Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
Pain during the period after surgery.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
The period during a surgical operation.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.
The period following a surgical operation.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Absence of air in the entire or part of a lung, such as an incompletely inflated neonate lung or a collapsed adult lung. Pulmonary atelectasis can be caused by airway obstruction, lung compression, fibrotic contraction, or other factors.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Surgery performed on the female genitalia.
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Process of restoring damaged or decayed teeth using various restorative and non-cosmetic materials so that oral health is improved.
Hospital unit providing continuous monitoring of the patient following anesthesia.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Hospital department providing dental care.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Relief of PAIN, without loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, through ANALGESIC AGENTS administered by the patients. It has been used successfully to control POSTOPERATIVE PAIN, during OBSTETRIC LABOR, after BURNS, and in TERMINAL CARE. The choice of agent, dose, and lockout interval greatly influence effectiveness. The potential for overdose can be minimized by combining small bolus doses with a mandatory interval between successive doses (lockout interval).
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
A type of lung inflammation resulting from the aspiration of food, liquid, or gastric contents into the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Dental procedure in which the entire pulp chamber is removed from the crown and roots of a tooth.
Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.
Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)
Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.
The uncritical acceptance of an idea or plan of action.
The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.
Evaluation, planning, and use of a range of procedures and airway devices for the maintenance or restoration of a patient's ventilation.
The pressure that would be exerted by one component of a mixture of gases if it were present alone in a container. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Rapid and excessive rise of temperature accompanied by muscular rigidity following general anesthesia.
Apparatus, devices, or supplies intended for one-time or temporary use.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.
A narcotic analgesic proposed for severe pain. It may be habituating.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Cardiac arrhythmias that are characterized by excessively slow HEART RATE, usually below 50 beats per minute in human adults. They can be classified broadly into SINOATRIAL NODE dysfunction and ATRIOVENTRICULAR BLOCK.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Endoscopes for examining the interior of the larynx.
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.
Dental procedure in which part of the pulp chamber is removed from the crown of a tooth.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The duration of a surgical procedure in hours and minutes.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
An inhalation anesthetic. Currently, methoxyflurane is rarely used for surgical, obstetric, or dental anesthesia. If so employed, it should be administered with NITROUS OXIDE to achieve a relatively light level of anesthesia, and a neuromuscular blocking agent given concurrently to obtain the desired degree of muscular relaxation. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p180)
The instinctive tendency (or ability) to assume a normal position of the body in space when it has been displaced.
Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge of electricity.
Change of heartbeat induced by pressure on the eyeball, manipulation of extraocular muscles, or pressure upon the tissue remaining in the orbital apex after enucleation.
The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by causing sustained depolarization of the motor end plate. These agents are primarily used as adjuvants in surgical anesthesia to cause skeletal muscle relaxation.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.
A competitive serotonin type 3 receptor antagonist. It is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs, including cisplatin, and has reported anxiolytic and neuroleptic properties.
The lumbar and sacral plexuses taken together. The fibers of the lumbosacral plexus originate in the lumbar and upper sacral spinal cord (L1 to S3) and innervate the lower extremities.
Devices for the compression of a blood vessel by application around an extremity to control the circulation and prevent the flow of blood to or from the distal area. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The specialty or practice of nursing in the care of patients in the recovery room following surgery and/or anesthesia.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Excision of the uterus.
A groin hernia occurring inferior to the inguinal ligament and medial to the FEMORAL VEIN and FEMORAL ARTERY. The femoral hernia sac has a small neck but may enlarge considerably when it enters the subcutaneous tissue of the thigh. It is caused by defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
Continuous recording of the carbon dioxide content of expired air.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
The small thick cartilage that forms the lower and posterior parts of the laryngeal wall.
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.
Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
... repair is done under general anesthesia, most often supplemented by a nerve block to the penis or a caudal block to ... reduce the general anesthesia needed, and to minimize discomfort after surgery.[citation needed] Many techniques have been used ... In general, when no problems are apparent after repair in childhood, new complications arising after puberty are uncommon. ...
"Continuous Caudal Anesthesia During Labor and Delivery". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 21: 301-11. doi:10.1213/00000539-194201000- ... History portal Medicine portal History of anatomy History of general anesthesia History of medicine History of neuroscience ... to study the use of continuous caudal anesthesia for analgesia during childbirth. Hingson and Edwards studied the caudal region ... The first use of continuous caudal anesthesia in a laboring woman was on January 6, 1942, when the wife of a United States ...
Gastric reflux could cause aspiration if this is not done considering the general anesthesia can cause relaxation of the ... The slender ventral half, and the most caudal of the palpable laryngeal landmarks, is also referred to as the anterior cricoid ... When intubating a patient under general anesthesia prior to surgery, the anesthesiologist will press on the cricoid cartilage ... Anesthesia (2000): 55: 208-211 Haslam, N., Parker, L., and Duggan, J.E. Effect of cricoid pressure on the view at laryngoscopy ...
... or under general anesthesia. Treatment involves surgical removal of the cyst and any of the involved lining of the concha. The ... If the cyst is located in the caudal maxillary sinus, it may cause the eyeball on the affected side to bulge out of the orbit, ...
Successful general anesthesia followed. A rare follow-up of a male with Malpuech syndrome was presented by Priolo et al. (2007 ... Another feature identified with Malpuech syndrome is a caudal appendage. A caudal appendage is a congenital outgrowth stemming ... Methods like tracheal intubation for management of the airway during general anesthesia can be hampered by the even smaller, or ... For regional anesthesia, methods like spinal blocking are more difficult where scoliosis is present. In a 2010 report by ...
Edwards, WB; Hingson, RA (1942). "Continuous caudal anesthesia in obstetrics". American Journal of Surgery. 57 (3): 459-64. doi ... In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate ... Caudal epidural analgesia[edit]. The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous ... Marx GF (1994). "The first spinal anesthesia. Who deserves the laurels?". Regional Anesthesia. 19 (6): 429-30. PMID 7848956.. ...
CT requires general anesthesia, and is more costly and less available than plain radiographs, limiting its use in general ... For a front leg, this is when the lower leg is in front of the horse, i.e. angled forward, while the caudal phase is when the ... However, standing MRI tends to be cheaper, and it eliminates the risks of general anesthesia, such as further damage to the ... It requires general anesthesia, but allows thorough visualization of the synovial membrane and articular cartilage. Treatment ...
... and caudal anesthesia is presently the most common and safest modality for anesthesia in pregnant women. Early recognition of ... Perrotta was an owner and founder of Pelham Bay General Hospital in New York in 1960 where he was the Director of Surgery. ... Greenhill, J.P. (September 7, 1944). "Manual Dilatation of the Cervix Under Caudal Anesthesia". American Journal of Obstetrics ... by procaine spinal anesthesia)". The study demonstrated that neuraxial anesthesia could be safely used to alleviate the pain of ...
... anesthesia, caudal MeSH E03.155.086.231 - anesthesia, local MeSH E03.155.086.331 - anesthesia, spinal MeSH E03.155.086.711 - ... anesthesia, general MeSH E03.155.197.197 - anesthesia, inhalation MeSH E03.155.197.197.280 - anesthesia, closed-circuit MeSH ... anesthesia, intratracheal MeSH E03.155.308 - anesthesia, intravenous MeSH E03.155.364 - anesthesia, obstetrical MeSH E03.155. ... anesthesia, conduction MeSH E03.155.086.131 - anesthesia, epidural MeSH E03.155.086.131.100 - ...
... general anesthesia is used instead. Drugs used to induce general anesthesia include thiopental, propofol, etomidate, and ... the caudal approach to epidural anesthesia in 1901; and Fidel Pages, the lumbar epidural approach in 1921. In 1921, the first ... regional anesthesia, transplant anesthesia and trauma anesthesia. Obstetric anesthesiologists typically serve as consultants to ... The administration of general anesthesia in operative procedures was publicly demonstrated by William Thomas Green Morton (1819 ...
