A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.
Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.
Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.
Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.
Selection of a type of occupation or profession.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The medical specialty which deals with WOUNDS and INJURIES as well as resulting disability and disorders from physical traumas.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Hospital department responsible for the flow of patients and the processing of admissions, discharges, transfers, and also most procedures to be carried out in the event of a patient's death.
An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.
Hospital department responsible for the creating, care, storage and retrieval of medical records. It also provides statistical information for the medical and administrative staff.
The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.
The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
The exchange of students or professional personnel between countries done under the auspices of an organization for the purpose of further education.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
Major administrative divisions of the hospital.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.
Professional medical personnel approved to provide care to patients in a hospital.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.
Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.
A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)
A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.
A surgical specialty concerned with the study, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases of the urinary tract in both sexes, and the genital tract in the male. Common urological problems include urinary obstruction, URINARY INCONTINENCE, infections, and UROGENITAL NEOPLASMS.
Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Surgical procedures aimed at affecting metabolism and producing major WEIGHT REDUCTION in patients with MORBID OBESITY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Pain during the period after surgery.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Acute inflammation of the APPENDIX. Acute appendicitis is classified as simple, gangrenous, or perforated.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
The period following a surgical operation.
Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.
The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.
Endoscopic surgery of the pleural cavity performed with visualization via video transmission.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
A surgical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders and abnormalities of the COLON; RECTUM; and ANAL CANAL.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
The period during a surgical operation.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
Surgery performed on the female genitalia.

John Collins Warren and his act of conscience: a brief narrative of the trial and triumph of a great surgeon. (1/965)

On examination of the correspondence among the principals involved, as well as the original patent application being prepared by Morton, it has become possible to reconstruct some of the remarkable details attending the first use of ether anesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hos pital in the autumn of 1846. At the time that Warren invited Morton to demonstrate the use of his "ethereal vapor" for anesthesia in a minor operation on Oct. 16, 1846, the exact chemical composition of the agent used was being held secret by Morton; Warren was clearly disturbed by this unethical use of a secret "nostrum." When the time arrived 3 weeks later for its possible use for a serious "capital" operation, Warren employed a simple stratagem of public confrontation to discover from Morton the true nature of the substance to be used. On being informed that it was pure unadulterated sulfuric ether, not some mysterious new discovery labeled "Letheon," Warren gave approval for its first use in a "capital" operation (low thigh amputation) on Nov. 7, 1846. Despite this revelation to the immediate participants, a veil of secrecy continued to surround the substance for many months, an anomalous situation evidently traceable to Morton's desire for personal reward from the discovery. It was this matter of secrecy, rather than priority for its discovery, that surrounded the early use of ether anesthesia with controversy and recrimination both in this country and abroad.  (+info)

Hepatitis B--are surgeons putting patients at risk? (2/965)

The 1993 Department of Health guidelines permit a surgeon who is hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive but e-antigen (HBeAg) negative to perform exposure prone procedures, unless demonstrated to have infected patients. However, there is increasing evidence of transmission of hepatitis B to patients from health care workers in this supposedly low infectivity category. The Occupational Physician must decide whether existing guidelines represent an adequate risk assessment and indeed whether this is an acceptable risk for patients. If an NHS Trust continues to follow these guidelines it may be in breach of its duty of care to patients. Yet refusing to allow such carriers to operate without testing for additional serological markers may be unlawful discrimination. Further research is clearly needed as well as an urgent review of the guidelines.  (+info)

The role of curriculum in influencing students to select generalist training: a 21-year longitudinal study. (3/965)

To determine if specific curricula or backgrounds influence selection of generalist careers, the curricular choices of graduates of Mount Sinai School of Medicine between 1970 and 1990 were reviewed based on admission category. Students were divided into three groups: Group 1, those who started their first year of training at the School of Medicine; Group 2, those accepted with advanced standing into their third year of training from the Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education, a five-year program developed to select and produce students likely to enter primary care fields; and Group 3, those accepted with advanced standing into the third year who spent the first two years at a foreign medical school. All three groups took the identical last two years of clinical training at the School of Medicine. These were no significant differences with respect to initial choice of generalist training programs among all three groups, with 46% of the total cohort selecting generalist training. Of those students who chose generalist programs, 58% in Group 1, 51% in Group 2, and 41% in Group 3 remained in these fields rather than progressing to fellowship training. This difference was significant only with respect to Group 3. However, when an analysis was performed among those students providing only primary care as compared to only specialty care, there were no significant differences. Analysis by gender revealed women to be more likely to select generalist fields and remain in these fields without taking specialty training (P < .0001). Differentiating characteristics with respect to choosing generalist fields were not related to either Part I or Part II scores on National Board Examinations or selection to AOA. However, with respect to those specific specialties considered quite competitive (general surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, and ophthalmology), total test scores on Part I and Part II were significantly higher than those of all other students. The analysis indicated that, despite the diverse characteristics of students entering the third year at the School of Medicine, no one group produced a statistically greater proportion of generalists positions than any other, and academic performance while in medical school did not have a significant influence on whether a student entered a generalist field.  (+info)

Comparison of patients' needs for information on prostate surgery with printed materials provided by surgeons. (4/965)

OBJECTIVES: To identify strengths, weaknesses, and omissions in existing leaflets and factsheets on prostatectomy given by surgeons to patients. DESIGN: Comparison of content of leaflets and factsheets with patients' needs and discontents in a questionnaire survey as part of the national prostatectomy audit. SETTING: All NHS and independent hospitals performing prostatectomy in four health regions. SUBJECTS: 87 surgeons, 53 of whom used printed material to inform patients about their operations; a total of 25 different factsheets being used. 5361 men undergoing prostatectomy were sent a closed response questionnaire about their treatment; 4226 men returned it completed. A random sample of 2000 patients was asked for further comments, of whom 807 supplied pertinent comments. MAIN MEASURES: Content of the 25 factsheets compared with patients' needs identified in the questionnaires. RESULTS: Much of the information distributed had considerable shortcomings: it lacked uniformity in form and content, topics of relevance to patients were omitted, terminology was often poor, and patients' experience was at variance with what their surgeons said. For example, only one factsheet discussed the potential consequences of malignancy. Patients wanted more information on prostate cancer (1250(29%)) and some thought that the explanation of biopsy results was inadequate (29(4%)). Only six factsheets discussed the possible changes in sexual sensation after transurethral resection of the prostate, stating that patients would feel no change. However, 1490(35%) patients reported a change and 500(12%) were worried about it. CONCLUSION: Current standards of printed information do not meet the needs and requirements of patients undergoing prostatectomy.  (+info)

Home healthcare orders: an assessment of service satisfaction by internists, surgeons, and medical subspecialists. (5/965)

We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the satisfaction of general internists, medical subspecialists, and surgeons with the quality of home health orders generated by home health agencies. Using a mail survey, we polled 69 physician specialists at Tulane University Medical Center. The percentage of physicians satisfied with the appropriateness of services for the level and type of care, consistency of medication with that prescribed, sufficiency of data on the certification form to assess service continuation, timeliness of orders, and overall health service delivery was 94%, 92%, 69%, 52%, and 88%, respectively. Compared with medical subspecialists and surgeons, general internists were more likely to report that the data on the form were sufficient. Physicians who were satisfied with at least one of the four measures of quality for home health orders were more likely to be satisfied with the overall delivery of services by home health agencies. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that physicians overall are satisfied with home healthcare orders. However, level of satisfaction with orders is related to the physician's specialty. Areas that physicians were less satisfied with included timeliness of orders and sufficiency of data on the form to assess service continuation. Further studies using a larger population and more specific indicators of healthcare orders quality are recommended.  (+info)

Inquiry into the potential value of an information pamphlet on consent to surgery to improve surgeon-patient communication. (6/965)

OBJECTIVES: To find out how patients recently undergoing surgery experienced the consenting process and the response of these patients to a pamphlet on consent to surgery. To test the reaction of health professionals to the pamphlet. DESIGN: A pilot pamphlet was produced and a questionnaire was sent to patients inquiring about their consenting experience, and how the pamphlet might have helped them through the consent procedure. A pamphlet and a questionnaire were also sent to a random sample of the health professionals serving these patients. SUBJECTS: Patients and health professionals. RESULTS: 61% of patients returned the questionnaire. Knowledge about the consent procedure was shown to be limited. 49% were unaware that they had the right to insist that the surgeon could only perform the specified operation and nothing more. 83% were unaware that they could add something in writing to the consent form before signing. 28% of health professionals returned their questionnaire, most of whom thought that the pamphlet provided a useful contribution to surgeon-patient communication. CONCLUSION: Evidence shows that patients are not well informed about consenting to surgery and further information would provide much needed guidance on understanding their role in the consent procedure. The low response from the health professional study is perhaps an indication that at present this is an issue which is not seen as a priority.  (+info)

An appreciation of A.E. Malloch, MB, MD (1844-1919): a forgotten surgical pioneer. (7/965)

Dr. Archibald Edward Malloch was a surgeon whose life and work were greatly influenced by Joseph Lister and his revolutionary system of antiseptic surgery. This paper describes how a young Canadian medical man came to introduce Lister's system to North America in 1869 and studies his career in the light of Lister's surgical epoch.  (+info)

Audiotapes and letters to patients: the practice and views of oncologists, surgeons and general practitioners. (8/965)

A range of measures have been proposed to enhance the provision of information to cancer patients and randomized controlled trials have demonstrated their impact on patient satisfaction and recall. The current study explored the practice and views of oncologists, surgeons and general practitioners (GPs) with regards to providing patients with consultation audiotapes and summary letters. In stage 1, 28 semi-structured interviews with doctors were conducted to provide qualitative data on which to base a questionnaire. In stage 2, 113 medical oncologists, 43 radiation oncologists, 55 surgeons and 108 GPs completed questionnaires. Only one-third of doctors had ever provided patients with a copy of the letter written to the oncologist or referring doctor, and one-quarter had provided a summary letter or tape. The majority of doctors were opposed to such measures; however, a substantial minority were in favour of providing a letter or tape under certain conditions. More surgeons and GPs (> two-thirds) were opposed to specialists providing a consultation audiotape than oncologists (one-third). Gender, years of experience and attitude to patient involvement in decision-making were predictive of doctors' attitudes. The majority of doctors remain opposed to offering patients personalized information aids. However, practice and perspectives appear to be changing.  (+info)

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on the abdominal organs, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. General surgeons may also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, and hernias. They employ a wide range of surgical procedures, using both traditional and laparoscopic techniques.

This definition is consistent with the guidelines provided by professional medical organizations such as the American College of Surgeons and the Royal College of Surgeons. However, it's important to note that specific practices can vary based on factors like geographical location, training, and individual expertise.

Surgical specialties are branches of medical practice in which surgeons perform surgical procedures to treat various diseases, injuries, or deformities. These specialties require advanced training, knowledge, and skills beyond general surgery. Here are some examples of surgical specialties:

1. Cardiothoracic Surgery: This specialty focuses on the surgical treatment of conditions related to the heart, lungs, and other structures in the chest.
2. Neurosurgery: Neurosurgeons specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
3. Orthopedic Surgery: Orthopedic surgeons treat conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
4. Ophthalmology: Ophthalmologists specialize in medical and surgical treatment of eye disorders and diseases.
5. Otolaryngology (ENT): Otolaryngologists treat conditions related to the ear, nose, throat, head, and neck.
6. Plastic Surgery: Plastic surgeons perform cosmetic and reconstructive procedures to improve the appearance or function of various parts of the body.
7. Urology: Urologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the urinary system and male reproductive organs.
8. Vascular Surgery: Vascular surgeons treat disorders of the circulatory system, including arteries and veins.
9. Pediatric Surgery: Pediatric surgeons specialize in the surgical care of children, from infants to adolescents.
10. Surgical Oncology: Surgical oncologists focus on the surgical removal of tumors and other cancerous growths.

