproate or a benzodiazepine, may be administered to relieve ... Astemizole, a medication approved for human use, has been found to have anti-prion activity and may lead to a treatment for ... "Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Fact Sheet , National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke". www.ninds.nih.gov. Retrieved ... Further testing can support the diagnosis and may include: Electroencephalography-often has characteristic generalized periodic ...
The most common types of these agents are antipsychotics and anti-nausea agents. The classic form of TD refers to stereotypic ... Generalized dystonia has also been treated with such muscle relaxants as the benzodiazepines. Another muscle relaxant, baclofen ... hyperkinesia can be associated with neurobehavioral or neuropsychiatric disorders such as mood changes, psychosis, anxiety, ... endocrine disorders, heritable disorders, vascular disorders, or traumatic disorders. Other causes include toxins within the ...
Duloxetine is also approved for major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), diabetic neuropathy, ... Studies have shown that SNRIs as well as SSRIs have significant anti-inflammatory action on microglia[43] in addition to their ... Selectivity of antidepressant agents are based on the neurotransmitters that are thought to influence symptoms of depression.[ ... and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ...
It is used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), panic disorder, and social phobia.[4] ... Seizures are managed with benzodiazepines or other anticonvulsants. Forced diuresis, hemodialysis, exchange transfusion, or ... although agents that are marketed for this purpose (like pregabalin or duloxetine) are likely preferred. It has also been found ... than patients treated with other anti-depressants. The patients taking venlafaxine had significantly higher risk of completed ...
... social anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.[5] It ... "Paroxetine versus other anti-depressive agents for depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD006531. doi: ... post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, ... Paroxetine has also FDA approval for Generalized anxiety disorder.[37] Menopausal hot flashes[edit]. On June 28, 2013, the U.S ...
Mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, clinical depression, generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, ... Use of or withdrawal from alcohol and other sedatives, such as anti-anxiety and sleep drugs like benzodiazepines.[22] ... making them superior anxiolytic agents). Modulation of the α1 subunit is associated with sedation, motor impairment, ... Benzodiazepines[edit]. Normison (temazepam) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders.[105 ...
Emotional sequelae associated with stuttering primarily relates to state-dependent anxiety related to the speech disorder ... the effectiveness of pharmacological agents, such as benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antipsychotic and ... Research attempting to correlate stuttering with generalized or state anxiety, personality profiles, trauma history, or ... see anti-stuttering medication below).[35] Overactivity of the midbrain has been found at the level of the substantia nigra ...
The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale is a clinician-rated evaluation whose purpose is to analyze the severity of anxiety. The scale is intended for adults, adolescents, and children and should take approximately ten to fifteen minutes to administer. The scale is a public document. Since it is in the public domain, it is widely available for administration. The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale is composed of fourteen items. On the scale, each item is presented in a specific format. Following the item number, the item itself is listed along with a brief description of the criterion. This description is in the form of a short phrase that elaborates on the item and provides specificity to the clinician regarding the appropriate evaluation. Adjacent to each item is a five-point scale, displaying the numerals 0 to 4 outlined by a square. To learn more about the specific ...
... (GAD-7) is a self-reported questionnaire for screening and severity measuring of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).[1] GAD-7 has seven items, which measure severity of various signs of GAD according to reported response categories with assigned points (see below). Assessment is indicated by the total score, which made up by adding together the scores for the scale all seven items.[2] GAD-7 is a sensitive self-administrated test to assess generalized anxiety disorder,[3] normally used in outpatient and primary care settings for referral to psychiatrist pending outcome.[4] However, it cannot be used as replacement for clinical assessment and additional evaluation should be used to confirm a diagnosis of GAD.[citation needed] The scale uses a normative system of scoring as shown below - [bullet points of answer options and points assigned] - with question at the end ...
... can be defined as nervousness in social situations. Some disorders associated with the social anxiety spectrum include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, autism, eating disorders, and substance use disorders. Individuals higher in social anxiety avert their gazes, show fewer facial expressions, and show difficulty with initiating and maintaining conversation. Trait social anxiety, the stable tendency to experience this nervousness, can be distinguished from state anxiety, the momentary response to a particular social stimulus. Nearly 90% of individuals report feeling a form of social anxiety (i.e., shyness) at some ...