Under general or local anesthesia, the surgeon works through the nostrils, making an incision in the lining of the septum to ... Dropped nasal tip due to resection of the caudal margin. Rhinoplasty, surgery involving the entire nose Turbinectomy Empty nose ...
General anesthesia (as opposed to sedation or regional anesthesia) has three main goals: lack of movement (paralysis), ... epidural and caudal anesthesia). Topical anesthesia: local anesthetics that are specially formulated to diffuse through the ... The most common approach to reach the endpoints of general anesthesia is through the use of inhaled general anesthetics. Each ... Three broad categories of anesthesia exist: General anesthesia suppresses central nervous system activity and results in ...
... preferred to be formally admitted to a hospital and to have the surgery performed in an operating room under general anesthesia ... Supralevator abscess forms from cephalad extension of the intersphincteric abscess above the levator ani or from caudal ... Furthermore, any serious abscess will eventually begin to cause signs and symptoms of general infection, including fever and ... Treatment is possible in an emergency department under local anesthesia, but it is highly ...
It may be performed standing or under general anesthesia, and is less invasive than an exploratory celiotomy (abdominal ... Structures that can be identified include the aorta, caudal pole of the left kidney, nephrosplenic ligament, caudal border of ... Horses usually show clinical signs 3-5 days post general anesthesia, including decreased appetite, decreased manure production ... At times anesthesia and a rolling procedure, in which the horse is placed in left lateral recumbency and rolled to right ...
2008). General Anatomy: Principles and Applications, p. 17. Hansen; et al. (2006). "Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Back ... The costiform is lateral, the mammillary is superior (cranial), and the accessory is inferior (caudal). The mammillary is ... "Virtual Spine - Online Learning Resource". Toronto Western Hospital Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management. Retrieved ... The figure on the left depicts the general characteristics of the first through fourth lumbar vertebrae. The fifth vertebra ...
This is most strong when cholinergic input to the zona incerta is reduced as during slow-wave sleep and during anesthesia. The ... Synthesis John Mitrofanis at the University of Sydney has proposed a general theory that might underlie some of the above. The ... Plaha, P.; Khan, S.; Gill, S. (May 2008). "Bilateral stimulation of the caudal zona incerta nucleus for tremor control". ... of medium-sized multipolar or fusiform shaped cells that are more densely packed than the cells in the dorsal sector a caudal ...
... as opposed to general anesthesia required for many non-laparascopic procedures, can produce fewer complications and quicker ... In case of reverse Trendelenburg position, pulmonary function tends to improve as there is caudal shifting of viscera, which ... Use of regional anesthesia (with the recommendation of using a combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia) for laparoscopic ... Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa and Ashish Kulshrestha (2016). "Anaesthesia for laparoscopic surgery: General vs regional ...
The formation of the uterovaginal canal is thought to occur from the caudal to the cephalic portion, all while the urogenital ... "MRKH: General Information , Center for Young Women's Health". youngwomenshealth.org. Retrieved 2017-12-13. "Müllerian Agenesis ... therefore requiring no surgery or anesthesia. The procedure/technique can take months to complete, with regular compliance ... Females who have both Rokitansky-Mayer-Küster-Hauser syndrome and uterovaginal atresia are theorized to have a failing caudal ...
The general function of norepinephrine is to mobilize the brain and body for action. Norepinephrine release is lowest during ... Alpha-2 agonists often have a sedating effect, and are commonly used as anesthesia-enhancers in surgery, as well as in ... Noradrenergic cell group A1 is located in the caudal ventrolateral part of the medulla, and plays a role in the control of body ... Xylazine, another drug in this group, is also a powerful sedative and is often used in combination with ketamine as a general ...
2008). General Anatomy: Principles and Applications, p. 17. *^ Hansen; et al. (2006). "Anatomy and Biomechanics of the Back ... "Toronto Western Hospital Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management. Retrieved February 15, 2017.. ... caudal). The mammillary is connected in the lumbar region with the back part of the superior articular process.[clarification ... The figure on the left depicts the general characteristics of the first through fourth lumbar vertebrae. The fifth vertebra ...
The figure on the left depicts the general characteristics of the first through fourth lumbar vertebrae. The fifth vertebra ... "Toronto Western Hospital Department of Anesthesia and Pain Management. Retrieved February 15, 2017.. ... caudal). The mammillary is connected in the lumbar region with the back part of the superior articular process.[clarification ...
... epidural anesthesia combined with general anesthesia) Abdominal surgery (epidural anesthesia/spinal anesthesia, often combined ... Epidural anesthesia by a caudal approach had been known in the early 20th century, but a well-defined technique using lumbar ... Sometimes, conduction anesthesia is combined with general anesthesia or sedation for the patient's comfort and ease of surgery ... Local anesthesia of body cavities includes intrapleural anesthesia and intra-articular anesthesia. Transincision (or transwound ...
General mechanism[edit]. The mechanism that leads to vasoconstriction results from the increased concentration of calcium (Ca2+ ... Vasoconstrictors mixed with local anesthetics are used to increase the duration of local anesthesia by constricting the blood ... "Thromboxane A2-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle involves activation of Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ ... "Vasoconstrictor agents for local anesthesia". Anesth Prog. 42 (3-4): 116-20. PMC 2148913. PMID 8934977 ...
The stout tail comprises about one-third of the total length, terminating in a caudal fin shaped like an equilateral triangle ... such as those involved in the functioning of anesthesia. Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.; Serena, F.; Ungaro, N.; Ferretti, F.; ... "A study of the effect of general anesthetics on lipid-protein interactions in acetylcholine receptor-enriched membranes from ... and a robust tail with a large triangular caudal fin. Distinctive characteristics include its uniform dark color, smooth-rimmed ...
In general, these two systems should be seen as permanently modulating vital functions, in usually antagonistic fashion, to ... Johnson, Joel O. (2013), "Autonomic Nervous System Physiology", Pharmacology and Physiology for Anesthesia, Elsevier, pp. 208- ... caudal lumbar ganglia and sacral ganglia Prevertebral ganglia (celiac ganglion, aorticorenal ganglion, superior mesenteric ... general visceral afferent) neurons. The parasympathetic nervous system consists of cells with bodies in one of two locations: ...
Rather, they swim within the same general vicinity. In order to prevent losing one of their pod members, there are higher ... McCormick, James G. (2007). "Behavioral Observations of Sleep and Anesthesia in the Dolphin: Implications for Bispectral Index ... propulsive fluke blades and caudal keels. There are many nerve endings that resemble small, onion-like configurations that are ... Monitoring of Unihemispheric Effects in Dolphins". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 104 (1): 239-241. doi:10.1213/01.ane. ...
The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is the caudal part of the cingulate cortex, located posterior to the anterior cingulate ... Latasch, L; Christ, R (March 1988). "[Problems in anesthesia of drug addicts]". Der Anaesthesist. 37 (3): 123-39. PMID 3289412. ... General. *Operculum. *Poles of cerebral hemispheres. Some categorizations are approximations, and some Brodmann areas span gyri ... In a study involving autobiographical recollection, the caudal part of the left PCC was the only brain structure highly active ...
General mechanismEdit. The mechanism that leads to vasoconstriction results from the increased concentration of calcium (Ca2+ ... Vasoconstrictors mixed with local anesthetics are used to increase the duration of local anesthesia by constricting the blood ... "Thromboxane A2-induced contraction of rat caudal arterial smooth muscle involves activation of Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ ... "Vasoconstrictor agents for local anesthesia". Anesth Prog. 42 (3-4): 116-20. PMC 2148913. PMID 8934977 ...
... preferred to be formally admitted to a hospital and to have the surgery performed in an operating room under general anesthesia ... Supralevator abscess forms from cephalad extension of the intersphincteric abscess above the levator ani or from caudal ... Furthermore, any serious abscess will eventually begin to cause signs and symptoms of general infection, including fever and ... Treatment is possible in an emergency department under local anesthesia, but it is highly ...
Caudal anesthesia is given to relieve pain below the waist. Learn more about this procedure. ... What Is Caudal Anesthesia?. Caudal anesthesia is given with general anesthesia to block pain in the legs, low back, belly and ... Fast Facts About General Anesthesia With Caudal Anesthesia. *Your childs surgery will be done under general anesthesia (an-es- ... General Anesthesia with Caudal Anesthesia. At Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, we believe parents and guardians can ...