Surgical specialists must complete a residency program in their chosen specialty after completing medical school. Some may also pursue fellowship training to gain further expertise in a subspecialty area.

The Surgery Department in a hospital is a specialized unit where surgical procedures are performed. It is typically staffed by surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, registered nurses, surgical technologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide surgical care for patients. The department may include various sub-specialties such as cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatric surgery, plastic surgery, and trauma surgery, among others.

The Surgery Department is responsible for the preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients, the performance of surgical procedures, and the postoperative care and management of patients. This includes ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, developing treatment plans, obtaining informed consent from patients, performing surgeries, managing complications, providing postoperative pain control and wound care, and coordinating with other healthcare providers to ensure continuity of care.

The Surgery Department is equipped with operating rooms that contain specialized equipment and instruments necessary for performing surgical procedures. These may include microscopes, endoscopes, imaging equipment, and other technology used to assist in the performance of surgeries. The department may also have dedicated recovery areas, such as post-anesthesia care units (PACUs) or intensive care units (ICUs), where patients can be monitored and cared for immediately after surgery.

Overall, the Surgery Department plays a critical role in the delivery of healthcare services in a hospital setting, providing specialized surgical care to patients with a wide range of medical conditions and injuries.

Operative surgical procedures refer to medical interventions that involve manual manipulation of tissues, structures, or organs in the body, typically performed in an operating room setting under sterile conditions. These procedures are carried out with the use of specialized instruments, such as scalpels, forceps, and scissors, and may require regional or general anesthesia to ensure patient comfort and safety.

Operative surgical procedures can range from relatively minor interventions, such as a biopsy or the removal of a small lesion, to more complex and extensive surgeries, such as open heart surgery or total joint replacement. The specific goals of operative surgical procedures may include the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions, the repair or reconstruction of damaged tissues or organs, or the prevention of further disease progression.

Regardless of the type or complexity of the procedure, all operative surgical procedures require careful planning, execution, and postoperative management to ensure the best possible outcomes for patients.

Internship: In medical terms, an internship is a supervised program of hospital-based training for physicians and surgeons who have recently graduated from medical school. The duration of an internship typically ranges from one to three years, during which the intern engages in a variety of clinical rotations in different departments such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and neurology. The primary aim of an internship is to provide newly graduated doctors with hands-on experience in patient care, diagnosis, treatment planning, and communication skills under the close supervision of experienced physicians.

Residency: A residency is a structured and intensive postgraduate medical training program that typically lasts between three and seven years, depending on the specialty. Residents are licensed physicians who have completed their internship and are now receiving advanced training in a specific area of medicine or surgery. During this period, residents work closely with experienced attending physicians to gain comprehensive knowledge and skills in their chosen field. They are responsible for managing patient care, performing surgical procedures, interpreting diagnostic tests, conducting research, teaching medical students, and participating in continuing education activities. Residency programs aim to prepare physicians for independent practice and board certification in their specialty.

Medical education, graduate refers to the post-baccalaureate programs of study leading to a doctoral degree in medicine (MD) or osteopathic medicine (DO). These programs typically include rigorous coursework in the basic medical sciences, clinical training, and research experiences. The goal of medical education at this level is to prepare students to become competent, caring physicians who are able to provide high-quality medical care to patients, conduct research to advance medical knowledge, and contribute to the improvement of health care systems.

Graduate medical education (GME) typically includes residency programs, which are postgraduate training programs that provide specialized clinical training in a particular field of medicine. Residency programs typically last three to seven years, depending on the specialty, and provide hands-on experience in diagnosing and treating patients under the supervision of experienced physicians.

Medical education at the graduate level is designed to build upon the foundational knowledge and skills acquired during undergraduate medical education (UME) and to prepare students for licensure and certification as practicing physicians. Graduates of GME programs are eligible to take licensing exams and apply for certification in their chosen specialty through professional organizations such as the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS).

Fellowships and scholarships in the medical context are awards given to individuals to support their education, training, or research in a specific medical field. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Fellowship: A fellowship is a competitive award given to a highly qualified individual, usually a physician or researcher, to pursue advanced training, education, or research in a specialized area of medicine. Fellowships can last from one to several years and often involve working in an academic medical center or research institution. They may include a stipend, tuition support, and other benefits.
2. Scholarship: A scholarship is a financial award given to an individual to support their education, typically for undergraduate or graduate studies. In the medical context, scholarships are often granted to students who demonstrate academic excellence, leadership potential, and a commitment to a career in medicine. Scholarships can cover tuition, fees, books, and living expenses and may be awarded by universities, professional organizations, or other entities.

Both fellowships and scholarships can provide valuable opportunities for individuals to advance their knowledge, skills, and careers in the medical field. They are often highly competitive, with selection based on a variety of factors including academic achievement, research experience, leadership potential, and personal qualities.

A career choice refers to the decision or selection of a job or profession that an individual makes, typically based on their interests, skills, values, and personal goals. It involves considering various factors such as education and training requirements, job outlook, salary potential, and work-life balance. A well-informed career choice can lead to long-term job satisfaction, success, and fulfillment. It is essential to note that career choices can change over time due to various reasons, including personal growth, industry trends, or changes in life circumstances.

Elective surgical procedures are operations that are scheduled in advance because they do not involve a medical emergency. These surgeries are chosen or "elective" based on the patient's and doctor's decision to improve the patient's quality of life or to treat a non-life-threatening condition. Examples include but are not limited to:

1. Aesthetic or cosmetic surgery such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, etc.
2. Orthopedic surgeries like knee or hip replacements
3. Cataract surgery
4. Some types of cancer surgeries where the tumor is not spreading or causing severe symptoms
5. Gastric bypass for weight loss

It's important to note that while these procedures are planned, they still require thorough preoperative evaluation and preparation, and carry risks and benefits that need to be carefully considered by both the patient and the healthcare provider.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Traumatology is a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and management of injuries caused by external forces, such as accidents, violence, or sports. It involves the care of various types of traumas, including but not limited to:

1. Musculoskeletal trauma: Fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, and soft tissue injuries affecting bones, joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
2. Traumatic brain injury (TBI): Concussions, contusions, diffuse axonal injuries, and other head injuries that can lead to cognitive impairment, physical disability, or even death.
3. Spinal cord injury: Fractures, dislocations, or contusions of the spinal column leading to neurological deficits, paralysis, or loss of sensation.
4. Thoracic and abdominal trauma: Injuries affecting the chest and abdominal organs, such as lung contusions, rib fractures, liver lacerations, or splenic ruptures.
5. Facial trauma: Fractures, soft tissue injuries, or dental damage affecting the face, jaws, and eyes.
6. Burns and electrical injuries: Thermal, chemical, or electrical damage to the skin and underlying tissues.
7. Pediatric trauma: Injuries specific to children due to their unique anatomy, physiology, and developmental needs.
8. Geriatric trauma: Injuries in older adults who may have increased vulnerability due to age-related changes in bone density, balance, cognition, or comorbidities.

Traumatologists are healthcare professionals trained in the management of these injuries, often working closely with other specialists such as orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and critical care physicians to provide comprehensive care for trauma patients.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

The Admitting Department in a hospital is the area where patients are formally registered and admitted for further medical treatment or procedures. When a patient arrives at the hospital for admission, they first go through the admitting department to provide necessary information such as their personal details, insurance information, medical history, and reason for admission. The staff in this department verifies the patient's insurance coverage, obtains any required authorizations for procedures, and creates a medical record for the patient. After completing the admitting process, the patient is then directed to the appropriate hospital unit or department for further care.

In the context of medicine, specialization refers to the process or state of a physician, surgeon, or other healthcare professional acquiring and demonstrating expertise in a particular field or area of practice beyond their initial general training. This is usually achieved through additional years of education, training, and clinical experience in a specific medical discipline or subspecialty.

For instance, a doctor who has completed medical school and a general residency program may choose to specialize in cardiology, dermatology, neurology, orthopedics, psychiatry, or any other branch of medicine. After completing a specialized fellowship program and passing the relevant certification exams, they become certified as a specialist in that field, recognized by professional medical organizations such as the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC).

Specialization allows healthcare professionals to provide more focused, expert care for patients with specific conditions or needs. It also contributes to the development and advancement of medical knowledge and practice, as specialists often conduct research and contribute to the evidence base in their respective fields.

A Medical Records Department (MRD) in a hospital is responsible for collecting, maintaining, and storing patient health information generated during the course of providing healthcare services. The MRD ensures that these records are accurate, confidential, accessible, and retained according to legal and institutional requirements. These records typically include medical history, treatment plans, medication information, laboratory test results, imaging studies, progress notes, and discharge summaries.

The department is usually staffed by health information management professionals who follow established policies and procedures for managing these records in compliance with relevant laws, regulations, and accreditation standards. The MRD plays a critical role in supporting quality patient care, clinical decision-making, research, and continuous healthcare improvement.

Medicine is a branch of healthcare that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and illness. It encompasses a variety of health profession practices, including but not limited to, the services provided by physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dentists, and allied health professionals.

Medicine can also refer to the substances or compounds used in the treatment and prevention of disease, often referred to as medications or drugs. These substances can be administered in various forms, such as oral (pills, liquids), topical (creams, ointments), injectable (shots, IVs), or inhaled (aerosols, nebulizers).

Overall, medicine is a multidisciplinary field that combines scientific research, clinical expertise, and patient values to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment for individuals and communities.

In the context of healthcare, workload refers to the amount and complexity of tasks or responsibilities that a healthcare professional is expected to perform within a given period. This can include direct patient care activities such as physical assessments, treatments, and procedures, as well as indirect care activities like documentation, communication with other healthcare team members, and quality improvement initiatives.

Workload can be measured in various ways, including the number of patients assigned to a provider, the amount of time spent on direct patient care, or the complexity of the medical conditions being managed. High workloads can impact the quality of care provided, as well as healthcare professional burnout and job satisfaction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage workload effectively to ensure safe and high-quality patient care.

Clinical competence is the ability of a healthcare professional to provide safe and effective patient care, demonstrating the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for the job. It involves the integration of theoretical knowledge with practical skills, judgment, and decision-making abilities in real-world clinical situations. Clinical competence is typically evaluated through various methods such as direct observation, case studies, simulations, and feedback from peers and supervisors.

A clinically competent healthcare professional should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a solid understanding of the relevant medical knowledge and its application in clinical practice.
2. Perform essential clinical skills proficiently and safely.
3. Communicate effectively with patients, families, and other healthcare professionals.
4. Make informed decisions based on critical thinking and problem-solving abilities.
5. Exhibit professionalism, ethical behavior, and cultural sensitivity in patient care.
6. Continuously evaluate and improve their performance through self-reflection and ongoing learning.

Maintaining clinical competence is essential for healthcare professionals to ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients and stay current with advances in medical science and technology.