The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) is a psychological inventory based on a 4-point Likert scale and consists of 40 questions on a self-report basis. The STAI measures two types of anxiety - state anxiety, or anxiety about an event, and trait anxiety, or anxiety level as a personal characteristic. Higher scores are positively correlated with higher levels of anxiety. Its most current revision is Form Y and it is offered in 12 languages. It was developed by psychologists Charles Spielberger, R.L. Gorsuch, and R.E. Lushene. Their goal in creating the inventory was to create a set of questions that could be applied towards assessing different types of ...
Generalized anxiety disorder is an anxiety disorder which consists of excessive and irrational worry of everyday things. This worry tends to interfere with normal daily functioning: people who have GAD anticipate disasters and they're always concerned about health matters, money, death, their own futures or family trouble. Physical issues include though are not limited to trembling, numbness, muscle tension, sweating or hot flashes for at least six months. Between six and eight million American adults have GAD.. ...
There are many different categories of mental disorder, and many different facets of human behavior and personality that can become disordered.[33][34][35][36]. Anxiety or fear that interferes with normal functioning may be classified as an anxiety disorder.[34] Commonly recognized categories include specific phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, agoraphobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. Other affective (emotion/mood) processes can also become disordered. Mood disorder involving unusually intense and sustained sadness, melancholia, or despair is known as major depression (also known as unipolar or clinical depression). Milder but still prolonged depression can be diagnosed as dysthymia. Bipolar disorder (also ...
Dr Hazel Claire Weekes MBE (11 April 1903 - 2 June 1990) was an Australian general practitioner and health writer; she also had an early career as a research scientist working in the field of comparative reproduction. She is considered by some as the pioneer of modern anxiety treatment via Cognitive Therapy. She continues to be noted for her books on dealing with anxiety disorders. Many of today's anxiety self-help books continue to cite her work. Weekes found that many of her patients suffered from anxiety disorders, such as agoraphobia, panic attacks, phobias, generalised anxiety disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. In her books, she avoided using the term "nervous breakdown" as she felt it was unscientific and ...
... (MCT) is a psychological "talking therapy" for the treatment of mental disorders. It was created by Adrian Wells[1] based on an information processing model by Wells and Matthews.[2] It is supported by scientific evidence from a large number of studies.[3][4] The goals of MCT are first to discover what patients believe about their own thoughts and about how their mind works (called metacognitive beliefs), then to show the patient how these beliefs lead to unhelpful responses to thoughts that serve to unintentionally prolong or worsen symptoms, and finally to provide alternative ways of responding to thoughts in order to allow a reduction of symptoms. In clinical practice, MCT is most commonly used for treating anxiety disorders such as social anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), health ...
The following are two therapies normally used in treating specific phobia: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a short term, skills-focused therapy that aims to help people diffuse unhelpful emotional responses by helping people consider them differently or change their behavior, is effective in treating specific phobias.[6] Exposure therapy is a particularly effective form of CBT for specific phobias.[6] Medications to aid CBT have not been as encouraging with the exception of adjunctive D-clycoserine.[7][8]. In general anxiolytic medication is not seen as helpful in specific phobia but benzodiazepines are sometimes used to help resolve acute episodes; as 2007 data were sparse for efficacy of any drug.[9]. ...
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psychological method of treatment for GAD that involves a therapist working with the patient to understand how thoughts and feelings influence behaviour.[38] Elements of the therapy include exposure strategies to allow the patient to confront their anxieties gradually and feel more comfortable in anxiety-provoking situations, as well as to practice the skills they have learned. CBT can be used alone or in conjunction with medication.[39]. Components of CBT for GAD includes psychoeducation, self-monitoring, stimulus control techniques, relaxation, self-control desensitization, cognitive restructuring, worry exposure, worry behavior modification, and problem-solving. The first step in the treatment of GAD is informing of the patient about the issues and the plan of the solution. The purpose of psychoeducation is to provide some relief, destigmatization of the disorder, motivating, and accomplishing participation by ...
Wells' first book Attention and Emotion: A Clinical Perspective (co-authored with Gerald Matthews) presented a critique and framework for applying cognitive psychology to the understanding of psychopathology.[2] It was awarded the 1998 British Psychological Society Book Award for significant contributions to psychology and remains a definitive text in this field; recently being reprinted for a 20th anniversary edition.[3] Wells has authored a comprehensive treatment manual for anxiety disorders using cognitive behavioural therapy,[4] which is widely used in UK mental health settings and includes a model and treatment for social anxiety disorder (developed with D. M. Clark) which was recommended by The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence as the most effective treatment.[5] Wells is the originator of metacognitive therapy, a new psychological treatment which is undergoing ...