Effects of Clonidine Added to Bupivacaine for Combined Caudal and General Anesthesia in Children ... Effects of Clonidine Added to Bupivacaine for Combined Caudal and General Anesthesia in Children ... Effects of Clonidine Added to Bupivacaine for Combined Caudal and General Anesthesia in Children ... Regional Anesthesia: The Journal of Neural Blockade in Obstetrics, Surgery, & Pain Control 1993;18:31. ...
Drug: caudal block After inhalation induction of general anesthesia, caudal block was applied. Patients were randomly assigned ... After inhalation induction of general anesthesia, caudal block was applied. Patients were randomly assigned in two groups. ... After inhalation induction of general anesthesia, caudal block was applied. Patients were randomly assigned in two groups. ... A caudal anesthesia is one of the most commonly used technique providing intra and postoperative analgesia in pediatric low ...
Anesthesia Overview. General Anesthesia. Regional (Block) Anesthesia. Spinal Anesthesia. Epidural and Caudal Anesthesia ...
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Caudal , Anesthesia, General , Auscultation , Child , Electrocardiography , Entropy , Epinephrine , ... Caudal block was performed with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% ropivacaine and 1 200,000 epinephrine under sevoflurane anesthesia after the ... rate variability may be more useful than pulse transit time for confirming successful caudal block under general anesthesia in ... Confirming a successful caudal block is challenging in the pediatric population. Pulse transit time (PTT) may reflect the ...
Caudal epidural block was performed under ultrasound guidance after induction of general anesthesia and at 15 min before ... caudal epidural block for postoperative analgesia in the infants undergoing lobectomy under general anesthesia[email protected]*[email protected]#Sixty ... of ultrasound-guided caudal epidural block for postoperative analgesia in infants undergoing lobectomy under general anesthesia ... scheduled for elective lobectomy under general anesthesia, were divided into 2 groups (n=30 each) using a random number table ...
Ultrasonography; Anesthesiology; Internal Medicine; Adult Anesthesiology; Epidural/Caudal; General Anesthesia for Bone Marrow ...
Pediatric regional anesthesia Beyond the caudal. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 91, 16-26. ... Safety and Efficacy of Pediatric General Anesthesia by Laryngeal Mask Airway Without Intravenous Access ... Ross, A.K., Eck, J.B. and Tobias, J.D. (2000) Pediatric regional anesthesia: Beyond the caudal. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 91, 16- ... Prospective, Randomized Comparisons of Induction of Anesthesia with Ketamine, Propofol and Sevoflurane for Quality of Recovery ...
... dogs in the traditional DL-IO group developed hypotension under general anesthesia. Four (67%) of these required intraoperative ... dogs in the traditional DL-IO group developed hypotension under general anesthesia. Four (67%) of these required intraoperative ... The objectives of this study were to describe a modified approach for caudal maxillectomy in the dog involving preligation of ... The objectives of this study were to describe a modified approach for caudal maxillectomy in the dog involving preligation of ...
Multiple regional analgesic techniques, including caudal (CB) and penile block (PB), have championed as offering optimal ... technique initially uses general anesthesia to sedate the patient and facilitate local anesthetic placement into the caudal ... Silvani, P., Camporesi, A., Agostino, M.R. and Salvo, I. (2006) Caudal Anesthesia in Pediatrics: An Update. Minerva ... The most efficient analgesic during circumcision is regional anesthesia, namely caudal (CB) and penile blocks (PB) [15] [16] . ...
The technique pre-dated the lumbar approach to epidural block by several years.1 Caudal anesthesia, however, did not gain in ... Caudal anesthesia was described at the turn of last century by two French physicians, Fernand Cathelin and Jean-Anthanase ... In children, caudal block is usually combined with light general anesthesia with spontaneous ventilation. During lower ... of ropivacaine for caudal anesthesia in patients undergoing anorectal surgery found that the MLAC for caudal anesthesia in ...
Under general anesthesia, the abdominal aorta and caudal vena cava were cannulated near the origin of testicular artery and ... The caudal vena cava leaked during perfusion, and, subsequently, only larger veins (e.g., external iliacs) were preserved. The ... Figure 2: Vascular casting of caudal abdominal aorta from a fertile six-year-old male alpaca. This male had sired many ... The abdominal aorta and caudal vena cava were cannulated near the origin of testicular artery and insertion of the testicular ...
Any contraindication to general or spinal/caudal anesthesia (for example: neuromuscular disorder or coagulopathy) ... General Anesthesia. Drug: General Anesthesia Sevoflurane for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, dose up to 8% ... The general anesthesia group will receive sevoflurane (intervention drug) for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, ... Regional Anesthesia. Drug: Regional Anesthesia Up to 2.5 mg/kg bupivacaine administered by caudal or subarachnoid routes or ...
After general anesthesia has been induced, the patient is clipped, prepped and draped routinely for abdominal surgery. A caudal ... approximately 2 to 3 cm caudal to the trigone of the bladder in female dogs and 2 cm caudal to the prostate in male dogs) by ... To accomplish this, procedures focus on reducing the diameter of the urethral lumen, correcting caudal displacement of the ...
With the patient in the supine position general anesthesia is then induced and a LMA tube is placed to minimize the potential ... The incision begins approximately 1 cm caudal to the caudal border of skull by palpation. ... which can be done under general anesthesia. All patients kept a headache diary and completed the SF-36, MIDAS, and migraine ... can only result in transient anesthesia of the temple area. Even permanent anesthesia or paresthesia in the region can seldom ...
Puig-Sureda: "General anesthesia with ether (Dr. Miguel). Supraumbilical midline laparotomy. Large, chocolate-colored liver. ... Proposed further treatment includes the following plan: resection of the head of the pancreas; anastomosis of the caudal ... Puig-Sureda: "General anesthesia with ether (Dr. Miguel). Supraumbilical midline laparotomy. Large, chocolate-colored liver. ... Gallart Monés, also located at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i San Pau, and Pi-Figueras took over his position at the General ...
"Continuous Caudal Anesthesia During Labor and Delivery". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 21: 301-11. doi:10.1213/00000539-194201000- ... History portal Medicine portal History of anatomy History of general anesthesia History of medicine History of neuroscience ... to study the use of continuous caudal anesthesia for analgesia during childbirth. Hingson and Edwards studied the caudal region ... The first use of continuous caudal anesthesia in a laboring woman was on January 6, 1942, when the wife of a United States ...
Anesthetics, General. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists. Excitatory Amino Acid Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular ... Postoperative Analgesia by Epidural vs IV Ketamine Concurrent With Caudal Anesthesia in Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery. The ... epidural s(+)-ketamine for supplementation of caudal anesthesia. Drug: S(+)-ketamine epidural or intravenous 1 mg kg-1 once ... intravenous ketamine for supplementation of caudal anesthesia. Drug: S(+)-ketamine epidural or intravenous 1 mg kg-1 once ...
GENERAL ANESTHESIA IS NEEDED JUST CAUDAL TO POLL ON DORSAL MIDLINE, LEVEL TO WINGS OF ATLAS. ATLANTOOCCIPITAL SPACE COLLECTION ... LOCAL ANESTHESIA IS USUALLY NEEDED, ESP FOR FOALS, DEEP SYNOVIAL STRUCTURES OR PTS THAT RESIST THE PROCEDURE. ARTHROCENTESIS. ... BETTER THAN SPLINTS; DONE UNDER GEN ANESTHESIA, HORSES IN CASTS SHOULD NOT BE MADE TO MOVE UNLESS NECESSARY ; CAN GET SORES ...
Your son will receive general anesthesia to help him sleep and not feel pain during surgery. A caudal block (numbing medicine ... This page is not specific to your child, but provides general information on the topic above. If you have any questions, please ... This information is not specific to your child but provides general information. If you have any concerns, please call us at ...