An operating room, also known as an operating theatre or surgery suite, is a specially equipped and staffed hospital department where surgical procedures are performed. It is a sterile environment with controlled temperature, humidity, and air quality to minimize the risk of infection during surgeries. The room is typically equipped with medical equipment such as an operating table, surgical lights, anesthesia machines, monitoring equipment, and various surgical instruments. Access to the operating room is usually restricted to trained medical personnel to maintain a sterile environment and ensure patient safety.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Educational Exchange" is not a medical term. It is a broader term used in the field of education and international relations, referring to the exchange of students, teachers, and educational materials between different countries. This can include various academic activities such as student exchanges, faculty exchanges, joint research, and cultural immersion programs. The purpose of these exchanges is to promote international understanding, cooperation, and intellectual development.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Orthopedics is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the musculoskeletal system, which includes the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, tendons, and nerves. The goal of orthopedic care is to help patients maintain or restore their mobility, function, and quality of life through a variety of treatments, including medication, physical therapy, bracing, and surgery. Orthopedic surgeons are medical doctors who have completed additional training in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal conditions, and they may specialize in specific areas such as sports medicine, spine care, joint replacement, or pediatric orthopedics.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

An appendectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vermiform appendix is removed. This procedure is performed when a patient has appendicitis, which is an inflammation of the appendix that can lead to serious complications such as peritonitis or sepsis if not treated promptly. The surgery can be done as an open procedure, in which a single incision is made in the lower right abdomen, or as a laparoscopic procedure, in which several small incisions are made and specialized instruments are used to remove the appendix. In some cases, if the appendix has burst, a more extensive surgery may be required to clean out the abdominal cavity.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

A "University Hospital" is a type of hospital that is often affiliated with a medical school or university. These hospitals serve as major teaching institutions where medical students, residents, and fellows receive their training and education. They are equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide specialized and tertiary care services. University hospitals also conduct research and clinical trials to advance medical knowledge and practices. Additionally, they often treat complex and rare cases and provide a wide range of medical services to the community.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

An emergency is a sudden, unexpected situation that requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm, permanent disability, or death. Emergencies can include severe injuries, trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, difficulty breathing, severe allergic reactions, and other life-threatening conditions. In such situations, prompt medical intervention is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition, diagnose the underlying problem, and provide appropriate treatment.

Emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for providing emergency care to patients outside of a hospital setting, such as in the home, workplace, or public place. EMS personnel include emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and other first responders who are trained to assess a patient's condition, provide basic life support, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment.

In a hospital setting, an emergency department (ED) is a specialized unit that provides immediate care to patients with acute illnesses or injuries. ED staff includes physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who are trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies. The ED is equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide prompt diagnosis and treatment for critically ill or injured patients.

Overall, the goal of emergency medical care is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide timely and effective treatment to improve outcomes and save lives.

There seems to be a misunderstanding in your question. "Hospital Departments" is not a medical term or diagnosis, but rather an organizational structure used by hospitals to divide their services and facilities into different units based on medical specialties or patient populations. Examples of hospital departments include internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, emergency medicine, radiology, and pathology. Each department typically has its own staff, equipment, and facilities to provide specialized care for specific types of patients or medical conditions.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

Blood grouping, also known as blood typing, is the process of determining a person's ABO and Rh (Rhesus) blood type. The ABO blood group system includes four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O, based on the presence or absence of antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells. The Rh blood group system is another important classification system that determines whether the Rh factor (a protein also found on the surface of red blood cells) is present or absent.

Knowing a person's blood type is crucial in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood. If a patient receives an incompatible blood type, it can trigger an immune response leading to serious complications such as hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells), kidney failure, or even death.

Crossmatching is a laboratory test performed before a blood transfusion to determine the compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood. It involves mixing a small sample of the donor's red blood cells with the recipient's serum (the liquid portion of the blood containing antibodies) and observing for any agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis. If there is no reaction, the blood is considered compatible, and the transfusion can proceed.

In summary, blood grouping and crossmatching are essential tests in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood and prevent adverse reactions that could harm the patient's health.

'Medical Staff, Hospital' is a general term that refers to the group of licensed physicians and other healthcare professionals who are responsible for providing medical care to patients in a hospital setting. The medical staff may include attending physicians, residents, interns, fellows, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and other advanced practice providers.

The medical staff is typically governed by a set of bylaws that outline the structure, authority, and responsibilities of the group. They are responsible for establishing policies and procedures related to patient care, quality improvement, and safety. The medical staff also plays a key role in the hospital's credentialing and privileging process, which ensures that healthcare professionals meet certain standards and qualifications before they are allowed to practice in the hospital.

The medical staff may work in various departments or divisions within the hospital, such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, psychiatry, and radiology. They may also participate in teaching and research activities, as well as hospital committees and leadership roles.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

Ambulatory surgical procedures, also known as outpatient or same-day surgery, refer to medical operations that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These procedures are typically performed in a specialized ambulatory surgery center (ASC) or in a hospital-based outpatient department. Patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures receive anesthesia, undergo the operation, and recover enough to be discharged home on the same day of the procedure.

Examples of common ambulatory surgical procedures include:

1. Arthroscopy (joint scope examination and repair)
2. Cataract surgery
3. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy
4. Dental surgery, such as wisdom tooth extraction
5. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
6. Hernia repair
7. Hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus)
8. Minor skin procedures, like biopsies and lesion removals
9. Orthopedic procedures, such as carpal tunnel release or joint injections
10. Pain management procedures, including epidural steroid injections and nerve blocks
11. Podiatric (foot and ankle) surgery
12. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

Advancements in medical technology, minimally invasive surgical techniques, and improved anesthesia methods have contributed to the growth of ambulatory surgical procedures, offering patients a more convenient and cost-effective alternative to traditional inpatient surgeries.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

A "Teaching Hospital" is a healthcare institution that provides medical education and training to future healthcare professionals, such as medical students, residents, and fellows. These hospitals are often affiliated with medical schools or universities and have a strong focus on research and innovation in addition to patient care. They typically have a larger staff of specialized doctors and medical professionals who can provide comprehensive care for complex and rare medical conditions. Teaching hospitals also serve as important resources for their communities, providing access to advanced medical treatments and contributing to the development of new healthcare technologies and practices.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder using a laparoscope, a thin tube with a camera, which allows the surgeon to view the internal structures on a video monitor. The surgery is performed through several small incisions in the abdomen, rather than a single large incision used in open cholecystectomy. This approach results in less postoperative pain, fewer complications, and shorter recovery time compared to open cholecystectomy.

The procedure is typically indicated for symptomatic gallstones or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), which can cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard of care for gallbladder removal due to its minimally invasive nature and excellent outcomes.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A waiting list, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to a list of patients who are awaiting a particular medical service or procedure, such as surgery, consultation with a specialist, or therapy. These lists are often established when the demand for certain services exceeds the immediate supply of resources, including physician time, hospital beds, or specialized equipment.

Patients on waiting lists are typically ranked based on factors like the severity of their condition, the urgency of their need for treatment, and the date they were placed on the list. The goal is to ensure that those with the most pressing medical needs receive care as soon as possible, while also providing a fair and transparent system for allocating limited resources.

However, it's important to note that extended waiting times can have negative consequences for patients, including worsening of symptoms, decreased quality of life, and potential complications. As such, healthcare systems strive to minimize wait times through various strategies, such as increasing resource allocation, improving efficiency, and implementing alternative service delivery models.

I apologize, but "Alberta" is not a medical term. It is the name of a province in Canada, located in western Canada, and is known for its vast prairies, mountains, and coniferous forests. It is bordered by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, as well as the Northwest Territories to the north, and the US state of Montana to the south.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

A medical audit is a systematic review and evaluation of the quality of medical care against established standards to see if it is being delivered efficiently, effectively, and equitably. It is a quality improvement process that aims to improve patient care and outcomes by identifying gaps between actual and desired practice, and implementing changes to close those gaps. Medical audits can focus on various aspects of healthcare delivery, including diagnosis, treatment, medication use, and follow-up care. The ultimate goal of medical audits is to ensure that patients receive the best possible care based on current evidence and best practices.

Urology is a surgical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and conditions related to the male and female urinary tract system and the male reproductive organs. This includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate gland, and testicles. Urologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in this field, and they may perform various surgical procedures such as cystoscopy, lithotripsy, and radical prostatectomy to treat conditions like kidney stones, urinary tract infections, bladder cancer, enlarged prostate, and infertility.

Certification is the act of granting a formal warranty or guarantee (a certificate) that a product, process, or service conforms to specified requirements. In the medical field, certification often refers to the process by which a regulatory body or professional organization grants recognition to a healthcare professional, institution, or program that meets certain predetermined standards.

For example, in the United States, physicians can become certified in a particular medical specialty through the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) after completing residency training and passing a rigorous examination. Similarly, hospitals and other healthcare facilities may be certified by organizations such as The Joint Commission to demonstrate that they meet established quality and safety standards.

Medical certification serves several purposes, including:

1. Ensuring competence: Certification helps establish that the certified individual or organization possesses the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities to provide safe and effective care in their area of expertise.
2. Protecting patients: By setting and enforcing standards, certification organizations aim to protect patients from harm and ensure they receive high-quality care.
3. Promoting continuous improvement: Certification programs often require ongoing professional development and continuing education, encouraging healthcare professionals and institutions to stay current with best practices and advancements in their field.
4. Enhancing public trust: Certification can help build public confidence in the competence and expertise of healthcare providers and organizations, making it easier for patients to make informed decisions about their care.

Inguinal hernia, also known as an inguinal rupture or groin hernia, is a protrusion of abdominal-cavity contents through the inguinal canal. The inguinal canal is a passage in the lower abdominal wall that carries the spermatic cord in males and a round ligament in females. Inguinal hernias are more common in men than women.

There are two types of inguinal hernias: direct and indirect. Direct inguinal hernias occur when the abdominal lining and/or fat push through a weakened area in the lower abdominal wall, while indirect inguinal hernias result from a congenital condition where the abdominal lining and/or fat protrude through the internal inguinal ring, a normal opening in the abdominal wall.

Inguinal hernias can cause discomfort or pain, especially during physical activities, coughing, sneezing, or straining. In some cases, incarceration or strangulation of the hernia may occur, leading to serious complications such as bowel obstruction or tissue necrosis, which require immediate medical attention.

Surgical repair is the standard treatment for inguinal hernias, and it can be performed through open or laparoscopic techniques. The goal of surgery is to return the protruding tissues to their proper position and strengthen the weakened abdominal wall with sutures or mesh reinforcement.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Bariatric surgery is a branch of medicine that involves the surgical alteration of the stomach, intestines, or both to induce weight loss in individuals with severe obesity. The primary goal of bariatric surgery is to reduce the size of the stomach, leading to decreased food intake and absorption, which ultimately results in significant weight loss.

There are several types of bariatric surgeries, including:

1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB): This procedure involves creating a small pouch at the top of the stomach and connecting it directly to the middle portion of the small intestine, bypassing the rest of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine.
2. Sleeve gastrectomy: In this procedure, a large portion of the stomach is removed, leaving behind a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch that restricts food intake.
3. Adjustable gastric banding (AGB): This surgery involves placing an adjustable band around the upper part of the stomach to create a small pouch and limit food intake.
4. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS): This is a more complex procedure that involves both restricting the size of the stomach and rerouting the small intestine to reduce nutrient absorption.

Bariatric surgery can lead to significant weight loss, improvement in obesity-related health conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and reduced risk of mortality. However, it is not without risks and complications, including infection, bleeding, nutrient deficiencies, and dumping syndrome. Therefore, careful consideration and evaluation by a multidisciplinary team are necessary before undergoing bariatric surgery.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A district hospital is a type of healthcare facility that provides medical services to a specific geographic area, or "district." These hospitals are typically smaller than regional or tertiary care facilities and offer a range of general and specialized medical services to the local population. They serve as the primary point of contact for many patients seeking medical care and may provide emergency services, inpatient and outpatient care, surgery, diagnostic imaging, laboratory services, and rehabilitation. District hospitals are an essential part of healthcare systems in many countries, particularly in rural or underserved areas where access to larger medical centers may be limited.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

Emergency treatment refers to the urgent medical interventions and care provided to individuals who are experiencing a severe injury, illness, or life-threatening condition. The primary aim of emergency treatment is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide immediate medical attention to save the patient's life or limb.