A maternal bond is the relationship between a mother and her child. While typically associated with pregnancy and childbirth, a maternal bond may also develop in cases where the child is unrelated, such as an adoption. Both physical and emotional factors influence the mother-child bonding process. In separation anxiety disorder a child becomes fearful and nervous when away from a loved one, usually a parent or other caregiver. New mothers do not always experience instant love toward their child. Instead, the bond can strengthen over time. Bonds can take hours, days, weeks, or months to develop. The maternal bond between a woman and her biological child usually begins to develop during pregnancy. The pregnant female adapts her lifestyle to suit the needs of the developing infant. At around 18 to 25 weeks, the mother begins to feel the fetus moving. Similar to seeing her child for the first time in an ultrasound scan, this experience typically leads the mother ...
De Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is in hânlieding, skreaun troch de Amerikaanske Psychiatryske Beropsorganisaasje en omskriuwt de kritearia foar psychyske steuringen. ...
Make research projects and school reports about antianxiety drug easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia ... and pictures about antianxiety drug at Encyclopedia.com. ... Among the preferred SSRIs for generalized anxiety disorder are ... although it is now considered either a third-line or adjunctive agent for use after trials of SSRIs and benzodiazepines. It is ... Epilepsy- A brain disorder with symptoms that include seizures.. Panic disorder- An disorder in which people have sudden and ...
... management of various forms of anxiety, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)Which antianxiety drugs are more suited for ... intermittent or short-term use?,benzodiazepinesWhich antianxiety drugs are more suited for long-term use?, ... What are antianxiety agents used for? management of various forms of anxiety, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) ... What do most antianxiety drugs cause? generalized CNS depression What negative effect may benzodiazepines have in the long term ...
A long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders and generalized anxiety in addition ... Anti-Anxiety Agents. Alprostadil. 354.487. C20H34O5. A medication used to treat erectile dysfunction.. Drugs Used in Erectile ... An antineoplastic agent used in palliative treatment of persistent or recurrent ovarian cancer.. Antineoplastic Agents. ... Aluminum zirconium pentachlorohydrate is a common active ingredient in personal care products as an antiperspirant agent. Its ...
Anti-anxiety drugs. Types, side effects, long-term usage. Natural alternatives for depression. HON Certified not-for-profit ... Use: Generalized anxiety disorder. Effects take 1-4 weeks to occur. Not useful in treating acute anxiety. Not addictive or ... is an anti anxiety agent that is not chemically or pharmacologically related to the benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or other ... Anti Anxiety Medication: Effects and Side Effects. Anti-Anxiety Medication (minor tranquilizers) Psychiatric Drugs-Types, Side ...
... is an anti-anxiety (anxiolytic agent) that has shown to be as effective as benzodiazepines in treating generalized anxiety ... disorder and symptoms of anxiety. Created by bittersweet Nov 26, 2012 Nov 27, 2012 by bittersweet ... First post! I think it is understood and generally agreed upon that the anti-depressant/anxiety pill Buspirone does not have a ... My Dr is talking about putting me on Buspirone for anxiety because Im coming off Xanax after years of using it. Has anyone had ...
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often begins during adolescence or early adulthood and persists throughout the lifespan. ... Comparing the efficacy of benzodiazepines and serotonergic anti-depressants for adults with generalized anxiety disorder: a ... for pediatric and adult patients with GAD with specific commentary on the efficacy and tolerability of selected agents in these ... Pharmacological treatment for generalized anxiety disorder in adults: an update. Reinhold JA, Rickels K. Reinhold JA, et al. ...
... antianxiety agent, antiviral drug, anxiety disorder, anxiety disorders, anxiolytic psychotropic drug, azapirone chemical class ... generalized anxiety, generalized anxiety disorder, high blood, high blood pressure, lung cancer, medical advice, medical help, ... is an antianxiety agent that is not chemically or pharmacologically related to the benzodiazepines, barbiturates, or …… ... It is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).... Buspar (Buspirone) Drug Information: Clinical … - Jan 23, ...