General anesthesia may be used for males older than 2 to 3 months of age. When the baby is under general anesthesia, a caudal ...
... with the exception that it is accomplished under general anesthesia in dogs. Following induction of general anesthesia, the ... K) Two transfixing sutures are placed around the vagina caudal to the cervix (or around the caudal aspect of cervix, where it ... B) A hemostat has been placed caudal to the left ovary and the cranial aspect of the uterine horn is at the tip of the second ... F) The left proper ligament and uterine tube are sharply transected caudal to the two transfixing sutures. (G) The left ovary ...
Propofol-remifentanil anesthesia, with the placement of a laryngeal mask, combines general anesthesia, complete control of ... Spinal anesthesia may be limited to the most caudal metameric nerve roots avoiding any prolonged stay in bed. Unfortunately, ... Anesthesia. Transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization can be performed under both general and locoregional anesthesia. ... Following adequate clinical assessment, patients undergo THD under general or spinal anesthesia, in either the lithotomy or the ...
General anesthesia Most children receive a general anesthetic to help them sleep through surgery safely. The anesthetic can be ... caudal block. A caudal block numbs the lower half of the body (from the belly button down) for three to 12 hours. It is used ... After surgery, it usually takes about 45 minutes to an hour for kids to wake up from general anesthesia. A specially trained ... One is to administer general anesthesia to help them sleep through the surgery. The other is to help minimize pain after ...
Loca was placed under general anesthesia for a cone-beam CT scan to fully characterize the extent of her injuries. The scan ... A salvage surgery was then performed to remove bone fragments from her right zygomatic arch and right caudal mandible.. While ...
Spinal anesthesia offers a viable low-risk alternative to general anesthesia for a wide range of pediatric procedures, ... A 9-year-old girl with caudal regression syndrome is the first child in the United States to be treated with pudendal nerve ...
Efficacy of caudal neostigmine for postoperative pain relief: A systemic review and meta-analysis., Semagn Mekonnen, Yigrem Ali ... General Anesthesia was given with nitrous oxide, oxygen and halothane in three studies [3,12,14]. In One study, general ... J Clin Anesthesia Res 2014; 5: 10-13. *Anaesth IJ, Rudra A, Ghosh MK. Scope of caudal neostigmine with bupivacaine for post- ... Ataro G, Bernard M. Anesthesia and clinical effectiveness of caudal epidural block using bupivacaine with neostgmine for ...
General anesthesia in cesarean section: effect on mother and neonate. Obsterical and Gynecological Survey 39: 134-137, 1984 ... Accidental intoxication of the fetus with local anesthetic drug during caudal anesthesia. American Journal of Obstetrics and ... Delayed cord clamping in cesarean section with general anesthesia. American Journal of Perinatology 1: 165-169, 1984PubMed ... Effects of anesthesia on liver function during labor. Current Research in Anesthesia and Analgesia 41: 24-29, 1962Google ...
It might be possible to do a caudal(tailbone epidural space),saddle block or pudendal block. The last 2 are given in the ... OB wants me to either go completely natural with childbirth, or to have a general anesthesia C-section since she thinks I cant ... General Anesthesia C-Section Because of Scoli Surgeries Hello, I had 13 spinal fusions and 2 Harrington rods placed in 1994. ... I had a c-section under general anesthesia for other reasons. Im not going to tell you the whats or whys, but I STRONGLY ...
... circumcisions are typically performed under general anesthesia. This is usually done after the age of 6 months. A caudal or ...
  • A caudal anesthesia is one of the most commonly used technique providing intra and postoperative analgesia in pediatric low abdominal surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • [email protected]#To evaluate the efficacy of ultrasound-guided caudal epidural block for postoperative analgesia in the infants undergoing lobectomy under general anesthesia . (bvsalud.org)
  • [email protected]#Ultrasound-guided caudal epidural block provides better efficacy and fewer side effects for postoperative analgesia in the infants undergoing lobectomy under general anesthesia . (bvsalud.org)
  • Anesthesia & Analgesia, 91, 16-26. (scirp.org)
  • Multiple regional analgesic techniques, including caudal (CB) and penile block (PB), have championed as offering optimal analgesia for circumcision in the post-neonatal pediatric population without clear consensus. (scirp.org)
  • Hingson then collaborated with Edwards, the chief obstetrician at the Marine Hospital, to study the use of continuous caudal anesthesia for analgesia during childbirth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caudal Epidural analgesia reduces the overall intraoperative Anesthetic requirement and facilitates rapid return of conscious state with stable hemodynamic condition. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Epidural analgesia (pain relief) is a type of Regional Anesthesia which is commonly used to ease the pain of labor and childbirth but can also be used to provide anesthesia for other types of surgeries. (wikidoc.org)
  • Epidural analgesia is commonly used in addition to general anesthesia and to manage postoperative pain. (nysora.com)
  • Since most pediatric patients receive epidural analgesia in conjunction with a general anesthetic, the main purpose of the epidural catheter is to deliver enough local anesthetic solution for effective intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. (nysora.com)
  • continuous epidural analgesia continuous injection of an anesthetic solution into the sacral and lumbar plexuses within the epidural space to relieve the pain of childbirth, in general surgery to block the pain pathways below the navel, or to relieve chronic unremitting pain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • infiltration analgesia infiltration anesthesia . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • relative analgesia in dental anesthesia, a maintained level of conscious sedation short of general anesthesia, usually induced by inhalation of nitrous oxide and oxygen. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw at Anesthesia & Analgesia. (lww.com)
  • For postoperative analgesia, caudal injection was planned before general anesthesia with 13 ml of a mixture of 100 mg lidocaine and 3 mg morphine. (asahq.org)
  • Includes surgery using local anesthesia, minimal sedation, moderate sedation/analgesia, deep sedation/analgesia, and general and regional anesthesia. (albme.org)
  • The anaesthetist may use epidural analgesia in addition to general anaesthesia. (bionity.com)
  • Blockade of the lumbar plexus in combination with the sciatic nerve can provide anesthesia and high-quality analgesia for the whole lower extremity, with the advantage of more hemodynamic stability when compared to epidural analgesia. (medscape.com)
  • Simple procedures such as caudal anesthesia with local anaesthetics can reduce the amounts of general anesthesia required and provide complete analgesia in the postoperative period while avoiding large amounts of opioid analgesia with potential side effects that can impair recovery. (haodaifu.info)
  • Batra YK, Arya VK, Mahajan R, Chari P. Dose response study of caudal neostigmine for postoperative analgesia in paediatric patients undergoing genitourinary surgery. (ac.ir)
  • A US-guided QLB is as effective as a caudal block in providing immediate postoperative analgesia in acute diseases of the abdominal cavity. (infinite-science.de)
  • At the end of the surgery and before recovery from the general anesthesia, caudal analgesia was performed. (bu.edu.eg)
  • Conclusion: The current study establishes Bupivacaine neostigmine and Bupivacaine ketamine caudal mixtures produced longer duration of postoperative analgesia after lower abdominal surgery in pediatrics than caudal bupivacaine alone. (bu.edu.eg)
  • The general anesthesia group will receive sevoflurane (intervention drug) for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia, dose up to 8% inspired for duration of procedure plus bupivacaine local anesthetic blockade (up to 2.5 mg per kg) administered via caudal or ilioinguinal nerve block. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Rather than removing the caudal needle after the injection as was customary, the two surgeons experimented with a continuous caudal infusion of local anesthetic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hingson and Edwards studied the caudal region to determine where a needle could be placed to deliver anesthetic agents safely to the spinal nerves without injecting them into the cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • General anesthesia Most children receive a general anesthetic to help them sleep through surgery safely. (childrensdayton.org)
  • Your child will receive the general anesthetic either through an intravenous tube, or through a breathing mask placed over the mouth and nose. (childrensdayton.org)
  • I understand the general anesthetic for the c-section just because they don't want to be messing around with your spine. (scoliosis.org)
  • Spinal anesthesia]] is a technique whereby a [[local anesthetic]] drug is injected into the cerebrospinal fluid. (wikidoc.org)
  • As with epidural anesthesia in adults, local anesthetic concentration and volume are important factors in determining the density and level of blockade. (nysora.com)