Emergency treatment may include various medical procedures, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), airway management, administering medications, controlling bleeding, treating burns, immobilizing fractures, and providing pain relief. The specific emergency treatment provided will depend on the nature and severity of the patient's condition.

Emergency treatment is typically delivered in an emergency department (ED) or a similar setting, such as an urgent care center, ambulance, or helicopter transport. Healthcare professionals who provide emergency treatment include emergency physicians, nurses, paramedics, and other specialists trained in emergency medicine.

It's important to note that emergency treatment is different from routine medical care, which is usually provided on a scheduled basis and focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and managing chronic or ongoing health conditions. Emergency treatment, on the other hand, is provided in response to an acute event or crisis that requires immediate attention and action.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I'm assuming you are asking for a definition of "medical students." Here it is:

Medical students are individuals who are enrolled in a program of study to become medical doctors. They typically complete four years of undergraduate education before entering a medical school, where they spend another four years studying basic sciences and clinical medicine. After completing medical school, they become physicians (M.D.) and continue their training through residency programs in their chosen specialties. Some medical students may choose to pursue a research career and complete a Ph.D. during or after medical school.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ontario" is not a medical term. It is the name of a province in Canada, similar to how "California" is the name of a state in the United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health conditions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Robotics, in the medical context, refers to the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots in medical fields. These machines are capable of performing a variety of tasks that can aid or replicate human actions, often with high precision and accuracy. They can be used for various medical applications such as surgery, rehabilitation, prosthetics, patient care, and diagnostics. Surgical robotics, for example, allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with increased dexterity, control, and reduced fatigue, while minimizing invasiveness and improving patient outcomes.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Thoracic surgery, also known as cardiothoracic surgery, is a branch of medicine that specializes in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting the organs inside the thorax (chest), specifically the heart, lungs, esophagus, and major blood vessels. This can include procedures such as lung biopsies, lobectomies, pneumonectomies, esophagectomies, heart valve repairs or replacements, coronary artery bypass grafting, and treatment of chest injuries. Thoracic surgeons are medical doctors who have completed extensive training in this field, including a general surgery residency followed by a fellowship in thoracic surgery.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the use of antibiotics to prevent infection from occurring in the first place, rather than treating an existing infection. This practice is commonly used before certain medical procedures or surgeries that have a high risk of infection, such as joint replacements, heart valve surgery, or organ transplants. The goal of antibiotic prophylaxis is to reduce the risk of infection by introducing antibiotics into the body before bacteria have a chance to multiply and cause an infection.

The choice of antibiotic for prophylaxis depends on several factors, including the type of procedure being performed, the patient's medical history and allergies, and the most common types of bacteria that can cause infection in that particular situation. The antibiotic is typically given within one hour before the start of the procedure, and may be continued for up to 24 hours afterward, depending on the specific guidelines for that procedure.

It's important to note that antibiotic prophylaxis should only be used when it is truly necessary, as overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the decision to use antibiotic prophylaxis should be made carefully and in consultation with a healthcare provider.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Appendicitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix, a small finger-like structure that projects from the colon located in the lower right abdomen. The appendix doesn't have a known function, and its removal (appendectomy) does not appear to affect a person's health.

The inflammation of the appendix can be caused by various factors, such as obstruction due to hardened stool, foreign bodies, or tumors. The blockage can lead to increased pressure within the appendix, reduced blood flow, and bacterial growth, resulting in infection and inflammation. If left untreated, appendicitis can progress to peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity) or even sepsis, a life-threatening condition.

Common symptoms of appendicitis include:

* Sudden onset of pain in the lower right abdomen, which may start around the navel and shift to the lower right side over several hours
* Pain that worsens with movement, coughing, or sneezing
* Nausea and vomiting
* Loss of appetite
* Fever and chills
* Constipation or diarrhea
* Abdominal swelling or bloating

If you suspect appendicitis, it's essential to seek immediate medical attention. The standard treatment for appendicitis is surgical removal of the appendix (appendectomy), which can be performed as an open surgery or laparoscopically. Antibiotics are also administered to treat any existing infection. Delaying treatment can lead to serious complications, so it's crucial not to ignore symptoms and seek medical help promptly.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

In the context of medical education, a curriculum refers to the planned and organized sequence of experiences and learning opportunities designed to achieve specific educational goals and objectives. It outlines the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that medical students or trainees are expected to acquire during their training program. The curriculum may include various components such as lectures, small group discussions, clinical rotations, simulations, and other experiential learning activities. It is typically developed and implemented by medical education experts and faculty members in consultation with stakeholders, including learners, practitioners, and patients.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "job satisfaction" is not a medical term or concept. It falls under the domain of occupational or organizational psychology and refers to the degree to which employees like their jobs and are content with their role in the organization. High job satisfaction is generally associated with positive outcomes such as increased productivity, lower turnover rates, and better mental health. However, low job satisfaction can contribute to stress, burnout, and other negative health outcomes.

Plastic surgery is a medical specialty that involves the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body. It can be divided into two main categories: reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery.

Reconstructive surgery is performed to correct functional impairments caused by burns, trauma, birth defects, or disease. The goal is to improve function, but may also involve improving appearance.

Cosmetic (or aesthetic) surgery is performed to reshape normal structures of the body in order to improve the patient's appearance and self-esteem. This includes procedures such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, facelifts, and tummy tucks.

Plastic surgeons use a variety of techniques, including skin grafts, tissue expansion, flap surgery, and fat grafting, to achieve their goals. They must have a thorough understanding of anatomy, as well as excellent surgical skills and aesthetic judgment.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

Patient admission in a medical context refers to the process by which a patient is formally accepted and registered into a hospital or healthcare facility for treatment or further medical care. This procedure typically includes the following steps:

1. Patient registration: The patient's personal information, such as name, address, contact details, and insurance coverage, are recorded in the hospital's system.
2. Clinical assessment: A healthcare professional evaluates the patient's medical condition to determine the appropriate level of care required and develop a plan for treatment. This may involve consulting with other healthcare providers, reviewing medical records, and performing necessary tests or examinations.
3. Bed assignment: Based on the clinical assessment, the hospital staff assigns an appropriate bed in a suitable unit (e.g., intensive care unit, step-down unit, general ward) for the patient's care.
4. Informed consent: The healthcare team explains the proposed treatment plan and associated risks to the patient or their legal representative, obtaining informed consent before proceeding with any invasive procedures or significant interventions.
5. Admission orders: The attending physician documents the admission orders in the medical chart, specifying the diagnostic tests, medications, treatments, and care plans for the patient during their hospital stay.
6. Notification of family members or caregivers: Hospital staff informs the patient's emergency contact or next of kin about their admission and provides relevant information regarding their condition, treatment plan, and any necessary follow-up instructions.
7. Patient education: The healthcare team educates the patient on what to expect during their hospital stay, including potential side effects, self-care strategies, and discharge planning.

The goal of patient admission is to ensure a smooth transition into the healthcare facility, providing timely and appropriate care while maintaining open communication with patients, families, and caregivers throughout the process.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Hospital mortality is a term used to describe the number or rate of deaths that occur in a hospital setting during a specific period. It is often used as a measure of the quality of healthcare provided by a hospital, as a higher hospital mortality rate may indicate poorer care or more complex cases being treated. However, it's important to note that hospital mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including the severity of illness of the patients being treated, patient demographics, and the availability of resources and specialized care. Therefore, hospital mortality rates should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other quality metrics.

Medical education, undergraduate, refers to the initial formal educational phase in which students learn the basic sciences and clinical skills required to become a physician. In the United States, this typically involves completing a four-year Bachelor's degree followed by four years of medical school. The first two years of medical school are primarily focused on classroom instruction in subjects such as anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, and pathology. The final two years involve clinical rotations, during which students work directly with patients under the supervision of licensed physicians. After completing medical school, graduates must then complete a residency program in their chosen specialty before they are eligible to practice medicine independently.

Thoracic surgery, video-assisted (VATS) is a minimally invasive surgical technique used to diagnose and treat various conditions related to the chest cavity, including the lungs, pleura, mediastinum, esophagus, and diaphragm. In VATS, a thoracoscope, a type of endoscope with a camera and light source, is inserted through small incisions in the chest wall to provide visualization of the internal structures. The surgeon then uses specialized instruments to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as biopsies, lung resections, or esophageal repairs. Compared to traditional open thoracic surgery, VATS typically results in less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recoveries for patients.

Cataract extraction is a surgical procedure that involves removing the cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye. This procedure is typically performed to restore vision impairment caused by cataracts and improve overall quality of life. There are two primary methods for cataract extraction:

1. Phacoemulsification: This is the most common method used today. It involves making a small incision in the front part of the eye (cornea), inserting an ultrasonic probe to break up the cloudy lens into tiny pieces, and then removing those pieces with suction. After removing the cataract, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is inserted to replace the natural lens and help focus light onto the retina.

2. Extracapsular Cataract Extraction: In this method, a larger incision is made on the side of the cornea, allowing the surgeon to remove the cloudy lens in one piece without breaking it up. The back part of the lens capsule is left intact to support the IOL. This technique is less common and typically reserved for more advanced cataracts or when phacoemulsification cannot be performed.

Recovery from cataract extraction usually involves using eye drops to prevent infection and inflammation, as well as protecting the eye with a shield or glasses during sleep for a few weeks after surgery. Most people experience improved vision within a few days to a week following the procedure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Personal Satisfaction" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the feeling of contentment or fulfillment one derives from achieving their personal goals or desires. However, in a medical context, it might be used to assess a person's quality of life or their satisfaction with their healthcare or treatment outcomes.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) refers to the use of computer systems and technologies to assist and enhance surgical procedures. These systems can include a variety of tools such as imaging software, robotic systems, and navigation devices that help surgeons plan, guide, and perform surgeries with greater precision and accuracy.

In CAS, preoperative images such as CT scans or MRI images are used to create a three-dimensional model of the surgical site. This model can be used to plan the surgery, identify potential challenges, and determine the optimal approach. During the surgery, the surgeon can use the computer system to navigate and guide instruments with real-time feedback, allowing for more precise movements and reduced risk of complications.

Robotic systems can also be used in CAS to perform minimally invasive procedures with smaller incisions and faster recovery times. The surgeon controls the robotic arms from a console, allowing for greater range of motion and accuracy than traditional hand-held instruments.

Overall, computer-assisted surgery provides a number of benefits over traditional surgical techniques, including improved precision, reduced risk of complications, and faster recovery times for patients.

A physician is a healthcare professional who practices medicine, providing medical care and treatment to patients. Physicians may specialize in various fields of medicine, such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, or radiology, among others. They are responsible for diagnosing and treating illnesses, injuries, and disorders; prescribing medications; ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests; providing counseling and education to patients; and collaborating with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care. Physicians may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and academic medical centers. To become a physician, one must complete a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree program and pass licensing exams to practice medicine in their state.

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

Oral surgery is a specialized branch of dentistry that focuses on the diagnosis and surgical treatment of various conditions related to the mouth, teeth, jaws, and facial structures. Some of the common procedures performed by oral surgeons include:

1. Tooth extractions: Removal of severely decayed, damaged, or impacted teeth, such as wisdom teeth.
2. Dental implant placement: Surgical insertion of titanium posts that serve as artificial tooth roots to support dental restorations like crowns, bridges, or dentures.
3. Jaw surgery (orthognathic surgery): Corrective procedures for misaligned jaws, uneven bite, or sleep apnea caused by structural jaw abnormalities.
4. Oral pathology: Diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant growths or lesions in the oral cavity, including biopsies and removal of tumors.
5. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders: Surgical intervention for issues related to the joint that connects the jawbone to the skull, such as arthroscopy, open joint surgery, or total joint replacement.
6. Facial trauma reconstruction: Repair of fractured facial bones, soft tissue injuries, and lacerations resulting from accidents, sports injuries, or interpersonal violence.
7. Cleft lip and palate repair: Surgical correction of congenital deformities affecting the upper lip and hard/soft palate.
8. Sleep apnea treatment: Surgical reduction or removal of excess tissue in the throat to alleviate airway obstruction and improve breathing during sleep.
9. Cosmetic procedures: Enhancement of facial aesthetics through various techniques, such as chin or cheekbone augmentation, lip reshaping, or scar revision.