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with persistent, excessive, and unrealistic worry that is not focused on a ... Benzodiazepines. *Antianxiety Agents. *Show All. *References. Workup Approach Considerations. Consider urine drug screening ( ... encoded search term (Pediatric Generalized Anxiety Disorder) and Pediatric Generalized Anxiety Disorder What to Read Next on ... Pediatric Generalized Anxiety Disorder Workup. Updated: Oct 27, 2017 * Author: Dennis Anthony Nutter, Jr, MD; Chief Editor: ...
Currently, benzodiazepines are the most commonly used anti-anxiety agents for generalized anxiety disorder. Benzodiazepines, ... an agent for treating anxiety, an agent for treating epilepsy, an agent for treating a stroke, an agent for treating a seizure ... an agent for treating a cognitive disorder, an agent for treating a migraine, an agent for inhibiting vomiting, an agent for. ... an agent for treating or preventing IBD, an agent for treating or preventing IBS, an agent for treating addictive disorder, an ...
Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Anxiety Agents. Additional Keywords : Benzodiazepine Receptor ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Anxiety Agents. Additional Keywords : Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonist, Superiority of Natural ... Anti-tumor and anti-metastatic actions of wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis roots through anti-lymphangiogenesis. ... S. baicalensis free flavones showed potent anti-influenza, anti-cancer and anti-oxidative activities.Dec 23, 2015. ...
Many options exist for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders. Are some more appropriate under certain conditions ... reuptake inhibitors are broad-spectrum anti-anxiety agents considered first-line therapy for all major anxiety disorders. ( ... generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social anxiety disorder (SAD, also known as generalized social phobia), obsessive- ... Shader RI, Greenblatt DJ (1993), Use of benzodiazepines in anxiety disorders. N Engl J Med 328(19):1398-1405 [see comments].. ...
... including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Some agents are more suitable for intermittent or short-term use (benzodiazepines ... Antianxiety Drugs Pharmacologic Profile General Use Antianxiety agents are used in the management of various forms of anxiety, ... Category: Anxiety Disorders Tags: Ability, Amitriptyline, Amitriptyline 10 mg Tablets, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepines, ... Category: Anxiety Disorders Tags: Ability, Antihistamines, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepines, Buspirone, Chlordiazepoxide, ...
... including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Some agents are more suitable for intermittent or short-term use (benzodiazepines ... Antianxiety Drugs Pharmacologic Profile General Use Antianxiety agents are used in the management of various forms of anxiety, ... Category: Anxiety Disorders Tags: Alprazolam, Antihistamines, Benzodiazepine, Benzodiazepines, Buspirone, Chlordiazepoxide, ... REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is a disorder of motor control during rapid eye movement ...
... anti-anxiety drug used to treat anxiety and it may improve symptoms of depression in patients with generalized anxiety disorder ... 2. While buspirone is an antianxiety agent, it is not related to sedative drugs, barbiturates and benzodiazepines. Most believe ... Anti-anxiety) medication that is structurally and pharmacologically distinct from benzodiazepines, such as Valium and Xanax. 6 ... It is approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Buspirone is a prescription drug. Iv been taking buspar ...
Pregabalin is sometimes prescribed off‐label for tapering benzodiazepine therapy for people with generalised anxiety disorder, ... epileptic agent, but it is now also used to treat fibromyalgia, generalised anxiety disorder, and patients with neuropathic ... In Australia, pregabalin prescribed as an anti‐epileptic is subsidised and also (since 2013) when prescribed for treating ... term benzodiazepine therapy to pregabalin in patients with generalized anxiety disorder: a double‐blind, placebo‐controlled ...
Valium, along with the other benzodiazepines are by …Xanax (Alprazolam) is prescribed for treating generalized anxiety disorder ... GAD), anxiety associated with depression, and panic disorder.An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a ... is prescribed for treating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety associated with depression, and panic disorder.The ... is an anti-anxiety drug that belongs to the benzodiazepine class. Common side effects are fatigue, constipation …Alprazolam, ...
Psychiatric symptoms such as depression and generalized anxiety disorder with phobias and panic attacks are common. Sometimes ... P. Dayalu and J. W. Teener, "Stiff person syndrome and other anti-GAD-associated neurologic disorders," Seminars in Neurology, ... In particular, benzodiazepines, baclofen, some antiepileptic drugs, or intramuscular botulinum toxin are mainly used as muscle ... Treatment is based on drugs enhancing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission and immunomodulatory agents. Case Series. ...