  • It may be the sole anesthetic or combined with general anesthesia . (drugster.info)
  • the local anesthetic agent is injected intravenously caudal to a tourniquet. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • If your child had a caudal anesthetic to reduce pain, full hip and leg strength must return before you let your child walk or run without help. (uwhealth.org)
  • After premedication with 3 mg midazolam and 0.5 mg atropine intramuscularly and standard anesthetic monitoring, with the patient in the prone position, the caudal space was easily identified with a 25-gauge needle. (asahq.org)
  • Find the latest information on non-or anesthesia (NORA), robotics, sleep medicine in anesthesia, perioperative and anesthesia-related neurotoxicity, the anesthetic implications of complementary and alternative medicine, and more. (indigo.ca)
  • Patients under a general anesthetic are very deeply asleep and do not feel pain. (ucsf.edu)
  • During the past two decades, a vast number of studies done on rodents and nonhuman primates have implicated general anesthetic exposure of developing brains in producing neurotoxicity leading to various structural and functional neurological abnormalities with cognitive and behavioral deficits later in life. (journaltocs.ac.uk)
  • Caudal block anesthesia relieves the pain your child feels when waking up from surgery and reduces the amount of general anesthetic needed during the procedure. (chkd.org)
  • During the procedure the child is given a local anesthetic in addition to the general anesthetic. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • A caudal block is a one-time injection of local anesthetic into the tailbone region. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • If oral surgery is planned, the institution of an intraoral local anesthetic is warranted in conjunction with the general anesthesia. (aaha.org)
  • This decreases the amount of general anesthetic needed and reduces the amount of systemic pain medication required postoperatively. (aaha.org)
  • A spinal is given as a single injection of a local anesthetic or morphine directly into the caudal area. (bonesmart.org)
  • Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. (bioportfolio.com)
  • An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Open approaches or laparoscopic approaches that do not enter the peritoneal cavity may allow for a variety of anesthetic approaches including GA with LMA or mask, neuraxial, regional, or local anesthesia. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Caudal block was performed with 1 ml/kg of 0.25% ropivacaine and 1 200,000 epinephrine under sevoflurane anesthesia after the surgery . (bvsalud.org)
  • Five minutes after caudal injection, the patient was intubated easily with an additional 100 mg propofol, and anesthesia was maintained with 1.5% sevoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen. (asahq.org)
  • After general anesthesia induction with inhaled sevoflurane, a caudal block was performed. (ac.ir)
  • General anesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained on sevoflurane. (aesculight.com)
  • sevoflurane was used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and laryngeal mask airway (LMA) was used to secure the airway. (infinite-science.de)
  • The history of neuraxial anesthesia goes back to 1885. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are significant anatomical differences in children com-pared with adults that should be considered when using neuraxial anesthesia. (nysora.com)
  • 1 There is an increased interest in the use of neuraxial anesthesia (NA), spinal and epidural anesthesia, associated with general anesthesia (GA) for coronary artery bypass, which is also a matter for further research worldwide. (scielo.br)
  • The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analyzes to evaluate the effectiveness of neuraxial anesthesia associated with general anesthesia compared to general anesthesia alone for coronary artery bypass grafting regarding the reduction of mortality. (scielo.br)
  • Spinal and epidural anesthesia are neuraxial blocks. (bonesmart.org)
  • Obstetric specialty societies recommend neuraxial anesthesia, when possible, for cesarean deliveryCurrent data regarding the association of obstetric anesthesiologist specialization and use of general. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Postoperative outcomes with neuraxial versus general anesthesia in bilateral total hip arthroplasty. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Current evidence remains limited on the postoperative outcomes of neuraxial (NA) versus general anesthesia (GA) as primary anesthesia type in patients receiving simultaneous bilateral total hip arthro. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Unfortunately, clinical indications and especially therapeutic interventions for the relief of chronic pain in individuals with failed back surgery syndrome are often most prevalent in patients with difficult caudal landmarks. (nysora.com)
  • Following adequate clinical assessment, patients undergo THD under general or spinal anesthesia, in either the lithotomy or the prone position. (springer.com)
  • All patients will receive caudal block anesthesia with marcaine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is uncommon to come across patients with neuromuscular diseases in the daily practice of anesthesia, given the low prevalence of those conditions. (lww.com)
  • In view of the low prevalence of this condition (1:25,000), there is little information, derived mostly from case reports, about the use of neuroaxial anesthesia in these patients. (lww.com)
  • Genetic Analysis of Patients Who Experienced Awareness with Recall while under General Anesthesia. (edu.au)
  • We obtained microelectrode recordings from five patients with refractory epilepsy under general anesthesia. (mdpi.com)
  • Therefore, the different properties of the thalamic nuclei, even for patients under general anesthesia, can be used to positively define the recorded structure, improving the exactness of electrode placement in DBS. (mdpi.com)
  • During local and regional anesthesia, patients often receive intravenous drugs for sedation so that they can be comfortably drowsy during surgery and remember little of their time in the operating room. (recordonline.com)
  • We sought to better understand motivations of patients seeking mission-based surgical care.Patients presenting to the obstetric and gynecologic, plastic, ophthalmologic, general, and pediatric surgical clinics at the Hospital de la Familia from July 27 to August 6, 2015 were surveyed. (stanford.edu)
  • RESULTS: In all patients, the length of puncturable SCV and the available angle for needle insertion were significantly increased after caudal traction (35.6% ± 27.1% and 25.0% ± 19.3%, respectively) and decreased after the abduction (36.6% ± 22.9% and 29.5% ± 23.8%, respectively) compared to neutral position. (ivteam.com)
  • No data about inadvertent injection of rocuronium or other nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers (NDNMBs) into the caudal epidural space in awake patients have been documented in the literature. (asahq.org)
  • However, because both drugs were administered through a catheter into the lumbar epidural space during general anesthesia, the patients were unable to report problems, and some symptoms were not observed. (asahq.org)
  • Nerve blockade is commonly used in oncosurgical procedures as an alternative to general anesthesia for older patients and those with significant medical problems. (scirp.org)
  • Bilateral mental nerve block is a safe and effective alternative to general anesthesia in lower lip tumors' resection especially in older patients and those with poor tolerance for general anesthesia provided that there is no need for cervical nodal dissection. (scirp.org)
  • Patients with severe cardiopulmonary disorder, severe organ failure, uncontrolled hypertension, recent stoke or infarction, those who refused or were not compliant with local anesthesia, those with advanced local disease and those with nodal metastases that mandates nodal dissection were excluded from this study. (scirp.org)
  • A surgical block may be considered for lower extremity amputation cases as well as orthopedic surgery cases in debilitated patients who may not tolerate the hemodynamic effects of general anesthesia. (medscape.com)
  • Address the unique needs of pediatric patients with guidance from an entire section on pediatric anesthesia. (elsevier.com)
  • Caudal blocks can be given to patients as young as one week of age to adulthood. (chkd.org)
  • Patients were randomly allocated to one of two trial groups: midazolam group patients received bupivacaine 25% 1 ml/kg with midazolam 50µg/kg, and neostigmine group patients received bupivacaine 25% 1 ml/kg with neostigmine 2 µg/kg through the caudal route. (ac.ir)
  • After securing an intravenous cannula, patients were randomized to a US-guided QLB (n = 64) (group Q) using 0.5 ml/kg 0.25% bupivacaine, injected on the same side of surgery, and group C received a caudal block using 1 ml/kg 0.2% bupivacaine (n = 64). (infinite-science.de)
  • Spinal anesthesia can be challenging in patients with lumbar scoliosis or previous lumbar spine surgery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • In patients receiving neostigmine added to caudal bupivacaine, we noticed hemodynamic stability, pain scores showing no or minimal pain, normal hormonal levels and no major complications were noticed. (bu.edu.eg)