Oral surgeons typically complete a four-year dental school program followed by an additional four to six years of specialized surgical training in a hospital-based residency program. They are qualified to administer general anesthesia and often perform procedures in a hospital setting or outpatient surgical center.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, 'probability' does not have a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of numerical quantities called probabilities, which are assigned to events or sets of events. Probability is a measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. It is usually expressed as a number between 0 and 1, where 0 indicates that the event is impossible and 1 indicates that the event is certain to occur.

In medical research and statistics, probability is often used to quantify the uncertainty associated with statistical estimates or hypotheses. For example, a p-value is a probability that measures the strength of evidence against a hypothesis. A small p-value (typically less than 0.05) suggests that the observed data are unlikely under the assumption of the null hypothesis, and therefore provides evidence in favor of an alternative hypothesis.

Probability theory is also used to model complex systems and processes in medicine, such as disease transmission dynamics or the effectiveness of medical interventions. By quantifying the uncertainty associated with these models, researchers can make more informed decisions about healthcare policies and practices.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a medical procedure that temporarily takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during major heart surgery. It allows the surgeon to operate on a still, bloodless heart.

During CPB, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body with the help of a heart-lung machine. The machine pumps the blood through a oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and then returned to the body. This bypasses the heart and lungs, hence the name "cardiopulmonary bypass."

CPB involves several components, including a pump, oxygenator, heat exchanger, and tubing. The patient's blood is drained from the heart through cannulas (tubes) and passed through the oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is removed. The oxygenated blood is then warmed to body temperature in a heat exchanger before being pumped back into the body.

While on CPB, the patient's heart is stopped with the help of cardioplegia solution, which is infused directly into the coronary arteries. This helps to protect the heart muscle during surgery. The surgeon can then operate on a still and bloodless heart, allowing for more precise surgical repair.

After the surgery is complete, the patient is gradually weaned off CPB, and the heart is restarted with the help of electrical stimulation or medication. The patient's condition is closely monitored during this time to ensure that their heart and lungs are functioning properly.

While CPB has revolutionized heart surgery and allowed for more complex procedures to be performed, it is not without risks. These include bleeding, infection, stroke, kidney damage, and inflammation. However, with advances in technology and technique, the risks associated with CPB have been significantly reduced over time.

Colorectal surgery is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the colon, rectum, and anus. This can include conditions such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), diverticulitis, and anal fistulas or fissures.

The surgical procedures performed by colorectal surgeons may involve minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopic or robotic-assisted surgery, or more traditional open surgery. These procedures can range from removing polyps during a colonoscopy to complex resections of the colon, rectum, or anus.

Colorectal surgeons also work closely with other medical specialists, such as gastroenterologists, oncologists, and radiologists, to provide comprehensive care for their patients.

Family practice, also known as family medicine, is a medical specialty that provides comprehensive and continuous care to patients of all ages, genders, and stages of life. Family physicians are trained to provide a wide range of services, including preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic illnesses, management of complex medical conditions, and providing health education and counseling.

Family practice emphasizes the importance of building long-term relationships with patients and their families, and takes into account the physical, emotional, social, and psychological factors that influence a person's health. Family physicians often serve as the primary point of contact for patients within the healthcare system, coordinating care with other specialists and healthcare providers as needed.

Family practice is a broad and diverse field, encompassing various areas such as pediatrics, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, geriatrics, and behavioral health. The goal of family practice is to provide high-quality, patient-centered care that meets the unique needs and preferences of each individual patient and their family.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

Perioperative care is a multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients before, during, and after surgery with the goal of optimizing outcomes and minimizing complications. It encompasses various aspects such as preoperative evaluation and preparation, intraoperative monitoring and management, and postoperative recovery and rehabilitation. The perioperative period begins when a decision is made to pursue surgical intervention and ends when the patient has fully recovered from the procedure. This care is typically provided by a team of healthcare professionals including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, physical therapists, and other specialists as needed.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Thoracic surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the thorax, which is the part of the body that lies between the neck and the abdomen and includes the chest cage, lungs, heart, great blood vessels, esophagus, diaphragm, and other organs in the chest cavity. These surgical procedures can be either open or minimally invasive (using small incisions and specialized instruments) and are performed to diagnose, treat, or manage various medical conditions affecting the thoracic organs, such as:

1. Lung cancer: Thoracic surgeons perform lung resections (lobectomy, segmentectomy, wedge resection) to remove cancerous lung tissue. They may also perform mediastinal lymph node dissection to assess the spread of the disease.
2. Esophageal surgery: Surgeries like esophagectomy are performed to treat esophageal cancer or other conditions affecting the esophagus, such as severe GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
3. Chest wall surgery: This includes procedures to repair or replace damaged ribs, sternum, or chest wall muscles and treat conditions like pectus excavatum or tumors in the chest wall.
4. Heart surgery: Thoracic surgeons collaborate with cardiac surgeons to perform surgeries on the heart, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve repair/replacement, and procedures for treating aneurysms or dissections of the aorta.
5. Diaphragm surgery: Procedures like diaphragm plication are performed to treat paralysis or weakness of the diaphragm that can lead to respiratory insufficiency.
6. Mediastinal surgery: This involves operating on the mediastinum, the area between the lungs, to remove tumors, cysts, or other abnormal growths.
7. Pleural surgery: Procedures like pleurodesis or decortication are performed to manage conditions affecting the pleura (the membrane surrounding the lungs), such as pleural effusions, pneumothorax, or empyema.
8. Lung surgery: Thoracic surgeons perform procedures on the lungs, including lobectomy, segmentectomy, or pneumonectomy to treat lung cancer, benign tumors, or other lung diseases.
9. Tracheal surgery: This includes procedures to repair or reconstruct damaged trachea or remove tumors and growths in the airway.
10. Esophageal surgery: Collaborating with general surgeons, thoracic surgeons perform esophagectomy and other procedures to treat esophageal cancer, benign tumors, or other conditions affecting the esophagus.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

Ophthalmologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed on the eye and its surrounding structures by trained medical professionals called ophthalmologists. These procedures aim to correct or improve vision, diagnose and treat eye diseases or injuries, and enhance the overall health and functionality of the eye. Some common examples of ophthalmologic surgical procedures include:

1. Cataract Surgery: This procedure involves removing a cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL).
2. LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis): A type of refractive surgery that uses a laser to reshape the cornea, correcting nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.
3. Glaucoma Surgery: Several surgical options are available for treating glaucoma, including laser trabeculoplasty, traditional trabeculectomy, and various drainage device implantations. These procedures aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and prevent further optic nerve damage.
4. Corneal Transplant: This procedure involves replacing a damaged or diseased cornea with a healthy donor cornea to restore vision and improve the eye's appearance.
5. Vitreoretinal Surgery: These procedures focus on treating issues within the vitreous humor (gel-like substance filling the eye) and the retina, such as retinal detachment, macular holes, or diabetic retinopathy.
6. Strabismus Surgery: This procedure aims to correct misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) by adjusting the muscles responsible for eye movement.
7. Oculoplastic Surgery: These procedures involve reconstructive, cosmetic, and functional surgeries around the eye, such as eyelid repair, removal of tumors, or orbital fracture repairs.
8. Pediatric Ophthalmologic Procedures: Various surgical interventions are performed on children to treat conditions like congenital cataracts, amblyopia (lazy eye), or blocked tear ducts.

These are just a few examples of ophthalmic surgical procedures. The specific treatment plan will depend on the individual's condition and overall health.

Morbid obesity is a severe form of obesity, defined by a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher or a BMI of 35 or higher in the presence of at least one serious obesity-related health condition, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea. It is called "morbid" because it significantly increases the risk of various life-threatening health problems and reduces life expectancy.

Morbid obesity is typically associated with significant excess body weight, often characterized by a large amount of abdominal fat, that can strain the body's organs and lead to serious medical complications, such as:

* Type 2 diabetes
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Heart disease
* Stroke
* Sleep apnea and other respiratory problems
* Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
* Osteoarthritis
* Certain types of cancer, such as breast, colon, and endometrial cancer

Morbid obesity can also have significant negative impacts on a person's quality of life, including mobility issues, difficulty with daily activities, and increased risk of mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Treatment for morbid obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Gynecologic surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the female reproductive system and related organs. These surgeries can be either minimally invasive or open procedures, depending on the condition and the patient's health status.

The indications for gynecologic surgical procedures may include but are not limited to:

1. Diagnosis and treatment of various benign and malignant conditions such as uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and cancers of the reproductive organs.
2. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility.
3. Treatment of ectopic pregnancies and miscarriages.
4. Pelvic organ prolapse repair.
5. Sterilization procedures such as tubal ligation.
6. Investigation and treatment of suspicious lesions or abnormal Pap smears.

Some common gynecologic surgical procedures include hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), oophorectomy (removal of the ovary), salpingectomy (removal of the fallopian tube), cystectomy (removal of a cyst), myomectomy (removal of fibroids while preserving the uterus), and endometrial ablation (destruction of the lining of the uterus).

Minimally invasive surgical techniques such as laparoscopy and hysteroscopy have gained popularity in recent years due to their advantages over traditional open surgeries, including smaller incisions, less postoperative pain, quicker recovery times, and reduced risk of complications.