Anxiety disorders are treated best with the sedative-hypnotic agent, which help palliate neurological distress, sleep ... treat anxiety disorders. In general, this may include a generalized anxiety disorder, mood disorders and social phobia. Also, ... In addition to this, sedative-hypnotic agents can treat anxiety issues better. Particularly, these agents help palliate ... Alprazolam (Xanax): An Anti-anxiety Medicine. Alprazolam is an active chemical compound, generally known as a minor ...
Treatment with anti-parkinsonian agents, benzodiazepines or propranolol may be helpful.. Pseudo-Parkinsonism: Symptoms may ... treatment for non-psychotic anxiety was established in 4-week clinical studies of outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder ... In most cases these symptoms are readily controlled when an anti-parkinsonism agent is administered concomitantly. Anti- ... anti-parkinsonism agents do not alleviate the symptoms of this syndrome. It is suggested that all antipsychotic agents be ...
The VCT predicts drugs that can manage generalized anxiety disorders and acute anxiety states. Suppressing behaviour through ... However animal models can be pharmacologically validated by usually by benzodiazepines, a common anti anxiety medication. Other ... On Day 3 animals are injected with the agent being tested. They are divided into two groups. One group is taken one by one and ... Animals can show high levels of anxiety in one test and low levels in a different test. The VCT, which measures anxiety through ...
Mood disorders (major depressive disorder, bipolar disorders). *Anxiety disorders (agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, ... Antianxiety (benzodiazepines, buspirone). *Sedative-hypnotics (benzodiazepines, non-benzodiazepines). *Antidepressants (all ... Antiparkinson agents (all types) - for neurology rotation. *Antimigraine agents (all types) - for neurology rotation ... obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobia) ...
generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, and PTSD 80 Pain-specific anxiety as well as ... its stimulating effects make it less attractive as a primary antianxiety agent ... Most significantly, they can increase levels of tricyclic antidepressants and benzodiazepines. They may. also affect levels of ... followed by anxiety disorders, personality disorders, somatoform disorders, and substance use disorders. ...
Treatment benzodiazepines can treat generalized anxiety disorder. Anti anxiety medication pros and cons in teens. Examples of ... What other agents available concomitant depression? . Prasad mbbs md pgdpc phd best antidepressant for anxiety consumer reports ... Major Depressive Disorder), anxiety disorders ( Panic disorder, Generalised anxiety disorder, Social anxiety disorder GAD & SAD ... and anxiety disorders (such as panic disorder with or without agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, generalised anxiety ...
Anxiety related disorders such as generalized anxiety, panic, obsessive-compulsion, phobias or post traumatic stress disorders ... Moreover benzodiazepines (bdz) as anxiolytic agents have brought tremendous progress in understanding the physiological, ... roxb.) is widely used for its antipyretic, antiperiodic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial and also for various ... stress and psychomotic disorders. Traditionally pharmacological research in the area of anxiety and stress treatment is very ...
  • Specific -those that are specific in time (eg, discrete attacks), are a response to a specific stimulus (eg, phobias), or are a response to a specific distressing situation (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder). (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Dr. McKee is clinical assistant professor of psychology in psychiatry at the Weill Medical College of Cornell University and research scientist at the Anxiety Disorders Clinic at the New York State Psychiatric Institute in New York City. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • For example, in the 8th edition of Kaplan & Sadock's Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, the "bible" of the psychiatric resident and medical student, the section on the psychodynamic view of anxiety is one of the shortest and contains almost no analytic theory. (theislamicmonthly.com)
  • This Russian folk medicine has been found superior to placebo in a randomized trial for mild to moderate depression (Darbinyan V et al, Nord J Psychiatry 2007;61(6):503) and in an open-label trial for generalized anxiety disorder (Bystritsky A et al, J Altern Complement Med 2008;14(2):175-80). (psychcentral.com)
  • And, though the exact mechanism of chrysin's action is not yet known, researchers believe that this natural monoflavonoid is an agonist of the central benzodiazepine receptors in the brain. (clarocet.com)
  • Research has suggested that some of the main phytocannabinoids - specifically, the phytocannabinoid cannabigerol (CBG) - have been shown to have positive effects on receptors in the brain that cause anxiety. (thcphysicians.com)