  • All the patients were examined on both the axial and longitudinal planes bilaterally at the same level using a convex array probe (1- 6 MHz, Supersonic Imagine, Aix en Provence, France). (bvsalud.org)
  • the remainder received caudal anesthesia (CA). Among the GA subjects, 25.8% remained intubated for at least 6 h after surgery, whereas none of the CA patients required intubation postoperatively (p = 0.03). (bvsalud.org)
  • Epidural anesthesia often has less effect on the motor nerves than spinal and will allow for some function and mobility even when then catheter is in place. (bonesmart.org)
  • What are the different types of regional anesthesia? (brainscape.com)
  • The various types of regional anesthesia include nerve blocks, caudal/epidural anesthesia, and spinal anesthesia. (medi-corp.com)
  • General anesthesia makes your child's whole body go to sleep and is needed for certain tests and surgeries so that his or her reflexes will be completely relaxed. (chp.edu)
  • General anesthesia makes certain surgeries and tests easier and safer to do because your child will not feel any pain during the procedure or have any memory of it. (chp.edu)
  • To identify postoperative pain relief benefits of caudal neostigmine in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. (alliedacademies.org)
  • General anesthesia is used for extensive surgeries. (recordonline.com)
  • In contrast to using DENTAL HIGH-SPEED EQUIPMENT, this method usually requires no dental anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, DENTAL) and reduces risks of tooth chipping and microfracturing. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Additionally, you may have the opportunity to provide anesthesia in out of operating room locations, such as MRI and interventional radiology. (ucsf.edu)
  • Two different surgical techniques have been described for performing caudal maxillectomies in dogs including the intraoral (IO) and combined dorsolateral and intraoral (DL-IO) approach. (frontiersin.org)
  • This technique is recommended for tumors of the mid-to-caudal maxilla that arise or extend dorsolaterally and/or caudally into the inferior orbit, and provides improved exposure and thus increased ability to resect the mass to microscopic disease and potentially achieve clean surgical margins ( 8 , 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Caudal epidural anesthesia has many applications, including surgical anesthesia in children and adults, as well as the management of acute and chronic pain conditions. (nysora.com)
  • The surgical approach is like a spay but the incision longer and more caudal to facilitate greater access to remove the cervix. (frontiersin.org)
  • Precise placement of epidural needles for single-injection techniques and catheters for continuous epidural anesthesia ensures that the dermatomes involved in the surgical procedure are selectively blocked, allowing for lower doses of local anesthetics to be used and sparing unnecessary blockade in nondesired regions. (nysora.com)
  • Areas of minimal access to surgical care, often called "surgical deserts", are of particular concern when considering the need for urgent surgical and anesthesia care. (stanford.edu)
  • Five, seven, and nine counties, respectively, have none in the corresponding specialty.Overall, California has an adequate ratio of surgical and anesthesia providers to population. (stanford.edu)
  • Limited access to surgical and anesthesia providers may negatively impact patient outcome in these counties. (stanford.edu)
  • Half the solution (2 ml) was injected into each side with a 23 gauge needle and after 5 minutes the surgical resection was carried out after testing for anesthesia. (scirp.org)
  • Risk of malignancy decreases to that of the general population if surgical correction is performed by 10 years of age. (cancertherapyadvisor.com)
  • William Portuese, M.D. prefers to perform these procedures with a closed rhinoplasty approach under general anesthesia as an outpatient surgical procedure. (seattlefacial.com)
  • Can include non-surgical procedures if moderate sedation, deep sedation or general anesthesia is used. (albme.org)
  • Anesthesia is a type of medicine used to prevent pain or other unpleasant sensations during a surgical procedure that might be painful. (medi-corp.com)
  • Abnormally slow pace of regaining CONSCIOUSNESS after general anesthesia (ANESTHESIA, GENERAL) usually given during surgical procedures. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Surgical conditions for laparoscopy may require general anesthesia, endotracheal intubation, and neuromuscular blockade especially if a trans-peritoneal approach is taken, which would cause insufflation of the peritoneal cavity. (renalandurologynews.com)
  • Determine dosage based on type and extent of surgical procedure, area to be anesthetized, vascularity of tissues, depth and duration of anesthesia, degree of muscular relaxation, and condition of the patient. (drugs.com)
  • Your child may be unsteady on his/her feet after having a caudal block. (chkd.org)
  • after LMA placement, caudal epidural block was performed. (elsevier.com)
  • Although Bier properly deserves credit for the introduction of spinal anesthesia into the clinical practice of medicine, it was Corning who created the experimental conditions that ultimately led to the development of both spinal and epidural anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • After inhalation induction of general anesthesia, caudal block was applied. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The application of anesthesia is often completed through an injection or inhalation of vapors or gases. (medi-corp.com)
  • Use well-monitored, inhalation anesthesia with cuffed intubation when performing dental cleanings. (aaha.org)
  • Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded before induction and every five minutes after caudal anesthesia up to 30 minutes. (ac.ir)
  • This procedure is performed with the patient under general anesthesia and placed in dorsal recumbency. (ucdavis.edu)
  • CT has been traditionally carried out with the patient under general anesthesia, due to the requirement to remain immobile for the entire duration of the scan, usually 3-10 minutes depending on the area imaged. (vetstream.com)
  • This leaves ment and the caudal surface of vertebral the anterior and the lateral portions of the vertebral corpus intact. (deepdyve.com)
  • The practice of adding adjunct analgesic drugs to local anesthetics for caudal block is common. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, perioperative pain relief with single shot caudal block is inadequate which needs further administration of other analgesic drugs intravenously [ 7 , 9 , 13 , 14 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Results: Addition of either Neostigmine or ketamine to caudal bupivacaine significantly prolonged its analgesic effect but the bupivacaine-neostigrnine mixture had longer effect than bupivacaine or bupivacaine-ketamine mixture. (bu.edu.eg)
  • Of the 58 counties in California, 18 (31%) have a general surgery desert, 27 (47%) have an orthopedic desert, and 22 (38%) have an anesthesiology desert. (stanford.edu)
  • When the baby is under general anesthesia, a caudal nerve block may be applied to provide postoperative pain relief. (answers.com)
  • Not all children receive a regional nerve block during surgery, and many of those who do also receive general anesthesia. (childrensdayton.org)
  • A caudal or penile nerve block may also be given to help reduce pain below the waist during and after surgery. (childrens.com)
  • This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of bilateral mental nerve block as an adequate sole anesthesia to perform various lip resections and reconstruction among cases admitted to a tertiary oncology center. (scirp.org)
  • Ultrasonographic Assessment of Bladder Volumes in Children Undergoing Penile Surgery: Does the Type of Anesthesia Matter? (ovid.com)
  • A caudal block is a special type of anesthesia. (chkd.org)
  • The association between type of anesthesia used and recurrence of cancer remains controversial. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Under these circumstances, it is recommended that fluoroscopically guided caudal epidural block be performed in lieu of the traditional palpation approach. (nysora.com)
  • Your son will receive general anesthesia to help him sleep and not feel pain during surgery. (childrensmn.org)
  • In 1921, Spanish military surgeon Fidel Pagés (1886-1923) developed the modern technique of lumbar epidural anesthesia, which was popularized in the 1930s by Italian surgery professor Achille Mario Dogliotti [it] (1897-1966). (wikipedia.org)
  • History of epidural anesthesia== * In 1921, a Spanish surgeon named Fidel Pages developed the epidural anesthesia technique, he was the pioneer of lumbar epidural anesthesia. (wikidoc.org)
  • Efficacy of caudal neostigmine for postoperative pain relief: A systemic review and meta-analysis. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Beginning in October 1941, Robert Andrew Hingson (1913-1996), Waldo B. Edwards and James L. Southworth, working at the United States Marine Hospital at Stapleton, on Staten Island in New York, developed the technique of continuous caudal anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first use of continuous caudal anesthesia in a laboring woman was on January 6, 1942, when the wife of a United States Coast Guard sailor was brought into the Marine Hospital for an emergency Caesarean section. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the use of continuous caudal anesthesia, the woman and her baby survived. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. Did you require general anesthesia in a C-section or did you go natural? (scoliosis.org)