Abdominal surgery Physician Reconstructive surgery Surgeon Surgery Traumatology "Surgery - General Surgeon". Doctor Abdullah ... Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery. Pediatric surgeons do surgery on patients under age 18. Pediatric ... General surgeons can perform vascular surgery if they receive special training and certification in vascular surgery. Otherwise ... first complete a general surgery residency (typically 5-7 years), followed by a cardiothoracic surgery fellowship (typically 2- ...
Official General Surgery website General Surgery at MySpace (Pages using the EasyTimeline extension, Articles with short ... 2 (Relapse Records) 2004 - General Surgery/Filth (Bones Brigade Records) 2004 - General Surgery/Machetazo (Escorbuto Recordings ... General Surgery is a Swedish goregrind group known as one of the earliest Carcass clones. Their 1991 debut Necrology was ... However, in 2003, General Surgery reformed and released a split album with The County Medical Examiners and have since released ...
General surgery is a specialty focused on the abdominal contents, as well as the thyroid gland, and diseases involving skin, ... This page is dedicated specifically to listing surgical instruments used in general surgery. Instruments can be classified in ... Retractors: Surgery is often considered to be largely about exposure. A multitude of retractors exist to aid in exposing the ... "General Instrument Sourcebook - KMedic" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-02-10. Russell, R ...
Thoracic surgery VATS lobectomy Shields, Thomas (2004). General Thoracic Surgery. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 524. ISBN ... Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is a type of minimally invasive thoracic surgery performed using a small video ... Video-assisted thoracic surgery in spontaneous pneumothorax. Can Respir J 2002;9:122-127 Calvin SH Ng, Song Wan, Tak Wai Lee, ... Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery for Pneumothorax in LAM. Heart Lung Circ 2007;16: 300-302 Calvin SH Ng, Innes YP Wan, Anthony ...
Soft-tissue laser surgery is used in a variety of applications in humans (general surgery, neurosurgery, ENT, dentistry, ... Laser in General Surgery. Surgical Clinics of North America. Morris, Peter J; Wood, William C. Oxford Textbook of Surgery. Vol ... Laser surgery is a type of surgery that uses a laser (in contrast to using a scalpel) to cut tissue. Examples include the use ... The laser surgery for dermatology often bypasses the skin surface. The principle of laser surgery for dermatologic problems is ...
Baek SJ, Kim SH (May 2014). "Robotics in general surgery: an evidence-based review". Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery. 7 (2 ... Latif MJ, Park BJ (11 April 2017). "Robotics in general thoracic surgery procedures". Journal of Visualized Surgery. 3: 44. doi ... Major advances aided by surgical robots have been remote surgery, minimally invasive surgery and unmanned surgery. Due to ... "Robotic surgery in otolaryngology and head and neck surgery: a review". Minimally Invasive Surgery. 2012: 286563. doi:10.1155/ ...
p. 5. Coventry, Brendon J. (2014-01-13). General Surgery Risk Reduction. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 180. ISBN 978-1- ... Cataract surgery is a surgery in which cataracts are removed. This kind of surgery has been practiced since 29 CE in Ancient ... These methods encompassed modern oral surgery, cosmetic surgery, sutures, ligatures, amputations, tonsillectomies, mastectomies ... cataract surgeries, lithotomies, hernia repair, gynecology, neurosurgery, and others. Surgery was a rare practice, as it was ...
cite book}}: ,last= has generic name (help) Wray D, Stenhouse D, Lee D, Clark AJ (2003). Textbook of general and oral surgery. ... "TMJ surgery - Oral and maxillofacial surgery - Staten Island University Hospital , Northwell Health". siuh.northwell.edu. ( ... Prosthetic TMJ placement surgery is used as a last resort to manage severe pain and restricted function due to TMJ disorders. ... Only 20% of patients need to proceed to surgery. Examples of surgical procedures that are used in TMD, some more commonly than ...
General Thoracic Surgery (8th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer. ISBN 978-1-4963-7231-4. OCLC 1109787261. Gu, Chang; Wang, Rui ... Lung surgery is a type of thoracic surgery involving the repair or removal of lung tissue, and can be used to treat a variety ... "Lung Surgery , Columbia University Department of Surgery". columbiasurgery.org. Retrieved 2023-03-28. Tsoucalas, Gregory; ... "The History of Surgery for Pulmonary Tuberculosis". Thoracic Surgery Clinics. 22 (3): 257-269. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2012.05. ...
General Surgery Neurological Surgery Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery Urological Surgery ... "Application for Privileges General Surgery" (PDF). Privilege Criteria. New Jersey Board of Medical Examiners. Retrieved 20 ... General Vascular Surgery Osteopathic surgeons may also receive Certification of Added Qualifications in surgical critical care ... AOA Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists American Board of Surgery Ayres, RE; Scheinthal, S; Gross, C; Bell, EC (March 2009). " ...
The same general contraindications for cataract surgery apply. Specific contraindications for MSICS include hard or dense ... General anaesthesia is rarely necessary but may be used for children and adults with medical or psychiatric issues affecting ... The depth of the anterior chamber and position of the posterior capsule may be maintained during surgery by OVDs or an anterior ... The eyelid is held open with a speculum to minimize blinking during surgery. Pain is usually minimal in properly anaesthetised ...
The founding membership includes leading practitioners in robotic general surgery. The first president of the association was ... association formed in 2009 to improve the scientific knowledge of robotic surgery as applied to the field of general surgery. ... Facilitates a network of practitioners of robotic general surgery across the globe Fosters the development of robotic surgery ... general surgery resident programs Creates a knowledge database of surgical videos and presentations related to robotic general ...
Justice Steeves Reasons for Judgment". 2020 BCSC 1310 Cambie Surgeries Corporation v. British Columbia (Attorney General). 2020 ... The lawsuit named as defendants the Attorney General of British Columbia, the Attorney General of Canada, and two groups of ... Attorney General). 2020-09-10. Retrieved 2020-09-11. 2010 BCSC 396 Cambie Surgeries Corp. v. British Columbia (Medical Services ... Cambie Surgeries Corporation v. British Columbia [2020 BCSC 1310] was a high-profile, multi-year Supreme Court of British ...
Ocular surgery may be performed under topical, local or general anesthesia. Local anaesthesia is more preferred because it is ... General anaesthesia is preferred for ocular surgeries in anxious adults, psychiatric patients, infants and children. It is also ... It is the safest option for bilateral surgery. The complications of general anaesthesia are laryngospasm, hypotension, ... Ocular surgery Pittmann, James. "Local anaesthesia for eye surgery". World Federation of Societies of Anaesthetologists. ...
Surgery. General Diseases. Infectious Diseases and Quarantine. Oncology and Hematology. Private Ward. Intensive Care. The ... The General Authority for Children's Hospital is a pediatric hospital in Damascus, Syria. It is public hospital under the ... The General Authority of Pediatrics Hospital was established in the year 1978 in Damascus. It is considered a service ... "General Authority for Pediatric Hospital". Damascus University. Archived from the original on 2014-07-17. Retrieved 2015-11-13 ...
The field combining trauma surgery and emergency general surgery is often called acute care surgery.[citation needed] Dr. ... In the United Kingdom, trauma surgery is now generally considered a subspeciality of general surgery. However, at the Royal ... "General Surgery Curriculum" (PDF). General Medical Council. "Barts Health NHS Trust and the Royal London Hospital". www.c4ts. ... For this reason, part of US trauma surgeons devote at least some of their practice to general surgery. In most American ...
"General Surgery". MusicMight. Archived from the original on 20 September 2011. Retrieved 19 July 2009. Henderson, Alex. "Guided ...
This program has expanded over the years to include: General Surgery (1961), Family Medicine (1971), Internal Medicine (1972), ... Surgery-General". "Family Medicine Residency Directory". www.pafp.com. "APPIC". membership.appic.org. "History of Conemaugh's ... It includes diagnostic imaging, cardiac/pulmonary rehab services, pulmonary function testing, outpatient surgery, pain/ ... Surgery, Pharmacy, and Health Psychology. Conemaugh Health System was created in the wake of the Johnstown Flood of 1889 which ...
"General Surgery." Board Review Series, LWW&W, 2000, pp220 Rammohan A, RM Naidu.Laparoscopic port site Richter's hernia - An ... International Journal of Surgery Case Reports. 2 (1): 9-11. doi:10.1016/j.ijscr.2010.11.002. PMC 3199732. PMID 22096675. ( ...
Guochang H (2010). General Surgery. Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House. Dobanovacki D, Lucić Prostran B, Sarac D, Antić ... General anatomy and musculoskeletal system. Erik Schulte, Udo Schumacher, Lawrence M. Ross, Edward D. Lamperti. Stuttgart: ... Hadidi, Ahmed (2022). Hypospadias Surgery: An Illustrated Textbook. Springer. pp. 115, 624. ISBN 9783030942489. McGregor, ... Urethral Reconstructive Surgery, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, pp. 13-14, doi:10.1007/3-540-29385-x_3, ISBN 978-3-540-29385-9, ...
General Surgery • Pediatric nursing • Surgical Nursing • Critical care nursing • Obstetrics and gynaecology • Public Health • ... His two great works are the Diccionario general de americanismos (1942) and the Diccionario de mejicanismos (1959), both of ... while General Miguel Orrico de los Llanos was the governor of Tabasco, the Juárez Institute became the Juarez University of ... The Center for Research on the Olmeca and Maya Cultures Center for Study and Research of the Fine Arts General Bureau for Fish ...
... has the following departments : General Medicine; General Surgery; Obstetrics & Gynaecology; Pediatrics ... Accident and Trauma Care Laproscopic Surgery Echocardiogram & TMT ICU and Neonatal ICU Whole Body CT Scan Fully Computerised ...
... general surgery; ear nose and throat surgery; ophthalmology; anaesthesia; intensive care pain management; gastroenterology; ... Endocrinology Gastroenterology General Medicine General Surgery Haematology Infectious Disease Intensive Care Unit Medical ... Kingston Public Hospital (KPH) is a public general hospital in Kingston, Jamaica. It is the oldest public hospital in Jamaica ... Oncology Ophthalmology Orthopaedics Outpatient Clinics Pediatric Surgery Pediatrics Pharmacy Physiotherapy Plastic and Re- ...
General Surgery. Neurosurgery. Urology. Orthopedics. Anesthesia. Diagnostic Radiology. Immunology. Virology. Al-Zahra Hospital ... The opening of The Liver and pancreas surgery Unit, and liver transplant operations were conducted and other operations like: ... The Faculty awards a bachelor's degree of Science in Medicine and Surgery, 29 diplomas, 34 master's degrees and 32 doctorate ... General Medicine. Cardiology. Chest. Clinical Pathology. Dermatology. Endocrinology. Neurology. Psychiatry. Tropical Medicine. ...
Diet restrictions after recovery from surgery depend in part on the type of surgery. In general, immediately after bariatric ... patients also face risks to surgery in general. Pulmonary embolism is another common adverse complication of bariatric surgery ... In general, patients are advised to avoid pregnancy for 12-24 months after a bariatric surgery. This waiting period is intended ... Bariatric surgery (or weight loss surgery) is the medical term for a variety of procedures dealing with obesity. Long term ...
Most surgeries in ruminants can be performed with regional anesthesia. General anesthesia is commonly used in animals for major ... surgery of the foot, fracture fixation, ophthalmic surgery, urogenital surgery, and upper respiratory surgery, etc. Once the ... Cataract surgery Entropion surgery Eyelid tumor removal Cherry eye surgery Exenteration (complete removal) of the orbit, ... Foreign bodies can also be removed by endoscopy, which although requires general anesthesia does not require surgery and ...
The list is not exhaustive: 1. General Surgery 2. Physician Anaesthesia 3. Obstetrics & Gynaecology 4. Paediatrics 5. ... Plastic Surgery 14. Reconstructive Surgery 15. Internal Medicine 16. Family Medicine 17. Radiology 18. Psychiatry 19. Endoscopy ... Trauma surgery 6. Pediatrics 7. Physiotherapy 8. Antenatal care 9. Pharmacy. As of April 2015[update], the following speciality ...
Shields, TW; LoCicero J; Ponn RB; Rusch VW (2005). General thoracic surgery. Hagerstwon, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp ...
Stern, Victoria (10 June 2013). "The first Lap Chole in Europe: A 'Criminal' Is Vindicated". General Surgery News. Retrieved 4 ... "Mickey Mouse surgery". In 1987, when one of Mühe's patients died from complications related to the surgery, Mühe faced charges ... He moved to Böblingen in 1982 to take a position as the head of surgery in a local hospital. Inspired by Kurt Semm's pioneering ... He first presented his work in April 1986 at the Congress of the German Society of Surgery, after performing 94 successful ...
General Surgery department; KARIL, Gynaecology and Midwifery with new-born children's department; Neuro-Psychiatric department ... In 1949 General and Dental ambulances were built and in 1952 it was registered under the name Health Centre Kočani. During the ... PHI General Hospital Kochani (Macedonian: Општа болница Кочани) is a hospital located in the central area of the town of Kočani ... PHI General Hospital Kočani offers hospitalization and specialist-consultative services. Within the frames of its ...
Welcome to Medscape General Surgery, where you can peruse the latest medical news, commentary from clinician experts, major ... General Surgery. Allergy & Immunology Anesthesiology Cardiology Critical Care Dermatology Diabetes & Endocrinology Emergency ... Featured General Surgery News & Perspectives * Gaps Persist in Awareness, Treatment of High LDL-C ... Trending With General Surgeons Perspectives View All * Even One Night in the ED Raises Risk for Death ...
Abdominal surgery Physician Reconstructive surgery Surgeon Surgery Traumatology "Surgery - General Surgeon". Doctor Abdullah ... Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of general surgery. Pediatric surgeons do surgery on patients under age 18. Pediatric ... General surgeons can perform vascular surgery if they receive special training and certification in vascular surgery. Otherwise ... first complete a general surgery residency (typically 5-7 years), followed by a cardiothoracic surgery fellowship (typically 2- ...
General Surgery articles covering presentation, surgical treatment, prognosis, and follow-up. Peer reviewed and up-to-date ...
An in-depth look at those physicians and surgeons making up the General Surgery Team at Montefiore Medical Center. ... Surgery. Title: Director, Minimally Invasive and Laparoscopic General Surgery;Site Director, Bariatric Surgery, Weiler Division ... Title: Vice Chairman for Clinical Surgery;Division Chief, General Surgery;Director, Advanced GI Surgery. Full Profile ... Meet the General Surgery Team. Team Leader. William S. Melvin, MD. Surgery, Colorectal Cancer, Esophageal Cancer, Oncology, ...
Le Le, DO is a general surgery specialist in Sun City West, AZ and has over 18 years of experience in the medical field. He ... Compare with other General Surgery Specialists. Compare Dr. Le with our nearby General Surgery Specialists at Mayo. ... Le Le, DO is a general surgery specialist in Sun City West, AZ and has over 18 years of experience in the medical field. He ... Le Le, DO is a General Surgery Specialist in Sun City West, AZ and has over 18 years of experience in the medical field. He ...
... Summary. This Medical Devices sector ... General Surgery) - Medical Devices Pipeline Product Landscape, 2021" provides comprehensive information about the Rigid ... 6.22 May 21, 2021: Surgical Innovations Group Posting of Annual Report & Accounts Notice of Annual General Meeting. 6.23 May 20 ... Ambulatory Surgery Centers, Diagnostic Centers, Hospitals) - Forecast 2024-2030. *  Report ...
Get exceptional General Surgery services from highly experienced & loving pet care professionals in Portland, OR. Visit VCA ... General Surgery Our hospital offers many General Surgery Services. General surgery includes a variety of common and elective ... We routinely use pain management medication in our general surgeries to insure your pets comfort. Refer to our Pain Management ... Ask our staff if you have questions about our General Surgery Services. ...
General Surgery Residency Faculty and Staff. Surgical Oncology (GS1). Hishaam Ismael, MD. Program Director. General Surgery ...
Changes in antibiotic use in a general surgery unit over a 5-year period ... The number of hospital bed-days in the general surgery unit of Imam Hossein University Hospital was 17 800 in the year 2006 and ... of all operations performed in our general surgery division in this year. These operations were also the 3 most common ... Changes in antibiotic use in a general surgery unit over a 5-year period ...
Athanassios Petrotos specializes in General Surgery and is a member of Yale Medicine ... General Surgery Conditions & Treatments. Abdominal Surgery, Acid Reflux Surgery, Adrenal Laparoscopic Surgery, Anorectal ... Petrotos now specializes in elective general surgery, emergency general surgery, and trauma. He is the medical director of ... Surgery, Appendectomy, Cancer Surgery, Colon Surgery, Endocrine Surgery, Hernia Repair, Laparoscopy, Minimally Invasive Surgery ...
Apply for Surgery-General Physician jobs in Roswell, New Mexico on DocCafe ... General Surgeon ,i class=fa fa-facebook,,/i, ,i class=fa fa-twitter,,/i, ,i class=fa fa-linkedin,,/i, ,i class=fa fa- ...
All rights reserved. The information on our website is not intended to guide people to diagnosis and treatment. ...
Residency: Surgery, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City. Board Certified: American Board of Surgery ... Specialty: General Surgery. Main Office: Hays Medical Center - Southwind Surgical. Phone Number: 785.623.5945 - https://www. ... Specialty: General Surgery. Main Office: Hays Medical Center - Southwind Surgical. Phone Number: 785.623.5945 - https://www. ... haysmed.com/surgery/ Medical School: University of Kansas School of Medicine 1979-1983. Residency: St. Lukes Hospital/ ...
General Surgeon Pretium saepe pariatur ornare cillum repudiandae inceptos iaculis cumque vulputate sequi neque quos ... General Surgeon Pretium saepe pariatur ornare cillum repudiandae inceptos iaculis cumque vulputate sequi neque quos ... General Surgery. Dentolab. , Blog. , General Surgery. Technology. Improvement In Technology. Aug 11, 2020. DanijelComment on ...
Welcome to the Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins. Dr. Andrew Cameron is the new director of Department of Surgery at Johns ... Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine is ranked #1 for its surgery program according to U.S. News & World Report ... Andrea Bafford has joined The Johns Hopkins Department of Surgery as a colorectal surgeon at Johns Hopkins Howard County ... There are many exciting things going on in surgery, including world-changing firsts, notable training programs, clinical growth ...
Recent Advances in Surgery 34. JA McCullough, D Singh-Ranger, CRG Cohen. (Published 2011). †Initial Experience of Treating ... Laparoscopic Surgery for Colon/Bowel Cancer and Inflammatory Bowel Disease;. Surgical management of haemorrhoids;. Surgical ... Surgery for intestinal failure;. Complex incisional hernia repair/abdominal wall reconstruction;. Investigation and treatment ... Clinical Lead for the Gastrointestinal Surgery University College Hospital 2016 - 2021. Clinical Lead for Lower GI Cancer, ...
To schedule a general surgery consultation with Kitsap General Surgery, please call 360-613-1335. We serve Silverdale and ...
One of the first major discoveries relevant to the field of pulmonology was the discovery of pulmonary circulation. Originally, it was thought that blood reaching the right side of the heart passed through small pores in the septum into the left side to be oxygenated, as theorized by Galen; however, the discovery of pulmonary circulation disproves this theory, which had previously been accepted since the 2nd century. Thirteenth century anatomist and physiologist Ibn Al-Nafis accurately theorized that there was no direct passage between the two sides.. ...
Dr. Rela Institute is renowned world over for being one of the most trusted institutions for liver transplantation. Dr. Prof. Mohamed Rela is a pioneer in the field, having performed more than 5000 liver transplants over the last 3 decades. ...
... The General and Minimal Access Surgery Department at Masina Hospital is dedicated to ... General surgery covers a wide array of procedures, including traditional open surgeries, while minimal access surgery employs ... Our General and Minimal Access Surgery Department is equipped with cutting-edge technology to enhance surgical precision. We ... We specialize in both general and minimal access surgeries, offering our patients a broad spectrum of treatment options. ...
Building: 1751, Road: 5445, Block: 754, Hamad Town: Buri Po Box: 38634, Northern Governate, Kingdom Of Bahrain ...
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The General Surgery Physician Assistant (GSPA) Residency is a tri-service 18 month program that incorporates a variety of ... During the 18 month program, the GSPA residents complete 18 clinical rotations to include general surgery, trauma surgery, ICU ... The General Surgery Physician Assistant (GSPA) Residency is a tri-service 18 month program that incorporates a variety of ... Upon graduation the General Surgery PAs have served all across the globe supporting service members and their families. ...
... invite selected speakers from the 2024 CSF General Surgery Review to present on topics of broad interest to the general surgery ...
Dr.HOUSSAM ABTAR - from GENERAL SURGERY, aside to many other doctors in Mouwasat Hospital. ... GENERAL SURGERY. Get to know more about Dr. ... THYROID AND PARATHYROID SURGERIES. *MANY OTHER GENERAL SURGERY ... MEDICAL DOCTORATE GENERAL SURGERY MAKASSED GENERAL HOSPITAL AFFILIATED WITH AUBMC. *LEBANESE BOARD OF GENERAL SURGERY, FELLOW ... MEMBER OF THE LEBANESE SOCIETY OF GENERAL SURGERY, MEMBER OF THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF OBESITY AND METABOLIC DISORDERS ( ...
The Saudi Society for General Surgery was established by the decision of the Council of King Abdul Aziz University in its ... Principles of Minimal Invasive Thoracic Surgery *Simulation-Based Negative Pressure Wound Therapy *Surgical Tips, Tricks and ...
Surgery is also referred as "general surgery. With "general" included in the name, this speciality indeed covers a wide scope ... paediatric surgery, and thyroid and endocrine surgeries. In addition, during surgical operations or treatments, Quality ... HealthCares specialists in Surgery will offer the patients with pre- and post-surgery nursing guidance to ensure that the ... including general surgical operations and endoscopy, to examine and treat the patients with hepatobiliary and pancreatic ...
2.1.1. General surgery. Several procedures in the field of General Surgery have been performed in animal models by transvaginal ... 2.2.1. General surgery. Sugimoto et al. (2009) performed one case of transvaginal NOTES cholecystectomy in a human female ... The transvaginal endoscopic approach has been tested in animal models in General Surgery, Urology and Gynecology. ... New developments in surgery: Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES). Arch Surg. , 142, 3, (Mar), 295. 297. ...
General surgery services in the area of Pimlico, QLD 4812. ... Townsville Day Surgery. General surgery. and more. 1 Martinez ... Ayr Hospital - General Surgery. General surgery. 2 Chippendale Street, AYR, QLD 4807 ...
Surgical Elite of Avondale provides links to web sites of other organizations in order to provide visitors with certain information. A link does not constitute an endorsement of content, viewpoint, policies, products or services of that web site. Once you link to another web site not maintained by Surgical Elite of Avondale, you are subject to the terms and conditions of that web site, including but not limited to its privacy policy. ...
  • General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on alimentary canal and abdominal contents including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some general surgeons obtain advanced training in this field (most commonly surgical critical care) and specialty certification surgical critical care. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgical oncologist refers to a general surgical oncologist (a specialty of a general surgeon), but thoracic surgical oncologists, gynecologist and so forth can all be considered surgeons who specialize in treating cancer patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bariatric surgery can be performed laparoscopically and there a benefits of doing so to reduce wound complications in obese patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • General surgery includes a variety of common and elective procedures performed under general anesthesia. (vcahospitals.com)
  • As these procedures usually require general anesthesia, please refer to our Anesthesia Services for a detailed description of our offerings. (vcahospitals.com)
  • Postobstructive pulmonary edema in an obese child after an oral surgery procedure under general anesthesia: a case report. (bvsalud.org)
  • Regional anesthesia is used extensively for various purposes, including as a primary anesthetic technique for surgery, as an analgesic modality to manage pain in the perioperative period, and as an analgesic modality for various other forms of acute and/or chronic pain. (medscape.com)
  • This article will focus on the use of regional anesthesia as a postoperative analgesic technique for orthopedic surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Regional anesthesia can reduce operative anesthetic requirements and in some cases allow avoidance of general anesthesia altogether. (medscape.com)
  • This can be beneficial to a variety of patient populations, including those at risk for cognitive dysfunction after general anesthesia. (medscape.com)
  • IT opioids can be administered as an adjunct to general anesthesia (e.g., for scoliosis surgery) or combined with local anesthetics and administered during spinal anesthesia (e.g., for total hip arthroplasty). (medscape.com)
  • Surgical oncology is generally a 2-year fellowship following completion of a general surgery residency (5-7 years). (wikipedia.org)
  • Most cardiothoracic surgeons in the U.S. (D.O. or M.D.) first complete a general surgery residency (typically 5-7 years), followed by a cardiothoracic surgery fellowship (typically 2-3 years). (wikipedia.org)
  • The General Surgery Physician Assistant (GSPA) Residency is a tri-service 18 month program that incorporates a variety of clinical rotations, formal didactic instruction, and research through Baylor University and San Antonio Uniformed Services Health Education Consortium/SAUSHEC. (tricare.mil)