  • Neostigmine and midazolam are each added to bupivacaine for the purposes of caudal anesthesia. (ac.ir)
  • The regional blockade may be with spinal alone, spinal block with caudal block, spinal with ilioinguinal block or caudal alone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Up to 2.5 mg/kg bupivacaine administered by caudal or subarachnoid routes or both caudal and subarachnoid or subarachnoid and ilioinguinal nerve blockade. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The surgery was completed 45 min after caudal injection, and neuromuscular blockade was reversed with 2.5 mg neostigmine and 1 mg atropine intravenously. (asahq.org)
  • 11Cousins MJ, Bridenbaugh PO (eds): Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and Management of Pain, 3rd ed. (ac.ir)
  • One of the major reasons caudal anesthesia was not embraced is the wide anatomical variations of sacral bones and the consequent failure rate associated with attempts to locate the sacral hiatus. (nysora.com)
  • The caudal opening of the canal is the sacral hiatus (see Figures 1B and 1C ) roofed by the firm elastic membrane, the sacrococcygeal ligament, which is an extension of the ligamentum flavum. (nysora.com)
  • The caudal epidural space can be accessed easily in infants and children through the sacral hiatus. (nysora.com)
  • Caudal epidural block involves injection of medication through the sacral hiatus, which is an arch shaped opening in the dorsal sacral surface. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Landmarks of the sacral hiatus for caudal epidural block: an anatomical study. (openanesthesia.org)
  • Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Intravenous Versus Caudal Supplementation of Ketamine for Postoperative Pain Control in Children,A Double-blind Controlled Clinical Trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In addition, shorter-acting drugs, more specific drugs and new intravenous drugs can minimize the nausea and vomiting that sometimes occur after anesthesia. (recordonline.com)
  • Children between 4 months and 12 years were randomized to caudal block, intravenous (IV) fentanyl or penile block, in association with inhaled general anesthesia. (ovid.com)
  • Safer drugs and major advances in the monitoring equipment doctors use in surgery have reduced anesthesia complications. (recordonline.com)
  • Although complications from anesthesia are quite rare, they can occur. (ucsf.edu)
  • Any time a surgery is performed, there is always the possibility of anesthesia complications, but these are minimized by our high experienced and skilledstaff. (hampdenfph.com)
  • We evaluated the efficacy of caudal traction of ipsilateral arm on the exposure of the SCV. (ivteam.com)
  • This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a US-guided QLB compare it with a caudal block in undergoing major abdominal surgery in children. (infinite-science.de)
  • Caudal anesthesia is given with general anesthesia to block pain in the legs, low back, belly and lower trunk area. (chp.edu)
  • Confirming a successful caudal block is challenging in the pediatric population . (bvsalud.org)
  • We expected an increasing PTT pattern and change in HRV parameters after caudal block. (bvsalud.org)
  • No significant change was found in PTT with time interval after caudal block. (bvsalud.org)
  • The PTT pattern may not be an indicator for successful caudal block. (bvsalud.org)
  • The technique of caudal epidural block in pain management has been greatly enhanced by the use of fluoroscopic guidance and epidurography, in which high success rates can be attained. (nysora.com)
  • The second resurgence in popularity of caudal anesthesia has paralleled the increasing need to find safe alternatives to conventional lumbar epidural block in selected patient populations, such as individuals with failed back surgery syndrome. (nysora.com)
  • A caudal block (numbing medicine placed near the tailbone) will be given. (childrensmn.org)
  • Follow up will continue for 24 hours after caudal block. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A caudal block numbs the lower half of the body (from the belly button down) for three to 12 hours. (childrensdayton.org)
  • Children receiving caudal epidural Block with combined Neostigmine (2-4 μg/kg) and Bupivacaine (1 mg/kg). (alliedacademies.org)
  • Children receiving caudal epidural Block with bupivacaine alone. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Also called caudal epidural anesthesia or a caudal block. (drugster.info)
  • also used in general surgery to block the pain pathways below the navel. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • also used in general surgery to block the pain pathways caudal to the umbilicus (see also caudal anesthesia). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Regional anesthesia is used to block sensation in one area of your body. (recordonline.com)
  • 12 underwent caudal block, 9 IV fentanyl anesthesia, and 7 were given penile block. (ovid.com)
  • The mean first postvoid bladder residual volumes were highest in the caudal and lowest in the penile block children (27.5 vs. 17.3 mL, P = 0.003). (ovid.com)
  • The penile block appears superior to caudal block or to IV fentanyl-based anesthesia with regard to postoperative recovery of normal micturition. (ovid.com)
  • What is a caudal block? (chkd.org)
  • The caudal block is done while the child is asleep, before the surgery starts. (chkd.org)
  • The effects of the caudal block last 4 -10 hours, sometimes longer. (chkd.org)
  • Your child may have a little difficulty urinating after a caudal block. (chkd.org)
  • This numbing medicine is given via a penile block (injection of local around the base of the penis) or a caudal block (given by the anesthesiologist). (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Because inadequately treated pain is a major cause of prolonged stays or unanticipated hospital admissions after ambulatory surgery, the ability to provide effective pain relief by simple methods that are readily available to an outpatient in his or her home environment will be one of the major challenges for providers of ambulatory anesthesia in the future (3) . (lww.com)
  • Eugène Aburel Bogdan (1899-1975) was a Romanian surgeon and obstetrician who in 1931 was the first to describe blocking the lumbar plexus during early labor, followed by a caudal epidural injection for the expulsion phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • We present a case of inadvertent injection of a mixture of rocuronium and morphine into the caudal epidural space in an awake patient. (asahq.org)
  • Partinton 1993, Gonzaol 2000, Leveille 2003, Asano 2003, Bussadori 2008) This procedure involves the placement of a stent within the caudal vena cava combined with thrombogenic coils within the shunt itself. (ucdavis.edu)
  • The cause may be related to impaired venous drainage of the spinal cord due to compression of the caudal vena cava or azygous vein because of the weight of abdominal viscera. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • What is topical anesthesia? (brainscape.com)
  • A prospective, randomised, single-masked comparison of local anaesthetic approaches including topical anesthesia combined sub-conjunctival anesthesia(two-step anesthesia) for minimally inv. (bioportfolio.com)
  • From fundamental principles to advanced subspecialty procedures, Miller's Anesthesia covers the full scope of contemporary anesthesia practice. (elsevier.com)
  • Your child's surgery will be done under general anesthesia ( an-es-THEEZ-ya ), which means that he or she will be sound asleep during the surgery. (chp.edu)
  • A pediatric anesthesiologist-a doctor who specializes in anesthesia for children-will give the general and caudal medications during your child's surgery. (chp.edu)
  • A caudal allows the anesthesiologist to give a smaller amount of general anesthesia during the surgery, and also provides up to 4 hours of pain relief in that area after the surgery. (chp.edu)
  • Once your child has been registered for the surgery, a member of the anesthesia staff will meet with you to take your child's vital signs, weight and medical history. (chp.edu)
  • There is also the possibility of accepting book reviews of recent publications related to General and Digestive Surgery. (elsevier.es)
  • A salvage surgery was then performed to remove bone fragments from her right zygomatic arch and right caudal mandible. (ucdavis.edu)
  • On August 16, 1898, German surgeon August Bier (1861-1949) performed surgery under spinal anesthesia in Kiel. (wikipedia.org)
  • One is to administer general anesthesia to help them sleep through the surgery. (childrensdayton.org)
  • The more you understand about what will happen before, during and after surgery with your child's anesthesia needs, the more support and reassurance you will be able to provide. (childrensdayton.org)
  • The type and amount of anesthesia your child receives will depend on many factors, including the type of surgery, how long it will last, medications your child is taking and your child's age, height, weight and general health. (childrensdayton.org)
  • After surgery, it usually takes about 45 minutes to an hour for kids to wake up from general anesthesia. (childrensdayton.org)
  • How to cite this article: Rodríguez Ortiz E, Martínez E, Martín J, Maiza L, Medina J. Spinal anesthesia in a patient with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease undergoing orthopedic surgery: case report. (lww.com)
  • After being diagnosed with an acetabular fracture, the patient underwent orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia, selected based on patient comorbidities, and the immediate postoperative follow-up. (lww.com)
  • Q. I'm a senior who's having surgery, and the one thing that scares me more than anything else is the anesthesia. (recordonline.com)
  • Local anesthesia may be used to numb only a small area of nerves at the site where the surgeon plans to operate, such as for cataract surgery. (recordonline.com)
  • Before your surgery, you can also expect questions from your doctors regarding your anesthesia. (recordonline.com)
  • A 53-yr-old, 80-kg, otherwise healthy man was scheduled to undergo emergency surgery during general anesthesia because of a rectal abscess. (asahq.org)
  • We aim to diversify your experience on the rotation as much as possible by ensuring that you provide care to neonates, infants, and children during a wide variety of procedures, including general, urologic, otolaryngologic, orthopedic, and plastic surgery. (ucsf.edu)
  • An anesthesia provider will be with you child at all times during the surgery to make sure that his/her heart is beating well, that his/her blood pressure is good, and that he/she is breathing properly. (ucsf.edu)
  • We studied the effect of various anesthesia techniques on return of micturition after penile surgery in children, using ultrasonographically measured bladder volumes. (ovid.com)
  • The time elapsing between the end of surgery and first voiding was the longest in the fentanyl group compared with caudal and penile blocks (232, 178, 150 minutes, respectively, P = 0.02). (ovid.com)
  • Considering the fact that a large number of healthy young children are undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia globally, any such potential neurocognitive risk of pediatric anesthesia is a serious public health issue and is therefore important to understand. (journaltocs.ac.uk)
  • Licensed physicians who maintain a practice location in Alabama and perform or offer to perform any office-based surgery/procedure which requires moderate sedation, deep sedation or general anesthesia ( click here for definitions of these levels of anesthesia ). (albme.org)
  • Board Rules, Chapter 540-X-10 , set forth the requirements for office based surgery at each level of anesthesia. (albme.org)
  • Physicians performing office-based surgery should carefully consider the expected level of anesthesia to be used and register with the Board where appropriate. (albme.org)
  • This is suitable for a wide variety of surgery, for example gynaecological surgery (e.g. hysterectomy ), orthopaedic surgery (e.g. hip replacement), general surgery (e.g. laparotomy ) and vascular surgery (e.g. open aortic aneurysm repair). (bionity.com)
  • A CO 2 laser cauterizes blood vessels up to 0.5 mm in diameter as it incises, allowing excellent visualization of the tissues as the surgery proceeds, greatly reducing anesthesia time. (aesculight.com)
  • Abdulatif M, El-Sanabary M. Caudal neostigmine, bupivacaine, and their combination for postoperative pain management after hypospadias surgery in children. (ac.ir)
  • The surgery lasts 45-60 minutes and general anesthesia is used. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Surgery involves bypassing the blocked extrahepatic bile ducts by attaching a jejunal Roux-en-Y loop to the internal hepatic ducts. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
  • In orthopaedic surgery, they may be used as anesthesia during a procedure or as part of a pain management program after surgery. (bonesmart.org)
  • Regional anesthetics offer the advantage of providing anesthesia of a large body area during surgery and pain relief for several hours afterward. (bonesmart.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to describe, in real-life conditions, the factors influencing the choice of anesthesia (spinal anesthesia or short general anesthesia) in outpatient surgery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The primary purpose of the GAS study is to determine whether different types of anesthesia (Regional versus General) given to 720 infants undergoing inguinal hernia repair results in equivalent neurodevelopmental outcomes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study also aims to describe the incidence of apnea in the post-operative period after both regional and general anesthesia for inguinal hernia repair in infants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study is important as it will provide the greatest evidence for safety or toxicity of general anesthesia for human infants. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Therefore, because of the increased risk of accidental dural puncture, caution is warranted when placing caudal blocks in infants. (nysora.com)
  • Caution with the use caudal blocks is warranted in infants because of the risk of dural puncture. (nysora.com)
  • METHODS: We enrolled 20 infants, 20 children, and 20 adults undergoing general anesthesia. (ivteam.com)
  • The diameter of SCV was not changed after applying the caudal traction in infants and children. (ivteam.com)
  • Neonates and infants with severe respiratory compromise often have a degree of right heart failure and pulmonary hypertension making the induction and maintenance of anesthesia even more dangerous. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Mildly tachypneic infants can worsen dramatically on the induction of anesthesia with increased air trapping and intrathoracic mass effect. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Asymptomatic infants though less likely may air trap and worsen with the induction of anesthesia. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • Even if the cost of such equipment makes it prohibitive in a veterinary practice, single slice helical scanners allow for shorter acquisition times for which patient immobilization may be achieved using heavy sedation alone, rather than general anesthesia. (vetstream.com)
  • Attempting to perform procedures on an awake patient that is struggling, under sedation, or injectable anesthesia reduces the ability to make an accurate diagnosis, does not allow adequate treatment, and increases stress and risks to the patient. (aaha.org)
  • Neurodevelopmental outcome at 5 years of age after general anaesthesia or awake-regional anaesthesia in infancy (GAS): an international, multicentre, randomised, controlled equivalence trial. (edu.au)
  • There are three main types of anesthesia: general, regional and local. (recordonline.com)
  • Regional anesthesia is injected around a single nerve or a network of nerves that branches out and serves an area. (recordonline.com)
  • New York School of Regional Anesthesia, Caudal Anesthesia . (openanesthesia.org)
  • Regional anesthesia medications target major nerves or the spinal cord. (medi-corp.com)
  • Regional Anesthesia , 21 (4), 390. (elsevier.com)
  • Negri, PDE & Borrelli, F 1996, ' A comparison between mepivacaine- clonidine and mepivacaine-fentanyl for pediatric regional anesthesia ', Regional Anesthesia , vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 390. (elsevier.com)
  • Other times, regional blocks may be used to supplement general anesthesia. (bonesmart.org)
  • For IV regional anesthesia, use 50-mL single-dose vials containing lidocaine hydrochloride 0.5% only. (drugs.com)
  • The approach to the epidural space can be at the caudal, lumbar, or thoracic level. (nysora.com)
  • It may also allow the unimpeded advancement of epidural catheters from the caudal epidural space to the lumbar and thoracic levels. (nysora.com)
  • Effects of mechanical ventilation and thoracic epidural anesthesia. (ac.ir)
  • Esophagostomy tubes (E-tubes) are a bit more complicated, but can be used in general practice. (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • You can count on the Medi-Corp team to improve the efficiency of your anesthesia practice as well as ensure total transparency and accurate reporting at all times. (medi-corp.com)
  • General anesthesia acts primarily on a patient's central nervous system and brain. (medi-corp.com)
  • The order in which the procedures were performed was chosen for benefits to the patient's airway, and steps surrounding intubation for general anesthesia (1. (aesculight.com)
  • Below you will find answers to frequently asked questions regarding the anesthesia for your child's procedure. (ucsf.edu)
  • The final decision as to whether or not your child may have a caudal is made by your child's anesthesiologist and surgeon. (chkd.org)
  • The purpose of this review was to compare caudal epidural neostigmine co-administered with bupivacaine and Bupivacaine alone. (alliedacademies.org)
  • As an adjunct to general anaesthesia . (bionity.com)
  • This study was designed to compare the effects of Neostigmine vs. Ketamine coadministered caudally as adjunct to local anesthesia in children. (bu.edu.eg)
  • When general anesthesia is needed, there are important rules for eating and drinking that must be followed in the hours before the procedure. (chp.edu)
  • Our anesthesia staff will monitor your child closely as the anesthesia is being given, and observe your child during the procedure to ensure his or her well-being and see if more medication is needed. (childrensdayton.org)
  • Local anesthesia is administered to a patient to temporarily stop pain and allow him or her to remain conscious during the procedure. (medi-corp.com)
  • Postanesthetic hemorraghic myelopathy is a rare complication seen in horses positioned in dorsal recumbency under general anesthesia. (merckvetmanual.com)