  • The importance of training surgeons who sub-specialize in cancer surgery lies in evidence, supported by a number of clinical trials, that outcomes in surgical cancer care are positively associated to surgeon volume (i.e., the more cancer cases a surgeon treats, the more proficient he or she becomes, and his or her patients experience improved survival rates as a result). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Andrea Bafford has joined The Johns Hopkins Department of Surgery as a colorectal surgeon at Johns Hopkins Howard County Medical Center. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Following this he was awarded an Ethicon Laparoscopic Fellowship at University College London Hospitals after which he was appointed as a Consultant General & Colorectal Surgeon. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Our hospital offers many General Surgery Services. (vcahospitals.com)
  • The General and Minimal Access Surgery Department at Masina Hospital is dedicated to providing comprehensive surgical care. (masinahospital.com)
  • Twenty-two nursing professionals who worked in the surgical clinic of a general hospital answered a semi-structured interview that was recorded and later transcribed. (bvsalud.org)
  • The current study assessed the bacteriologic profile, resistance pattern, and treatment outcome in Lan- cet General Hospital. (who.int)
  • cet General Hospital. (who.int)
  • He takes care of everything from trauma patients to people who need emergency abdominal surgery or elective procedures like hernia repairs and gallbladder removals. (ynhhs.org)
  • General surgeons that are trained today are expected to be proficient in laparoscopic procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Otherwise, these procedures are typically performed by vascular surgery specialists. (wikipedia.org)
  • General surgery covers a wide array of procedures, including traditional open surgeries, while minimal access surgery employs minimally invasive techniques. (masinahospital.com)
  • General surgeons may sub-specialize into one or more of the following disciplines: In many parts of the world including North America, Australia and the United Kingdom, the overall responsibility for trauma care falls under the auspices of general surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • General surgeons must be able to deal initially with almost any surgical emergency. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] All general surgeons are trained in emergency surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • General surgeons treat a wide variety of major and minor colon and rectal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease), diverticulitis, colon and rectal cancer, gastrointestinal bleeding and hemorrhoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • General surgeons perform a majority of all non-cosmetic breast surgery from lumpectomy to mastectomy, especially pertaining to the evaluation, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • General surgeons can perform vascular surgery if they receive special training and certification in vascular surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, general surgeons are capable of treating minor vascular disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • General surgeons are trained to remove all or part of the thyroid and parathyroid glands in the neck and the adrenal glands just above each kidney in the abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Medical Devices sector report, "Rigid Endoscopes (General Surgery) - Medical Devices Pipeline Product Landscape, 2021" provides comprehensive information about the Rigid Endoscopes pipeline products with comparative analysis of the products at various stages of development and information about the clinical trials which are in progress. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • We have Laparoscopic systems from Karl Storz & Stryker Co. These technologies facilitate the performance of minimal access surgeries, ensuring accurate diagnoses and well-informed treatment plans. (masinahospital.com)
  • During the 18 month program, the GSPA residents complete 18 clinical rotations to include general surgery, trauma surgery, ICU and multiple sub specialties. (tricare.mil)
  • The Johns Hopkins Department of Surgery strives to deliver the highest quality care to patients, consistently redefining excellence in research to create the next generation of surgical leaders and find the best treatments for our patients. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • There are many exciting things going on in surgery, including world-changing firsts, notable training programs, clinical growth, innovation and wellness of the entire team so they can all live up to the highest clinical standards for their patients. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • We specialize in both general and minimal access surgeries, offering our patients a broad spectrum of treatment options. (masinahospital.com)
  • In addition, during surgical operations or treatments, Quality HealthCare's specialists in Surgery will offer the patients with pre- and post-surgery nursing guidance to ensure that the patients can recover and return to normal life as soon as possible. (qhms.com)
  • General Surgery Physician Assistant needed in Northern New Mexico. (hiresps.com)
  • performing surgical treatments for gastroesophageal reflux diseases, paediatric surgery, and thyroid and endocrine surgeries. (qhms.com)
  • Charlotte Kvasnovsky] Tuberculosis, commonly known as TB, is one of the most interesting diseases out there, and I say that as someone who is going into pediatric surgery which has a lot of interesting diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Petrotos now specializes in elective general surgery, emergency general surgery, and trauma. (ynhhs.org)
  • Our department is committed to delivering superior surgical care through both general and minimal access techniques, ensuring that each patient receives personalized and advanced treatment in our brand new state-of-the-art operating theatres. (masinahospital.com)
  • Ask our staff if you have questions about our General Surgery Services. (vcahospitals.com)
  • As a result of its vasoconstrictor content, the product is general y contraindicated for cardiopaths, serious arteriopathies, hypertensive subjects, subjects presenting ischaemic manifestations of any type or essential migraine, nephropaths, hyperthyroid subjects and diabetics. (janusinfo.se)
  • Applicants must have an overall minimum grade point average of 3.0 and obtain a score on the GRE general exam that is predictive of successful completion of the program. (tricare.mil)
  • Dr. Andrew Cameron is the new director of Department of Surgery at Johns Hopkins. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Our General and Minimal Access Surgery Department is equipped with cutting-edge technology to enhance surgical precision. (masinahospital.com)
  • The total posology must be adjusted to suit the patient's general conditions, age and important case history details. (janusinfo.se)
  • Minimal access surgeries significantly reduce patient discomfort, enhance recovery, and minimize scarring. (masinahospital.com)
  • He specializes in General Surgery and Colorectal Surgery. (sharecare.com)
  • I am a Consultant General Surgeon with special interest in endoscopy, inflammatory bowel disease, fistula, haemorrhoids, abdominal and colorectal surgery and hernias. (bupa.co.uk)
  • For minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery, both quality imaging and the use of a reliable energy device is necessary for clear visualization of the surgical field during the procedure and for safe vessel sealing and dissection. (olympus.fi)
  • A pediatric surgeon has completed a 5-year residency training in general surgery, plus a 2-year fellowship in pediatric surgery. (healthychildren.org)
  • In the interest of good patient care, it is suggested that a general surgeon who cares for pediatric surgical problems not listed in the above categories should have had a minimum 6-month rotation as a junior or senior resident during his or her general surgical residency on a pediatric surgical service run by a pediatric surgeon. (healthychildren.org)
  • He went on to complete his internship and residency in General Surgery at Beth Israel Medical Center from 1985 to 1988. (aedit.com)
  • She completed medical school and a year of preliminary general surgery residency at the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, and then a second year of residency at the University of Florida, Gainesville. (nih.gov)
  • When it comes to medical care, having access to a skilled general surgeon is essential. (lchafrica.com)
  • If you're in Kenya and looking for a trusted general surgeon, LifeCare Hospitals is here to help. (lchafrica.com)
  • At LifeCare Hospitals, we're proud to have a highly skilled general surgeon on staff. (lchafrica.com)
  • From routine procedures to complex surgeries, our surgeon has the expertise and training necessary to ensure the possible outcomes for our patients. (lchafrica.com)
  • If you're looking for a reliable general surgeon in Kenya, LifeCare Hospitals is the right choice. (lchafrica.com)
  • Our expert general surgeon has years of experience and a proven track record of success. (lchafrica.com)
  • If you're looking for a general surgeon in Kenya, look no further than LifeCare Hospitals. (lchafrica.com)
  • Contact us today to schedule an appointment with our experienced general surgeon. (lchafrica.com)
  • What is a general surgeon? (lchafrica.com)
  • A general surgeon is a medical professional who specializes in surgical procedures involving the abdomen, skin, breast, soft tissue, and endocrine system. (lchafrica.com)
  • What kinds of surgeries can a general surgeon perform? (lchafrica.com)
  • What should I expect during my consultation with the general surgeon at LifeCare Hospitals? (lchafrica.com)
  • Not all patients who see our general surgeon will require surgery. (lchafrica.com)
  • However, if surgery is necessary, our surgeon will explain the procedure in detail and answer any questions you may have. (lchafrica.com)
  • A general surgeon performing surgery on children not listed in the above categories should care for a sufficient number of children annually to maintain a high level of competence and should annually attend pediatric surgery postgraduate courses and meetings. (healthychildren.org)
  • Unlike open surgery, laparoscopic hernia repairs are noninvasive outpatient procedures that are conducted under general anesthesia. (medicalmex.com)
  • Deficits exist in endoscopy training in RCPSC General Surgery residencies. (sages.org)
  • See us for any general surgery need including gallbladder, hernias, breast surgery, biopsies and more. (mercy.net)
  • The only option to relieve your pain and restore your health is a cholecystectomy or complete gallbladder removal surgery. (medicalmex.com)
  • The Department of General Surgery offers surgical procedures for the endocrine system, the gastrointestinal tract, the liver, the colon, and other significant parts of the human body. (brghdombivli.org)
  • Dr. Mohan Koppikar's qualifications are: MBBS, MS General Surgery. (hexahealth.com)
  • He or she is certified by the American Board of Surgery in both General Surgery and in Pediatric Surgery. (healthychildren.org)
  • One program requires residents to obtain Fundamentals of Endoscopic Surgery certification. (sages.org)
  • The Department of Surgery supports the continuing education of all faculty: physicians, residents, staff and invited guests. (baystatehealth.org)
  • Why Choose LifeCare Hospitals for General Surgery in Kenya? (lchafrica.com)
  • NHAMCS data provides a quarter of the NAMCS visits were made to general and family physicians, which was significantly higher than the other 13 specialties. (cdc.gov)
  • All General Surgery audition rotation requests must be submitted through VSAS. (henryford.com)
  • Emphasis in the training rotation should be on surgery of children older than 5 years. (healthychildren.org)
  • Dr. Wayne McDermott, MD is a General Surgery Specialist in Virginia Beach, VA. (sharecare.com)
  • Implementation of competency-based medical education for RCPSC General Surgery residencies is to occur in 2019. (sages.org)
  • The care you receive before and after your surgery is just as important as the procedure itself. (mercy.net)
  • The health care provider taking care of you can change how deeply asleep you are during the surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Individual characteristics include congenital and acquired factors, such as advanced age or cancer, and interact with external factors, such as hospitalization or surgery ( Table ). (cdc.gov)
  • The general surgery team is skilled in ensuring complete patient safety and satisfaction by employing the most up-to-date diagnostic and surgical techniques. (brghdombivli.org)
  • Techniques in general thoracic surgery / R. Maurice Hood. (who.int)
  • Nous avons comparé le mode d'utilisation des antibiotiques en 2010 dans un service de chirurgie d'un hôpital universitaire de la République islamique d'Iran à des données similaires datant de 2006. (who.int)
  • L'utilisation globale des antibiotiques dans notre service de chirurgie a nettement augmenté, passant d'une moyenne de 4,9 jours-lits (E T 5,1) en 2006 à 7,7 jours-lits (E T 10,3) en 2010. (who.int)
  • Dr. Mohan Koppikar has 48 years of experience in General Surgery. (hexahealth.com)
  • All 17 RCPSC General Surgery program directors were contacted to complete the questionnaire via the web-based SurveyMonkey.ca ® platform. (sages.org)
  • Ask your provider which medicines you should still take on the day of your surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Laparoscopic gall bladder surgery is safer and faster than ever before, which is good news if you're a patient in need. (medicalmex.com)
  • Olympus is always trying to achieve laparoscopic visibility that is equivalent to open surgery by providing HD video imaging systems with advanced technologies. (olympus.fi)
  • With 4K technology, Olympus is now striving to make laparoscopic visibility even better than open surgery by adding features such as Ultra High Definition, Wider Color Gamut, and Magnified Visualization. (olympus.fi)